Sample records for industrial steam coal

  1. Potential applications of microscopy for steam coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVanney, K.F.; Clarkson, R.J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy has been an extremely useful tool for many industrial sectors in the past. This paper introduces some of the potential applications of using coal and fly ash carbon microscopy for the combustion process and steam coal industry. Coal and fly ash carbon microscopic classification criteria are described. Plant sample data are presented which demonstrate that these techniques can be useful for coal selection and for problem solving in the coal-fired power plant environment. Practical recommendations for further study are proposed.

  2. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits... not extend the turbine outage. To assure that all of the turbine audit data are available, the audit engineer must be at the turbine site the day the steam path is first exposed. A report of the opening audit findings is generated to describe the as...

  3. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  4. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Coal Import

  7. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  8. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  10. The steam engine and industrialization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dugan, David

    2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Simon Schaffer in York Rail Museum talks to the camera about the relationship between the steam engine and industrialization and whatsteam meant; a regular supply of moving power for workshops and factories....

  11. Apparatus for removing micronized coal from steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlnaty, J.

    1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Micronized coal is removed from coal-bearing steam by spraying stabilized petroleum oil into the steam and directing the resultant stream at a separation surface on which a coal-oil slurry is deposited and collected. Apparatus includes conduits which direct the resultant stream downward into a housing and normal to a surface on which the slurry is deposited by impact forces. In additional apparatus disclosed, the resultant stream is directed from a horizontal conduit circumferentially along the interior wall of a horizontally disposed cylindrical chamber at the top of the chamber and the coal-oil slurry deposited on the wall by centrifugal force is collected in a trough situated below a longitudinal slot at the bottom of the chamber. In both types of apparatus, after separation of the slurry the velocity of the steam is reduced to settle out remaining oil droplets and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

  12. Market integration in the international coal industry: A cointegration approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warell, L. [University of Lulea, Lulea (Sweden). Dept. of Business Administration & Social Science

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis of the existence of a single economic market for the international coal industry, separated for coking and steam coal, and to investigate market integration over time. This has been conducted by applying cointegration and error-correction models on quarterly price series data in Europe and Japan over the time period 1980-2000. Both the coking and the steam coal markets show evidence of global market integration, as demonstrated by the stable long-run cointegrating relationship between the respective price series in different world regions. This supports the hypothesis of a globally integrated market. However, when analyzing market integration over time it is not possible to confirm cointegration in the 1990s for steam coal. Thus, compared to the coking coal market, the steam coal market looks somewhat less global in scope.

  13. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  14. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition This sourcebook is...

  15. Cogeneration: An Industrial Steam and Power Option

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orlando, J. A.; Stewart, M. M.; Roberts, J. R.

    Industrial facilities of all sizes have the ability to reduce and better control both power and steam costs with a cogeneration system. Unlike the larger systems that sell almost all of the cogenerated power to a regulated electric utility...

  16. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  17. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  18. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in todayâ??s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

  19. Method and apparatus for removing micronized coal from steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlnaty, J.

    1980-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Micronized coal is removed from coal-bearing steam by spraying stabilized petroleum oil into the steam and directing the resultant stream at a separation surface on which a coal-oil slurry is deposited and collected. Apparatus includes conduits which direct the resultant stream downward into a housing and normal to a surface on which the slurry is deposited by impact forces. In additional apparatus disclosed, the resultant stream is directed from a horizontal conduit circumferentially along the interior wall of a horizontally disposed cylindrical chamber at the top of the chamber and the coal-oil slurry deposited on the wall by centrifugal force is collected in a trough situated below a longitudinal slot at the bottom of the chamber. In both types of apparatus, after separation of the slurry the velocity of the steam is reduced to settle out remaining oil droplets and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

  20. Preliminary Results from the Industrial Steam System Market Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGrath, G. P.; Wright, A. L.

    This paper discusses fuel use and potential energy savings in the steam systems of three steam intensive industries: pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining. To determine the energy consumption to generate steam...

  1. Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program steam software tools can help industrial plants identify steam system improvements to save energy and money.

  2. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  3. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  4. The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

  5. "Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boiler technology currently in service in the U.S., it is critical to raise awareness and examine the role of emerging new technologies to address the energy and environmental challenges inherent with steam generation. In the same way that tank...

  6. Industrial Utilization of Coal-Oil Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, J. E.; Hawkins, G. T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-oil mixtures (COM) are receiving increasing interest as economical alternatives to residual fuel oil and natural gas used in heavy industrial and utility applications. Four basic approaches are currently employed in the manufacture of COM...

  7. User's manual for the INDCEPT code for estimating industrial steam boiler plant capital investment costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, H I; Fuller, L C; Hudson, II, C R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INDCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for single- and multiple-unit industrial steam boiler plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of boiler type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs. Boiler plant cost models are provided to reflect various types and sources of coal and alternate means of sulfur and particulate removal. Cost models are also included for low-Btu and medium-Btu gas produced in coal gasification plants.

  8. Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.; Hart, F.

    Last year, the Alliance to Save Energy, the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies, and a cadre of private companies and associations formed an innovative "Steam Partnership" with the goal of developing a new, DOE technical...

  9. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  10. Cash Flow Impacts of Industrial Steam Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    is to overcome the perceptual barriers that preclude the approval of these initiatives. This article assumes that strong, financial justification is the key to the full realization of steam efficiency opportunities. That premise is followed by a step-wise review...

  11. Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  13. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litster, Shawn

    looping gasification using a calcium oxide-carbonate cycle, in which a pure stream of CO2 is generatedSteam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture Nicholas S. Siefert operating a CaO-CaCO3 chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam-coal gasification

  14. Steam tracer experiment at the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water plays an important role in in-situ coal gasification. To better understand this role, we conducted a steam tracer test during the later stages of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test. Deuterium oxide was used as the tracer. This report describes the tracer test and the analysis of the data obtained. The analysis indicates that at Hoe Creek the injected steam interacts with a large volume of water as it passes through the underground system. We hypothesize that this water is undergoing continual reflux in the underground system, resulting in a tracer response typical of a well-stirred tank.

  15. Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group, Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  17. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer SolutionsL: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.Indiana College ProvidesSteam Technical Brief Industrial

  18. Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

  19. Influence of Romanian steam coal quality on power plants environmental impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matei, M. [Romanian Electricity Authority, Bucharest (Romania). Study, Research and Engineering Group

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal provides about 25% of primary energy resources for electricity generation in Romania. Coal is burned in pulverized coal (PC) boilers without flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The coal demands are 90% covered by country`s reserves out of which 80% is lignite. The lignite from Oltenia basin represents about 90% of the domestic lignite quantity used in Romanian power plants. The characteristics defining the typical Romanian lignite are: moisture 40--43%; ash dry basis 37--48%; low heat value 6.0--7.5 MJ/kg; sulfur 0.8--1.2%; volatile matter 17--23%. There are some sorts of lignite which have a higher content of sulfur, but these are used in smaller quantities. RENEL`s strategy includes the preferential utilization of domestic fuels (lignite, hard coal) with imported fuels priority in order natural gas, low sulfur content heavy oil and steam hard coal. Low grade quality of Romanian lignites creates many problems, and due to its high ash and water contents, large quantities of raw coal are required in order to generate energy. The high content of sulfur in coal produces high SO{sub 2} emissions. On the other hand, the very low power values of Romanian lignite generate a low flame temperature, so that, even using fuel oil or gas support for lignite combustion, the NOx emissions are low. Environmental laws have been in force in Romania since December 30, 1995. The Waters Forests and Environment Protection Ministry regulated the pollutant concentration for both new and existing coal fired boilers, beginning in January 1998. Comparing the measured values of SO{sub 2}, NOx and CO contents measured in flue gas from some boilers running on different coal types with the pollutants` emissions limits it is obvious that clean coal technologies (CCT) implementation is necessary, especially for SO{sub 2} reduction.

  20. Results From the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Steam Tool Benchmarking Support Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A. L.; Bassett, K.; Eckerlin, H.; Ganji, A.; Hengeveld, D.; Jendrucko, R.; Kosanovic, D.; Turner, W.

    developed is the "Steam System Scoping Tool." In the summer of 2001, six of the DOE Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) completed a project to provide data on the usefulness of the Steam System Scoping Tool. These six IACs performed eighteen plant steam...

  1. Table 9. U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328AdministrationReleaseMetallurgical CoalAverage Price4

  2. Following Where the Steam Goes: Industry's Business Opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaber, D.; Jones, T.

    Many associated benefits accrue from plant projects which comprehensively address steam systems. The DOE-Alliance to Save Energy Steam Challenge program was initiated shortly after last year's IETC on April 30, 1998 to promote awareness...

  3. Industrial Steam Power Cycles Final End-Use Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final end uses of steam include two major classifications: those uses that condense the steam against heat transfer surfaces to provide heat to an item of process or service equipment; and those that require a mass flow of steam for stripping...

  4. Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reister, D.B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of four types of energy carriers and four types of throttle conditions). Investment in new boilers is allocated by an empirical distribution function among the 16 types of boilers on the basis of life cycle cost. In the short run (5 years), the Penetration Model has a small price response. The model has a large price response in the long run (30 years). For constant fuel prices, the model forecasts a 19-percent share for coal and a 65-percent share for residual oil in the year 2000. If the real price of oil and gas doubles by the year 2000, the model forecasts a 68-percent share for coal and a 26-percent share for residual oil.

  5. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Office of Industrial Technologies

    2001-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    BestPractices Steam tip sheet about using a vent condenser to recover flash steam energy in steam systems.

  6. Advances in steam turbine technology for the power generation industry. PWR-Volume 26

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, W.G. [ed.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a collection of the papers on advances in steam turbine technology for the power generation industry presented at the 1994 International Joint Power Generation Conference. The topics include advances in steam turbine design, application of computational fluid dynamics to turbine aerodynamic design, life extension of fossil and nuclear powered steam turbine generators, solid particle erosion control technologies, and artificial intelligence, monitoring and diagnostics.

  7. Steam reforming analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

  8. Hoe Creek No. 3 - First long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground experiment, linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, and then the forward gasification process was started - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, about 3900 tons of coal were gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons per day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/scf, suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is about 900 Btu/scf.

  9. Financial Impact of Good Condenser Vacuum in Industrial Steam Turbines: Computer Modeling Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial turbine throttle conditions are fixed by plant designs - materials of construction, steam requirements, etc. Condensing turbine exhaust conditions are limited by the atmosphere to which residual heat is rejected; and are fixed...

  10. Extending the useful life of industrial steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, M.F.; Timmerman, D.C. (GE Power Generation, Schenectady, NY (US))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that technology, uprating, and steam-path degradation reversal can extend the life and boost the efficiency of aging turbines. With the advent of modern machine tool technology, plus extensive R and D efforts, designers could apply improved bucket designs like the laminar flow design. Today's technology is represented by the Schlict design, which minimizes flow separations and boundary layer losses. Schlict buckets can be retrofitted in most designs as long as the diaphragm is also replaced. Adoption of steam-path design advance developed for new units and degradation reversal are the two areas of greatest opportunity in efficiency improvement of aging steam turbine-generators.

  11. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No. 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many industrial facilities produce steam at a higher pressure than is demanded by process requirements. Steam passes through pressure-reducing valves (PRVs, also known as letdown valves) at various locations in the steam distribution system to let down or reduce its pressure. A non-condensing or backpressure steam turbine can perform the same pressure-reducing function as a PRV, while converting steam energy into electrical energy.

  12. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

  13. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  14. NON-STATIONARY TEMPERATURE STRESSES IN THE INDUSTRIAL STEAM TURBINE ROTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zvonimir Guzovi?; Krešimir Kova?i?; Tihomir Mihali?

    The usage of industrial steam turbines in different industrial branches (chemistry, petrochemistry, refineries, sugar and ethanol plants, etc.) for a generator drive for electricity generation or a mechanical drive for compressors, blowers and pumps, is characterized by the need for high flexibility of operation. High flexibility includes numerous start-ups, shut-downs and power changes during the useful life. Changes in power and steam mass flow lead to changes of the working fluid state in the single turbine stages, and thus their aerodynamic and thermodynamic characteristics. During these transient working regimes in steam turbine rotors, large space and time-dependent temperature gradients appear, which can result in high non-stationary temperature stresses, i.e. increased local stress concentrations, what has a negative impact on the useful life of the rotor. In the worst case they can cause fracture of the turbine rotor. Today, for the determination of thermal stressed state of the steam turbine parts the user softwares based on numerical methods are used. In this paper the results of numerical modelling and calculations of non-stationary temperature fields and related stresses in the rotor of industrial steam turbine of 35 MW power during transient operating regime (a cold startup) will be presented. The results of the calculations serve for estimation of the transient regime impact on the stresses of the rotor, as well as on its entire useful life. Key words: industrial steam turbine, transient regimes, temperature stresses, numerical modelling 1.

  15. Wood/coal cofiring in industrial stoker boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Freeman, M.C.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Realizing that a significant reduction in the global emissions of fossil carbon dioxide may require the installation of a wide variety of control technologies, options for large and small boilers are receiving attention. With over 1,500 coal-fired stoker boilers in the US, biomass co-firing is of interest, which would also open markets for waste wood which is presently landfilled at significant costs ranging from $20--200/ton. While much cofiring occurs inside the fence, where industrial firms burn wastes in their site boilers, other opportunities exist. Emphasis has been placed on stoker boilers in the northeastern US, where abundant supplies of urban wood waste are generally known to exist. Broken pallets form a significant fraction of this waste. In 1997, the cofiring of a volumetric mixture of 30% ground broken pallet material and 70% coal was demonstrated successfully at the traveling-grate stoker boilerplant of the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. Fourteen test periods, with various wood/coal mixtures blended on site, and two extended test periods, using wood/coal mixtures blended at the coal terminal and transported by truck to the brewery, were conducted. The 30% wood/70% coal fuel was conveyed through the feed system without difficulty, and combusted properly on the grate while meeting opacity requirements with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. Efforts are underway to commercialize a wood/coal blend at the brewery, to identify specific urban wood supplies in the Pittsburgh region and to conduct a demonstration at a spreader stoker.

  16. Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.Indiana College ProvidesSteam Technical Brief

  17. Coking Coal Prices for Industry - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil andMCKEESPORTfor thePrices for Industry

  18. Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    2001-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

  19. Hoe Creek No. 3: first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are compelling reasons for pursuing underground coal gasification. The resource that could be exploited is huge - enough to quadruple present proved coal reserves - if the process is successful. Cost estimates indicate that substitute natural gas or gasoline may be producible at reasonable prices by the technique. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, then the forward gasification process began - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, approximately 3900 tons of coal was gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons/day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/SCF (194 kj/mol), suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is approximately 900 Btu/SCF (800 kj/mol).

  20. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David, A

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst–capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst–capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S capture, and (3) the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO–CaCO{sub 3} chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO{sub 3} was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycles. The increased steam–coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2–4% per CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier–calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO{sub 4} and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  1. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  2. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - african coal industry Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In 2003, the South African synthetic fuel industry consumed 24... of synthetic fuels in South Africa, this must also reflect their coal consumption (Figure 2). South African......

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - australian coal industry Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization 27 Dr. David Kemp Australian Minister of Summary: - Southern StatesThailand - sustainable industry development - Southern StatesBrazil - clean coal power......

  5. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  6. Coal and Gas Industries in Australia a. Overview of Australian coal and gas industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    . Wastewater industry and research b. Site visit to Queensland Center for Advanced Technology · Biofuel a. Cellulose biomass resources and utilization b. Ethanol and biofuels c. Biodiesel from Pongemia oil seeds d. Biogas from landfills e. Site visit to Pinjarra Hills biofuel laboratory · Solar Energy a. UQ Solar Array

  7. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are contained in Appendix 'C'. It was implemented between 1994 and 1998 after the entire 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was relocated to Philadelphia, PA in 1994. A new test facility was designed and installed. A substantially longer combustor was fabricated. Although not in the project plan or cost plan, an entire steam turbine-electric power generating plant was designed and the appropriate new and used equipment for continuous operation was specified. Insufficient funds and the lack of a customer for any electric power that the test facility could have generated prevented the installation of the power generating equipment needed for continuous operation. All other task 5 project measures were met and exceeded. 107 days of testing in task 5, which exceeded the 63 days (about 500 hours) in the test plan, were implemented. Compared to the first generation 20 MMBtu/hr combustor in Williamsport, the 2nd generation combustor has a much higher combustion efficiency, the retention of slag inside the combustor doubled to about 75% of the coal ash, and the ash carryover into the boiler, a major problem in the Williamsport combustor was essentially eliminated. In addition, the project goals for coal-fired emissions were exceeded in task 5. SO{sub 2} was reduced by 80% to 0.2 lb/MMBtu in a combination of reagent injection in the combustion and post-combustion zones. NO{sub x} was reduced by 93% to 0.07 lb/MMBtu in a combination of staged combustion in the combustor and post-combustion reagent injection. A baghouse was installed that was rated to 0.03 lb/MMBtu stack particle emissions. The initial particle emission test by EPA Method 5 indicated substantially higher emissions far beyond that indicated by the clear emission plume. These emissions were attributed to steel particles released by wall corrosion in the baghouse, correction of which had no effect of emissions.

  8. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No.21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other rotating equipment. This service generally calls for a backpressure non-condensing steam turbine. The low-pressure steam turbine exhaust is available for feedwater heating, preheating of deaerator makeup water, and/or process requirements.

  9. Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  10. Development of Steam Turbine Inlet Control Valve for Supercritical Pressure at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sors, Felix

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The development in the steam turbine business is heading for applications with much higher steam parameters since this enables a raised efficiency. Steam parameters… (more)

  11. ISO 9000 and its effects on the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vardys, R.K.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is asserted that organizations that do not implement a formal quality program by the year 2000 will not survive. The ISO 9000 quality management standards provide the model for many companies that have determined a quality program is vital not only for their survival, but their growth, in an increasingly competitive business environment. The U.S. coal industry has been hit hard with utility de-regulation and global competition. More emphasis is being placed on bold cost savings measures by utilities and coal producers alike. These measures range from subcontracting analytical work to subcontracting power plant maintenance. Unfortunately, quality management systems are still seen as an expense instead of a cost saving measure and are not being addressed by those who most desperately need quality management systems. What must be understood is that through the implementation of a quality management program, companies can recover costs that were previously accepted as unrecoverable. Prevention costs (documentation, internal auditing, training, management review, etc.) will increase slightly, due to an increased emphasis on a quality management system, but, a net savings is realized through a decrease in failure costs, e.g., waste, scrap, meetings to discuss failures/place blame, worry, re-work, client loss, client doubt, etc.

  12. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions. The nickel based Alloy 282 is selected for this project because it is one of the leading candidate materials for the high temperature/pressure section of an A-USC steam turbine. The methods developed in the project are expected to be applicable to other metal alloys in similar steam/oxidation environments. The major developments are: ? failure mechanism and microstructural characterization ? atomistic and first principles modeling of crack tip oxygen embrittlement ? modeling of gamma prime microstructures and mesoscale microstructure-defect interactions ? microstructure and damage-based creep prediction ? multi-scale crack growth modeling considering oxidation, viscoplasticity and fatigue The technology developed in this project is expected to enable more accurate prediction of long service life of advanced alloys for A-USC power plants, and provide faster and more effective materials design, development, and implementation than current state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from January 2011 to January 2014.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for the Illinois Coal Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    . Illinois Coal Consumption by State, 2007 6 Figure 4. Added Capacity by Energy Source, 2003-2009 8 Figure 5 Figure 7. Change in U.S. Coal Consumption by Sector, 2009-2011 (Forecast) 13 Figure 8. U.S. Coal Kawamura Department Head Urban Planning and Public Policy University of Illinois ­ Chicago Associate

  14. Controlling Energy Costs with Coal Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadowski, R. S.; von Hippel, C. S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; it is usually regarded as the most controllable. Fluidized bed combustion technology allows industrial steam users to use low-grade coals that are outside of mainstream coal markets, are abundant, and are very inexpensive, being one-quarter to one...

  15. Underground coal mining is an industry well suited for robotic automation. Human operators are severely hampered in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stentz, Tony

    Abstract Underground coal mining is an industry well suited for robotic automation. Human operators approach meets the requirements for cutting straight entries and mining the proper amount of coal per cycle. Introduction The mining of soft materials, such as coal, is a large industry. Worldwide, a total of 435 million

  16. Statistical modeling of spontaneous combustion in industrial-scale coal stockpiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozdeniz, H [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. A statistical model applicable for a spontaneous combustion event was developed during this study after applying multi-regression analyses to the data recorded in the stockpile during the spontaneous combustion event. The correlation coefficients obtained by the developed statistical model were measured approximately at a 0.95 level. Thus, the prediction of temperature variations influential in the spontaneous combustion event of the industrial-scale coal stockpiles will be possible.

  17. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this first quarterly technical report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79654, a description of the background, technology, and application is provided. The design and fabrication of advanced combustion chambers were completed during this period. Initial testing on both the bare metal and refractory lined advanced chambers were initiated. The units were tested initially with gas but primarily with coal. A Pittsburgh No. 8 pulverized coal was used for these test activities. Both advanced chambers pulsed well.

  18. Industrial pulverized coal low-NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., jointly with its university partner, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and its industrial partner, Hauck Manufacturing Corporation, is developing a low NO{sub x} pulverized coal burner for use in industrial processes, including those which may require preheated air or oxygen enrichment. The design of the burner specifically addresses the critical performance requirements of industrial systems, namely: high heat release rates, short flames, even heat flux distribution, and high combustion efficiency. The design is applicable to furnaces, industrial boilers, and cement kilns. The development program for this burner includes a feasibility analysis, performance modelling, development of the burner prototype design, and assessment of the economic viability of the burner. The Phase 1 activities covered by this report consisted of three principal tasks: preliminary burner design; fluid flow/combustion modelling and analyses; and market evaluation. The preliminary design activities included the selection of a design coal for the Phase 1 design, preliminary design layout, and preliminary sizing of the burner components. Modelling and analysis were conducted for the coal pyrolysis zone, the rich combustion zone and the lean bumout zone. Both chemical kinetics and one-dimensional coal combustion modelling were performed. The market evaluation included a review of existing industrial coal use, identification of potential near- and long-term markets and an assessment of the optimum burner sizes.

  19. Energy Efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Simulation of Steam Challenge and CHP Incentives with ITEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roop, J. M.

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY: SIMULATION OF STEAM CHALLENGE AND CHP INCENTIVES WITH ITEMS Joseph M. Roop Staff Scientist Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington ABSTRACT# Two programs being.... This document number is PNNL-SA-29768. ? Referred to as ISTUM in (3). industry (here, we use the newer acronym CHP for" combined heat and power"). Our use of ITEMS demonstrates that such programs can be analyzed, and their effec tiveness assessed using...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic Prioritization of Research Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic and Policy Program #12;- 2 - #12;Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry must be developed for capturing CO2 from power plants. Current CO2 capture technology is expensive

  1. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    flanges, control valves, steam turbines, manways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are uninsulated. If steam is in demand at the steam pressure level of the uninsulated piping and equipment, then the piping and equipment should be insulated... been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology...

  2. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  3. Numerical modeling and investigation of unsteady phenomena in condensing flows of industrial steam turbines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fakhari, Keramat

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The condensation process in a steam turbine is in reality an essentially unsteady phenomenon. There are differences between steady and time-accurate calculations introduced by the… (more)

  4. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    STEAMMASTER: STEAM SYSTEM ANALYSIS SOFTW ARE Greg Wheeler Associate Professor Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 9733 I ABSTRACT As director of Oregon's ]ndustrial Assessment Center, [ have encountered many industrial steam systems during... plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. [n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a...

  5. SSAB/MEFOS oxy-coal system -- 3 years of industrial experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wikstroem, J.O.; Skoeld, B.E. [MEFOS, Luleaa (Sweden); Kaersrud, K.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SSAB, Swedish Steel AB, is the main steel producer in Sweden. MEFOS is a foundation for metallurgical research. The principals include 35 Nordic companies. SSAB and MEFOS have, in cooperation, developed a swirl type, coaxial, oxy-coal lance, that drastically improves the combustion of pulverized coal in the Blast Furnace tuyere and race way. The development was made through an extensive test work in a highly instrumented single tuyere on an industrial Blast Furnace. The technology has been in commercial use since early 1993, with excellent result.

  6. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  7. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  8. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  9. Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clean fuel gas for the gas turbine is produced by gasification of coal, are presented. Waste heat from the gasifier and the gas turbine exhaust is converted to high pressure steam for steam turbines. Gas turbines may find application in other industrial...

  10. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  11. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  12. Steam System Improvement: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

    . For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

  13. Industrialization and Urbanization: Did the Steam Engine Contribute to the Growth of Cities in the United States?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sukkoo

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Century of the Steam Engine, Vol. 1. University Pressat Work: The Corliss Steam Engine in the Late-Nineteenth-and Adoption of the Steam Engine in American Manufacturing,”

  14. An evaluation of integrated-gasification-combined-cycle and pulverized-coal-fired steam plants: Volume 1, Base case studies: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Milkavich, R.J.; Booras, G.S.; Thomas, G.O.; Doss, H.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of the performance and costs for a Texaco-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant as compared to a conventional pulverized coal-fired steam (PCFS) power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is provided. A general set of groundrules was used within which each plant design was optimized. The study incorporated numerous sensitivity cases along with up-to-date operating and cost data obtained through participation of equipment vendors and process developers. Consequently, the IGCC designs presented in this study use the most recent data available from Texaco's ongoing international coal gasification development program and General Electric's continuing gas turbine development efforts. The Texaco-based IGCC has advantages over the conventional PCFS technology with regard to environmental emissions and natural resource requirements. SO/sub 2/, NOx, and particulate emissions are lower. Land area and water requirements are less for IGCC concepts. Coal consumption is less due to the higher plant thermal efficiency attainable in the IGCC plant. The IGCC plant also has the capability to be designed in several different configurations, with and without the use of natural gas or oil as a backup fuel. This capability may prove to be particularly advantageous in certain utility planning and operation scenarios. 107 figs., 114 tabs.

  15. Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  17. Solar production of industrial process steam. Quarterly performance report, January 16, 1980-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar process steam system for gauze bleaching/sterilization utilizing 1065 m/sup 2/ Acurex Model 3001 line focusing parabolic trough concentrators is described. The system operates by circulating pressurized water through the collector field and then throttling it into a flash boiler. There the heated, pressurized water flashes to steam and flows into the plant steam main for distribution to various plant processes. Makeup water is supplied by the existing plant boiler feedwater system. The flash boiler retains enough thermal storage to provide freeze protection to the collector field when required. The system performance from January 16 to June 30 is summarized. A comparison of predicted and measured performance for a single day in June is presented. A summary of the operation of the system is given in Appendix A for each day of operation. Appendix B contains the hourly average values of system parameters for a single clear day in each month. These values are presented in graphical form in Appendix C. The daily values are tabulated in Appendix D and plotted in Appendix E for each month of operation. (MCW)

  18. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  19. Bates solar-industrial process-steam application. Draft safety report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed to install approximately 35,000 square feet of linear parabolic trough collectors on the roof of a corrugator plant. The collectors are to collect 5500 lbs/hr of steam to drive the corrugator. Each of the subsystems are described, and for each subsystem the possible safety hazards are identified, and recommendations are made to either eliminate or control the hazards at an acceptable level. Specific systems discussed are the master control system and data aquisition system, the collector, and heat transfer system. Fire safety, protection of personnel from burns and eye injury, and lightning protection are discussed. (LEW)

  20. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  1. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  2. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  4. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  6. Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  7. Development and analysis of a linearly segmented CPC collector for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, J.A.A.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study involves the design, analysis and construction of a modular, non-imaging, trough, concentrating solar collector for generation of process steam in a tropical climate. The most innovative feature of this concentrator is that the mirror surface consists of long and narrow planar segments placed inside sealed low-cost glass tubes. The absorber is a cylindrical fin inside an evacuated glass tube. As an extension of the same study, the optical efficiency of the segmented concentrator has been simulated by means of a Monte-Carlo Ray-Tracing program. Laser Ray-Tracing techniques were also used to evaluate the possibilities of this new concept. A preliminary evaluation of the experimental concentrator was done using a relatively simple method that combines results from two experimental measurements: overall heat loss coefficient and optical efficiency. A transient behaviour test was used to measure the overall heat loss coefficient throughout a wide range of temperatures.

  8. Temperature Measurements Through Dust or Steam for Energy-Intensive Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan, K. D.; Pearce, J. A.; Wang, L.; Ryza, E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of industrial situations including those which prevent direct contact with the material, airborne particulates can make remote process temperature measurement difficult or impossible. We have developed a prototype remote temperature measurement instrument which...

  9. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Nelson

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

  10. Cycle Configurations for a PBMR Steam and Electricity Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matzner, Dieter; Kriel, Willem; Correia, Michael; Greyvenstein, Renee [PBMR - Pty - Ltd, Lake Buena Vista Building, 1267 Gordon Hood Avenue, Centurion, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is an advanced helium-cooled, graphite moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) that is capable of multiple missions. The petrochemical industry requires the use of high temperature steam and electricity for their processes. Currently coal or natural gas is utilised for the generation of high temperature steam and electricity, which under-utilises natural resources and in the process emits CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. This paper provides an overview of the PBMR product development path and discusses how steam production forms part of the future possibilities of the PBMR technology. Suitable cycle configurations for both process steam and electricity generation as required by petrochemical plants are discussed. (authors)

  11. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  12. Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality...

  13. Occupational health and safety regulation in the coal mining industry: public health at the workplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weeks, J.L. (Department of Occupational Health and Safety, United Mine Workers of America, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The strategy for preventing occupational disease and injury in the coal mining industry employs several elements. Standards are set and enforced; technical assistance, research, and development are provided; and surveillance is conducted. Compensation for black lung is a vivid reminder of the consequences of failure to prevent disease. And, workers are represented by a union that encourages active participation in all aspects of this strategy. There are significant problems in each of these elements. Regulatory reform threatens to weaken many standards, there is a decline in government research budgets, surveillance is not well monitored, and compensation for black lung is significantly more difficult to obtain now than in the past. Moreover, the conservative governments of the past decade are not friendly towards unions. Nevertheless, the fundamental structure of disease and injury prevention remains intact and, more importantly, it has a historical record of success. The Mine Safety and Health Act provided for a wide array of basic public health measures to prevent occupational disease and injury in the mining industry. These measures have been effective in reducing both risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable coal mine dust. They are also associated with temporary declines in productivity. In recent years, however, productivity has increased, while risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable dust have declined. At individual mines, productivity with longwall mining methods appear to be associated with increases in exposure to respirable dust. These trends are not inconsistent with similar trends following implementation of regulations by OSHA. When OSHA promulgated regulations to control exposure to vinyl chloride monomer, enforcement of the standard promoted significant efficiencies in vinyl chloride production (5).21 references.

  14. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

    of its relatively recent application to coal fired steam production, fluid beds have been uti lized in industry for over 60 years. Beginning in Germany in the twenties for coal gasification, the technology was applied to catalytic cracking of heavy... system cost), use of minimum excess air required, and maintaining the min"imum reactor temperature neces sary to sustain combustion. For superautogenous fuels, where incineration. only is desired, minimum capital cost is achieved by using direct bed...

  16. Impact of a 1,000-foot thermal mixing zone on the steam electric power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal discharge requirements for power plants using once-through cooling systems are based on state water quality standards for temperatures that must be met outside of designated mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones to no more than 1,000 feet from the discharge point. Data were collected from 79 steam electric plants. Of the plants currently using once-through cooling systems, 74% could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone. Of this total, 68% would retrofit cooling towers, and 6% would retrofit diffusers. The estimated nationwide capital cost for retrofitting plants that could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone is $21.4 billion. Conversion of a plant from once-through cooling to cooling towers or addition of diffusers would result in a lower energy output from that plant. For the affected plants, the total estimated replacement cost would be $370 to $590 million per year. Some power companies would have to construct new generating capacity to meet the increased energy demand. The estimated nationwide cost of this additional capacity would be $1.2 to $4.8 billion. In addition to the direct costs associated with compliance with a 1,000-foot mixing zone limit, other secondary environmental impacts would also occur. Generation of the additional power needed would increase carbon dioxide emissions by an estimated 8.3 million tons per year. In addition, conversion from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers at affected plants would result in increased evaporation of about 2.7 million gallons of water per minute nationwide.

  17. Solar production of industrial process steam at the Home Cleaning and Laundry Co. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the operation and performance evaluation period at the Home Laundry Solar Industrial Process Heat Project at Pasadena, California. The installation comprises 6496 ft/sup 2/ (603.5 m/sup 2/) of linear parabolic trough concentrating collectors supplying solar thermal energy for use in laundry and dry cleaning processes. The design phase began in September 1977, and an acceptance test was conducted during the week of April 12, 1982. The plant has been in operation since May 1982, with the 12-month Phase III (operational) period starting in October 1982. The objective of the operational evaluation experiment was to maximize energy delivery to the industrial participant while characterizing system performance. Data were acquired for monthly documentation of system performance, maintenance requirements, and operating costs.

  18. Solar production of industrial process steam. Phase III. Operation and evaluation of the Johnson and Johnson solar facility. Final report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brink, D.F.; Kendall, J.M.; Youngblood, S.B.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar facility that generates 177/sup 0/C (350/sup 0/F) process steam has been designed and constructed by Acurex Corporation and has operated for 1 yr supplying steam to the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The facility consists of 1068 m/sup 2/ (11,520 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough concentrating collectors, a 18,900 1 (5000 gal) flash boiler, and an 18.6 kW (25 hp) circulating pump. In the first year of operation the system was available 97 percent of the days, and with sufficient solar radiation available it operated 70 percent of the days during this period. The measured data showed that the collector field operated at an efficiency of 25.4 percent for the year, and that at least 75 percent of the energy reaching the flash boiler was delivered to the plant as steam. A total of 309,510 kg (682,400 lb) of steam was produced by the solar facility for the first year. An analysis of the data showed that the delivered energy was within 90 to 100 percent of the predicted value. The successful completion of the first year of operation has demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process steam with solar energy.

  19. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  20. Steam System Data Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam System Data Management What Does It Include Safety In Motion Wal?Tech?Valve,?Inc. 251?438?2203 The Real Genius Behind Technology Is People ESL-IE-13-05-35 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... ? Fabrication Training (Six Year Training) ? Welding Certifications ?Retired From Chevron After 25 Years ? Established A Steam System Program ? Planner For Routine Maintenance Work ? Planner For Steam System Improvements ? Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. ? Purchased...

  1. Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

  2. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    to support the steam efficiency program. Today, the Steam Team includes, the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA), the American Gas Association (AGA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (ClBO), Armstrong International... pinch technology, and high performance steam. ? Armstrong International - Three worldwide factory seminar facilities, 13 North American sales representative facilities, 4 international sales representative facilities, 8 co-sponsored facilities, 2...

  3. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Welcome Module Slide 1 ­ Steam End User Training Welcome to the Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam End-User Training. The Department of Energy

  4. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Industrial Coal Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractory Materials in Slagging Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Bennett, James P.; Dridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infiltration characteristics of industrial coal slag into alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) refractory material with a temperature gradient induced along the slag's penetration direction are compared to those obtained under near-isothermal conditions. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C and a CO/CO{sub 2} ratio of 1.8, which corresponds to an oxygen partial pressure of ~10{sup ?8} atm. The refractory under the near-isothermal temperature profile, with higher average temperatures, demonstrated a greater penetration depth than its counterpart that was under the steeper temperature gradient. Slag that did not infiltrate into the refractory due to the induced temperature gradient, pooled and solidified on the top of the sample. Within the pool, a conglomerated mass of troilite (FeS) formed separately from the surrounding slag. Microscopy of the cross-sectioned infiltrated refractories revealed that the slag preferentially corroded the matrix regions closer to the top surface. Furthermore, the formation of a thick layer of hercynite (FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at the top of refractory/slag interface significantly depleted the slag of its iron-oxide content with respect to its virgin composition. A qualitative description of the penetration process is provided in this article.

  5. Improving steam turbine efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cioffi, D.H.; Mitchell, D.R.; Whitecar, S.C. [Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the condition of a significant number of fossil steam turbines operating in the United States and the maintenance practices used to improve their performance. Through the use of steam path audits conducted by the authors` company and by several utilities, a large data base of information on turbine heat rate, casing efficiency, and maintenance practices is available to help the power generation industry understand how different maintenance practices and steam path damage impact turbine performance. The data base reveals that turbine cycle heat rate is typically 5.23% poorer than design just prior to major outages. The degraded condition of steam turbines presents an opportunity for utilities to improve heat rate and reduce emissions without increasing fuel costs. The paper describes what losses typically contribute to the 5.23% heat rate degradation and how utilities can recover steam turbine performance through maintenance actions aimed at improving steam path efficiency.

  6. Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial steam systems.

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  8. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  9. The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

  10. Oil to Coal Conversion of Power and Industrial Facilities in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Causilla, H.; Acosta, J. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Realizing that the use of coal has the potential to offset the effects of world oil prices on the Dominican Republic's economy, the Commission Nacional de Politica Energetica (CNPE) requested Bechtel Power Corporation to study the technical...

  11. A portfolio approach to energy governance : state management of China's coal and electric power supply industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Edward A., IV (Edward Albert)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses the extent to which China's central state devolved ownership and investment levels in its energy sector to other actors during the modern reform period (1978- 2008). The project focused on China's coal ...

  12. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications. Technical progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this first quarterly technical report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79654, a description of the background, technology, and application is provided. The design and fabrication of advanced combustion chambers were completed during this period. Initial testing on both the bare metal and refractory lined advanced chambers were initiated. The units were tested initially with gas but primarily with coal. A Pittsburgh No. 8 pulverized coal was used for these test activities. Both advanced chambers pulsed well.

  13. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips No.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler flue gases are often rejected to the stack at temperatures more than 100 F to 150 F higher than the temperature of the generated steam. Generally, boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for every 40 F reduction in flue gas temperature. By recovering waste heat, an economizer can often reduce fuel requirements by 5% to 10% and pay for itself in less than 2 years. The table provides examples of the potential for heat recovery.

  14. Industrial Demand Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Boiler, Steam, and Cogeneration (BSC) Component. The BSC Component satisfies the steam demand from the PA and BLD Components. In some industries, the PA Component produces...

  15. Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

  16. Transporting export coal from Appalachia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is part of a series titled Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia. It focuses on the transportation link in the steam-coal supply chain, enabling producers to further assess their transportation options and their ability to compete in the export-coal marketplace. Transportation alternatives and handling procedures are discussed, and information is provided on the costs associated with each element in the transportation network.

  17. Coal: An energy bridge to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Susan J.

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    For years, coal drove the transportation business in this country and it may be poised for a comeback when it comes to moving people and things. A hundred years ago, steam engines burned tons of coal as they pulled trains across the country. Now researchers are looking at converting that coal to liquid fuel that would fill up our gas tanks and move our cars and trucks. The technology already exists to transform coal into a liquid fuel. In fact, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and engineers have researched forms of coal and hydrocarbon gasification on and off for more than 30 years. But oil has never sustained a high enough price to kick start a coal-to-liquid fuel industry. That may be changing now. In addition to high crude oil prices, experts agree worldwide petroleum resources won’t last forever, and hydrocarbon resources like coal may be the only resource available, at a large enough scale, to off-set oil consumption, in the near term.

  18. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industries, mainly including wind power equipment, solarnuclear, wind, solar and other renewable power at calorific

  19. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  20. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    ~LmT " TRIf' 1 TRIf' 2 Figure 2 It has become common practice for engineers to oversize steam traps and place more emphasis on first cost than on maintenance cost and operating 766 3 4 ESL-IE-86-06-126 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial...EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data...

  1. Firing microfine coal with a low NOx, RSFC burner in an industrial boiler designed for oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornhock, D.E.; Patel, R.; Borio, R.W. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories (ABB-PPL) working under a US Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) contract has carried out tests with the Radially Stratified Flame Core (RSFC) burner which was licensed from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who developed and patented the RSFC burner. Tests were carried out in a small industrial boiler, designed for oil and natural gas, located at the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University who was working as a subcontractor to ABB-PPL. The paper presents results from the long-term testing task in the DOE-PETC program with particular attention being paid to the challenges faced in maintaining high combustion efficiencies while achieving low NOx in a small industrial boiler designed for firing oil or natural gas. The paper will also address the issue of ash management when firing coal in a boiler designed for fuels having essentially no ash.

  2. The Future of Steam: A Preliminary Discussion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.; Harrell, G.; Moore, J.; French, S.

    Steam production represents a significant proportion of today's industrial energy demand. But the evolution of process technologies, as well as turbulence in energy markets, suggests that steam's role may be subject to change in the next decade...

  3. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Evolving performance characteristics of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.L.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of {open_quotes}semicommercial{close_quotes} facilities. These demonstrations are on a scale large enough to generate all the data, from design, construction, and operation, that are necessary for the private sector to judge commercial potential and make informed, confident decisions on commercial readiness. The projects in the program are demonstrating technologies that will encompass advanced electric power generation systems, high-performance pollution control devices, coal processing for clean fuels and industrial applications. The innovative CCTs being demonstrated offer tremendous potential as solutions to many complex problems in a rapidly changing arena dominated by energy, economic, and environmental issues. These issues include the following: air quality; global climate change; energy security; international competitiveness; acid rain; power production; and technology awareness. These technologies are expected to be of particular importance to the utility industry. Power production in the United States, particularly in the form of electricity, is expected to increase rapidly during the next 20 years. The growth in electricity consumption between 1990 and 2000 translates into the need for at least an additional 200,000 MWe of capacity by 2010. The ability to continue to use coal to produce electricity and as a source of industrial heat and power is critical. In the United States approximately 86 percent of coal is critical. The CCT Program is developing through demonstration new power and steam production systems using coal-based technologies that will permit coal to be a clean, efficient, reliable source of affordable energy.

  5. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  6. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

  7. Steam Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.

    "STEAM QUALITY has been generally defined as the amount of moisture/vapor (or lack thereof) contained within steam produced from some form of boiler. It has long been used as the standard term for the measurement of ""wet or dry"" steam and as a...

  8. Hydrogen production with coal using a pulverization device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing hydrogen from coal is described wherein high temperature steam is brought into contact with coal in a pulverizer or fluid energy mill for effecting a steam-carbon reaction to provide for the generation of gaseous hydrogen. The high temperature steam is utilized to drive the coal particles into violent particle-to-particle contact for comminuting the particulates and thereby increasing the surface area of the coal particles for enhancing the productivity of the hydrogen.

  9. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program: commercial plant economic analysis (Task 1. 6)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program are to evaluate the Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power plant conceptual design and to conduct supporting development programs for pressurized fluidized bed technology advancement in combustion/steam generator, gas turbine and hot gas cleanup technologies. The Coal-Fired Combined Cycle is the unique power plant concept developed under the leadership of the General Electric Company to provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined-cycle power plant. The advantages of the combined cycle for higher efficiency and the potential of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor improvements in emissions could offer a new and attractive option to the electric utility industry. The CFCC approach provides for cooling the fluid bed combustor through the use of steam tubes in the bed which supply a steam turbine generator. The partially cooled combustion gases drive a gas turbine generator after passing through a hot gas cleanup train. The Conceptual CFCC Commercial Plant has been defined in Report No. Fe-2357-28. This design, being conceptual in nature, has not been improved through the formal cost reduction iteration/design program. An economic analysis of this baseline plant is provided in this report. The General Electric Company believes that the combustion of coal by the pressurized fluidized bed process is one of the most effective and efficient means for the utilization of coal with respect to both environmental considerations and the cost of electricity.

  10. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandler, T.

    Channel, ~ 25 mi. east of Houston ? Includes 4 manufacturing sites, 2 technology/engineering offices ?Significant community involvement Baytown Refinery Page 4 Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Process 60+ years old; ExxonMobil one of pioneers... Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview...

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

  12. Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) BestPractices: Process Heating (Fact sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN7 RoadmapProgram| Department of EnergyAugustProcessSteam

  13. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around 8-9% for good coking coal (IISI, 1982). Dryingof steam coal and coking coal to be $15/t (IEA, 1995). This

  14. CIBO's Energy Efficiency Handbook for Steam Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bessette, R. D.

    The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) has developed a handbook to help boiler operators get the best performance from their industrial steam systems. This energy efficiency handbook takes a comprehensive look at the boiler and steam system...

  15. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Experience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornecker, Eva

    of two interactive stations (figure 2) where visitors can add coal and water to the steam engine at station 1 and regulate the steam pressure in the engine at station 2, as well as a number of visualExperience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive Multimodal Interactive Museum

  17. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  18. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  19. Superheated steam power plant with steam to steam reheater. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, G.J.

    1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A desuperheater is disposed in a steam supply line supplying superheated steam to a shell and tube reheater.

  20. Experimental characterization of an industrial pulverized coal-fired furnace under deep staging conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements have been performed in a 300 MWe, front-wall-fired, pulverized-coal, utility boiler. This boiler was retrofitted with boosted over fire air injectors that allowed the operation of the furnace under deeper staging conditions. New data are reported for local mean gas species concentration of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NOx, gas temperatures and char burnout measured at several ports in the boiler including those in the main combustion and staged air regions. Comparisons of the present data with our previous measurements in this boiler, prior to the retrofitting with the new over fire system, show lower O{sub 2} and higher CO concentrations for the new situation as a consequence of the lower stoichiometry in the main combustion zone associated with the present boiler operating condition. Consistently, the measured mean NOx concentrations in the main combustion zone are now lower than those obtained previously, yielding emissions below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3}at 6% O{sub 2}. Finally, the measured values of particle burnout at the furnace exit are acceptable being those measured in the main combustion zone comparable with those obtained with the conventional over fire system.

  1. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  2. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley

  3. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Bourdon Steam Plant Operator Vincent Massara Steam Plant Operator Cliff Lescenski Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley Equipment Maintenance Robert Earle Equipment

  4. Steam Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    as useable horsepower for pumps, compressors, etc. The turbines can be topping turbines which admit steam at a high pressure and exhaust it at a lower pressure, but a pressure which is still high enough to be used as a source of heat. Or, the turbines... can be condensing turbines which exhaust the steam at a pressure too low for the remaining heat to be useable. In this case the exhaust steam is normally condensed using cooling water, and the condensate is returned to the boiler house. Our plant...

  5. A Methodology for Estimating the Parameters of Steam Turbine Generator Shaft Systems for Subsynchronous Resonance Studies .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sambarapu, Krishna

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The increase of coal and nuclear power steam turbines over the past few decades combined with transmission line series capacitors creates a potential drawback known… (more)

  6. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  7. An economic analysis of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Ashby, G. (MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States)); Walter, F.E. (Montana Power Co., Butte, MT (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an economic comparison of the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology with conventional coal-fired steam power plants; the comparisons made are based on a levelized Cost of Electricity for similarly sized plants. A revenue requirement analysis was used for the economic evaluation of engineering alternatives in the electric utility industry. The basis for the MHD technology used in the comparison is a recently completed conceptual design done by the MHD Development Corporation for retrofitting the coal-fired J.E. Corette plant with a 250-MW MHD unit. A 500-MW MHD consideration is based on the Advanced Power Train predictions of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the conventional plant considerations are based on the Technical Assessment Guide of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The economic comparisons indicate that MHD is considerably more attractive than a conventional unit.

  8. Panel discussion: The Clean Air Act: It`s impact on the coal testing industry The act itself: A summary and overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act was first enacted in 1970. It was re-enacted in both 1977 and 1991. The original act covered air quality standards (NAAQS) for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and O{sub 3}. Pb was added in 1978 by court order and particulate matter (TSP) was added in 1987. A discussion of the impact of the Clean Air Act on the coal industry is presented.

  9. Is the coal industry worth protecting? an examination of the effects of competing advocacy coalitions on implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennington, Michael Sean

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    IS THE COAL INDUSTRY WORTH PROTECTING? AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF COMPETING ADVOCACY COALITIONS ON IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT (SMCRA) OF 1977 A Dissertation by MICHAEL SEAN PENNINGTON... PROTECTING? AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF COMPETING ADVOCACY COALITIONS ON IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT (SMCRA) OF 1977 A Dissertation by MICHAEL SEAN PENNINGTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  10. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, John; Schobert, Harold; Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected 10 projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the various subcontractors on March 1, 2004.

  11. Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E. [Alstom (Germany)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  13. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on vent condenser to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Bio-coal briquette

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

  15. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  16. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  17. Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

  18. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  19. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Steam, Steam Tip Sheet #20c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This English/Chinese ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. The Enbridge "Steam Saver" Program: Steam Boiler Plant Efficiency-Update to Year End 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.; Johnson, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industrial sectors are represented. The automotive, pulp-and -paper, petrochemical and steel industries are particularly large energy and steam users. Food and beverage processors are also heavy steam consumers. The Enbridge franchise service area... summary of the results of the boiler plant audit program. This data excludes other programs such as steam trap surveys and insulation surveys to be presented later in this paper. In summary, 13.7% of the total fuel can be saved if all identified...

  1. Energy & Environmental Benefits from Steam & Electricity Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratheal, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steam from two on-site powerhouses (one coal-fired and one natural gas-fired) and from gas-fired and waste heat boilers in its four hydrocarbon cracking plants. The challenge was to find a way to reduce costs and improve reliability of procuring and... the electricity required by TEX and sells excess power to wholesale customers in the region. It provides a large portion of TEX steam requirements, with sufficient reliability such that TEX decommissioned its coal-fired powerhouse and reduced operations...

  2. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  3. US coal market softens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

  4. Industrial cofiring reaps big rewards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US industry operates over 2,000 coal-fired stoker boilers. They are typically over 30 years old, difficult to maintain, and hard to keep in environmental compliance. Natural gas cofiring of industrial stoker boilers offers a wide range of operational benefits. Boiler efficiency is improved because combustion air requirements are reduced (low excess air of LEA) and carbon burnout is improved (loss on ignition or LOI). On the emissions side, opacity problems are reduced and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions reduced as natural gas replaces a percentage of the coal. Further, operation is improved through easier, smoke-free start-up and warm-up, recovered steam generation, increased short-term peaking capacity, improved plant availability and improved low load operation. Fuel flexibility also increases and maintenance decreases. Cofire benefits and economics are, however, very site specific. Important factors include relative coal and gas pricing, coal and gas supply security, boiler capacity factor and seasonal use, and backup boiler capability. These factors are discussed using the example of the Dover Light and Power of Ohio.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture technology for the coal-powered electricity industry : a systematic prioritization of research needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esber, George Salem, III

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is widely relied upon as a fuel for electric power generation, and pressure is increasing to limit emissions of the CO2 produced during its combustion because of concerns over climate change. In order to continue the ...

  6. Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Savings through Steam Trap Management Chris Gibbs, Account Manager, Armstrong International, Inc., Three Rivers, MI ESL-IE-08-05-08 Proceedings from theThirtieth Industrial Energy Technology Conference...-based steam trap management application developed by Armstrong International. The application calculates steam loss, fuel loss, dollar loss and CO 2 emission generation. The database allows for trend analysis, automatic energy report generation...

  7. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... mature technology. Steam turbines and engines have been used by industry to cogen erate power since before there were electric utilities. While the technology for turbines, generators and controls has continued to develop there is very little about...

  8. HTGR-process steam/cogeneration and HTGR-steam cycle program. Semiannual report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the design of an 1170-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Nuclear Steam Supply (NSS) is described. This NSS can integrate favorably into present petrochemical and primary metal process industries, heavy oil recovery operations, and future shale oil recovery and synfuel processes. The economics appear especially attractive in comparison with alternative coal-fired steam generation. Cost estimates for central station power-generating 2240- and 3360-MW(t) HTGR-Steam Cycle (HTGR-SC) plants are updated. The 2240-MW(t) HTGR-SC is treated to a probabilistic risk evaluation. Compared with the earlier 3000-MW(t) design, the results predict a slightly increased risk of core heatup, owing to the result of eliminating the capability of the boiler feed pump to operate at atmospheric backpressure. The differences in risk, however, are within the calculational uncertainties. Preliminary results of the ranking of safety enhancement features for the 1170-MW(t) HTGR indicate that the following modifications offer the most promise: (1) capability for main loop rundown, (2) natural circulation core auxiliary cooling, and (3) PCRV blowdown capability through the helium purification system to minimize activity release during some core heatups.

  9. Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

  10. Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

  11. Exxon Chemical's Coal-Fired Combined Cycle Power Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide, J. J.

    turbine arrangement with indirect heating of the air in the boile; convection section. The turbine exhaust is then used as pre-heated combustion air for the boiler. The air coil heats the 150 psig air from the standard gas turbine axial compressor... premium fuel (up to 2000 0 F permissible gas turbine tempera ture), CAT-PAC savings would double to 20%. Today, in an industrial coal-fired cogeneration plant, CAT-PAC can produce up to 75% more power for a given steam load, while maintaining...

  12. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003: Jupiter oxygen combustion technology of coal and otherOxygen Furnace Gas ME = Main Exhaust WH = Waste Heat Figure 7.1: CO 2 reduction potential of eight energy saving technologies

  13. Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deacon, W.

    "Steam quality is an important measurement in steam generation. It's a measurement of steam to moisture ratio. In use, steam quality takes on a different meaning - steam which maximizes energy transfer. To do this, the steam must be clean, dry...

  14. Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deacon, W. T.

    Steam quality is an important measurement in steam generation. It's a measurement of steam to moisture ratio. In use, steam quality takes on a different meaning- steam which maximizes energy transfer. To do this, the steam must be clean, dry...

  15. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting period (i.e., 10/01/05-09/30/06), is attached. At the annual funding meeting held in November 2004, eleven projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2005. Three additional projects were selected for funding during the April 2005 tutorial/funding meeting. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on July 1, 2005. Of these fourteen 2005 projects, eleven have been completed and the final reports are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2005 and the council selected five projects for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2006, except for one that started October 1, 2006.

  16. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected eleven projects for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2005. Three additional projects were selected for funding during the April 2005 tutorial/funding meeting. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on July 1, 2005.

  17. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  18. COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

  19. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  20. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

  1. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SHIP - Solar heat for industrial processes. Internationalsolar power could be used to provide process heat for

  2. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  3. 11th International coal testing conference. Volume XI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proceedings of the 11th International Coal Conference held May 10-12, 1995 in Lexington, KY are presented. Fourteen papers were presented on various aspects of coal analysis and combustion, petrographic characterization of fly ash, trace elements in coal, microscopy of steam coals, fuel specifications, and HCl evolution during coal combustion. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. ccpi-multi-product-coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Coal Power Initiative Power Plant Improvement Initiative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program FutureGen Advanced Multi-Product...

  5. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;?? Thomas A. Henzinger 1 Howard model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models constraints that guarantee the safety of the boiler. 1 Introduction A description of an industrial steam

  6. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ?? Thomas A. Henzinger1 Howard model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models that guarantee the safety of the boiler. 1 Introduction A description of an industrial steam boiler has been

  7. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent performing the initial industrial proof-of-concept test and installing and integrating the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP). The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the modifications to the batch/coal feed system being completed. A Purchase Order has been issued to a material conveying equipment vendor for the purchase of the batch/coal feeding equipment. The delivery and installation of the material conveying equipment is expected to occur in July and early August. The commercialization planning is continuing with the completion of a draft Business Plan. This plan is currently undergoing internal review, and will be submitted to Dawnbreaker, a DOE contracted small business consulting firm, for review.

  8. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

  9. Coal science for the clean use of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

  10. "Matrix/Modular" - An Approach to Analyzing Cogeneration Opportunities in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canty, W. R.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , our cogeneration facility will be located in the Gulf Coast area and will have access to a variety of transportation modes -- ship, barge, rail and truck (or any combination of these modes) to deliver coal and haul away ash and other waste material... cost of imported oil have prompted the Federal Government to limit the use of oil and gas for steam and power generation. The Powerplant & Industrial Fuel Use Act - 1978 prohibits the use of natural gas and oil for generation of steam and power...

  11. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  12. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Directory of coal production ownership, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, B.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

  14. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  15. Steam and Condensate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...

  16. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  17. FRAGMENTATION OF COAL AND IMPROVED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFACTION CATALYSTS USING IONIC LIQUIDS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cetiner, Ruveyda

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Coal has been utilized for coal-to-liquid fuels and coal-to-chemical industries both historically in South Africa and recently in China. Abundant bituminous and low-rank coal reserves… (more)

  18. Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, G.

    A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

  19. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  20. Review of concurrent mass emission and opacity measurements for coal-burning utility and industrial boilers. Final report Aug 79-Feb 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, R.J.; Dennis, R.; Roeck, D.R.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives results of concurrent particulate emissions and opacity measurements based on visual observations and/or in-stack transmissometry for more than 400 compliance, acceptance, or experimental tests on coal-fired utility and industrial boilers. The sampling, which includes a capacity range of a few to several hundred megawatts and typical firing methods (pulverized, stoker, and cyclone), in most cases reflects flyash control by electrostatic precipitation, although filters or mechanical collectors were used at a few installations. All opacity measurements were standardized to their equivalent values for a 4 m (13.0 ft) diameter stack before being compared with their corresponding particulate emissions, the latter expressed as actual grams per cubic meter. No discernible correlations applicable to all sources were observed, although some modest (but apparently significant) correlations were noted on an individual source basis. Report findings were sufficiently encouraging to warrant further analyses relating to in-stack transmissometer measurements.

  1. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of its electricity requirements in the USA (US DOE, 2002)USA, where motor-driven systems account for 63% of industrial electricity

  2. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  3. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical--can continue in its role as a key component in the U.S. and world energy markets. The CCT Program also has global importance in providing clean, efficient coal-based technology to a burgeoning energy market in developing countries largely dependent on coal. Based on 1997 data, world energy consumption is expected to increase 60 percent by 2020, with almost half of the energy increment occurring in developing Asia (including China and India). By 2020, energy consumption in developing Asia is projected to surpass consumption in North America. The energy form contributing most to the growth is electricity, as developing Asia establishes its energy infrastructure. Coal, the predominant indigenous fuel, in that region will be the fuel of choice in electricity production. The CCTs offer a means to mitigate potential environmental problems associated with unprecedented energy growth, and to enhance the U.S. economy through foreign equipment sales and engineering services.

  4. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  5. Integration and operation of post-combustion capture system on coal-fired power generation: load following and peak power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...

  6. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    options for combined heat and power in Canada. Office ofpolicies to promote combined heat and power in US industry.with fuel inputs in combined heat and power plants being

  7. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EJ of primary energy, 40% of the global total of 227 EJ. Bytotal energy use by industry and on the fraction of electricity use consumed by motor driven systems was taken as representative of global

  8. Report of Shelton wood-coal firing tests conducted March 16-April 2, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood contributed up to 50% of the Btu requirements of the boilers during the tests. The Quinault-Pacific system will permit selected green mill residues to be used in place of coal at the rate of 2.5 tons of wood per ton of coal. Green wood and coal are compatible fuels. Heat provided by the coal and other combustion effects are enough to offset the effects of moisture in green wood and in some cases improve boiler performance. The combined firing of wood with coal at typical steam rates results in better flyash collection, lower emissions, improved opacity, better cinder recovery and lower steam costs.

  9. World Class Boilers and Steam Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portell, V. P.

    WORLD CLASS BOILERS AND STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vernon P. Portell, Ph.D. Manager Armstrong Service, Inc. ABSTRACT categorizing, measuring, and comparing subjects which are of interest to us is the way we identify the "World class" is a... of information can also be obtained through an independent firm that provides third-party assessment of steam systems. One of these third parties, Armstrong Energy Certification, Inc., has used data gleaned from decades of industrial experience...

  10. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  11. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  12. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry`s knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200{degrees}F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000{degrees}F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900{degrees}F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500{degrees}F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a ``topping`` system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500{degrees}F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  13. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Steam gasification of carbon: Catalyst properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falconer, J.L.

    1993-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification by steam is of critical importance in converting coal to gaseous products (CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4]) that can then be further converted to synthetic natural gas and higher hydrocarbon fuels. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (present as oxides) catalyze coal gasification reactions and cause them to occur at significantly lower temperatures. A more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the steam gasification reaction and catalyst utilization may well lead to better production techniques, increased gasification rates, greater yields, and less waste. We are studying the gasification of carbon by steam in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth oxides, using carbonates as the starting materials. Carbon dioxide gasification (CO[sub 2] + C --> 2CO) has been studied in some detail recently, but much less has been done on the actual steam gasification reaction, which is the main thrust of our work. In particular, the form of the active catalyst compound during reaction is still questioned and the dependence of the concentration of active sites on reaction parameters is not known. Until recently, no measurements of active site concentrations during reaction had been made. We have recently used transient isotope tracing to determine active site concentration during CO[sub 2] gasification. We are investigating the mechanism and the concentration of active sites for steam gasification with transient isotopic tracing. For this technique, the reactant feed is switched from H[sub 2]0 to isotopically-labeled water at the same concentration and tow rate. We can then directly measure, at reaction the concentration of active catalytic sites, their kinetic rate constants, and the presence of more than one rate constant. This procedure allows us to obtain transient kinetic data without perturbing the steady-state surface reactions.

  16. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  17. Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baily, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BASF North America 7 ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 BASF?s strategic principles A conscientious commitment to our investors, customers, employees...Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization May 23rd, 2013 IET Conference Meredith Bailey, PDP Engineer BASF Corporation (734) 324-5047 meredith.bailey@basf.com ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...

  18. Unsteady effects in direct steam generation in the CLFR John D. Pye1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    greater system efficiency, while increasing the risk of entry into the undesired superheat region. 1 augmentation to the coal power plant in the form of displaced high-pressure bleed steam in the final boiler

  19. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  20. Steam and Condensate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .00 or more. Many see costs of $6.00/$7.00 in the near future. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit....

  1. Waste Steam Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, J. M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applicable to other sources of steam. The interaction of the recovery system with the plant's steam/power system has been included. Typical operating economics have been prepared. It was found that the profitability of most recovery schemes is generally...

  2. Flash Steam Recovery Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    organic compounds, was targeted for improvement. This unit uses a portion of the high-pressure steam available from the plant's cogeneration facility. Continuous expansions within the unit had exceeded the optimum design capacity of the unit's steam...

  3. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  4. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry's knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200[degrees]F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000[degrees]F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900[degrees]F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500[degrees]F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a topping'' system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500[degrees]F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  5. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  6. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM MONITORING HP Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption... Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  7. New developments in coal briquetting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, P.V. [Kilborn Inc., Ontario (Canada); Bosworth, G.B. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kalb, G.W. [KKS Systems Inc., Wheeling, WV (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Briquetting of coal has been with us for well over a century. In the earliest applications of coal briquetting, less valuable fine coal was agglomerated into briquettes using a wide variety of binders, including coal tar, pitch and asphalt. Eventually, roll briquetters came into more widespread use, permitting the process to become a continuous one. Coal briquetting went out of favor during the 1950s in most of the industrialized world. The major reason for this decline in use was the discovery that the coal gas distillates used for binders were harmful to human health. Also, the abundance of cheap petroleum made coal briquettes a less attractive alternative as an industrial or domestic fuel. The re-emergence of coal as a primary industrial fuel and also its increased prominence as a fuel for thermal electric power stations led to a large increase in the annual volume of coal being mined worldwide. Coal preparation technology steadily improved over the years with the general exception of fine coal preparation. The processes available for treating this size range were considerably more expensive per unit mass of coal treated than coarse coal processes. Also, costly dewatering equipment was required after cleaning to remove surface moisture. Even with dewatering, the high surface area per unit mass of fine coal versus coarse coal resulted in high moisture contents. Therefore, little incentive existed to improve the performance of fine coal processes since this would only increase the amount of wet coal fines which would have to be dealt with. With such an ever-increasing volume of coal fines being created each year, there emerged an interest in recovering this valuable product. Several schemes were developed to recover coal fines discarded in abandoned tailings impoundments by previous operations.

  8. The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ., Chemical Engineering 9/1/75. 4. Maintenance Engineering, May 1976. 5. "How Much Does Lost Steam Cost",Armstrong Machine works, Hydrocarbon Processing, p.129, Jan. 1976. 6. "Setter Steam Trapping Cuts Energy Waste", wesley Yates, Yarway Corp..., Georgia Tech Industrial Energy Extension Service, Chemical Engineering, 2/11/80. 10. ''Basic Facts & Enerqv Saving Tips" ,Lawrence R. O'Dell, Armstrong Machine Works, Heating/Piping/ Air Conditioning, May 1977. 11. Steam Trap Report - Energy Loss...

  9. Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchillon, J. L.

    the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 EXCUSES Everybody thinks his or her steam trap maintenance is good. Surveysl have shown the following are the most popular excuses encountered when managers are confronted... for steam traps. 192 ESL-IE-96-04-28 Proceedings from the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 5. Set up a trap maintenance program C. Prepare and present a report to that will: management on the results...

  10. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  11. Steam turbine upgrades: A utility based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakeley, G.R.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the increasingly competitive power generation markets utilities must strive towards lower electricity generation costs, whilst relying on an aging steam turbine fleet. By the year 2000 more than 25% of the global steam turbine capacity will be older than 30 years. The heat rate of such units is generally considerably higher than that of equivalent new plant, and such equipment can be further disadvantaged by increased maintenance costs and forced outage rates. Over the past decade steam turbine conversion, modification, and upgrade packages have become an increasingly important part of the European steam turbine market. Furthermore, many utilities now realize that enhanced cost-effectiveness can often be obtained by moving away from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), and the upgrading of other manufacturers' plant is now routine within the steam turbine industry. By working closely with customers, GE has developed a comprehensive range of steam turbine upgrade packages, including advanced design steampaths which can increase the performance of existing turbine installations to levels comparable with new plant. Such packages are tailor-made to the requirements of each customer, to ensure that the most cost-effective engineering solution is identified. This paper presents an overview of GE's state-of-the-art steam turbine technology, and continues to describe typical economic models for turbine upgrades.

  12. High temperature properties and reactivity of coal and coke for ironmaking.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byong-Chul

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Rapid growth of the steel industry in coming years will be strongly dependent upon coal. Understanding of coal behavior in current or emerging ironmaking processes… (more)

  13. Coal mine directory: United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The directory gives a state-by-state listing of all US and Canadian coal producers. It contains contact information as well as the type of mine, production statistics, coal composition, transportation methods etc. A statistical section provides general information about the US coal industry, preparation plants, and longwall mining operations.

  14. Online Modeling in the Process Industry for Energy Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, J.

    "This paper discusses how steady state models are being used in the process industry to perform online energy optimization of steam and electrical systems. It presents process demands commonly found in the processing industry in terms of steam...

  15. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  16. Nitrogen oxide stack sampling at the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.V. Gibson, jr.; M.P. Humphreys; J.M. Skinner

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On November 7, 1997, the EPA proposed a Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan Call (NO{sub x} SIP Call) for 22 states in the Eastern US which included the state of Tennessee. This initial proposal was followed by proposed statewide NO{sub x} budgets in the May 11, 1998, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. In the development of the NO{sub x} SIP Call, EPA performed a number of air quality analyses and determined that NO{sub x} emissions from Tennessee should be reduced. Industrial boilers, turbines, stationary internal combustion engines, and cement manufacturing are the only non-electric generating unit sources for which reductions are assumed in the budget calculation. Emission reductions are required if specific source heat input capacity is greater than 250 million Btu per hour. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes pulverized coal fired boilers each rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 298 million Btu per hour, and will therefore be impacted by these regulatory actions. Each boiler is equipped with two pulverizing mills. Coal or natural gas or a combination of these two fuels may be fired. This paper provides the results of NO{sub x} emission stack testing conducted June 15--21, 1999, on the Y-12 Steam Plant Boilers 1 and 2. Measurements of oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and stack gas flow were also performed. Information gained from these stack tests will be used to determine NO{sub x} emission control strategies for the steam plant for compliance with future emission requirements resulting from the NO{sub x} SIP Call.

  17. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  18. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan Feb MarAlternative0of

  19. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22, 20131Detailed0

  20. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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  1. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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  2. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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  3. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S. Energy01

  4. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.

  5. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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  6. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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  7. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.12

  8. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1 U.S.120

  9. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.1

  10. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.

  11. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.0

  12. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10 U.S.01

  13. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.10

  14. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101 U.S.

  15. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101 U.S.1

  16. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5:July 22,0 U.S.101

  17. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 2009

  18. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q 2009

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q4Q

  1. Coal Supply Region

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Qc. Real12

  2. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. uraniumFormsAnnual

  3. STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STIPE STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hørding Pedersen Björn Kjellström Thomas Koch Erik Balck stempelmotor med dampindsprøjtning". English title: "Steam injected piston engine, a feasibility study ......................................................................................12 Stationary engines for decentralised CHP or industrial CHP

  4. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  5. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  6. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  7. LLNL Underground Coal Gasification Project annual report - fiscal year 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, D.R.; O'Neal, E.M. (eds.)

    1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laboratory has been conducting an interdisciplinary underground coal gasification program since 1974 under the sponsorship of DOE and its predecessors. We completed three UCG tests at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming, during the period 1975 to 1979. Five small field experiments, the large-block tests, were completed from 1981 to 1982 at the exposed coal face in the WIDCO coal mine near Centralia, Washington. A larger test at the same location, the partial-seam CRIP test, was completed during fiscal year 1984. In conjunction with the DOE and an industrial group lead by the Gas Research Institute, we have prepared a preliminary design for a large-scale test at the WIDCO site. The planned test features dual injection and production wells, module interaction, and consumption of 20,000 tons of coal during a hundred-day steam-oxygen gasification. During fiscal year 1984, we documented the large-block excavations. The cavities were elongated, the cavity cross sections were elliptical, and the cavities contained ash and slag at the bottom, char and dried coal above that, and a void at the top. The results from the large-block tests provided enough data to allow us to construct a composite model, CAVSM. Preliminary results from the model agree well with the product-gas chemistry and cavity shape observed in the large-block tests. Other models and techniques developed during the year include a transient, moving-front code, a two-dimensional, reactive-flow code using the method of lines, and a wall-recession-rate model. In addition, we measured the rate of methane decomposition in the hot char bed and developed an engineering rate expression to estimate the magnitude of the methane-decomposition reaction. 16 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  9. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. The list of alloys being examined is discussed, including the addition of new alloys to the study. These include alloy 625, selected because of its use as one of the two alloys used for turbine rotors, valves, casings, blading and bolts in the European AD700 full-scale demonstration plant (Scholven Unit F). The other alloy, alloy 617, is already one of the alloys currently being examined by this project. Other new alloys to the study are the three round robin alloys in the UK-US collaboration: alloys 740, TP347HFG, and T92. Progress on the project is presented on cyclic oxidation in 50% air – 50% water vapor, furnace exposures in moist air, and thermogravimetric analysis in argon with oxygen saturated steam. An update on the progress towards obtaining an apparatus for high pressure exposures is given.

  10. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R on the gasification in air and 3.1 kPa steam of North Dakota lignitic chars prepared under slow and rapid pyrolysis of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

  12. Task 1: Steam Oxidation,”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. G. Wright and G. R. Holcomb

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Need to improve efficiency, decrease emissions (esp. CO2) associated with the continued use of coal for power generation

  13. Geothermal steam quality testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, D.B. [Two-Phase Engineering & Research, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal steam quality and purity have a significant effect on the operational efficiency and life of geothermal steam turbines and accessory equipment. Poor steam processing can result in scaled nozzles/blades, erosion, corrosion, reduced utilization efficiency, and early fatigue failures accelerated by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Upsets formed by undetected slugs of liquid entering the turbine can cause catastrophic failure. The accurate monitoring and determination of geothermal steam quality/purity is intrinsically complex which often results in substantial errors. This paper will review steam quality and purity relationships, address some of the errors, complexities, calibration and focus on: thermodynamic techniques for evaluating and monitoring steam quality by use of the modified throttling calorimeters.

  14. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  15. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  16. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

  17. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

  18. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  19. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    ," PREDICTING STEAM TURBINE PERFORMANCE James T. Harriz, EIT Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking the performance of extraction, back pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part... energy) and test data are presented. Techniques for deriving efficiency curves from each source are described. These techniques can be applied directly to any steam turbine reliability study effort. INTRODUCTION As the cost of energy resources...

  20. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is being let down. Some projects are independent of the steam balance, such as eliminating high-pressure (HP) steam leaks, insulating HP steam piping, optimizing the boiler operation, and improving the performance of condensing turbines.... If dirty fuels are used, then soot blowing should be frequently performed and the economizers cleaned on a more frequent schedule. For sites with condensing turbines, the turbine blades and the surface condensers must remain clean to maintain...

  1. The 1986-93 Clean Coal Technology Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1986-93 Clean Coal Technology Program The 1986-93 Clean Coal Technology Program Begun in 1986, the Clean Coal Technology Program was the most ambitious government-industry...

  2. The Use of English Coal in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swain, Gregory

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rise of the British Coal Industry. Hamden, Connecticut:increasing amounts of coal being shipped to Holland, around14, p. 42]. Fig. 4: English coal exports (tons). [14, p.

  3. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  4. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  5. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  6. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  7. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  8. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  9. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 × 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760°C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  10. Steam Trap Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    A medium-sized plant of a high technology company is reaping the benefits of a Pro-active Steam Trap Program provided by Yarway's TECH/SERV Division. Initial work began March '84 and the most recent steam trap feasibility study conducted in March...

  11. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  12. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  13. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  14. Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Glenn Allen

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with nitrogen to remove oxygen and then the drums were sealed until needed for a run. This procedure was used to prevent weathering and loss of moisture from the coal. Prior to charging, t' he lignite was sized to minus 18 mesh. The larg- er particles...DESULFURIZATION OF LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Chemical...

  15. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  16. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  17. Field measurement of solid particle erosion in utility steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.; Vohr, J.H.; Shalvoy, R.S. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Turbine Technology Dept.)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the first time, extensive field testing has characterized solid particle erosion (SPE) in terms of size and frequency. This is particularly important because SPE damage to large steam turbine components can degrade plant efficiency, increasing operating costs by up to $3 million/yr per unit for a total of $150 million nationwide. The objective was to characterize under various operating conditions the level and distribution of magnetite particles in turbine steam and the resulting SPE. The project team developed a field test program to characterize the solid particles in turbine steam and measure the erosion resistance of various coatings. At Dayton Power Light, a 600-MW turbine generator unit with a coal-fired once-through supercritical boiler was fitted with two steam sampling systems, the first for isokinetic sampling and the second for erosion evaluation. The team took roughly 300 isokinetic steam samples from the main steam line during both startup and full-load operation. They condensed and filtered each steam sample, then determined the level and distribution of magnetite particles.

  18. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  19. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  20. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  1. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S. [Department of Electrophysics, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  2. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  3. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

  4. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  5. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  6. Refurbishing steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenti, M.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power-plant operators are reducing maintenance costs of their aging steam turbines by using wire-arc spray coating and shot peening to prolong the service life of components, and by replacing outmoded bearings and seals with newer designs. Steam-turbine operators are pressed with the challenge of keeping their aging machines functioning in the face of wear problems that are exacerbated by the demand for higher efficiencies. These problems include intense thermal cycling during both start-up and shutdown, water particles in steam and solid particles in the air that pit smooth surfaces, and load changes that cause metal fatigue.

  7. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  9. Weak economy and politics worry US coal operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A potential decrease in demand, a new administration, and production constraints have coal operators worried about prospects for 2009. This and other interesting facts are revealed in this 2009 forecast by the journal Coal Age. Results are presented of the survey answered by 69 of the 646 executives contacted, on such questions about expected coal production, coal use, attitude in the coal industry, capital expenditure on types of equipment and productive capacity. Coal Age forecasts a 2.3% decline in coal production in 2009, down to 1.145 billion tons from 1.172 billion tons. 8 figs.

  10. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  11. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  12. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  13. Steam Champions in Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    into equivalent corporate rewards, such as increased profitability, reliability, workplace safety, and other benefits. The prerequisites for becoming a true steam champion will include engineering, business, and management skills....

  14. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  16. Coal extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

  17. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freier, M.D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  18. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROTARY COMBUSTOR FOR REFIRING PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray F. Abbott; Jamal B. Mereb; Simon P. Hanson; Michael J. Virr

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rotary Combustor is a novel concept for burning coal with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. It burns crushed coal in a fluid bed where the bed is maintained in a rotating drum by centripetal force. Since this force may be varied, the combustor may be very compact, and thus be a direct replacement for a p.c. burner on existing boilers. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate that a typical industrial boiler can be refired with the modified prototype Rotary Combustor to burn Ohio high-sulfur coal with low emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The primary problem that must be resolved to demonstrate sustained operations with coal is temperature control in the rotating fluid bed. The prototype Rotary Combustor was assembled and installed on the T-850P CNB boiler at the CONSOL Energy site in South Park, Pennsylvania. Several design improvements were investigated and implemented during the assembly to improve the prototype Rotary Combustor operations compared to prior tests at Detroit Stoker in Monroe, Michigan. An Operating Manual and Safety Review were completed. The shakedown test phase was initiated. Two major problems were initially encountered: binding of the rotating drum at operating temperatures, and reduced fluid-bed pressure drop after short periods of operation. Plating the brush seal rotary land ring with a chrome carbide plasma spray and lubricating the seal prior to each test sufficiently resolved these problems to permit a limited number of operations tests. Unlike previous tests at Detroit Stoker, sustained operation of the prototype Rotary Combustor was accomplished burning a high-Btu fuel, metallurgical coke. The prototype Rotary Combustor was operated with coke in gasifier mode on two occasions. Fluid-bed temperature spiking was minimized with manual control of the feeds (coke, air and steam), and no clinker formation problems were encountered in either test. Emission levels of NO{sub x} were measured at about 270 ppmv which were higher those targeted for the device which were 100 ppmv. This was assumed to be because of the aforementioned temperature spiking. The primary operating problem remains control of the fluid-bed temperature. Although improvements were made, steam flow control was manual, and very coarse. To accomplish this will require finer control of the steam flow to the rotary drum air plenum, and development of an algorithm for automatic control using the Moore APACS{trademark}. This is the recommended succeeding step in the development of the Rotary Combustor for industrial or utility use.

  19. Cofiring of coal and dairy biomass in a 100,000 btu/hr furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dairy biomass (DB) is evaluated as a possible co-firing fuel with coal. Cofiring of DB offers a technique of utilizing dairy manure for power/steam generation, reducing greenhouse gas concerns, and increasing financial returns to dairy operators...

  20. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, P.; Borio, R. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the ninth quarter of the program. During this quarter, the natural gas baseline testing at the Penn State demonstration boiler was completed, results were analyzed and are presented here. The burner operates in a stable manner over an 8/1 turndown, however due to baghouse temperature limitations (300{degrees}F for acid dewpoint), the burner is not operated for long periods of time below 75% load. Boiler efficiency averaged 83.1% at the 100 percent load rate while increasing to 83.7% at 75% load. NO{sub x} emissions ranged from a low of 0.17 Lbs/MBtu to a high of 0.24 Lbs/MBtu. After the baseline natural gas testing was completed, work continued on hardware optimization and testing with the goal of increasing carbon conversion efficiency on 100% coal firing from {approx}95% to 98%. Several coal handling and feeding problems were encountered during this quarter and no long term testing was conducted. While resolving these problems several shorter term (less than 6 hour) tests were conducted. These included, 100% coal firing tests, 100% natural gas firing tests, testing of air sparges on coal to simulate more primary air and a series of cofiring tests. For 100% coal firing, the carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) obtained this quarter did not exceed the 95-96% barrier previously reached. NO{sub x} emissions on coal only ranged from {approx} 0.42 to {approx} 0.78 Lbs/MBtu. The burner has not been optimized for low NO{sub x} yet, however, due to the short furnace residence time, meeting the goals of 98% CCE and <0.6 Lbs/MBtu NO{sub x} simultaneously will be difficult. Testing on 100% natural gas in the boiler after coal firing indicated no changes in efficiency due to firing in a `dirty` boiler. The co-firing tests showed that increased levels of natural gas firing proportionately decreased NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO.

  1. Conventional coal preparation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

  2. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  3. Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio J. Marquez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio detection in boiler steam-water systems. The algorithm has been tested using real industrial data from Syncrude Canada, and has proven to be effective in detection of boiler tube or steam leaks; proper

  4. Coal royalty valuation: The federal perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGee, B.E. [Parcel, Mauro, Hultin & Spaanstra, Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MMS has embarked upon an aggressive coal royalty valuation odyssey, for which there is no common law mandated statutory basis. Accordingly, any form of deference to MMS interpretations, policy pronouncements and even regulatory rulemaking is tantamount to feeding steroids to King Kong. The coal industry must be vigilant first and pro-active second. The stark issue is {open_quotes}what we will yet permit the Federal Coal Valuation Program to become?{close_quotes}

  5. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  6. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  7. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  8. Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

  9. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

  10. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  11. Neutron based elemental characterization of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dep, L.; Vourvopoulos, G. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An elemental characterization system based on a 14 MeV neutron generator is described. The results of sulfur content measurement in coal with a precision acceptable to the coal industry are presented. The preliminary results of measuring carbon, oxygen, and sodium are shown.

  12. Accelerating the deployment of cleaner coal plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J.

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dearth of commercial operating experience for advanced coal-fired facilities is forcing their early adopters and builders to use long development cycles and pay high costs for unique engineering design studies. A broad-based industry collaborative effort fostered by EPRI to address this issue (CoalFleet for Tomorrow) is beginning to show results. 3 figs.

  13. Oxidation of alloys targeted for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, D.E.

    2006-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines.

  14. Development of a self-consistent thermodynamic- and transport-property correlation framework for the coal conversion industry. Phase I. Semiannual report, September 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starling, K.E.; Lee, L.L.; Kumar, K.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the first half year of this research program the following elements of research have been performed: (1) the development of an improved pure component data bank, including collection and processing of data which is 70% complete as to substance, (2) calculation of distillable coal fluid thermodynamic properties using a multiparameter corresponding states correlation, (3) application of the most general density-cubic equation of pure fluids and (4) initiation of research to extend the corresponding states correlation framework to polar fluids. Primary conclusions of the first phase of this research program are that the three parameter corresponding states correlation predicts lighter coal fluid properties to a reasonable level of accuracy, and that a cubic equation can predict pure fluid thermodynamic properties on par with non-cubic equations of state.

  15. Topping PCFB combustion plant with supercritical steam pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); White, J. [Parsons Power Group Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is being conducted to develop a new type of coal fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a second generation or topping pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion (topping PCFB) plant, offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 46 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized coal fired plants with scrubbers. The topping PCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer fuel gas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2,300 F and higher. After completing pilot plant tests of a carbonizer, a PCFB, and a gas turbine topping combustor, all being developed for this new plant, the authors calculated a higher heating value efficiency of 46.2 percent for the plant. In that analysis, the plant operated with a conventional 2,400 psig steam cycle with 1,000 F superheat and reheat steam and a 2.5 inch mercury condenser back pressure. This paper identifies the efficiency gains that this plant will achieve by using supercritical pressure steam conditions.

  16. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  17. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  18. Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsner, W.

    ,200 foot steam line to begin wanning it up. He'd been energizing the G-line for 3 weeks now at the end ofthe asbestos worker's shift and had never had the system warm up this quickly. It usually took from 30 to 45 minutes. When the handwheel spun... at Fort Wainwright, Alaska, the G and H Lines ran underground in narrow utilidors 2 filled with pipe. Originally, the contractor had tried to abate the steam main with the lines energized. This proved to be near impossible for the workers. Utilidor...

  19. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  20. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  1. Coal pile leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  2. Quarterly Coal Report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the second quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. Additional historical data can also be found in the following EIA publications : Annual Energy Review 1993 (DOE/EIA-0384(93)), Monthly Energy Review (DOE/EIA-0035), and Coal Data: A Reference (DOE/EIA-0064(90)). The historical data in this report are collected by the EIA in three quarterly coal surveys (coal consumption at manufacturing plants, coal distribution, and coal consumption at coke plants), one annual coal production survey, and two monthly surveys of electric utilities. All data shown for 1993 and previous years are final. Data for 1994 are preliminary.

  3. Coal Supply Basin Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q 20093Q4QReal

  4. Coal Supply Basin Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Q

  5. Coal Supply Basin Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010 ImportsCubic Feet) Oil3Qc. Real

  6. Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

    BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

  7. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  8. Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    The paper discusses the applications of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation. Consultants, plant engineers and plant developers can evaluate the steam side performance of HRSGs and arrive at the optimum system which matches the needs...

  9. Reduction in Unit Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  10. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N

  11. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

  12. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  13. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Gym Lot Corbett Lot Greenhouse Patch Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam

  14. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby

  15. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  16. Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  17. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. Topical report, July 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP, or Wabash Project) is a joint venture of Destec Energy, Inc. of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc. of Plainfield, Indiana, who will jointly repower an existing 1950 vintage coal-fired steam generating plant with coal gasification combined cycle technology. The Project is located in West Terre Haute, Indiana at PSI`s existing Wabash River Generating Station. The Project will process locally-mined Indiana high-sulfur coal to produce 262 megawatts of electricity. PSI and Destec are participating in the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments. As a Clean Coal Round IV selection, the project will demonstrate integration of an existing PSI steam turbine generator and auxiliaries, a new combustion turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator tandem, and a coal gasification facility to achieve improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and reduced installation costs. Upon completion in 1995, the Project will not only represent the largest coal gasification combined cycle power plant in the United States, but will also emit lower emissions than other high sulfur coal-fired power plants and will result in a heat rate improvement of approximately 20% over the existing plant configuration. As of the end of December 1993, construction work is approximately 20% complete for the gasification portion of the Project and 25% complete for the power generation portion.

  18. The Enbridge Consumers Gas "Steam Saver" Program ("As Found" Performance and Fuel Saving Projects from Audits of 30 Steam Plants)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.

    energy efficiency program called "Steam Saver". This program is aimed at these 400 customers. The heart of this program is the boiler plant audit and performance test. This paper describes the fuel saving results for more than 30 medium and large... manufacturing companies (larger than 50 employees) it can be compared in size and industrial output with Michigan or Ohio. All major industrial sectors are represented. The automotive, pulp and paper and steel industries are particulary large energy...

  19. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  20. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.

  1. Reliable steam: To cogenerate or not to cogenerate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaber, D.; Jones, T.; D'Anna, L.; Vetterick, R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leading industrial companies and institutions are forever seeking new and better ways to reduce their expenses, reduce waste, meet environmental standards, and, in general, improve their bottom-line. One approach to achieving all of these goals is a 100 year-old concept, cogeneration. Many industrial and institutional plants need thermal energy, generally as steam, for manufacturing processes and heating. They also need electric power for motors, lighting, compressed air and air conditioning. Traditionally, these fundamental needs are met separately. Steam is produced with industrial boilers and electricity is purchased from a local utility company. However, these needs can be met at the same time with cogeneration, using the same heat source. Cogeneration is the concurrent production of electrical power and thermal energy from the same heat source. Large steam users commonly take advantage of cogeneration by using high pressure steam with a back pressure turbine to generate electricity, and extract lower pressure steam from the turbine exhaust for their process needs. This approach reduces their electric utility bills while still providing thermal energy for industrial processes. The result is also a more efficient process that uses less total heat and discharges less smoke up the stack. Newer technologies are making cogeneration opportunities available to smaller-sized thermal plants, and electric utility deregulation opportunities are causing many CEOs to seriously consider cogeneration in their manufacturing plants. Whether steam is created through cogeneration or separate generation, many opportunities exist to improve productivity in the distribution system, operation, and maintenance. These opportunities are captured by taking a systems approach, which is promoted by programs such as the Department of Energy's Steam Challenge.

  2. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Efficiency Definition - 1 8/30/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Efficiency Definition Section Slide 1 - Steam Generation Efficiency Module This module will discuss steam

  4. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses-Section: Shell Losses] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Efficiency

  5. In-field measurements of PCDF emissions from coal combustion and their quantitative analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pehlivan, M.; Beduk, D.; Pehlivan, E. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a series of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emitted to the surrounding soil as the result of the combustion of coal and wood from the industrial steam boilers and household stoves have been identified. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) in soil samples were measured at different sites in proximity to the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) to determine baseline contamination and the contributory role of incinerator emissions. PCDF contaminants were concentrated from soil samples and isolated from other materials by chromatographic methods. PCDF isomers were identified separately by column chromatography utilizing column packed with materials such as Kieselgel/44 vol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Macro Alumina B Super 1, Mix. Column, Bio Beads S-X3 Gel Chromatography, Min Alumina B Super 1 + Kieselgel/AgNO{sub 3} and their quantitative determinations were performed by GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy). The PCDF levels were subsequently compared with established values from previous studies.

  6. Industry strengths open new services opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, K.

    1993-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental service industry is in a state of transition in which innovative technologies are increasingly playing a critical role. These changes play to the strengths of the chemical industry, and several firms are effectively growing environmental businesses. At the same time, chemical companies, which are among the largest buyers of environmental services, are making decisions that reflect the changes. Du Pont, for example, has decided to rethink its involvement with the controversial Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. Initially expecting a shortage of incineration capacity, Du Pont had signed a contract - along with BASF and Chemical Waste Management - for a share of capacity at the 60,000-tons/year WTI unit. A number of chemical firms are leveraging their strengths. Air Products and Chemicals (Allentown, PA), for one, has partnerships in the waste-to-energy and flue-gas desulfurization businesses. The company runs cogeneration plants that can burn a combination of coal and natural gas to make both steam and electricity. Air Products assorted businesses can be strong at different times, says Hinman. The flue-gas desulfurization business, for example, was active during the first phase of enforcement of the 1990 Clean Air Act requirements for lower sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions.

  7. C++ Implementation of IAPWS Water/Steam Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Qiyue Lu

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the calculations of water-involved systems, such as safety analysis of light water reactors, it is essential to provide accurate water properties. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam is an international non-profit association of national organizations concerned with the properties of water and steam. It provides internationally accepted formulations of water/steam properties for scientific and industrial applications. The purpose of this work is to provide a stand-alone software package in C++ programming language to provide accurate and efficient water/steam properties evaluation, based on the latest IAPWS releases. The discussion on related IAPWS releases, code implementations and verifications are provided in details.

  8. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  9. The effects of technological change, experience and environmental regulation on the construction of coal-burning generating units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the technological, regulatory and organizational factors that have influenced the costs of building coal-burning steam-electric generating units over the past twenty year. We ...

  10. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  11. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  12. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  13. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly progress report, August 1--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated as follows: (1) Steam = 20,000 lb/hr, (2) Temperature = 353 F (saturated), (3) Pressure = 125 psig, and (4) Steam quality = {approximately}98.5%.

  14. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Selected Industrial Sectors in the Lower Fraser Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concrete Industry Lime Industry Refined Petroleum Products (Bulk Storage) Other Petroleum and Coal Products and Planing Mill Products Industry Wire and Wire Products Industries Hydraulic Cernent Industry Ready Mixed

  15. Geology in coal resource utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, D.C. (ed.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. Jute fiber composites from coal, super clean coal, and petroleum vacuum residue-modified phenolic resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center of Energy Studies

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jute fiber composites were prepared with novolac and coal, phenolated-oxidized super clean coal (POS), petroleum vacuum residue (XVR)-modified phenol-formaldehyde (novolac) resin. Five different type of resins, i.e., coal, POS, and XVR-modified resins were used by replacing (10% to 50%) with coal, POS, and XVR. The composites thus prepared have been characterized by tensile strength, hardness, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transfer infrared (FT-IR), water absorption, steam absorption, and thickness swelling studies. Twenty percent POS-modified novolac composites showed almost the same tensile strength as that of pure novolac composites. After 30% POS incorporation, the tensile strength decreased to 25.84MPa from 33.96MPa in the case of pure novolac resin composites. However, after 50% POS incorporation, the percent retention of tensile strength was appreciable, i.e., 50.80% retention of tensile strength to that of pure novolac jute composites. The tensile strength of coal and XVR-rnodified composites showed a trend similar to that shown by POS-modified novolac resin composites. However, composites prepared from coal and XVR-modified resin with 50% phenol replacement showed 25.4% and 42% tensile strength retention, respectively, compared to that of pure novolac jute composites. It was found that the hardness of the modified composites slightly decreased with an increase in coal, POS, and XVR incorporation in the resin. The XVR-modified composites showed comparatively lower steam absorption than did coal or POS-modified composites. The thermal stability of the POS-modified composites was the highest among the composites studied. The detailed results obtained are being reported.

  17. Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, D.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

  18. New Industrial Park Energy Supply for Economical Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, D.; Marda, R. S.; Hodson, J. S.; Williams, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steam inlet conditions of 550 psig and 825?~. The gross output from this machine is 11.6 MW(ej. Process steam for the industrial users is rdmoved from the turbine cycle at the topping turbi~e exhaust. Approximately 840,000 lb/hr of prdcess steam...

  19. Saving Money with Steam Leak and Steam Trap Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodruff, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -sonic equipment. o Having uncorrected steam leaks and faulty traps cost your businesses time and money as well as being environmentally unfriendly. SERVICES ? Air Leak Surveys ? Nitrogen Leak Surveys ?Gas Leak Survey (H2, O2, Natural Gas) ? Steam Leak... productivity ? Processing efficiency ?Provide recommendations for improvement ?Stop profit loss by conserving wasted energy Undetected Steam leaks ? Rob efficiency in manufacturing and processing ? Lose millions of dollars annually ? Add up to very costly...

  20. Steam condensate leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

  1. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. During the reporting period, various methods to remove low-level contaminants for the synthesis gas were reviewed. In addition, there was a transition of the project personnel for GEC which has slowed the production of the outstanding project reports.

  2. Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

  3. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. Two proof-of-concept (POC) tests totaling 614 hours of coal fired operation were conducted during the quarter using low sulfur Montana Rosebud coal. The results of these tests are summarized. Operational aspects of the particulate control devices being evaluated, a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a reverse air baghouse, are discussed. A sootblowing control system for the convective heat transfer surfaces that senses the need to clean the tubes by temperatures is described. Environmental reporting includes measurement of levels of ground water wells over time and the remote air quality measurements of impact of the stack emissions from the two tests. Results of testing candidate ceramic tubes for a recuperative high temperature air heater are included. Analyses of the tube materials tested in the 2000 hour test series previously completed on high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal are summarized. Facility maintenance and repair activities for the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The major facility modification discussed is the completion of the installation of a Wet ESP with rotary vacuum filter which is replacing the venturi scrubber as the primary facility particulate control device for any exhaust gases that are not routed through the dry ESP or baghouse.

  4. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced coal liquefaction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Opportunities for the Illinois Coal Industry Summary: and Storage 11 3.5.2. Gasification, Liquefaction, and IGCC 12 4. Coal Market Projections 13 4.1. Consumption... . The...

  6. Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

  7. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  8. Pulverized coal combustion characterization at the KEPRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, D.J.; Kim, S.C.; Bae, B.H.; Kim, T.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Lee, H.D.; Park, O.Y.; Choi, B.S.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot-scale combustion test facility that can be utilized to burn pulverized coals such as anthracite coals, bituminous coals, and their blends at the rate of 200 kg/hr has been constructed to study coal-related impacts on utility boiler operations. The impacts include pulverizer performance, combustion stability, slagging, fouling, heat transfer, erosion, corrosion, pollutant emission, etc. The facility, a scale-down model of an existing boiler in Korea, consists of all the necessary components for the boiler with a distributed control system except steam generation components which have been replaced with slag panels, fouling probes, and heat exchangers. The facility, in addition, incorporates the advanced boiler technologies including tangentially-fired burners, flue gas recirculation, direct sorbent injection for desulfurization, electrostatic precipitator, wet scrubber, etc., and employs an opacity meter and gas analyzers. Low NOx burners and gas reburning system will be facilitated in the future to study low emission boiler systems being demonstrated in the developed countries. This paper represents preliminary test results including flame shapes, fouling based on the fouling factor, and pollutant emission with different coals and combustion aerodynamics. Flow fields in the furnace have been changed by varying the swirl number and the burner configurations in terms of single-wall, opposed-wall, and corner firing mode. An extensive investigation will continue to find optimum conditions for various coals of interest.

  9. Workshop Proceedings: Life Assessment and Repair of Steam Turbine Casings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the trend toward operating steam turbines far beyond their design lives, utilities need methods for assessing and extending the lives of the turbine casings. Consolidating and publishing industry experience on this subject will help utilities make run/replace decisions, select appropriate repair techniques, implement operational changes, and select new designs to meet future needs.

  10. Guidelines for maintaining steam turbine lubrication systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamping, G.A.; Cuellar, J.P. Jr.; Silvus, H.S.; Barsun, H.F.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Failures of steam turbine bearings and rotors cost the utility industry an estimated $150 million a year. A third of these failures involve contaminated lubricants or malfunctioning lubricant supply system components. This report, outlining a comprehensive surveillance program, presents guidelines for maintaining major elements in the turbine lubrication system.

  11. Steam System Forecasting and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by manipulation of operating schedules to avoid steam balances that result in steam venting, off gas-flaring, excessive condensing on extraction/condensing turbines, and ineffective use of extraction turbines. For example, during the fourth quarter of 1981... minimum turndown levels. Several boilers would have oeen shut down; by-product fuel gas would have been flared; and surplus low level steam would have been vented to the atmosphere. Several scenarios were studied with SFC and evaluated based...

  12. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  13. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies were designed to address the technical concerns that would mak

  14. A resource and technology assessment of coal utilization in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chikkatur, A.P. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Kennedy School of Government

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity production in India is projected to expand dramatically in the near term to energize new industrial development, while also easing the energy shortages throughout the country. Much of the new growth in electricity production will be fueled by domestic coal resources; however, there is worldwide concern about increased coal use, as greater carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion will exacerbate climate change. At the same time, there are now a number of different existing and emerging technological options for coal conversion and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction worldwide that could potentially be useful for the Indian coal-power sector. This paper reviews coal utilization in India and examines current and emerging coal power technologies with near- and long-term potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal power generation. 107 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larinoff, M.W.

    1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms.

  16. Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

  17. Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyun, T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Tope Iyun ExxonMobil Chemical Company May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20... were generated by or on behalf of ExxonMobil Chemical Company. Legal Disclosures ©2014 ExxonMobil. To the extent the user is entitled to disclose and distribute this document, the user may forward, distribute, and/or photocopy this copyrighted...

  18. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  19. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  20. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  1. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  2. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  3. Steam Trap Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ ~ [EMPERATURE ~ -Surface pyrometer may indicate fluctuation due to expected in termittent discharge. -Blow down strainer, -Look for other leaks 5 ~e~7;~~rP~;i;~h~d~~:cer ~ l/month most process ~ l/week critical process ~ and air heaters in winter... valves must be -Small leaks undetected condensate & steam arf being trap line size -Electrical safety-some discharged simultaneorsly -Added cost of test tee,valves devices -Some devices need cal~bration en nipples, etc_ -Infra red devices nee~ cali- Z...

  4. DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Module Stack Losses 1 June 28, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Stack Losses loss is almost always the largest boiler loss. [Slide Visual ­ Stack Loss Title Page] Steam

  5. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

  6. Coal cutting research slashes dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roepke, W.W.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal-Cutting Technology Group at the Bureau of Mine's Twin Cities Research Center is investigating ways to reduce primary dust generated by coal cutting. The progression of research within the program is from fundamental laboratory research, to fundamental field research, to field concept verification. Then the Bureau recommends warranted changes and/or prototype development to industry. Currently the Cutting Technology Group has several projects in each phase of research. The Bureau's current fundamental studies of bit characteristics are directed to determining the effects of conical bit wear on primary respirable dust generation, energy, and cutting forces; establishing best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; and comparing chisel-type cutters to conical-type cutters. Additionally, to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

  7. Coal cutting research slashes dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roepke, W.W.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal-Cutting Technology Group at the Bureau of Mines Twin Cities (MN) Research Center is investigating ways to reduce primary dust generated by coal cutting. The progression of research within the program is from fundamental laboratory research, to fundamental field research, to field concept verification. Then the Bureau recommends warranted changes and/or prototype development to industry. Currently the group has several projects in each phase of research. The Bureau's current fundamental studies of bit characteristics are directed toward determining the effects of conical bit wear on primary respirable dust generation, energy, and cutting forces; establishing best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; and comparing chisel-type cutters to conical-type cutters. Additionally, to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

  8. 4th Annual Clean Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferriter John P

    Proceedings he emphasis of the Fourth Clean Coal Technology Conference wm the marketability of clean coal projects both domestically and abroad. The success rate of clean coal projects in the U.S. for coalfired electricity generation is a beacon to foreign governments that are working toward effectively using advanced NO, and SO2 technology to substantially reduce flue-gas emissions for a cleaner environment. There is a continuing dialogue between U.S. Government, North American private industry, and the electricity producing governmental ministries and the private sector abroad. The international community was well represented at this conference. The Administration is determined to move promising, near-term technologies from the public to the private sector a ~ well a8 into the international marketplace.

  9. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  10. Technological developments to improve combustion efficiency and pollution control in coal-fired power stations in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyasaka, Tadahisa

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1975, approximately 60 percent of all power generating facilities in Japan were oil fired. The oil crisis in the 1970s, however, led Japanese power utilities to utilize alternatives to oil as energy sources, including nuclear power, coal, LNG, and others. As a result, by 1990, the percentage of oil-fired power generation facilities had declined to approximately 31 percent. On the other hand, coal-fired power generation, which accounted for 5.7 percent of all facilities in 1975, increased its share to 7.5 percent in 1990 and is anticipated to expand further to 13 percent by the year 2000. In order to increase the utilization of coal-fired power generation facilities in Japan, it is necessary to work out thorough measures to protect the environment, mainly to control air pollution. The technologies that are able to do this are already available. The second issue is how to improve efficiency. In this chapter, I would like to introduce technological developments that improve efficiency and that protect the environment which have been implemented in coal-fired power stations in Japan. Examples of the former, include the atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) boiler, the pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) boiler, and the ultra super-critical (USC) steam condition turbine, and an example of the latter is the dry deSOx/deNOx. Although details are not provided in this paper, there are also ongoing projects focusing on the development of technology for integrated gasification combined cycle generation, fuel cells and other systems undertaken by the government, i.e., the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), which is committed to the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  11. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  12. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  13. Table 14. Steam Coal Exports by Customs District

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328AdministrationRelease

  14. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  15. The Design of an Open Rankine-Cycle Industrial Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibowitz, H. M.; Chaudoir, D. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An open Rankine-cycle heat pump is ideally suited for producing low-pressure industrial process steam. Because steam serves as both the heat pump motive fluid and process fluid, the system achieves a unique simplicity and versatility...

  16. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. The status of coal briquetting technology in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Woo-Zin

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthracite is the only indigenous fossil fuel resource produced in Korea and is an important main source of residential fuel. Due to its particular characteristics, the best way to use Korean coal is in the form of briquettes, called {open_quotes}Yontan.{close_quotes} The ability to use this coal as briquettes was a great discovery made nearly 50 years ago and since then, has made a great contribution to the energy consumption of low and middle income households. Korean anthracite in coal briquette form has been used widely for household heating purposes. Collieries in Korea produced no more than one million tons of anthracite annually in the 1960s. Production, however, increased substantially up to about 17 million tons per year in the mid-1970s. In 1986, Korea succeeded in raising its coal production to 24.2 million tons, which was the maximum production level achieved by the Korean coal industrial sector. Since then, anthracite production has fallen. In 1991, coal output dropped to 15.1 million tons, a decrease of 12.2 percent from the 17.2 million tons produced in 1990, due to falling coal demand and rising labor costs. The role of coal as an energy source will be more important in the future to meet projected economic growth in Korea. While the production of indigenous Korean anthracite is expected to decrease under a coal mining rationalization policy, imports of bituminous coal will increase rapidly and will be used as an oil substitute in industry and power generation. In this chapter, general aspects of the Korean coal industry and coal utilization for residential uses, especially the Yontan coal briquetting techniques, are discussed. In addition, coal briquetting technology applications suitable for the APEC region will be presented.

  18. Coal Mining (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

  19. Effects of Reinsulating Underground Steam Pipes- A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentzer, T.

    -13, 1999 Figure 5. The pumping process on the street. FINDINGS Line Losses The following table shows the monthly average steam flow rates in pounds per hour for each of the meters since January 1997. For September and October 1998, electric power... of the 12" and 8" diameter piping. There are six steam vaults between the two-meter 167 ESL-IE-99-05-24 Proceedings from the Twenty-first National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 -- ------ locations. These vaults...

  20. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report.

  1. Energy Savings in Industrial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

    The industrial sector accounts for more than one-third of total energy use in the United States and emits 28.7 percent of the country’s greenhouse gases. Energy use in the industrial sector is largely for steam and process heating systems...

  2. Industry Alliance Industry Alliance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Alliance Industry Alliance Clean, Sustainable Energy for the 21st Century Industry Alliance Industry Alliance Clean, Sustainable Energy for the 21st Century October, 2010...

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  4. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; J. Sarver; M. Borden; K. Coleman; J. Blough; S. Goodstine; R.W. Swindeman; W. Mohn; I. Perrin

    2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  8. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the GEC and an Industrial Consortia are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  9. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

  10. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

  11. ProSteam- A Structured Approach to Steam System Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eastwood, A.

    of the steam system could, therefore, be: ? To calculate the real cost of steam under various operational scenarios ? To identify current energy losses ? To accurately evaluate project savings ? To forecast future steam demand versus production... Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 16-19, 2002 Optimised System eff:85% 77.4MW eff:85% O.OMW 98 Uh 352'C 66 lIh eff:80% 68 lIh Max 100 Vh 18 lIh 80 lIh 50 'c 40 lIh 0.50 MW Po e Re ulrement 5 ba Ollh -0.6 barg Max 20 Vh...

  12. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition.

  13. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, D.K.

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy?s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles? Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

  14. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  15. Development of a 16-MW sub th coal-water/heavy oil burner for front-wall firing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thambimuthu, K.V.; Whaley, H. (EMR Canada/CANMET, Ottawa (CA)); Bennet, A.; Jonasson, K.A. (NRC Canada, Ottawa (CA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Canadian program of coal-water fuel (CWF) technology development has included the demonstration of commercial burners for CWF in both coal and oil-designed utility boilers. The demonstrations clearly showed that these burners were prototypes, and were, in fact, modified oil burners that were mismatched to the rheological properties of the CWF. As the demonstrations were proceeding, a simultaneous research program was undertaken in which the basic principles governing atomization and combustion of CWF were studied. Results from the fundamental studies which led to the development of a novel prototype dual fuel CWF/oil burner are described. In the various stages of development, the burner was scaled up from 1.5 MW{sub th} to an industrial scale of 16 MS{sub th} for demonstration in a 20-MW{sub (e)} oil-designed industrial utility boiler and for a single-burner commercial operation in an oil designed package steam boiler. A summary of the burner performance in these demonstrations is also given in this paper.

  16. ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Bullard, S.B.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency increases in fossil energy boilers and steam turbines are being achieved by increasing the temperature and pressure at the turbine inlets well beyond the critical point of water. To allow these increases, advanced materials are needed that are able to withstand the higher temperatures and pressures in terms of strength, creep, and oxidation resistance. As part of a larger collaborative effort, the Albany Research Center (ARC) is examining the steam-side oxidation behavior for ultrasupercritical (USC) steam turbine applications. Initial tests are being done on six alloys identified as candidates for USC steam boiler applications: ferritic alloy SAVE12, austenitic alloy Super 304H, the high Cr-high Ni alloy HR6W, and the nickel-base superalloys Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Inconel 740. Each of these alloys has very high strength for its alloy type. Three types of experiments are planned: cyclic oxidation in air plus steam at atmospheric pressure, thermogravimetric ana lysis (TGA) in steam at atmospheric pressure, and exposure tests in supercritical steam up to 650 C (1202 F) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). The atmospheric pressure tests, combined with supercritical exposures at 13.8, 20.7, 24.6, and 34.5 MPa (2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 psi) should allow the determination of the effect of pressure on the oxidation process.

  17. A project health check for coal mining caompanies : case of Douglas Middelburg optimisation project .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Wet, G.F.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The purpose of the study is to develop a project health check model to evaluate the status of projects within the coal mining industry. The… (more)

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - african coal mining Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In 2003, the South African synthetic fuel industry consumed 24... of synthetic fuels in South Africa, this must also reflect their coal consumption (Figure 2). South African......

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - african coal sources Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In 2003, the South African synthetic fuel industry consumed 24... of synthetic fuels in South Africa, this must also reflect their coal consumption (Figure 2). South African......

  20. Development of a co-firing fuel from biomass-derived binder and crushed coal.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friend, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The focus of this work was the development of a co-firing boiler fuel for use in the coal power plant industry. This fuel, known as… (more)

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - abandoned surface coal Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Discussion Paper Industrial Organization of Summary: of Chinas coal output is produced by surface mining operations. Chinas heavy reliance on...

  2. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  3. GCFR steam generator conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

  4. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  5. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  6. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  7. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  8. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

  9. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  10. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  11. Steam-Powered Sensing Chengjie Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    Steam-Powered Sensing Chengjie Zhang 1 Affan Syed 1,2 Young Cho 1 John Heidemann 1 chengjie blockages in steam pipelines of a production oilfield. First, we eliminate the high cost of bringing power in steam pipelines and full blockages in hot water pipelines. Finally, we evaluate our "steam

  12. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

    1980-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

  13. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  14. The Steam System Scoping Tool: Benchmarking Your Steam Operations Through Best Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A.; Hahn, G.

    system efficiency. The BestPractices Steam effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has developed a new tool that steam energy managers and operations personnel can use to assess their steam operations and improve their steam energy usage -the Steam System...

  15. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam EndUser Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam EndUser Training Resource Utilization. These include fuel selection, steam enduse or demand management, and combined heat and power activities importance of investigating steam enduse components and reducing steam consumption or improving the energy

  16. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Commercial plant requirements definition update (Task 1. 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power system thermodynamic cycle is illustrated schematically. Pressurized air supplied at the discharge of gas turbine compressors is ducted to the pressure vessel of pressurized, fluidized-bed, combustor-steam generator modules. The air is introduced in parallel to the beds, entering through distribution grids beneath each bed. Steam generation tubes are buried within the beds and are also arranged as membrane tube walls enclosing the four sides. Crushed coal (1/4 inch x 0) is pneumatically fed at locations just above the air inlet grids at the bottom of each bed. Dolomite is similarly fed to the individual beds. The coal is burned at a temperature below the ash fusion point. Sulfur is removed in the fluid beds through reaction of the SO/sub 2/ with CaCO/sub 3/ and O/sub 2/ to form solid CaSO/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ gas. The combustion gases leave the beds at a temperature in the range of 1400/sup 0/F to 1750/sup 0/F, depending upon the plant load fraction, and combustion heat is also transferred from the bed to the steam generation tubes. For the PFB combustor at full load, approximately 39% of the heating value of the coal appears i the exhaust gas, 57% appears in the steam, and 4% is apportioned among various losses. The steam circuitry is the supercritical once-through type. Steam is generated at 3500 psi and 1000/sup 0/F and is reheated to 1000/sup 0/F after expansion through the high pressure section of the steam turbine. The exhaust gases from the fluidized beds, which entrain a high percentage of the coal ash as well as dolomite fines, are ducted to conventional cyclones and then to electrocyclones before being admitted to the gas turbine.

  17. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  18. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  19. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  20. The Elimination of Steam Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickman, F.

    claims and misinformation gener ated by over thirty-six steam trap manufacturers in the United States alone. A PARTIAL LIST OF STEAM TRAP MANUFACTURERS AAF GESTRA ANDERSON HIROSS ARMSTRONG HOFFMAN BARNES &JONES HONEYWELL BRAUKMANN BESTOBELL... removal had been devised and these same methods, with minor variations, are employed today. The inverted bucket trap was in vented in 1910 by Otto Arner, a friend of Adam Armstrong. Armstrong began his business career by making bicycle spokes...

  1. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  2. Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

    Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps Richard C; Bockwinkel General Manager Armstrong Service? A Division of Armstrong International, Inc. Orlando, Florida ABSTRACT This paper will discuss the energy savings potential of steam... Engineer Steam Traps Armstrong International, Inc. Three Rivers, Michigan basis. Finally, it's important to recognize that a steam trap program will reduce steam waste> which will reduce the amount of fuel burned> which will reduce pollutants...

  3. ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and activities in the industry and crossed various mined commodities including copper, uranium, iron ore, coal and others. The workshop participants included individuals from...

  4. AEO2015 Coal Working Group Meeting Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oil and GasPURPOSES. DO NOT

  5. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan Feb MarAlternative0ofcurrent

  6. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  7. High-Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, A L; Trent, J W; See, E F; Glass, R S

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen economy will require readily available and affordable hydrogen fuel. Current methods of hydrogen production do not fulfill these requirements. We are working on an electrolyzer system that can provide distributed hydrogen production while taking advantage of the nation's existing natural gas infrastructure. Electrolysis is a promising hydrogen production technology both because of its ability to produce pure hydrogen from water and because it does not require large, centralized plants. Unlike other technologies, the cost of hydrogen production scales well from larger to smaller systems. Electrolysis units could be widely distributed and scaled to meet the hydrogen requirements of different users such as individual households, local fueling stations and industrial facilities. A significant drawback to traditional electrolysis is the large electricity consumption required to convert water to hydrogen and oxygen. The electricity requirements mean such systems are expensive to operate. In addition, if the electricity is provided from coal or gas-fired power plants, electrolytic hydrogen production does not mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The concept described in this report is intended to resolve some of the problems associated with electrolytic hydrogen production. By utilizing natural gas in place of air in the anode compartment in a solid oxide electrolyzer, the electricity requirements of the system are greatly reduced. The system has the capability to produce pure hydrogen, or hydrogen humidified to levels appropriate for direct use in a PEM fuel cell. With inherent electrochemical compression, the requirement for external compression for pressurization could be reduced. This technology offers numerous advantages for distributed hydrogen production of stationary and transportation hydrogen fuel cells. Our preliminary calculations indicate that using this concept, hydrogen could be produced at a cost competitive with gasoline (on a per gallon equivalent basis) while also lowering carbon dioxide emissions.

  8. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  9. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  10. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  11. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  12. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  13. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  14. Captive power plants and industrial sector in the developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Rim-Taig [Hyundai Engineering Co. (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical power and energy is essential for the industrial sector of the countries which are transferring its social structure to the industry oriented one from the agrarian society. In Asian countries, this kind of transformation has actively been achieved in this century starting from Japan and followed by Korea, Taiwan, and it is more actively achieved in the countries of Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippine, India and China(PRC) in these days. It is valuable to review the effective utilizing of Power and Energy in the industrial sector of the developing countries. In this paper, it is therefore focussed to the captive power plants comparing those of utility companies such as government owned electrical power company and independent power company. It is noticed that major contribution to the electrical power generation in these days is largely dependent on the fossil fuel such as coal, oil and gas which are limited in source. Fossil energy reserves are assumed 1,194 trillion cubic meters or about 1,182 billion barrels of oil equivalent for natural gas 1,009 billion barrels for oil and at least 930 billion tons for coal in the world. According to the statistic data prepared by the World Energy Council, the fossil fuel contribution to electrical power generation records 92.3% in 1970 and 83.3% in 1990 in the world wide. Primary energy source for electrical power generation is shown in figure 1. It is therefore one of the most essential task of human being on how to utilize the limited fossil energy effectively and how to maximize the thermal efficiency in transferring the fossil fuel to usable energy either electrical power and energy or thermal energy of steam or hot/chilled water.

  15. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  16. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  17. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to make additional steam for the steam turbine cycle. Thein multi-pressure-level steam turbines to produce additionalthe superheated steam to the steam turbine cycle. The most

  18. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  19. Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  20. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.