Sample records for industrial steam coal

  1. Potential applications of microscopy for steam coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVanney, K.F.; Clarkson, R.J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy has been an extremely useful tool for many industrial sectors in the past. This paper introduces some of the potential applications of using coal and fly ash carbon microscopy for the combustion process and steam coal industry. Coal and fly ash carbon microscopic classification criteria are described. Plant sample data are presented which demonstrate that these techniques can be useful for coal selection and for problem solving in the coal-fired power plant environment. Practical recommendations for further study are proposed.

  2. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    in sellable power output as a result of improved turbine efficiency. The Lyondell facility is a combined cycle power plant where a gas turbine: heat recovery system supplies steam to the steam turbine. Since this steam is a bypropuct of the gas turbine...steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits...

  3. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34...

  4. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  5. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify areas of performance degradation during a turbine outage. Repair priorities can then be set...

  6. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  7. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  8. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  9. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  11. Apparatus for removing micronized coal from steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlnaty, J.

    1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Micronized coal is removed from coal-bearing steam by spraying stabilized petroleum oil into the steam and directing the resultant stream at a separation surface on which a coal-oil slurry is deposited and collected. Apparatus includes conduits which direct the resultant stream downward into a housing and normal to a surface on which the slurry is deposited by impact forces. In additional apparatus disclosed, the resultant stream is directed from a horizontal conduit circumferentially along the interior wall of a horizontally disposed cylindrical chamber at the top of the chamber and the coal-oil slurry deposited on the wall by centrifugal force is collected in a trough situated below a longitudinal slot at the bottom of the chamber. In both types of apparatus, after separation of the slurry the velocity of the steam is reduced to settle out remaining oil droplets and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

  12. Market integration in the international coal industry: A cointegration approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warell, L. [University of Lulea, Lulea (Sweden). Dept. of Business Administration & Social Science

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis of the existence of a single economic market for the international coal industry, separated for coking and steam coal, and to investigate market integration over time. This has been conducted by applying cointegration and error-correction models on quarterly price series data in Europe and Japan over the time period 1980-2000. Both the coking and the steam coal markets show evidence of global market integration, as demonstrated by the stable long-run cointegrating relationship between the respective price series in different world regions. This supports the hypothesis of a globally integrated market. However, when analyzing market integration over time it is not possible to confirm cointegration in the 1990s for steam coal. Thus, compared to the coking coal market, the steam coal market looks somewhat less global in scope.

  13. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  14. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  15. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition This sourcebook is...

  16. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  17. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  18. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in todayâ??s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

  19. Cogeneration: An Industrial Steam and Power Option

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orlando, J. A.; Stewart, M. M.; Roberts, J. R.

    Industrial facilities of all sizes have the ability to reduce and better control both power and steam costs with a cogeneration system. Unlike the larger systems that sell almost all of the cogenerated power to a regulated electric utility...

  20. Method and apparatus for removing micronized coal from steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlnaty, J.

    1980-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Micronized coal is removed from coal-bearing steam by spraying stabilized petroleum oil into the steam and directing the resultant stream at a separation surface on which a coal-oil slurry is deposited and collected. Apparatus includes conduits which direct the resultant stream downward into a housing and normal to a surface on which the slurry is deposited by impact forces. In additional apparatus disclosed, the resultant stream is directed from a horizontal conduit circumferentially along the interior wall of a horizontally disposed cylindrical chamber at the top of the chamber and the coal-oil slurry deposited on the wall by centrifugal force is collected in a trough situated below a longitudinal slot at the bottom of the chamber. In both types of apparatus, after separation of the slurry the velocity of the steam is reduced to settle out remaining oil droplets and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

  1. Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program steam software tools can help industrial plants identify steam system improvements to save energy and money.

  2. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  3. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  4. Economic Evaluation of By-Product Power/Co-Generation Systems for Industrial Plants with Fluidized-Bed Coal Burning Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesko, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic analysis of the construction and operation of by-product electric power and steam/power cogeneration systems in coal fired fluidized-bed steam cycles, located at individual industrial sites analyzed by the author, is being presented...

  5. Cash Flow Impacts of Industrial Steam Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    of thermal transfer tasks within the majority of manufacturing industries, it is widely perceived as a "support" utility. In other words, steam is considered a power source subordinate to process lines that are the real focus of manufacturing activity... be directed to productive functions, enabling the plant to extend production runs or perhaps even begin new product lines. RETURN ON INVESTMENT Global competition and decentralized corporate structures provide formidable challenges for manufacturing...

  6. Canada's coal industry: full swing ahead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, K. [Natural Resources Canada (Canada). Minerals and Metals Sector

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article presents facts and figures about Canada's coal industry in 2006 including production, exports, imports, mines in operation, the Genesee 3 coal-fired generation unit, the Dodds-Roundhill Gasification Project, and new coal mine development plans. The outlook for 2007 is positive, with coal production expected to increase from 67 Mt in 2006 to 70 Mt in 2007 and exports expected to increase from 28 Mt in 2006 to 30 Mt in 2007.

  7. The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

  8. Industrial Utilization of Coal-Oil Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, J. E.; Hawkins, G. T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-oil mixtures (COM) are receiving increasing interest as economical alternatives to residual fuel oil and natural gas used in heavy industrial and utility applications. Four basic approaches are currently employed in the manufacture of COM...

  9. Continuing consolidation in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaalaas, T. [Pace Global Energy Services LLC (United States)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive consolidation has occurred in the coal industry over the past decade. The greatest degree of consolidation has occurred in Northern Appalachia, the Illinois Basin, and the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin (PRB), which are the coal supply regions where most observers expect the greatest growth in coal production over the next decade. In addition to reducing the number of alternative suppliers, high level of concentration also tend to result in higher prices, more volatile spot markets, and lower levels of reliability. Therefore, coal-fired generators purchasing in these regions need to respond proactively and strategically to these market trends. 2 figs.

  10. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  11. Polish coal industry - the way ahead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiss, M.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is given on Polish coal reserves showing the types of coal in different regions. Long-range plans for the industry have been formulated, calling for the opening of many new mines during the next 50 years. Coal exports have played an important part in the country's economy by providing hard currency. Exports were 41.4 million tons in 1979, but fell to 31 million tons in 1980 as a result of the country's domestic problems. It is hoped to recapture the export market.

  12. User's manual for the INDCEPT code for estimating industrial steam boiler plant capital investment costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, H I; Fuller, L C; Hudson, II, C R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INDCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for single- and multiple-unit industrial steam boiler plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of boiler type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs. Boiler plant cost models are provided to reflect various types and sources of coal and alternate means of sulfur and particulate removal. Cost models are also included for low-Btu and medium-Btu gas produced in coal gasification plants.

  13. Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.; Hart, F.

    Last year, the Alliance to Save Energy, the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies, and a cadre of private companies and associations formed an innovative "Steam Partnership" with the goal of developing a new, DOE technical...

  14. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  15. "Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both recent economic and environmental conditions in the U.S. have converged to bring about unprecedented attention to energy efficiency and sustainability in the country's industrial sector. Historically, energy costs in ...

  16. "Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact have not kept pace with other industrialized nations. The U.S. is confronted with looming tipping points with respect to energy supply and GHG emissions that represent very tangible constraints on future economic growth and quality of life. A...

  17. Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group, Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Steam tracer experiment at the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water plays an important role in in-situ coal gasification. To better understand this role, we conducted a steam tracer test during the later stages of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test. Deuterium oxide was used as the tracer. This report describes the tracer test and the analysis of the data obtained. The analysis indicates that at Hoe Creek the injected steam interacts with a large volume of water as it passes through the underground system. We hypothesize that this water is undergoing continual reflux in the underground system, resulting in a tracer response typical of a well-stirred tank.

  20. Challenges and Opportunities for the Illinois Coal Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Challenges and Opportunities for the Illinois Coal Industry Joseph DiJohn Director Metropolitan and Storage 11 3.5.2. Gasification, Liquefaction, and IGCC 12 4. Coal Market Projections 13 4.1. Consumption. Coal Production and Employment in Illinois, 1920 ­ 2000 4 Figure 2. The Illinois Basin 5 Figure 3

  1. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  2. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litster, Shawn

    Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture Nicholas S. Siefert Virginia 26507, United States ABSTRACT: We present experimental results of coal gasification. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect

  3. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  4. Analysis of the transportation network for the export of US steam coal. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, S.R.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam coal trade boomed following the doubling of crude oil prices in 1979. With two of the major world producers, Australia and Poland, unable to respond to the increased demand, the United States was able to gain a share of the increased coal trade. However, the US was unable to respond quickly due to its limited coal-transshipment facilities and its lack of large vessel capacity at its ports. The combination of increased coal demand and limited port facilities led to the planning of large-scale port facility construction at many ports. This thesis develops a model of the entire export coal transportation network from the mine at the origin to the utility at the destination, to address the question of whether and where to dredge. By modeling the entire network, changes in any link can be examined to determine its impact on the network as a whole. In this study the impact of port dredging is investigated by modeling improvements at Baltimore, Hampton Roads, and Mobile. The result of the study is the clear indication that dredging Baltimore alone is the best option available now at low export coal volume, and that the benefits of dredging will increase as the volume of export steam coal increases. This solution is robust in that the changing of rail and vessel costs in a sensitivity analysis does not affect the solution materially. The US will still be the high-cost producer, but the dredging of Baltimore will improve the ability of the US steam coal producers to compete on the world market.

  5. Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

  6. Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reister, D.B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of four types of energy carriers and four types of throttle conditions). Investment in new boilers is allocated by an empirical distribution function among the 16 types of boilers on the basis of life cycle cost. In the short run (5 years), the Penetration Model has a small price response. The model has a large price response in the long run (30 years). For constant fuel prices, the model forecasts a 19-percent share for coal and a 65-percent share for residual oil in the year 2000. If the real price of oil and gas doubles by the year 2000, the model forecasts a 68-percent share for coal and a 26-percent share for residual oil.

  7. Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.; Hart, F.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    traps, insulation, and boiler controls. The Partnership should investigate linking these software tools together and incorporating other steam "modules" (i.e., water treatment, boiler tune-up, common steam applications) in order to estimate...

  8. Following Where the Steam Goes: Industry's Business Opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaber, D.; Jones, T.

    Many associated benefits accrue from plant projects which comprehensively address steam systems. The DOE-Alliance to Save Energy Steam Challenge program was initiated shortly after last year's IETC on April 30, 1998 to promote awareness...

  9. Industrial Steam Power Cycles Final End-Use Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final end uses of steam include two major classifications: those uses that condense the steam against heat transfer surfaces to provide heat to an item of process or service equipment; and those that require a mass flow of steam for stripping...

  10. Hoe Creek No. 3 - First long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground experiment, linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, and then the forward gasification process was started - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, about 3900 tons of coal were gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons per day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/scf, suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is about 900 Btu/scf.

  11. Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

  12. Steam reforming analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

  13. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

  14. Coking Coal Prices for Industry - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Prices for Industry for Selected Countries1 U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton2 Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Argentina NA NA NA NA NA 37.24 NA NA NA Austria NA NA...

  15. Financial Impact of Good Condenser Vacuum in Industrial Steam Turbines: Computer Modeling Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial turbine throttle conditions are fixed by plant designs - materials of construction, steam requirements, etc. Condensing turbine exhaust conditions are limited by the atmosphere to which residual heat is rejected; and are fixed...

  16. Financial Impact of Good Condenser Vacuum in Industrial Steam Turbines: Computer Modeling Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial turbine throttle conditions are fixed by plant designs - materials of construction, steam requirements, etc. Condensing turbine exhaust conditions are limited by the atmosphere to which residual heat is rejected; and are fixed...

  17. Design and operation of a coal-washery sludge fired 75 t/h steam fluidized bed combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, X.; Chi, Y.; Yan, J. [and others

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based upon the coal-washery sludge fluidized bed agglomerating combustion technology developed by Zhejiang University and the design and operation experience accumulated from the 35 t/h stream fluidized bed boilers, a coal-washery sludge fired 75 t/h steam circulating fluidized bed boiler (12 MWe) for cogeneration application was designed. The design features of the boiler can be summarized as follows: (1) Combination of solid particle impact separator (in furnace circulation) and moderate temperature ({approximately}500 C) uniflow cyclone; (2) Low solid circulation rate; (3) Loop-seal for solid particle recirculation; (4) Air duct oil burner for boiler start-up; and (5) Coal-Washery sludge firing or co-firing of coal-washery sludge and coal. The boiler is installed at Dongtan Coal Mine Cogeneration Plant in Shandong Province of China. The daily disposal capacity of coal-washery sludge is over 300 tons. The first trial operation of the boiler was on Dec. 18, 1997. The cogeneration plant has been in commercial operation since May 1998. This boiler is the largest capacity boiler to dispose of coal-washery sludge in China. The successful operation of this boiler has sped up the commercialization process of the coal-washery sludge fluidized bed combustion technology.

  18. NON-STATIONARY TEMPERATURE STRESSES IN THE INDUSTRIAL STEAM TURBINE ROTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zvonimir Guzovi?; Krešimir Kova?i?; Tihomir Mihali?

    The usage of industrial steam turbines in different industrial branches (chemistry, petrochemistry, refineries, sugar and ethanol plants, etc.) for a generator drive for electricity generation or a mechanical drive for compressors, blowers and pumps, is characterized by the need for high flexibility of operation. High flexibility includes numerous start-ups, shut-downs and power changes during the useful life. Changes in power and steam mass flow lead to changes of the working fluid state in the single turbine stages, and thus their aerodynamic and thermodynamic characteristics. During these transient working regimes in steam turbine rotors, large space and time-dependent temperature gradients appear, which can result in high non-stationary temperature stresses, i.e. increased local stress concentrations, what has a negative impact on the useful life of the rotor. In the worst case they can cause fracture of the turbine rotor. Today, for the determination of thermal stressed state of the steam turbine parts the user softwares based on numerical methods are used. In this paper the results of numerical modelling and calculations of non-stationary temperature fields and related stresses in the rotor of industrial steam turbine of 35 MW power during transient operating regime (a cold startup) will be presented. The results of the calculations serve for estimation of the transient regime impact on the stresses of the rotor, as well as on its entire useful life. Key words: industrial steam turbine, transient regimes, temperature stresses, numerical modelling 1.

  19. Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovementINDIAN COUNTRYBarriers toHeat PumpsSteamSteam

  20. Hoe Creek No. 3: first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are compelling reasons for pursuing underground coal gasification. The resource that could be exploited is huge - enough to quadruple present proved coal reserves - if the process is successful. Cost estimates indicate that substitute natural gas or gasoline may be producible at reasonable prices by the technique. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, then the forward gasification process began - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, approximately 3900 tons of coal was gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons/day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/SCF (194 kj/mol), suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is approximately 900 Btu/SCF (800 kj/mol).

  1. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David, A

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst–capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst–capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S capture, and (3) the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO–CaCO{sub 3} chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO{sub 3} was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycles. The increased steam–coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2–4% per CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier–calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO{sub 4} and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  2. The role of coal in industrialization: A case study of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is a mineral matter found in layers or beds in sedimentary rocks. It is a very highly variable substance. In addition to the variations from lignite to bituminous and anthracite, there are vast differences in its heating value, amount of volatiles, sulfur, moisture and so on. The chemical and physical properties of coal make it an important industrial raw material. There is proven 639 million tonnes of coal reserves in Nigeria. This paper examines the potential and current role of coal in the industrialization of Nigeria. Industries are now dependent on fuel oil as a source of fuel because of its economic and technological advantages over coal. Coal is a source of industrial energy for the future after the known oil reserves might have been exhausted. In the short term, coal can be used as a material for chemicals, iron and steel production as well as a substitute for wood energy in the process of industrialization.

  3. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  4. Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    2001-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

  5. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  6. SunCoal Industries GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL ElecStrategicStories HomeSumcoSumterSunCoal Industries

  7. Achieve Steam System Excellence: Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam Overview Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated aging of roofingDepartmentAchieve Steam

  8. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovementINDIAN COUNTRYBarriers toHeat Pumps for Steam and

  9. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer SolutionsL: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovementINDIAN COUNTRYBarriers toHeat PumpsSteam

  10. Rapid gasification of nascent char in steam atmosphere during the pyrolysis of Na- and Ca-ion-exchanged brown coals in a drop-tube reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondej Maek; Sou Hosokai; Koyo Norinaga; Chun-Zhu Li; Jun-ichiro Hayashi [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several recent studies on in situ steam gasification of coal suggest a possibility of extremely fast steam gasification of char from rapid pyrolysis of pulverized brown coal. The unprecedented rate of char steam gasification can be achieved by exposing nascent char, that is, after tar evolution (temperature range >600{sup o}C), but before devolatilization (<900{sup o}C), to steam in the presence of Na and/or Ca dispersed in/on the char. In this study, we conducted rapid pyrolysis experiments using ion-exchanged Loy Yang brown coal samples, that is, H-form coal with Na/Ca contents <0.001 wt %, Na-form coal with Na content = 2.8 wt % and Ca-form coal with Ca content = 3.2 wt %. These samples were pyrolyzed in an atmospheric drop-tube reactor at a temperature of 900{sup o}C, inlet steam concentration of 50 vol. %, and a particle residence times of 2.8 s. The char yields from the pyrolysis of Na-form and Ca-form coals were as low as 12 and 33% on the respective coal carbon bases, and accounted for only 18 and 53% of the char yields from the full devolatilization of the respective coals at 900{sup o}C. In addition, the pyrolysis also consumed as much as 0.7-1.1 mol of H{sub 2}O per mol of coal C. On the other hand, the nascent char from the H-form coal allowed carbon deposition from the nascent tar, resulting in a char yield as high as 115% of that from the full devolatilization. The chars from the Na-form and Ca-form coals also acted as catalysts for steam reforming of tar, which was evidenced by significant negative synergistic effects of blending of H-form coal with Na-form coal or Ca-form coal on the tar and soot yields. 57 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #18 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton: ENERGY8 Deaerators in Industrial Steam

  12. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of total US steam electric generating capacity operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report describes alternatives available to nuclear and coal-fired plants currently operating under variances. Data from 38 plants representing 14 companies are used to estimate the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Although there are other alternatives, most affected plants would be retrofitted with cooling towers. Assuming that all plants currently operating under variances would install cooling towers, the national capital cost estimate for these retrofits ranges from $22.7 billion to $24.4 billion (in 1992 dollars). The second report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. Little justification has been found for removing the Section 316(a) variance from the CWA.

  13. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

  14. Coal and Gas Industries in Australia a. Overview of Australian coal and gas industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    . Wastewater industry and research b. Site visit to Queensland Center for Advanced Technology · Biofuel a. Cellulose biomass resources and utilization b. Ethanol and biofuels c. Biodiesel from Pongemia oil seeds d. Biogas from landfills e. Site visit to Pinjarra Hills biofuel laboratory · Solar Energy a. UQ Solar Array

  15. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are contained in Appendix 'C'. It was implemented between 1994 and 1998 after the entire 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was relocated to Philadelphia, PA in 1994. A new test facility was designed and installed. A substantially longer combustor was fabricated. Although not in the project plan or cost plan, an entire steam turbine-electric power generating plant was designed and the appropriate new and used equipment for continuous operation was specified. Insufficient funds and the lack of a customer for any electric power that the test facility could have generated prevented the installation of the power generating equipment needed for continuous operation. All other task 5 project measures were met and exceeded. 107 days of testing in task 5, which exceeded the 63 days (about 500 hours) in the test plan, were implemented. Compared to the first generation 20 MMBtu/hr combustor in Williamsport, the 2nd generation combustor has a much higher combustion efficiency, the retention of slag inside the combustor doubled to about 75% of the coal ash, and the ash carryover into the boiler, a major problem in the Williamsport combustor was essentially eliminated. In addition, the project goals for coal-fired emissions were exceeded in task 5. SO{sub 2} was reduced by 80% to 0.2 lb/MMBtu in a combination of reagent injection in the combustion and post-combustion zones. NO{sub x} was reduced by 93% to 0.07 lb/MMBtu in a combination of staged combustion in the combustor and post-combustion reagent injection. A baghouse was installed that was rated to 0.03 lb/MMBtu stack particle emissions. The initial particle emission test by EPA Method 5 indicated substantially higher emissions far beyond that indicated by the clear emission plume. These emissions were attributed to steel particles released by wall corrosion in the baghouse, correction of which had no effect of emissions.

  16. ISO 9000 and its effects on the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vardys, R.K.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is asserted that organizations that do not implement a formal quality program by the year 2000 will not survive. The ISO 9000 quality management standards provide the model for many companies that have determined a quality program is vital not only for their survival, but their growth, in an increasingly competitive business environment. The U.S. coal industry has been hit hard with utility de-regulation and global competition. More emphasis is being placed on bold cost savings measures by utilities and coal producers alike. These measures range from subcontracting analytical work to subcontracting power plant maintenance. Unfortunately, quality management systems are still seen as an expense instead of a cost saving measure and are not being addressed by those who most desperately need quality management systems. What must be understood is that through the implementation of a quality management program, companies can recover costs that were previously accepted as unrecoverable. Prevention costs (documentation, internal auditing, training, management review, etc.) will increase slightly, due to an increased emphasis on a quality management system, but, a net savings is realized through a decrease in failure costs, e.g., waste, scrap, meetings to discuss failures/place blame, worry, re-work, client loss, client doubt, etc.

  17. Survey of government assistance for the world's hard-coal industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neme, L.A.; Yancik, J.J.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report investigates the existence and use of subsidies and incentives that foreign nations give their coal industries. Of particular interest are those aids that promote and facilitate the export of coal. A survey of hard coal producing countries was conducted to compile, and quantify if possible, direct and indirect financial aids given by governments for the purposes of maintaining, expanding or creating an indigenous coal industry and facilitating exports. The survey found that government measures commonly used to maintain, expand or create coal production include deficit operating grants, capital grants, preferential loan credits, labor and tax benefits, and export marketing assistance. Typical measures used to guarantee and protect domestic coal markets are long-term supply agreements, price supports, government purchases, tariffs, import licenses, and quotas. Common types of financial assistance provided by governments that do not benefit current coal production or use are research and development funds, environmental grants for restoring past mined lands, and payments to unemployed miners.

  18. Preliminary Results from the Industrial Steam System Market Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGrath, G. P.; Wright, A. L.

    /0353, Gas Research Institute, September 1996. [3] Scoping Study Pulp and Paper Industry, EPRI, Prepared by Giese & Associates, December 1988. [4] Directory ojthe Pulp, Paper, and Allied Trades, Lockwood Post, 1996. [5] 1992 Industrial Process Heat...,000 2,400 5500 18400 38500 Mechanical 8.000 25000 6.500 17,200 14,500 42,000 Sulfite semi-chemical 17,000 35,000 4,100 6,800 21,000 41.800 Chemi-thermal mechanical 9,000 25,000 7500 16,400 16,500 41,400 Thousand Btusfton Table 4. Pulp and Paper...

  19. Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  20. Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  1. Research and development of industrial drying concepts using a superheated steam atmosphere with exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibella, F.A.; Doyle, E.F.; Becker, F.E.; Lang, R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the thermal drying processes where water is to be removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. The concept utilizes a superheated steam drying atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to 55% of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Work on Phase I: Feasibility Investigation, has been completed and the results of this work are given in this Phase I Final Report. Two designs are described for steam drying systems, one directly heated and one indirectly heated. The work on Phase I of the program also concentrated on identifying the most significant industrial applications for this superheated steam drying concept. The work consisted of evaluating information gathered from a literature search, a survey of industrial dryer manufacturers product brochures, and material provided by a major industrial dryer manufacturer. Results from the six tasks in Phase I are given. The tasks were: industrial applicability study; exploration of system configurations; designing system elements; laboratory testing; energy savings analysis; and program management and reporting. Reports on the first 5 tasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Controlling Energy Costs with Coal Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadowski, R. S.; von Hippel, C. S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; it is usually regarded as the most controllable. Fluidized bed combustion technology allows industrial steam users to use low-grade coals that are outside of mainstream coal markets, are abundant, and are very inexpensive, being one-quarter to one...

  3. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions. The nickel based Alloy 282 is selected for this project because it is one of the leading candidate materials for the high temperature/pressure section of an A-USC steam turbine. The methods developed in the project are expected to be applicable to other metal alloys in similar steam/oxidation environments. The major developments are: ? failure mechanism and microstructural characterization ? atomistic and first principles modeling of crack tip oxygen embrittlement ? modeling of gamma prime microstructures and mesoscale microstructure-defect interactions ? microstructure and damage-based creep prediction ? multi-scale crack growth modeling considering oxidation, viscoplasticity and fatigue The technology developed in this project is expected to enable more accurate prediction of long service life of advanced alloys for A-USC power plants, and provide faster and more effective materials design, development, and implementation than current state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from January 2011 to January 2014.

  4. Underground coal mining is an industry well suited for robotic automation. Human operators are severely hampered in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stentz, Tony

    Abstract Underground coal mining is an industry well suited for robotic automation. Human operators approach meets the requirements for cutting straight entries and mining the proper amount of coal per cycle. Introduction The mining of soft materials, such as coal, is a large industry. Worldwide, a total of 435 million

  5. african coal industry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey 274 The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: The Public...

  6. australian coal industry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  7. Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordillo Ariza, Gerardo

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    W) countercurrent fixed bed gasifier was rebuilt to perform gasification studies under quasisteady state conditions using dairy biomass (DB) as feedstock and various air-steam mixtures as oxidizing sources. A DB-ash (from DB) blend and a DB-Wyoming coal blend were...

  8. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  9. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this first quarterly technical report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79654, a description of the background, technology, and application is provided. The design and fabrication of advanced combustion chambers were completed during this period. Initial testing on both the bare metal and refractory lined advanced chambers were initiated. The units were tested initially with gas but primarily with coal. A Pittsburgh No. 8 pulverized coal was used for these test activities. Both advanced chambers pulsed well.

  10. Railroad competition and rate making: the implications for industrial coal prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the railroad industry, which is the primary transportation mode for coal, enters the 1980s, two factors are significantly altering the way in which railroads do business, particularly in relationship to shippers who must rely solely on rail. The first factor, railroad deregulation, is embodied in the provisions of the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 (PL96-448). The second factor affecting rail transportation for industrial coal users is the trend toward rail mergers and consolidations, in some cases due to financial problems. This trend, coupled with the willingness of government to allow major bankrupt carriers such as the Rock Island and the Milwaukee Road to be liquidated in whole or in part, is resulting in fewer railraods with increased market power. Discussed in this report are: the impacts of railroad deregulation on industrial coal users; the effects of railroad consolidations on the bargaining power of coal producers, receivers and railroads; and finally, strategy and tactics for industrial coal users to maximize their leverage weight in obtaining efficient coal transportation at reasonable rates. (DMC)

  11. Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's NuclearSpurring SolarSystem,DepartmentofStatusAboveUpSteam

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic Prioritization of Research Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic and Policy Program #12;- 2 - #12;Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry must be developed for capturing CO2 from power plants. Current CO2 capture technology is expensive

  13. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  14. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    flanges, control valves, steam turbines, manways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are uninsulated. If steam is in demand at the steam pressure level of the uninsulated piping and equipment, then the piping and equipment should be insulated... been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology...

  15. SSAB/MEFOS oxy-coal system -- 3 years of industrial experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wikstroem, J.O.; Skoeld, B.E. [MEFOS, Luleaa (Sweden); Kaersrud, K.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SSAB, Swedish Steel AB, is the main steel producer in Sweden. MEFOS is a foundation for metallurgical research. The principals include 35 Nordic companies. SSAB and MEFOS have, in cooperation, developed a swirl type, coaxial, oxy-coal lance, that drastically improves the combustion of pulverized coal in the Blast Furnace tuyere and race way. The development was made through an extensive test work in a highly instrumented single tuyere on an industrial Blast Furnace. The technology has been in commercial use since early 1993, with excellent result.

  16. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  17. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  18. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLUE GAS CONDITIONING TO REDUCE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILERS Barry Miller and Ed Keon Apollo Technologies, Inc. Whippany, New Jersey ABSTRACT Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many... inspection of the ESP, careful observation of ESP controls to determine spark rate and voltage drop during sparking, in-situ resistivity mea surements, rapper on-off observations, and a re view of records to investigate the relationship of boiler...

  19. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  20. Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clean fuel gas for the gas turbine is produced by gasification of coal, are presented. Waste heat from the gasifier and the gas turbine exhaust is converted to high pressure steam for steam turbines. Gas turbines may find application in other industrial...

  1. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recommendations to increase steam system effic iency. Steam System Opportunities ]n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a O.4-year payback. 75...

  2. Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAN, XIN

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. , Gasification of brown coal and char with carbon dioxidegasification of Victorian brown coal with steam: enhancementcatalyzed gasification of brown coal at low temperatures,

  3. Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAN, XIN

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    raw materials for coal gasification, Catalysis today, 1997,during the co- gasification of coal and switchgrass, BiomassZ. , Zhu, H. , Steam gasification of coal char using alkali

  4. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  7. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1993--August 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement with the purpose of determining if CWSF prepared from a cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt % ash and 0.9 wt % sulfur) can be effectively burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also generate information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The approach being used in the program is as follows: 1. Install a natural gas/fuel oil-designed package boiler and generate baseline data firing natural gas; 2. Shake down the system with CWSF and begin the first 1,000 hours of testing using the burner/atomizer system provided with the boiler. The first 1,000-hour demonstration was to consist of boiler operation testing and combustion performance evaluation using CWSF preheat, a range of atomizing air pressures (up to 200 psig as compared to the 100 psig boiler manufacturer design pressure), and steam as the atomizing medium; 3. If the combustion performance was not acceptable based on the combustion efficiency obtained and the level of gas support necessary to maintain flame stabilization, then low-cost modifications were to be implemented, such as installing a quarl and testing alternative atomizers; 4. If acceptable combustion performance was not obtained with the low-cost modifications, then the first demonstration was to be terminated and the burner system replaced with one of proven CWSF design.

  8. Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

  9. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  10. Steam System Improvement: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

    . For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

  11. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the slowing growth in coking coal production after 2005,the relative share of coking coal has continued to declinein domestic production of coking coal can be linked to the

  12. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waste water to create coal water slurry as an input to theis equipped with two coal water slurry gasifiers capable of

  13. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  14. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  15. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  16. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  17. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

  18. Solar production of industrial process steam. Quarterly performance report, January 16, 1980-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar process steam system for gauze bleaching/sterilization utilizing 1065 m/sup 2/ Acurex Model 3001 line focusing parabolic trough concentrators is described. The system operates by circulating pressurized water through the collector field and then throttling it into a flash boiler. There the heated, pressurized water flashes to steam and flows into the plant steam main for distribution to various plant processes. Makeup water is supplied by the existing plant boiler feedwater system. The flash boiler retains enough thermal storage to provide freeze protection to the collector field when required. The system performance from January 16 to June 30 is summarized. A comparison of predicted and measured performance for a single day in June is presented. A summary of the operation of the system is given in Appendix A for each day of operation. Appendix B contains the hourly average values of system parameters for a single clear day in each month. These values are presented in graphical form in Appendix C. The daily values are tabulated in Appendix D and plotted in Appendix E for each month of operation. (MCW)

  19. Is the coal industry worth protecting? an examination of the effects of competing advocacy coalitions on implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennington, Michael Sean

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    . Their argument centered on the belief that the surface mining of coal had a large impact on interstate commerce, and as such a strong national policy was needed to level the playing field among coal industries in different states. Clearly this position... IS THE COAL INDUSTRY WORTH PROTECTING? AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF COMPETING ADVOCACY COALITIONS ON IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT (SMCRA) OF 1977 A Dissertation by MICHAEL SEAN PENNINGTON...

  20. Results From the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Steam Tool Benchmarking Support Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A. L.; Bassett, K.; Eckerlin, H.; Ganji, A.; Hengeveld, D.; Jendrucko, R.; Kosanovic, D.; Turner, W.

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) BestPractices effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their operations. One of the software tools...

  1. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Nelson

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

  2. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  3. Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal? a. Coal Washing- Crushing coal then mixing it with a liquid to allow the impurities to settle. b burning coal altogether. With integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, steam and hot

  4. Bates solar-industrial process-steam application. Draft safety report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed to install approximately 35,000 square feet of linear parabolic trough collectors on the roof of a corrugator plant. The collectors are to collect 5500 lbs/hr of steam to drive the corrugator. Each of the subsystems are described, and for each subsystem the possible safety hazards are identified, and recommendations are made to either eliminate or control the hazards at an acceptable level. Specific systems discussed are the master control system and data aquisition system, the collector, and heat transfer system. Fire safety, protection of personnel from burns and eye injury, and lightning protection are discussed. (LEW)

  5. Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  6. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  7. Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with heat recovery from pressurized entrained and fixed bed coal gasifiers for steam generation. High temperature waste heat, from slagging entrained flow coal gasifier, can be recovered effectively in a series of radiant...

  8. Steam System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology... Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 The easiest solution to eliminating excess steam is to shut down steam turbines that exhaust into the header and start up the motor driven spare equipment. Often times this step will be enough to eliminate...

  9. Development and analysis of a linearly segmented CPC collector for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, J.A.A.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study involves the design, analysis and construction of a modular, non-imaging, trough, concentrating solar collector for generation of process steam in a tropical climate. The most innovative feature of this concentrator is that the mirror surface consists of long and narrow planar segments placed inside sealed low-cost glass tubes. The absorber is a cylindrical fin inside an evacuated glass tube. As an extension of the same study, the optical efficiency of the segmented concentrator has been simulated by means of a Monte-Carlo Ray-Tracing program. Laser Ray-Tracing techniques were also used to evaluate the possibilities of this new concept. A preliminary evaluation of the experimental concentrator was done using a relatively simple method that combines results from two experimental measurements: overall heat loss coefficient and optical efficiency. A transient behaviour test was used to measure the overall heat loss coefficient throughout a wide range of temperatures.

  10. Temperature Measurements Through Dust or Steam for Energy-Intensive Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan, K. D.; Pearce, J. A.; Wang, L.; Ryza, E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of industrial situations including those which prevent direct contact with the material, airborne particulates can make remote process temperature measurement difficult or impossible. We have developed a prototype remote temperature measurement instrument which...

  11. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

  13. Solar production of industrial process steam. Phase III. Operation and evaluation of the Johnson and Johnson solar facility. Final report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brink, D.F.; Kendall, J.M.; Youngblood, S.B.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar facility that generates 177/sup 0/C (350/sup 0/F) process steam has been designed and constructed by Acurex Corporation and has operated for 1 yr supplying steam to the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The facility consists of 1068 m/sup 2/ (11,520 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough concentrating collectors, a 18,900 1 (5000 gal) flash boiler, and an 18.6 kW (25 hp) circulating pump. In the first year of operation the system was available 97 percent of the days, and with sufficient solar radiation available it operated 70 percent of the days during this period. The measured data showed that the collector field operated at an efficiency of 25.4 percent for the year, and that at least 75 percent of the energy reaching the flash boiler was delivered to the plant as steam. A total of 309,510 kg (682,400 lb) of steam was produced by the solar facility for the first year. An analysis of the data showed that the delivered energy was within 90 to 100 percent of the predicted value. The successful completion of the first year of operation has demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process steam with solar energy.

  14. Impact of a 1,000-foot thermal mixing zone on the steam electric power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal discharge requirements for power plants using once-through cooling systems are based on state water quality standards for temperatures that must be met outside of designated mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones to no more than 1,000 feet from the discharge point. Data were collected from 79 steam electric plants. Of the plants currently using once-through cooling systems, 74% could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone. Of this total, 68% would retrofit cooling towers, and 6% would retrofit diffusers. The estimated nationwide capital cost for retrofitting plants that could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone is $21.4 billion. Conversion of a plant from once-through cooling to cooling towers or addition of diffusers would result in a lower energy output from that plant. For the affected plants, the total estimated replacement cost would be $370 to $590 million per year. Some power companies would have to construct new generating capacity to meet the increased energy demand. The estimated nationwide cost of this additional capacity would be $1.2 to $4.8 billion. In addition to the direct costs associated with compliance with a 1,000-foot mixing zone limit, other secondary environmental impacts would also occur. Generation of the additional power needed would increase carbon dioxide emissions by an estimated 8.3 million tons per year. In addition, conversion from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers at affected plants would result in increased evaporation of about 2.7 million gallons of water per minute nationwide.

  15. Steam System Data Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam System Data Management What Does It Include Safety In Motion Wal?Tech?Valve,?Inc. 251?438?2203 The Real Genius Behind Technology Is People ESL-IE-13-05-35 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... ? Fabrication Training (Six Year Training) ? Welding Certifications ?Retired From Chevron After 25 Years ? Established A Steam System Program ? Planner For Routine Maintenance Work ? Planner For Steam System Improvements ? Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. ? Purchased...

  16. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Industrial Coal Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractory Materials in Slagging Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Bennett, James P.; Dridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infiltration characteristics of industrial coal slag into alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) refractory material with a temperature gradient induced along the slag's penetration direction are compared to those obtained under near-isothermal conditions. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C and a CO/CO{sub 2} ratio of 1.8, which corresponds to an oxygen partial pressure of ~10{sup ?8} atm. The refractory under the near-isothermal temperature profile, with higher average temperatures, demonstrated a greater penetration depth than its counterpart that was under the steeper temperature gradient. Slag that did not infiltrate into the refractory due to the induced temperature gradient, pooled and solidified on the top of the sample. Within the pool, a conglomerated mass of troilite (FeS) formed separately from the surrounding slag. Microscopy of the cross-sectioned infiltrated refractories revealed that the slag preferentially corroded the matrix regions closer to the top surface. Furthermore, the formation of a thick layer of hercynite (FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at the top of refractory/slag interface significantly depleted the slag of its iron-oxide content with respect to its virgin composition. A qualitative description of the penetration process is provided in this article.

  17. Solar production of industrial process steam at the Home Cleaning and Laundry Co. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the operation and performance evaluation period at the Home Laundry Solar Industrial Process Heat Project at Pasadena, California. The installation comprises 6496 ft/sup 2/ (603.5 m/sup 2/) of linear parabolic trough concentrating collectors supplying solar thermal energy for use in laundry and dry cleaning processes. The design phase began in September 1977, and an acceptance test was conducted during the week of April 12, 1982. The plant has been in operation since May 1982, with the 12-month Phase III (operational) period starting in October 1982. The objective of the operational evaluation experiment was to maximize energy delivery to the industrial participant while characterizing system performance. Data were acquired for monthly documentation of system performance, maintenance requirements, and operating costs.

  18. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Welcome Module Slide 1 ­ Steam End User Training Welcome to the Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam End-User Training. The Department of Energy

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  1. Western US steam coal exports to the Pacific Basin: port and marine task group. [Data on 26 possible Western USA ports and terminal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 5 sets forth considerations and options in developing coal ports on the West Coast of the US. It includes information on the size, configuration, and ownership of the present and planned world bulk vessel fleet, as well as factors affecting the cost and efficiency of sealift transportation alternatives - including Panamax and VLCCs. The report also covers capacity and timing of development for receiving ports, synthesized from research and discussions with industry and government officials in Japan, South Korea, and the Republic of China. The physical and environmental aspects of announced plans to expand West Coast port capacity, capital and operating costs, and lead times for port expansion are also covered. The report includes marine charts and serial photographs of the 26 planned West Coast port sites.

  2. Cost comparison of selected US and South African coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report on the South African coal industry is the fourth in a series of studies on coal exporting countries requested by the House Appropriations Committee. The committee requested that the basic differences in mining costs for U.S. and foreign mines be identified, especially those costs incurred in complying with health, safety, and environmental regulations. Basic costs in extracting raw coal are analyzed for two mining methods -- underground conventional mining and open-pit operations. In the report there is also a limited analysis of the relative market competitiveness of selected South African and U.S. steam coal mines in electric utility markets in Japan, Western Europe, and the U.S. Gulf Coast area. The South African Government prohibits the exports of hard metallurgical coal.

  3. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  4. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking the performance of extraction, back-pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part of minimising energy and maintenance costs for large process industries. A thorough understanding of key equipment performance characteristics...

  5. Transporting export coal from Appalachia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is part of a series titled Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia. It focuses on the transportation link in the steam-coal supply chain, enabling producers to further assess their transportation options and their ability to compete in the export-coal marketplace. Transportation alternatives and handling procedures are discussed, and information is provided on the costs associated with each element in the transportation network.

  6. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many of the operational and emissions problems that result from burning coal. This paper describes the use of blended chemical flue gas conditioners to significantly reduce particulate...

  7. A portfolio approach to energy governance : state management of China's coal and electric power supply industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Edward A., IV (Edward Albert)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses the extent to which China's central state devolved ownership and investment levels in its energy sector to other actors during the modern reform period (1978- 2008). The project focused on China's coal ...

  8. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  9. Oil to Coal Conversion of Power and Industrial Facilities in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Causilla, H.; Acosta, J. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Realizing that the use of coal has the potential to offset the effects of world oil prices on the Dominican Republic's economy, the Commission Nacional de Politica Energetica (CNPE) requested Bechtel Power Corporation to study the technical...

  10. Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

  11. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications. Technical progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this first quarterly technical report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79654, a description of the background, technology, and application is provided. The design and fabrication of advanced combustion chambers were completed during this period. Initial testing on both the bare metal and refractory lined advanced chambers were initiated. The units were tested initially with gas but primarily with coal. A Pittsburgh No. 8 pulverized coal was used for these test activities. Both advanced chambers pulsed well.

  12. The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

  13. alloy n06600 steam: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as...

  14. Industrial Demand Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Boiler, Steam, and Cogeneration (BSC) Component. The BSC Component satisfies the steam demand from the PA and BLD Components. In some industries, the PA Component produces...

  15. advanced coal-fired gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal-fired unit at Hawthorn Station. Ultimately, KCPL decided to replace the destroyed steam generator with another coal-fired unit, and repower the existing turbinegenerator...

  16. Firing microfine coal with a low NOx, RSFC burner in an industrial boiler designed for oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornhock, D.E.; Patel, R.; Borio, R.W. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories (ABB-PPL) working under a US Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) contract has carried out tests with the Radially Stratified Flame Core (RSFC) burner which was licensed from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who developed and patented the RSFC burner. Tests were carried out in a small industrial boiler, designed for oil and natural gas, located at the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University who was working as a subcontractor to ABB-PPL. The paper presents results from the long-term testing task in the DOE-PETC program with particular attention being paid to the challenges faced in maintaining high combustion efficiencies while achieving low NOx in a small industrial boiler designed for firing oil or natural gas. The paper will also address the issue of ash management when firing coal in a boiler designed for fuels having essentially no ash.

  17. Hydrogen production with coal using a pulverization device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing hydrogen from coal is described wherein high temperature steam is brought into contact with coal in a pulverizer or fluid energy mill for effecting a steam-carbon reaction to provide for the generation of gaseous hydrogen. The high temperature steam is utilized to drive the coal particles into violent particle-to-particle contact for comminuting the particulates and thereby increasing the surface area of the coal particles for enhancing the productivity of the hydrogen.

  18. China Brief, Volume 7, Issue 1 SAFETY CHALLENGES IN CHINA'S COAL MINING INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) of coal produced in China was 2.73 in 2005, it was a mere 0.04 in the United States [2]. Even India,995 deaths annually in the last decade, though independent experts state that China's actual death toll technologies and strict regulations. Therefore, while the official fatality rate per million tonnes (mt

  19. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program: commercial plant economic analysis (Task 1. 6)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program are to evaluate the Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power plant conceptual design and to conduct supporting development programs for pressurized fluidized bed technology advancement in combustion/steam generator, gas turbine and hot gas cleanup technologies. The Coal-Fired Combined Cycle is the unique power plant concept developed under the leadership of the General Electric Company to provide a direct coal-burning gas turbine and steam turbine combined-cycle power plant. The advantages of the combined cycle for higher efficiency and the potential of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor improvements in emissions could offer a new and attractive option to the electric utility industry. The CFCC approach provides for cooling the fluid bed combustor through the use of steam tubes in the bed which supply a steam turbine generator. The partially cooled combustion gases drive a gas turbine generator after passing through a hot gas cleanup train. The Conceptual CFCC Commercial Plant has been defined in Report No. Fe-2357-28. This design, being conceptual in nature, has not been improved through the formal cost reduction iteration/design program. An economic analysis of this baseline plant is provided in this report. The General Electric Company believes that the combustion of coal by the pressurized fluidized bed process is one of the most effective and efficient means for the utilization of coal with respect to both environmental considerations and the cost of electricity.

  20. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S.P Chan, J. M Norbeck, Steam hydrogasification of coal-woodet al. , Sulfur-deactivated steam reforming of gasifiedPark, S.P. Singh, J.M. Norbeck, Steam hydrogasification of

  1. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  3. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  4. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  5. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around 8-9% for good coking coal (IISI, 1982). Dryingof steam coal and coking coal to be $15/t (IEA, 1995). This

  6. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  7. Steam Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.

    between the water level and the steam in a boiler, some water vapor will always tend to pass through the system with the steam. Hence, a continuing problem. If steam does carry water vapor past the separators it will tend to coalesce as a liquid...

  8. CIBO's Energy Efficiency Handbook for Steam Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bessette, R. D.

    The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) has developed a handbook to help boiler operators get the best performance from their industrial steam systems. This energy efficiency handbook takes a comprehensive look at the boiler and steam system...

  9. Experience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornecker, Eva

    Experience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive Multimodal Interactive Museum a steam- powered locomotive at the Riverside Transport Museum in Glasgow, UK. We examine the role. The exhibit has visitors making a simulation of a steam powered locomotive run by controlling coal, water

  10. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industry moderates and energy demand from the buildingsChina control its future energy demand and carbon emissions.usual scenario, primary energy demand to fall to 28.18 Mtce

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

  12. Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) BestPractices: Process Heating (Fact sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG -EnergyProcess Heating Systems ProcessSteam

  13. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringoutAPBF-DEC NOxBestPractices SteamOffice of

  14. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    The Alliance to Save Energy, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington DC, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working with energy efficiency suppliers to promote the comprehensive upgrade of industrial steam systems. Like EPA's Green...

  15. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  16. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  17. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  18. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  19. Energy Efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Simulation of Steam Challenge and CHP Incentives with ITEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roop, J. M.

    in manufacturing as reported in the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) (6). For simulation of the model, the major drivers are industry output and fuel prices (the latter may be taken from any of a number of publications; the simulations... for this paper use [7]). Output forecasts are derived from the technical appendix to the same source. The MECS data are used to calibrate the end uses for each industry and the fuel types for each industry. This is done with varying success. Food processing...

  20. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    countries Recent years Steam coal for industry Steam coal for electricity generation Coking coal for industry Import costs Steam coal Coking coal PDF XLS U.S. coal imports...

  1. Steam Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    . But he uses it to drive a steam turbine which in turn drives a pump. The turbine expands the steam to a lower pressure where it is then condensed and the condensate returned to the boiler house. Let's find out what the steam is worth to this user. His... while the 15 psig condensing turbine is a good candidate to be replaced with an electric motor. But, whatever the case is, the cost of the steam has nothing to do with its value. The point of the above is that this paper is about COST...

  2. Panel discussion: The Clean Air Act: It`s impact on the coal testing industry The act itself: A summary and overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act was first enacted in 1970. It was re-enacted in both 1977 and 1991. The original act covered air quality standards (NAAQS) for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and O{sub 3}. Pb was added in 1978 by court order and particulate matter (TSP) was added in 1987. A discussion of the impact of the Clean Air Act on the coal industry is presented.

  3. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley

  4. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Bourdon Steam Plant Operator Vincent Massara Steam Plant Operator Cliff Lescenski Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley Equipment Maintenance Robert Earle Equipment

  5. About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up to one of the leading producers of steam coal in the Illinois Basin. The company specializes in providing custom-blended coal to meet the needs of electric power plants throughout the region. Controlling

  6. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3, Industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Pennsylvania State, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Massachusetts Univ. (United States)

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. During this reporting period, activities included completing the ``Task 3 Topical Report.`` The report is being reviewed internally by the ABB CE project team. Overall, all the program goals were met except carbon conversion efficiency. Based on all the results obtained to date the ABB CE/Penn State team believes that conducting the 1000 hr demonstration (Task 5) is warranted. Since, Penn State has planned to conduct long term combustion tests on micronized coal and coal-water fuels for other DOE-funded Projects during the first quarter of 1995, the demonstration phase (Task 5) of the subject program is tentatively scheduled to begin in June 1995, pending DOE approval. Work continued under Task 4.0 to complete the ``Commercialization Plan`` with ABB CE`s cognizant Business Unit. To address the lower combustion efficiency than the original project goal (95% vs 98%) during Task 3, the data were evaluated in-detail to understand which of the key parameters might be adjusted to achieve the desired burnout. To identify reasons for this lower combustion efficiency, and to evaluate which of the key parameters (i.e, coal fineness, residence time, coal reactivities etc.) are important for maximizing the combustion efficiency, ABB CE`s proprietary mathematical model known as the Lower Furnace Program-Slice Kinetic Model (LFP-SKM) was used for simulating the combustion process in the Penn State boiler (at full load firing rate). Fuel kinetic information for this study was selected on a surrogate basis from ABB CE`s extensive in-house data base.

  7. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  8. Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

  9. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  10. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  11. Changes in char structure during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in steam and oxygen at 800{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin Guo; Hui Ling Tay; Shu Zhang; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Char structure is an important factor influencing its reactivity during gasification. This study aims to investigate the changes in char structure during the gasification of brown coal. A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a fluidized-bed/fixed-bed reactor at 800{degree}C in atmospheres containing 15% H{sub 2}O, 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, or 15% H{sub 2}O and 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, respectively. Although the char gasification in 2000 ppm O{sub 2} was mainly rate-limited by the external diffusion of O{sub 2}, the char-H{sub 2}O reaction was mainly rate-limited by the chemical reactions. The structural features of char at different levels of char gasification conversion were examined with FT-Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that the chars from the gasification in the mixture of 2000 ppm O{sub 2} and 15% H{sub 2}O had almost the same features as the chars from the gasification in 15% H{sub 2}O alone when the same levels of char conversion were achieved. Both the thermal decomposition of char and the char gasification reactions could result in changes in char structure during gasification. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase III, Industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 14, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R. [ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Windsor, CT (United States). U.S. Power Plant Labs.; Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Massachusetts Univ., MA (United States)

    1995-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the fourteenth quarter (January `95 through March `95) of the program. The ABB project team met with cognizant DOE-PETC and Penn State personnel on February 15, 1995 at Penn State to discuss our ideas for a new burner (RSFC-based) to replace the HEACC burner prior to the long term ({approximately}1000 hrs) demonstration phase of this project. The main reasons for the proposed new burner were to improve combustion efficiencies and NO{sub x} reduction. Recent, experience at MIT with 5 million Btu/hr coal firing experiments on RSFC burner have shown remarkable performance. Results indicate that RSFC-based burner has the potential to produce lower NO{sub x} and higher carbon conversion efficiencies than the HEACC burner. M.I.T. developed the RSFC burner and obtained a patent for the concept. A decision was made to go with the new, RSFC-based burner during 1000 hr demonstration. ABB-CE will fund the costs ({approximately}$50K) for design/fabrication of the proposed new burner. Penn State plans to improve coal handling by installation of a gravimetric feeder and redesign/installation of a mass flow bottom on the surge bin.

  13. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor, Phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner capable of firing microfine coal to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the fifteenth quarter (April `95 through June `95) of the program. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1.0) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components. (2.0) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC (High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor) burner. (3.0) Installation and testing of a prototype HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application. (4.0) Economics evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. (5.0) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. Task 1 through Task 4 were previously completed. Based on all the results obtained to date the ABB/Penn State team and DOE/PETC have decided to conduct a 1000 hr demonstration test (Task 5). Importantly, a decision was made to employ a new burner for the demonstration. The new burner is based on the concept called {open_quotes}Radially Stratified Flame Core (RSFC){close_quotes}, developed by MIT and licensed by ABB. Work under Task 5 of this program was started during this reporting period.

  14. Money for deeper US coal ports: needed or just more pork barrel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madison, C.

    1981-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The US must improve its port facilities before the coal industry can become a major world exporter. The coal and rail industries plan to improve coal-handling facilities at ports on the East, Gulf, and West Coasts, but dredging to allow coal carriers must be done by the Corps of Engineers under Congressional authorization. This process could take up to 20 years to resolve bureaucratic and cost barriers. Although coal exports could improve the balance-of-payments deficit, the Federal government does not want to subsidize port facilities on the basis of future market projections. A task force study estimates a European market of 189 million tons of steam coal in 1990 and 90 million tons for the Far East. The study recommends dredging to keep US coal competitive and to meet the energy needs of US allies. An effort to speed up authorizing legislation allows the Corps to prepare a single environmental impact statement and feasibility study for several projects rather than follow the multi-step procedure for each. The new Senate leadership may prefer omnibus legislation that alters water policy and protects the budget. (DCK)

  15. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials science has become a useful tool to help reduce the number of iterations necessary to perform laboratory experiments or alloy development. However, we clearly are not able to rely solely on computational techniques in the development of high temperature materials for IGT applications. A significant amount of experimentation will continue to be required.

  16. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  17. Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the 2011 Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, Louisiana, May 17-19, 2011 13. Is there never enough time or resource to periodically blow down strainers / drip pockets? 14. Is there a ?one size fits all? approach towards steam trap... selection; using the same model for all drip and tracer applications? 15. Does the site remove strainer screens from steam traps to prevent blockage? 16. Is at least the same amount of steam produced today as 4 years ago? 17. In the past 3 years, has...

  18. Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

  19. Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E. [Alstom (Germany)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  1. Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

  2. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  3. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Steam, Steam Tip Sheet #20c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This English/Chinese ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Carbon dioxide capture technology for the coal-powered electricity industry : a systematic prioritization of research needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esber, George Salem, III

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is widely relied upon as a fuel for electric power generation, and pressure is increasing to limit emissions of the CO2 produced during its combustion because of concerns over climate change. In order to continue the ...

  5. Animal Industries Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity ...

  6. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  7. Energy & Environmental Benefits from Steam & Electricity Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratheal, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steam from two on-site powerhouses (one coal-fired and one natural gas-fired) and from gas-fired and waste heat boilers in its four hydrocarbon cracking plants. The challenge was to find a way to reduce costs and improve reliability of procuring and... the electricity required by TEX and sells excess power to wholesale customers in the region. It provides a large portion of TEX steam requirements, with sufficient reliability such that TEX decommissioned its coal-fired powerhouse and reduced operations...

  8. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting period (i.e., 10/01/05-09/30/06), is attached. At the annual funding meeting held in November 2004, eleven projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2005. Three additional projects were selected for funding during the April 2005 tutorial/funding meeting. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on July 1, 2005. Of these fourteen 2005 projects, eleven have been completed and the final reports are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2005 and the council selected five projects for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2006, except for one that started October 1, 2006.

  10. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected eleven projects for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2005. Three additional projects were selected for funding during the April 2005 tutorial/funding meeting. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on July 1, 2005.

  11. HTGR-process steam/cogeneration and HTGR-steam cycle program. Semiannual report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the design of an 1170-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Nuclear Steam Supply (NSS) is described. This NSS can integrate favorably into present petrochemical and primary metal process industries, heavy oil recovery operations, and future shale oil recovery and synfuel processes. The economics appear especially attractive in comparison with alternative coal-fired steam generation. Cost estimates for central station power-generating 2240- and 3360-MW(t) HTGR-Steam Cycle (HTGR-SC) plants are updated. The 2240-MW(t) HTGR-SC is treated to a probabilistic risk evaluation. Compared with the earlier 3000-MW(t) design, the results predict a slightly increased risk of core heatup, owing to the result of eliminating the capability of the boiler feed pump to operate at atmospheric backpressure. The differences in risk, however, are within the calculational uncertainties. Preliminary results of the ranking of safety enhancement features for the 1170-MW(t) HTGR indicate that the following modifications offer the most promise: (1) capability for main loop rundown, (2) natural circulation core auxiliary cooling, and (3) PCRV blowdown capability through the helium purification system to minimize activity release during some core heatups.

  12. 11th International coal testing conference. Volume XI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proceedings of the 11th International Coal Conference held May 10-12, 1995 in Lexington, KY are presented. Fourteen papers were presented on various aspects of coal analysis and combustion, petrographic characterization of fly ash, trace elements in coal, microscopy of steam coals, fuel specifications, and HCl evolution during coal combustion. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. ccpi-multi-product-coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Coal Power Initiative Power Plant Improvement Initiative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program FutureGen Advanced Multi-Product...

  14. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  15. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  16. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  17. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  18. Directory of coal production ownership, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, B.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

  19. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  20. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  1. World Class Boilers and Steam Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portell, V. P.

    “World class” is a term used to describe steam systems that rank in the top 20% of their industry based on quantitative system performance data and energy management for the facility. The rating is determined through a proceduralized assessment...

  2. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SHIP - Solar heat for industrial processes. Internationalsolar power could be used to provide process heat for

  3. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

  4. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  5. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  6. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  7. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical--can continue in its role as a key component in the U.S. and world energy markets. The CCT Program also has global importance in providing clean, efficient coal-based technology to a burgeoning energy market in developing countries largely dependent on coal. Based on 1997 data, world energy consumption is expected to increase 60 percent by 2020, with almost half of the energy increment occurring in developing Asia (including China and India). By 2020, energy consumption in developing Asia is projected to surpass consumption in North America. The energy form contributing most to the growth is electricity, as developing Asia establishes its energy infrastructure. Coal, the predominant indigenous fuel, in that region will be the fuel of choice in electricity production. The CCTs offer a means to mitigate potential environmental problems associated with unprecedented energy growth, and to enhance the U.S. economy through foreign equipment sales and engineering services.

  8. Integration and operation of post-combustion capture system on coal-fired power generation: load following and peak power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...

  9. Table 40. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North

  10. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  11. Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, G.

    A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

  12. Steam and Condensate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...

  13. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    opportunities. Often flanges, control valves, steam turbines, man ways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are bare and can significantly increase the steam demand. An insulation survey should be conducted of the steam, condensate... is being let down. Some projects are independent of the steam balance, such as eliminating high-pressure (HP) steam leaks, insulating HP steam piping, optimizing the boiler operation, and improving the performance of condensing turbines...

  14. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil, starch and corn refining, since these can be a source of fuel products. The sugar cane industry

  15. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  16. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  17. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  18. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  19. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of its electricity requirements in the USA (US DOE, 2002)USA, where motor-driven systems account for 63% of industrial electricity

  20. Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    were considered: A dry feed gasifier with syngas heat recovery which represents the Shell technology operating temperature and converts the coal feed into a syngas mixture. When steam is required to ensure raw syngas H2 rich fuel Exhaust ~600

  1. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost. INTRODUCTION Steam traps used on distribution line drip...

  2. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Save Energy Now (SEN) Case Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringoutAPBF-DEC NOxBestPractices Steam TechnicalJ.R.

  4. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry`s knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200{degrees}F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000{degrees}F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900{degrees}F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500{degrees}F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a ``topping`` system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500{degrees}F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  5. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    iron and steel production. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme,tempera- ture range. IEA/Caddet, Sittard, The Netherlands.industry. Cheltenham, UK, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme,

  6. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process residual like bagasse are now available (Cornland etsugar in- dustry uses bagasse and the edible oils industrySection 7.4.7. ). The use of bagasse for energy is likely to

  7. Managing the Steam Trap Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlas, R. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    item? .However, some converts to the gospel of enlighten ed steam trap management expect to achieve the following benefits: A 95% trap performance level which is a better than 30% improvement over the industry norm. Plus, we have found a well... trained. This may six surveys per year with a guaf'8nteed performance level involve two days of training per man including of better than 9596. This program usually has the best cash classroom and field instruction plus periodic flow, and faster...

  8. Steam gasification of carbon: Catalyst properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falconer, J.L.

    1993-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification by steam is of critical importance in converting coal to gaseous products (CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4]) that can then be further converted to synthetic natural gas and higher hydrocarbon fuels. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (present as oxides) catalyze coal gasification reactions and cause them to occur at significantly lower temperatures. A more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the steam gasification reaction and catalyst utilization may well lead to better production techniques, increased gasification rates, greater yields, and less waste. We are studying the gasification of carbon by steam in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth oxides, using carbonates as the starting materials. Carbon dioxide gasification (CO[sub 2] + C --> 2CO) has been studied in some detail recently, but much less has been done on the actual steam gasification reaction, which is the main thrust of our work. In particular, the form of the active catalyst compound during reaction is still questioned and the dependence of the concentration of active sites on reaction parameters is not known. Until recently, no measurements of active site concentrations during reaction had been made. We have recently used transient isotope tracing to determine active site concentration during CO[sub 2] gasification. We are investigating the mechanism and the concentration of active sites for steam gasification with transient isotopic tracing. For this technique, the reactant feed is switched from H[sub 2]0 to isotopically-labeled water at the same concentration and tow rate. We can then directly measure, at reaction the concentration of active catalytic sites, their kinetic rate constants, and the presence of more than one rate constant. This procedure allows us to obtain transient kinetic data without perturbing the steady-state surface reactions.

  9. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  10. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  11. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  12. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  13. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  14. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  15. Pumping carbon out of underground coal deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin steam and deep coal deposits are difficult and costly to mine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) with air or oxygen was thought to alleviate this problem. Experimental field tests were conducted in Wyoming and Illinois. Problems were encountered concerning a clear path for the team gasification to take place and removal of gas. The high endothermic heat of reaction requiring large quantities of steam and oxygen makes the process expensive. Safety problems due to incomplete reaction is also of concern. A new approach is proposed which can remedy most of these drawbacks for extracting energy from underground coal deposits. It is proposed to hydrogasify the coal underground with a heated hydrogen gas stream under pressure to produce a methane-rich gas effluent stream. The hydrogasification of coal is essentially exothermic so that no steam or oxygen is required. The gases formed are always in a reducing atmosphere making the process safe. The hydrogen is obtained by thermally decomposing the effluent methane above ground to elemental carbon and hydrogen. The hydrogen is returned underground for further hydrogasification of the coal seam. The small amount of oxygen and sulfur in the coal can be processed out above ground by removal as water and H{sub 2}S. Any CO can be removed by a methanation step returning the methane to process. The ash remains in the ground and the elemental carbon produced is the purest form of coal. The particulate carbon can be slurried with water to produce a fuel stream that can be fed to a turbine for efficient combined cycle power plants with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Coal cannot be used for combined cycle because of its ash and sulfur content destroys the gas turbine. Depending on its composition of coal seam some excess hydrogen is also produced. Hydrogen is, thus, used to pump pure carbon out of the ground.

  16. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry's knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200[degrees]F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000[degrees]F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900[degrees]F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500[degrees]F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a topping'' system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500[degrees]F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  17. Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

    COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION COGENERATION Cabot Thunem, P.E Norm Smith, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT The availability of an environmentally accep table multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed... combustion, has encouraged many steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However...

  18. LLNL Underground Coal Gasification Project annual report - fiscal year 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, D.R.; O'Neal, E.M. (eds.)

    1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laboratory has been conducting an interdisciplinary underground coal gasification program since 1974 under the sponsorship of DOE and its predecessors. We completed three UCG tests at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming, during the period 1975 to 1979. Five small field experiments, the large-block tests, were completed from 1981 to 1982 at the exposed coal face in the WIDCO coal mine near Centralia, Washington. A larger test at the same location, the partial-seam CRIP test, was completed during fiscal year 1984. In conjunction with the DOE and an industrial group lead by the Gas Research Institute, we have prepared a preliminary design for a large-scale test at the WIDCO site. The planned test features dual injection and production wells, module interaction, and consumption of 20,000 tons of coal during a hundred-day steam-oxygen gasification. During fiscal year 1984, we documented the large-block excavations. The cavities were elongated, the cavity cross sections were elliptical, and the cavities contained ash and slag at the bottom, char and dried coal above that, and a void at the top. The results from the large-block tests provided enough data to allow us to construct a composite model, CAVSM. Preliminary results from the model agree well with the product-gas chemistry and cavity shape observed in the large-block tests. Other models and techniques developed during the year include a transient, moving-front code, a two-dimensional, reactive-flow code using the method of lines, and a wall-recession-rate model. In addition, we measured the rate of methane decomposition in the hot char bed and developed an engineering rate expression to estimate the magnitude of the methane-decomposition reaction. 16 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  20. Washability of trace elements in product coals from Illinois mines. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demir, I.; Ruch, R.R.; Harvey, R.D.; Steele, J.D.; Khan, S.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing washability data on trace elements in Illinois coals were generated using float-sink methods, which are not applicable to modern froth flotation or column flotation processes. Particularly, there is a lack of washability data on product (as-shipped) coals from modern preparation plants. The goal of this project is to provide the needed trace element washability (release analysis) data on as-shipped Illinois coals using a froth flotation/release analysis (FF/RA) procedure. The results generated by this project will promote industrial utilization of Illinois coals and help assess the effect of new environmental requirements on the use of these coals in utility steam generation. During the third quarter, preparation and submission of all samples for chemical analysis were completed. Analyses of the samples produced by cleaning 34 as-shipped coals using FF/RA were completed for ash, moisture, S, heating value (BTU), and F, and some for Mn and oxide composition. The rest of the analytical work is in progress. The analytical data are being used to evaluate removal of ash, S, and trace elements from the as-shipped coals at the chosen flotation conditions and particles sizes. Available data on the FF/RA of five as-shipped coals at {minus}100, {minus}200, {minus}400 mesh sizes indicate that ash and F rejections increase with decreasing particle size. For the {minus}400 mesh tests, 70--90% of the ash and 35--74% of F were rejected at a BTU or combustibles recovery of 80%. One of the as-shipped coals was previously subjected to FF/RA tests at {minus}100 and {minus}400 mesh sizes to investigate mass balances achievable for the procedure. Preliminary results on ash and F contents of complete set of flotation products from the two tests indicate a mass balance of 95 to 100%.

  1. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  2. Online Modeling in the Process Industry for Energy Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, J.

    "This paper discusses how steady state models are being used in the process industry to perform online energy optimization of steam and electrical systems. It presents process demands commonly found in the processing industry in terms of steam...

  3. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  4. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  6. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  7. Flash Steam Recovery Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /condensate recovery system, resulting in condensate flash steam losses to the atmosphere. Using computer simulation models and pinch analysis techniques, the Operational Excellence Group (Six Sigma) was able to identify a project to recover the flash steam losses as a...

  8. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  9. Flash Steam Recovery Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    organic compounds, was targeted for improvement. This unit uses a portion of the high-pressure steam available from the plant's cogeneration facility. Continuous expansions within the unit had exceeded the optimum design capacity of the unit's steam...

  10. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  11. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  12. Making coal burnable: preparation and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper offers several different views on the tools available to boost the burnability of coal. One view of making coal burnable and for better emissions control lies in the combustion process. One approach is fluidized bed combustion and the two choices within this technology are atmospheric (AFBC) and pressurized (PFBC). Several tests are being conducted to develop the slagging combustor technology for direct conversion from oil to coal. Some advantages listed for this method are a simple retrofit, low particulate, NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/ emissions, no modification for burning pulverized coal or coal/water slurry, no ash and no moving parts. Another method discussed is coal blending. The industrial and utility coal burning demand, combined with vacillating regulatory situations, reveals a need for coal users to be ever more alert to fuel price and availability. Technologies in the three areas of application -- coal preparation/cleaning, combustion, and emissions control -- offer an endless array of combinations.

  13. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11. Average coal steam plant non-fuel O&M cost (adjusted forU.S. coal-burning power plants found that real capital costnon-fuel O&M cost 4 per kW h for coal plants fell by 32% at

  14. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five...

  15. Steam Trap Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    problemA of water hammer and high back pressure. ? Exorbitantly hi~h percentage of cold trapA. ? External steam leaks within the steam trap stations, bypasA valves and/or strainer blowdown valvefl open, blowin~ steam. ! I ? Dirt nssociated... Trapping 2 Trap Installed Backwards 1 Misapplication of Technology 1 Strainer Blowdown Connections Capped 285 (*b) Test Tee Connections Capped 11 Trap Inlet Connected to Steam Line Strainer Blowdown Connection 3 Water Logged Coils (Vacuum Present) 7...

  16. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM MONITORING HP Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption... Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  17. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  18. Steam System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery and chemical plant steam systems are complex and the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense. The incremental cost for generating a 1,000 lb./hr. of steam is typically $45,000 - $60,000/year. Most plants have...

  19. Massey prepares for future with new export coal terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridley, R.S.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. T. Massey Coal Company Inc., has taken a risk in bringing a 12,000,000-ton per year steam coal export terminal on stream just when the international coal market looks particularly bleak. But Massey is confident that the new terminal in Newport News, Virginia will help the company increase sales even during these hard times, and put Massey in a prime position once the market picks up.

  20. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil, coke, other Coal,oil and oil product, crude oil, otherCoal,oil and oil product, crude oil, other Steam,diseal,International Crude oil, oil products, NG, other Gas Fuel

  1. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  2. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  3. The Use of English Coal in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swain, Gregory

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rise of the British Coal Industry. Hamden, Connecticut:increasing amounts of coal being shipped to Holland, around14, p. 42]. Fig. 4: English coal exports (tons). [14, p.

  4. The growth of the coal trade: an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief overview is given of the growth of the seaborne coal industry, primarily in North America. Major consumers of the future are expected to be electric utilities, steel and cement industries in Europe and Japan. Projected coal consumption data and coal imports of European Economic Community to year 2000 are presented in tables. (JMT)

  5. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  6. Chemical filtration for steam purity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalcik, F.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few industrial process systems are as vulnerable to corrosion as the steam generating loop of an electric power plant. Impurities inevitably migrate into the steam cycle, and must be removed to prevent turbine blade corrosion. It is critical to understand the behavior of the condensate polishing resins used to remove the impurities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) participated in investigations involving ion chromatography which identified chloride as a problem in studies of regeneration and polishing procedures. A modified regeneration procedure consists of ammonium sulfate treatment of the resin before and after ammonia recirculation, followed by a dilute ammonia rinse. A joint study with Southern California Edison also simulated condenser leaks to find the effect of cooling water intrusion.

  7. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  8. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  9. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  10. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present reporting period, the first quarter of calendar year 1993, the effort was divided between Task 2. ``Pre Systems Tests`` and Task 4 ``Economics and Commercialization Plan.`` A major part of the task 2 effort was devoted converting the nozzle from adiabatic to air cooted operation. This conversion will allow immediate implementation of the longer duration task 3.2 tests after the completion of the task 2 tests. Therefore, a significant pan of the exit nozzle conversion effort is also part of task 3.1, ``Combustor Refurbishment.`` In task 1 the only activity remaining is to receive the results of the BYU combustion modeling. The results are anticipated this Spring. One of the three remaining tests in task 2 was implemented in late January under freezing weather and snow conditions. Ice plugged the coal feed lines and stack scrubber water outlet and ice jammed and damaged the coal metering auger. While these lines were thawed, the combustor was fired with oil. The coal used in this test contained fine fibrous tramp material which passed through the two tramp material retaining screens and eventually plugged several of the coal feed lines to the combustor. This cut the planned coal feed rate in half. As a result it was decided for the next test to increase the number of coal injection ports by 50% in order to provide excess capacity in the pneumatic feed feed. This will allow continued operation even in the presence of fine tramp material in the coal.

  11. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study problem is the Steam Boiler Controller problem discussed in this paper. Another representative

  12. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study problem is the Steam Boiler Controller problem discussed in this paper. Another representative

  13. Bond Graph Model of a Vertical U-Tube Steam Condenser Coupled with a Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    turbines, distillation industries using water as a solvent, etc. System-level modeling of steam condensersBond Graph Model of a Vertical U-Tube Steam Condenser Coupled with a Heat Exchanger K. Medjaher1+ A A simulation model for a vertical U-tube steam condenser in which the condensate is stored at the bottom well

  14. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  15. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  16. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  17. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  18. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Major Demonstrations Major Demonstrations Since 1985, we have helped fund commercial-scale clean coal technology demonstration projects. ICCS | CCPI | PPII | CCTDP | FutureGen...

  19. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S. [Department of Electrophysics, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  20. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  1. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  2. Coal taking it on the chin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, J.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal view of the short-term energy market with the emphasis firmly on coal. The demand for coal is considered likely to fall as consumption falls and stockpiles continue to grow. The low price of coal, and increasing transport costs are likely to reduce the number of coal operations. The relative abundance of alternative energy sources is considered unlikely to encourage the growth of industrial coal markets, nuclear power is far too costly as a competitor, however. The current tidewater port facilities are believed to be adequate, and the shelving of many existing plans is thought likely.

  3. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  4. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  5. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

  6. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  7. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Task 1: Steam Oxidation,”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. G. Wright and G. R. Holcomb

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Need to improve efficiency, decrease emissions (esp. CO2) associated with the continued use of coal for power generation

  9. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    ," PREDICTING STEAM TURBINE PERFORMANCE James T. Harriz, EIT Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking the performance of extraction, back pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part... energy) and test data are presented. Techniques for deriving efficiency curves from each source are described. These techniques can be applied directly to any steam turbine reliability study effort. INTRODUCTION As the cost of energy resources...

  10. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  11. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  12. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  13. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 × 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760°C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  14. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  15. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  16. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  18. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  19. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freier, M.D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  20. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  1. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components of a steam-generating plant to re?ect changes incost reduction of new generating plants prior to the 1970splants may reach 46.4% (HHV) when the estimated worldwide installed coal-?red generating

  2. Cofiring of coal and dairy biomass in a 100,000 btu/hr furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dairy biomass (DB) is evaluated as a possible co-firing fuel with coal. Cofiring of DB offers a technique of utilizing dairy manure for power/steam generation, reducing greenhouse gas concerns, and increasing financial returns to dairy operators...

  3. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  4. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  5. Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Glenn Allen

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with nitrogen to remove oxygen and then the drums were sealed until needed for a run. This procedure was used to prevent weathering and loss of moisture from the coal. Prior to charging, t' he lignite was sized to minus 18 mesh. The larg- er particles...DESULFURIZATION OF LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Chemical...

  6. Statistical review of coal in Canada, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents an annual review of the coal industry, including production, exports and imports, and consumption. An overview is given, followed by more detailed statistical data for the current year and preceding decade (supply and demand, value and volume of supply by province, coal production by class or province, exports by destination, coal consumed in power generation by province, electrical energy production by fuel type, domestic demand for primary energy by type).

  7. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  8. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, P.; Borio, R. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the ninth quarter of the program. During this quarter, the natural gas baseline testing at the Penn State demonstration boiler was completed, results were analyzed and are presented here. The burner operates in a stable manner over an 8/1 turndown, however due to baghouse temperature limitations (300{degrees}F for acid dewpoint), the burner is not operated for long periods of time below 75% load. Boiler efficiency averaged 83.1% at the 100 percent load rate while increasing to 83.7% at 75% load. NO{sub x} emissions ranged from a low of 0.17 Lbs/MBtu to a high of 0.24 Lbs/MBtu. After the baseline natural gas testing was completed, work continued on hardware optimization and testing with the goal of increasing carbon conversion efficiency on 100% coal firing from {approx}95% to 98%. Several coal handling and feeding problems were encountered during this quarter and no long term testing was conducted. While resolving these problems several shorter term (less than 6 hour) tests were conducted. These included, 100% coal firing tests, 100% natural gas firing tests, testing of air sparges on coal to simulate more primary air and a series of cofiring tests. For 100% coal firing, the carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) obtained this quarter did not exceed the 95-96% barrier previously reached. NO{sub x} emissions on coal only ranged from {approx} 0.42 to {approx} 0.78 Lbs/MBtu. The burner has not been optimized for low NO{sub x} yet, however, due to the short furnace residence time, meeting the goals of 98% CCE and <0.6 Lbs/MBtu NO{sub x} simultaneously will be difficult. Testing on 100% natural gas in the boiler after coal firing indicated no changes in efficiency due to firing in a `dirty` boiler. The co-firing tests showed that increased levels of natural gas firing proportionately decreased NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO.

  9. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  10. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  11. Nine clean coal projects chosen by DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 25, 1986 the US Department of Energy announced the nine projects selected as DOE's top choices in their Clean Coal Technology Program. The projects are: pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle utility retrofit; extended tests of limestone injection multi-stage burner plus sorbent duct injection; slagging combustor with sorbent injection into combustor; gas reburning and sorbent injection retrofit into 3 utility boilers; steeply dipping bed underground coal gasification integrated with indirect liquefaction; integrated coal gasification steam injection gas turbine demonstration plants (2) with hot gas cleanup; coal-oil coprocessing liquefaction; fluidized bed gasification with hot gas cleanup integrated combined cycle demonstration plant; and direct iron ore reduction to replace coke oven/blast furnace for steelmaking. A table lists the 14 runner-up projects any of which could be selected if cooperative agreements are not reached with any of the nine companies selected. Brief descriptions are given of the nine selected projects.

  12. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  13. Accelerating the deployment of cleaner coal plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J.

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dearth of commercial operating experience for advanced coal-fired facilities is forcing their early adopters and builders to use long development cycles and pay high costs for unique engineering design studies. A broad-based industry collaborative effort fostered by EPRI to address this issue (CoalFleet for Tomorrow) is beginning to show results. 3 figs.

  14. Neutron based elemental characterization of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dep, L.; Vourvopoulos, G. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An elemental characterization system based on a 14 MeV neutron generator is described. The results of sulfur content measurement in coal with a precision acceptable to the coal industry are presented. The preliminary results of measuring carbon, oxygen, and sodium are shown.

  15. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  16. Coal pile leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  17. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  18. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  19. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  20. Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio J. Marquez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio detection in boiler steam-water systems. The algorithm has been tested using real industrial data from Syncrude Canada, and has proven to be effective in detection of boiler tube or steam leaks; proper

  1. Quarterly Coal Report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the second quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. Additional historical data can also be found in the following EIA publications : Annual Energy Review 1993 (DOE/EIA-0384(93)), Monthly Energy Review (DOE/EIA-0035), and Coal Data: A Reference (DOE/EIA-0064(90)). The historical data in this report are collected by the EIA in three quarterly coal surveys (coal consumption at manufacturing plants, coal distribution, and coal consumption at coke plants), one annual coal production survey, and two monthly surveys of electric utilities. All data shown for 1993 and previous years are final. Data for 1994 are preliminary.

  2. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Lle-Lfe (Nigeria))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria; (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.

  3. Development of a self-consistent thermodynamic- and transport-property correlation framework for the coal conversion industry. Phase I. Semiannual report, September 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starling, K.E.; Lee, L.L.; Kumar, K.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the first half year of this research program the following elements of research have been performed: (1) the development of an improved pure component data bank, including collection and processing of data which is 70% complete as to substance, (2) calculation of distillable coal fluid thermodynamic properties using a multiparameter corresponding states correlation, (3) application of the most general density-cubic equation of pure fluids and (4) initiation of research to extend the corresponding states correlation framework to polar fluids. Primary conclusions of the first phase of this research program are that the three parameter corresponding states correlation predicts lighter coal fluid properties to a reasonable level of accuracy, and that a cubic equation can predict pure fluid thermodynamic properties on par with non-cubic equations of state.

  4. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  5. Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . keymanengravables.com Steam Turbine Generator Info, Pictures And Deals For Steam turbine generator ediscountshoppingBack One Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator Need Steam Electricity Generator? See Steam Electricity Generator. greenshieldsindustrial.com Steam Generators Deals on Steam Generators Find what you

  6. Steam System Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchanan, M. G.; Sneary, M. L.

    energy into the air. You might say that many of us are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 ? This cooling... are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 . This cooling is accomplished by venting the receiver to the atmosphere...

  7. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  8. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. Topical report, July 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP, or Wabash Project) is a joint venture of Destec Energy, Inc. of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc. of Plainfield, Indiana, who will jointly repower an existing 1950 vintage coal-fired steam generating plant with coal gasification combined cycle technology. The Project is located in West Terre Haute, Indiana at PSI`s existing Wabash River Generating Station. The Project will process locally-mined Indiana high-sulfur coal to produce 262 megawatts of electricity. PSI and Destec are participating in the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments. As a Clean Coal Round IV selection, the project will demonstrate integration of an existing PSI steam turbine generator and auxiliaries, a new combustion turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator tandem, and a coal gasification facility to achieve improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and reduced installation costs. Upon completion in 1995, the Project will not only represent the largest coal gasification combined cycle power plant in the United States, but will also emit lower emissions than other high sulfur coal-fired power plants and will result in a heat rate improvement of approximately 20% over the existing plant configuration. As of the end of December 1993, construction work is approximately 20% complete for the gasification portion of the Project and 25% complete for the power generation portion.

  9. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  10. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  11. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  12. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  13. Operating Experience of a Coal Fired Fluidized Bed at Georgetown University 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutes, I. G.; Gamble, R. L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the heating and cooling plant with this new coal fired facility. Previously existing units at the University heating and cooling plant normally fire natural gas. The fluidized bed steam generating facility at Georgetown University is the only new coal fired...

  14. Fixed Bed Counter Current Gasification of Mesquite and Juniper Biomass Using Air-steam as Oxidizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei 1981-

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    contains high percentage of Nitrogen, the heating value of the gasification gas is very low. The oxygen-blow gasification produce a syngas with medium heating value and steam blow gasification lead to the production of a syngas with an acceptable HHV... schematic flow diagram of an integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plan. Coal, heavy petroleum residues, or biomass is gasified in the gasifier using air or steam media to generate syngas under high temperature and pressure. The syngas was first...

  15. Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

  16. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

  17. Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeBat, R.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the process or the plant. In the power industry, the term Distributed Control System (DCS) is generally applied to the system that implements boiler control and data acquisition functions of the power plant. A state-of-the-art DCS is typically composed... application in a boiler house operation typically covers the following areas: ? Boiler controls, including the combustion (firing rate), furnace draft, steam temperature, and feedwater control loops; ? Burner control; ? Control loops in the plant...

  18. Cogeneration: An Industrial Steam and Power Option 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orlando, J. A.; Stewart, M. M.; Roberts, J. R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's electric and thermal requirements and not by an external need for power by a utility. These systems can be very cost effective but require considerably more engineering analysis of site conditions than is typical for a Wholesale Power Project...

  19. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  1. The effects of technological change, experience and environmental regulation on the construction of coal-burning generating units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the technological, regulatory and organizational factors that have influenced the costs of building coal-burning steam-electric generating units over the past twenty year. We ...

  2. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly progress report, August 1--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated as follows: (1) Steam = 20,000 lb/hr, (2) Temperature = 353 F (saturated), (3) Pressure = 125 psig, and (4) Steam quality = {approximately}98.5%.

  3. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  4. Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

    BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

  5. Jute fiber composites from coal, super clean coal, and petroleum vacuum residue-modified phenolic resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center of Energy Studies

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jute fiber composites were prepared with novolac and coal, phenolated-oxidized super clean coal (POS), petroleum vacuum residue (XVR)-modified phenol-formaldehyde (novolac) resin. Five different type of resins, i.e., coal, POS, and XVR-modified resins were used by replacing (10% to 50%) with coal, POS, and XVR. The composites thus prepared have been characterized by tensile strength, hardness, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transfer infrared (FT-IR), water absorption, steam absorption, and thickness swelling studies. Twenty percent POS-modified novolac composites showed almost the same tensile strength as that of pure novolac composites. After 30% POS incorporation, the tensile strength decreased to 25.84MPa from 33.96MPa in the case of pure novolac resin composites. However, after 50% POS incorporation, the percent retention of tensile strength was appreciable, i.e., 50.80% retention of tensile strength to that of pure novolac jute composites. The tensile strength of coal and XVR-rnodified composites showed a trend similar to that shown by POS-modified novolac resin composites. However, composites prepared from coal and XVR-modified resin with 50% phenol replacement showed 25.4% and 42% tensile strength retention, respectively, compared to that of pure novolac jute composites. It was found that the hardness of the modified composites slightly decreased with an increase in coal, POS, and XVR incorporation in the resin. The XVR-modified composites showed comparatively lower steam absorption than did coal or POS-modified composites. The thermal stability of the POS-modified composites was the highest among the composites studied. The detailed results obtained are being reported.

  6. Geology in coal resource utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, D.C. (ed.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  8. Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  9. Method for providing improved solid fuels from agglomerated subbituminous coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for separating agglomerated subbituminous coal and the heavy bridging liquid used to form the agglomerates. The separation is performed by contacting the agglomerates with inert gas or steam at a temperature in the range of 250.degree. to 350.degree. C. at substantially atmospheric pressure.

  10. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  11. Reduction in Unit Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  12. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N

  13. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

  14. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  15. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Gym Lot Corbett Lot Greenhouse Patch Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam

  16. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby

  17. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. The Enbridge Consumers Gas "Steam Saver" Program ("As Found" Performance and Fuel Saving Projects from Audits of 30 Steam Plants)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.

    energy efficiency program called "Steam Saver". This program is aimed at these 400 customers. The heart of this program is the boiler plant audit and performance test. This paper describes the fuel saving results for more than 30 medium and large... manufacturing companies (larger than 50 employees) it can be compared in size and industrial output with Michigan or Ohio. All major industrial sectors are represented. The automotive, pulp and paper and steel industries are particulary large energy...

  19. Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsner, W.

    ,200 foot steam line to begin wanning it up. He'd been energizing the G-line for 3 weeks now at the end ofthe asbestos worker's shift and had never had the system warm up this quickly. It usually took from 30 to 45 minutes. When the handwheel spun... at Fort Wainwright, Alaska, the G and H Lines ran underground in narrow utilidors 2 filled with pipe. Originally, the contractor had tried to abate the steam main with the lines energized. This proved to be near impossible for the workers. Utilidor...

  20. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  1. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  2. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. During the reporting period, various methods to remove low-level contaminants for the synthesis gas were reviewed. In addition, there was a transition of the project personnel for GEC which has slowed the production of the outstanding project reports.

  3. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  4. Industry strengths open new services opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, K.

    1993-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental service industry is in a state of transition in which innovative technologies are increasingly playing a critical role. These changes play to the strengths of the chemical industry, and several firms are effectively growing environmental businesses. At the same time, chemical companies, which are among the largest buyers of environmental services, are making decisions that reflect the changes. Du Pont, for example, has decided to rethink its involvement with the controversial Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. Initially expecting a shortage of incineration capacity, Du Pont had signed a contract - along with BASF and Chemical Waste Management - for a share of capacity at the 60,000-tons/year WTI unit. A number of chemical firms are leveraging their strengths. Air Products and Chemicals (Allentown, PA), for one, has partnerships in the waste-to-energy and flue-gas desulfurization businesses. The company runs cogeneration plants that can burn a combination of coal and natural gas to make both steam and electricity. Air Products assorted businesses can be strong at different times, says Hinman. The flue-gas desulfurization business, for example, was active during the first phase of enforcement of the 1990 Clean Air Act requirements for lower sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions.

  5. Coal slurry pipeline based midwest fuel hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huettenhain, H. [Bechtel Technology & Consulting San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is a sought after fuel to comply with the year 2000 emission regulation for utility boilers. PRB coal is presently not competitive East of the Mississippi mainly because of railroad switching requirements and boiler designs not compatible with the PRB fuel characteristics. The use of the Lakes for transportation is an exception. The Lakes shipping lanes however, are only open part of the year. It is proposed to construct a coal slurry pipeline from the center of Wyoming coalfields to a hub near Detroit with access to low cost waste energy from power generation stations. The coal slurry pipeline will transport up to 25 million tons per year of fine PRB coal which has been removed from the conventionally transported coal, namely coal transported by rail. The rail delivered coal will have less dust. The system fits the DOE Vision 21 concept to mine and utilize coal in highly efficient systems and with the least environmental impact. The PRB coal is of subbituminous rank and not directly compatible with the boilers in Michigan/Indiana/Ohio area, which are designed to burn bituminous coal. Upgrading of the PRB coal using the hydrothermal slurry upgrading process can transform the PRB coal into a higher Btu content fuel by removing a large portion of the inherent moisture. Such upgraded PRB coal has proven an excellent reactive fuel when burned conventionally as PC fuel, or even when burned in slurry form as Coal Water Fuel (CWF). The cost of the process can be recovered when the process is combined with a coal slurry pipeline transport system. The result is an upgraded competitive fuel or fuels, which can be used for co-firing or re-burning applications to reduce SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions of utility boilers. The fuels can be powdered for direct fuel injection into boilers or blast furnaces as well as CWF. Depending on the stability of the upgraded PRB coal, the pipeline product could also be dewatered and prepared for export. This paper describes the concept and preliminary cost information. It also reports on reactions of the industries, which could be involved in the complex system, namely, coal mining companies, railroads, pipeline operators, fuel suppliers, and utilities.

  6. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  7. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses-Section: Shell Losses] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Efficiency

  8. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  9. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  10. C++ Implementation of IAPWS Water/Steam Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Qiyue Lu

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the calculations of water-involved systems, such as safety analysis of light water reactors, it is essential to provide accurate water properties. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam is an international non-profit association of national organizations concerned with the properties of water and steam. It provides internationally accepted formulations of water/steam properties for scientific and industrial applications. The purpose of this work is to provide a stand-alone software package in C++ programming language to provide accurate and efficient water/steam properties evaluation, based on the latest IAPWS releases. The discussion on related IAPWS releases, code implementations and verifications are provided in details.

  11. Hanford 300 Area steam transition preliminary utility options study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, N.J.; Weakley, S.A.; Berman, M.J.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost of steam in the Hanford 300 Area is approaching $60 per million Btu; the cost in industry is {approx} $10 per million Btu. The cost of steam in the 300 Area is expected to continue to increase because of the age of the central steam system, load decreases, safety requirements, and environmental regulations. The intent of this report is to evaluate options that would more cost-effectively met the future heating needs of the buildings in the 300 Area. In general, the options fall into two categories: central systems and distributed systems. A representative option from each category was analyzed using the life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) techniques mandated by the federal government. The central plant option chosen for evaluation was the existing central steam plant modified to allow continued operation. The distributed option chosen was a dedicated heating system for each building.

  12. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies were designed to address the technical concerns that would mak

  13. Steam Plant, 6% Irrigation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Pei

    Steam Plant, 6% School of Medicine, 17% Irrigation, 3% Hospital, 22% Athletics, 2% Housing, 5 · Rainwater Cisterns · Reducing the number of once through cooling systems in labs · Expediting the connection for Irrigation ~15 million gallons Percent of Water Used for Irrigation that is Non-Potable ~10-15% Number

  14. New Industrial Park Energy Supply for Economical Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, D.; Marda, R. S.; Hodson, J. S.; Williams, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steam inlet conditions of 550 psig and 825?~. The gross output from this machine is 11.6 MW(ej. Process steam for the industrial users is rdmoved from the turbine cycle at the topping turbi~e exhaust. Approximately 840,000 lb/hr of prdcess steam...

  15. 4th Annual Clean Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferriter John P

    Proceedings he emphasis of the Fourth Clean Coal Technology Conference wm the marketability of clean coal projects both domestically and abroad. The success rate of clean coal projects in the U.S. for coalfired electricity generation is a beacon to foreign governments that are working toward effectively using advanced NO, and SO2 technology to substantially reduce flue-gas emissions for a cleaner environment. There is a continuing dialogue between U.S. Government, North American private industry, and the electricity producing governmental ministries and the private sector abroad. The international community was well represented at this conference. The Administration is determined to move promising, near-term technologies from the public to the private sector a ~ well a8 into the international marketplace.

  16. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  17. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  18. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  19. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  20. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Selected Industrial Sectors in the Lower Fraser Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concrete Industry Lime Industry Refined Petroleum Products (Bulk Storage) Other Petroleum and Coal Products and Planing Mill Products Industry Wire and Wire Products Industries Hydraulic Cernent Industry Ready Mixed

  1. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  2. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

  3. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  4. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  6. Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

  7. Coal Mining (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

  8. Marginal Cost of Steam and Power from Cogeneration Systems Using a Rational Value-Allocation Procedure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumana, J. D.; Al-Gwaiz, M. M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of pricing steam and power from cogeneration systems has confounded engineers, economists, and accountants for a very long time. Normal industry practice is to fix the cost of one (usually power) at its local market price, and calculate...

  9. Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

  10. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide CaptureSee the Foundry'sMcGuireNETLCareersCoal

  11. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  12. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  13. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  14. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended.

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  19. Steam Trap Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment Collecting leg, same size as equip ment connection but not less than Install a Yarway Process Trap below be drained. Install a Provide vacuum strainer with a blow down valve. Use and Yarway Aldrain valves full ported stop valves, (gate... and Corrosion Problems Like any critical control device the steam trap should be protected from dirt and scale if optimum operation and adequate service life are to be attained. Strainers should be equipped with blowdown valves to provide an effective...

  20. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

  1. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been great advances in boiler control technology as older pneumatic and analog electronic control systems have given way to digital, computer-based distributed control systems. These systems are more reliable and can extend boiler life. Modem... Several software tools are now available for individual steam technologies, such as steam traps, insulation, and boiler controls. The Partnership should investigate linking these software tools together and incorporating other steam "modules" (i...

  2. The Design of an Open Rankine-Cycle Industrial Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibowitz, H. M.; Chaudoir, D. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An open Rankine-cycle heat pump is ideally suited for producing low-pressure industrial process steam. Because steam serves as both the heat pump motive fluid and process fluid, the system achieves a unique simplicity and versatility...

  3. Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

  4. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition.

  5. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the GEC and an Industrial Consortia are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

  6. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

  7. Steam condensate leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

  8. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  9. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Efficiency Definition - 1 8/30/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module will be discussed. [Slide Visual ­ Contents of Module Sections] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training

  10. DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Module Stack Losses 1 June 28, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Stack Losses loss is almost always the largest boiler loss. [Slide Visual ­ Stack Loss Title Page] Steam

  11. Table 14. Steam Coal Exports by Customs District

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.

  12. Table 9. U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Table 8.2.9.

  13. Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyun, T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Tope Iyun ExxonMobil Chemical Company May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20... were generated by or on behalf of ExxonMobil Chemical Company. Legal Disclosures ©2014 ExxonMobil. To the extent the user is entitled to disclose and distribute this document, the user may forward, distribute, and/or photocopy this copyrighted...

  14. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  15. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  16. Development of a 16-MW sub th coal-water/heavy oil burner for front-wall firing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thambimuthu, K.V.; Whaley, H. (EMR Canada/CANMET, Ottawa (CA)); Bennet, A.; Jonasson, K.A. (NRC Canada, Ottawa (CA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Canadian program of coal-water fuel (CWF) technology development has included the demonstration of commercial burners for CWF in both coal and oil-designed utility boilers. The demonstrations clearly showed that these burners were prototypes, and were, in fact, modified oil burners that were mismatched to the rheological properties of the CWF. As the demonstrations were proceeding, a simultaneous research program was undertaken in which the basic principles governing atomization and combustion of CWF were studied. Results from the fundamental studies which led to the development of a novel prototype dual fuel CWF/oil burner are described. In the various stages of development, the burner was scaled up from 1.5 MW{sub th} to an industrial scale of 16 MS{sub th} for demonstration in a 20-MW{sub (e)} oil-designed industrial utility boiler and for a single-burner commercial operation in an oil designed package steam boiler. A summary of the burner performance in these demonstrations is also given in this paper.

  17. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  18. Blackout: coal, climate and the last energy crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinberg, R. [Post Carbon Institute in California, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal fuels more than 30 per cent of UK electricity production, and about 50 per cent in the US, providing a significant portion of total energy output. China and India's recent ferocious economic growth has been based almost entirely on coal-generated electricity. Coal currently looks like a solution to many of our fast-growing energy problems. However, while coal advocates are urging us full steam ahead, the increasing reliance on this dirtiest of all fossil fuels has crucial implications for energy policy, pollution levels, the global climate, world economy and geopolitics. Drawbacks to a coal-based energy strategy include: Scarcity - new studies suggest that the peak of world coal production may actually be less than two decades away; Cost - the quality of produced coal is declining, while the expense of transportation is rising, leading to spiralling costs and increasing shortages; and, Climate impacts - our ability to deal with the historic challenge of climate change may hinge on reducing coal consumption in future years.

  19. Game Industry A (Very) Brief History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephenson, Ben

    Game Industry #12;A (Very) Brief History · 1961 Spacewar! ­ by Steve Russell ­ on a PDP-1 at MIT ­ Steam ­ PSN Store ­ Xbox Marketplace ­ Apple iTunes #12;The Business of Making Games · Complex at trade shows like E3 · The internet threatens this model ­ Amazon, Steam ­ Opportunity to bypass

  20. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  1. The 1986-93 Clean Coal Technology Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Begun in 1986, the Clean Coal Technology Program was the most ambitious government-industry initiative ever undertaken to develop environmental solutions for the Nation's abundant...

  2. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

    1980-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

  3. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Commercial plant requirements definition update (Task 1. 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) power system thermodynamic cycle is illustrated schematically. Pressurized air supplied at the discharge of gas turbine compressors is ducted to the pressure vessel of pressurized, fluidized-bed, combustor-steam generator modules. The air is introduced in parallel to the beds, entering through distribution grids beneath each bed. Steam generation tubes are buried within the beds and are also arranged as membrane tube walls enclosing the four sides. Crushed coal (1/4 inch x 0) is pneumatically fed at locations just above the air inlet grids at the bottom of each bed. Dolomite is similarly fed to the individual beds. The coal is burned at a temperature below the ash fusion point. Sulfur is removed in the fluid beds through reaction of the SO/sub 2/ with CaCO/sub 3/ and O/sub 2/ to form solid CaSO/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ gas. The combustion gases leave the beds at a temperature in the range of 1400/sup 0/F to 1750/sup 0/F, depending upon the plant load fraction, and combustion heat is also transferred from the bed to the steam generation tubes. For the PFB combustor at full load, approximately 39% of the heating value of the coal appears i the exhaust gas, 57% appears in the steam, and 4% is apportioned among various losses. The steam circuitry is the supercritical once-through type. Steam is generated at 3500 psi and 1000/sup 0/F and is reheated to 1000/sup 0/F after expansion through the high pressure section of the steam turbine. The exhaust gases from the fluidized beds, which entrain a high percentage of the coal ash as well as dolomite fines, are ducted to conventional cyclones and then to electrocyclones before being admitted to the gas turbine.

  4. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  5. Thermal Plasma Systems for Industrial Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fey, M. G.; Meyer, T. N.; Reed, W. H.; Philbrook, W. O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    required to produce hot metal. To plasma superheat wind. energy is transferred to the air stream via a plasma torch. To maximize the coke reduction due to wind superheating. other fuels such as oil. natural gas. coke oven gas. and coal can be considered... tuyere injections of steam. oxygen, methane. natural gas. coke-oven gas. coal gas. fuel oils. or coals of various ranks is a two-stage blast furnace mass and heat balance developed by Rist and Meysson [12.13J and others at IRSID. A constraint...

  6. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  7. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  8. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  9. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  10. coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Technologies for Coal Storage and Feed Preparation AlternativesSupplements to Coal - Feedstock Flexibility DOE Supported R&D for CoalBiomass Feed and Gasification...

  11. Steam System Survey Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringoutAPBF-DEC NOxBestPractices SteamOffice of1/263

  12. Effects of Reinsulating Underground Steam Pipes- A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentzer, T.

    -13, 1999 Figure 5. The pumping process on the street. FINDINGS Line Losses The following table shows the monthly average steam flow rates in pounds per hour for each of the meters since January 1997. For September and October 1998, electric power... of the 12" and 8" diameter piping. There are six steam vaults between the two-meter 167 ESL-IE-99-05-24 Proceedings from the Twenty-first National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 -- ------ locations. These vaults...

  13. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoalComplex FlowConocimientoUseful LinksDepartment ofSteam

  14. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  15. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  16. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  17. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  18. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammesfahr, F.W.; Winter, P.L.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. This effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities. The concept that existing surface facilities, currently or potentially gas-capable, might contribute to the development of underground coal gasification technology by providing a low cost industrial application for the gas produced in a multi-module test appears valid. To further test the concept, three industries were reviewed in depth. These were the electric utility, natural gas, and petroleum industries. When looking at a fuel substitution of the type proposed, each industry had its special perspective. These are discussed in detail in the report.

  19. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  20. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  1. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  2. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  3. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  4. An Integrated Approach to Evaluating the Technical and Commercial Options for Cogeneration Facilities in the Process Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. H.; McCue, R. H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the refinery, olefins, and other industry complexes is presented. The cycles described include hot gas and steam heat recovery, going beyond the currently popular gas-turbine/ heat-recovery-steam-generator combination....

  5. Energy Conservation in China North Industries Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, W. T.; De, C. H.; Chu, J. X.; Fu, L. R.

    . In some plants which have stable steam consumption we have established small scale power and steam cogeneration. This has improved boilers' efficiencies and utilization of energy. For further reduction oil firing, we have been studying on alternative... ENERGY CONSERVATION IN CHINA NORTH INDUSTRIES CORPORATION Wang Tian You, Chen Hua De, Jing Xing Chu, Ling Rui Fu, China North Industries Corporation Beijing, People's Republic of China ABSTRACT This paper describes an overview of the energy...

  6. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  7. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  8. Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  9. Facing the transition. [Retrofitting vessels for burning coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, environmental regulations prohibiting black smoke in port and marine disposal of ashes caused many coal-burning vessels in the Great Lakes shipping industry to convert to oil-burning systems. With a return to coal-burning plants on-board, these problems and others are being addressed. Improvements are being made in stack emission control. The need for monitoring devices is discussed. Mechanisms are described which will help control dust, heat, noise and ash. To reduce the need for excessive stockpiles of various grades of coal, equipment is being designed which will burn a range of coals available in many ports. (JMT)

  10. Coal assessment and coal quality characterization of the Colorado Plateau area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affolter, R.H.; Brownfield, M.E.; Biewick, L.H.; Kirschbaum, M.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Colorado Plateau Coal Assessment project is to provide an overview of the geologic setting, distribution, resources, and quality of Cretaceous coal in the Colorado Plateau and southernmost Green River Basin. Resources will be estimated by applying restrictions such as coal thickness and depth and will be categorized by land ownership. In some areas these studies will also delineate areas where coal mining may be restricted because of land use, industrial, social, or environmental factors. Emphasis will be placed on areas where the coal is owned or managed by the Federal Government. This assessment, which is part of the US Geological Survey`s National Coal Assessment Program, is different from previous coal assessments in that the major emphasis will be placed on coals that can provide energy for the next few decades. The data is also being collected and stored in digital format that can be updated when new pertinent information becomes available. This study is being completed in cooperation with the US Bureau of Land Management, the US Forest Service, Arizona Geological Survey, Colorado Geological Survey, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, and the Utah Geological Survey.

  11. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, February - April, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated is as follows: steam = 20,000 lb/hr; temperature = 353 F (saturated); pressure = 125 psig; and steam quality = {approximately}98.5%. During this reporting period: structural corrections have been made to make the facility meet the required building costs; and refractory bakeout was successfully completed during April 23-25, 1996 over a 54 -hour period. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed.

  12. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study therefore determines the steam cycle parameters and combustion technology that would yield the lowest cost of electricity (COE) for the next generation of coal-fired steam power plants. The second part of the study (Repowering) explores the means of upgrading the efficiency and output of an older existing coal fired steam power plant. There are currently more than 1,400 coal-fired units in operation in the United States generating about 54 percent of the electricity consumed. Many of these are modern units are clean and efficient. Additionally, there are many older units in excellent condition and still in service that could benefit from this repowering technology. The study evaluates the technical feasibility, thermal performance, and economic viability of this repowering concept.

  13. Catalyst-free carbon nanotubes from coal-based material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, R.B.; Lal, C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DC-Arc Discharge technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal samples instead of graphite electrodes filled with metal catalysts. The adverse effect of the mineral matter present in coal may be, thus, avoided. The cathode deposits showed the presence of single walled carbon nanotubes as well, which are generally known to be formed only in presence of transition metal catalysts and lanthanides. The process also avoids the tedious purification treatments of carbon nanotubes by strong acids to get rid of metal catalysts produced as impurities along with nanotubes. Thus, coal may be refined and demineralized by an organorefining technique to obtain super clean coal, an ultra low ash coal which may be used for the production of carbon nanotubes. The residual coal obtained after the organorefining may be used as an energy source for raising steam for power generation. Thus, coal may afford its use as an inexpensive feedstock for the production of carbon nanotubes besides its conventional role as a fuel for power generation.

  14. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  15. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  16. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  17. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  18. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  19. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  20. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Condensate recovery o Fuel unit cost o Total fuel consumption o Steam production Slide 6 ­ Boiler o PRV steam flows o o Steam consumers Turbine efficiencies Electrical unit cost o o CondensateDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Conclusion Module 1 June 28

  1. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  2. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandler, T.

    & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship... wall temperatures Furnace tube hydrocarbon + steam 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1 2 time C o k e l a y e r Page 8 Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Efficiency ? Overall energy efficiency of furnace depends on ? Run length or % of time...

  3. HIGH-EFFICIENCY STEAM ELECTROLYZER Ai-Quoc Pham, Ervin See, Dave Lenz, Peter Martin and Robert Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from fossil fuels, i.e., by steam reforming of natural gas and by coal gasification. However, most, electricity is not a primary energy but must be produced using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, or renewable of the first electrolyzer stack. Introduction Currently, most hydrogen demand is met by hydrogen production

  4. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  5. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol. W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test data from the Ruhrchemie/Ruhrkohle Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant at Oberhausen are reported. (5 refs.)

  6. Advanced intelligent coordinated control of coal fired power plant based on fuzzy reasoning and auto-tuning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.Y.; Liu, H.B.; Cai, W.J.; Soh, Y.C.; Xie, L.H. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The load following operation of coal-fired boiler-turbine unit in power plants can lead to changes in operating points, and it results in nonlinear variations of the plant variables and parameters. As there exist strong couplings between the main steam pressure control loop and the power output control loop in the boiler-turbine unit with large time-delay and uncertainties, automatic coordinated control of the two loops is a very challenging problem. This paper presents a new coordinated control strategy (CCS) which is organized into two levels: a basic control level and a high supervision level. PID-type controllers are used in the basic level to perform basic control functions while the decoupling between two control loops can be realized in the high level. Moreover, PID-type controllers can be auto-tuned to achieve a better control performance in the whole operating range and to reject the unmeasurable disturbances. A special subclass of fuzzy inference systems, namely the Gaussian partition system with evenly spaced midpoints, is also proposed to auto-tune the PID controller in the main steam pressure loop based on the error signal and its first difference to overcome uncertainties caused by changing fuel calorific value, machine wear, contamination of the boiler heating surfaces and plant modeling errors, etc. The developed CCS has been implemented in a power plant in China, and satisfactory industrial operation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy has enhanced the adaptability and robustness of the process.

  7. Iron ore and coal: pricing and volume up for these key export commodities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Australia's huge coal and iron ore industries are booming. Up until now, the majors have benefited handsomely, but smaller players are beginning to muscle in. The article discusses development in both industries. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  8. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  9. Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) DESTEC Energy (United States) Williams Technology (United States) Illinois Coal Association (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. This project will bring the expertise of four organizations together to perform the various tasks. The Illinois Coal Association will help direct the project to be the most beneficial to the Illinois coal industry. DESTEC Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technology will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handlability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals. As reported earlier, a variety of possible samples of coal have been analyzed and the gasification performance evaluation reported. Additionally, commercial sized samples of -28 mesh {times} 100 mesh coal -100 {times} 0 coal were subjected to pumpability testing. Neither the coarse product nor the fine product by themselves proved to be good candidates for trouble free pumping, but the mix of the two proved to be a very acceptable product

  10. AMO Industrial Distributed Energy: Immediate Deployment of Waste Energy Technologies at Multiple Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet overviewing Verso Paper Corp. project that will deploy industrial technologies to recover and reuse water and steam at pulp and paper facilities.

  11. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  12. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  13. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  14. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  15. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  16. Computer Optimization of Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, C. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As fuel costs continued to rise sharply during the 1970' s, the staff at Exxon's Benicia Refinery realized there was a growing economic incentive to optimize the production of high pressure steam. A significant percentage of the Refinery's total...

  17. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  18. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  19. Steam System Forecasting and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    '. This and the complex and integrated nature of the plants energy balance makes steam system forecasting and management essential for optimum use of the plant's energy. This paper discusses the method used by Union carbide to accomplish effective forecasting...

  20. Analysis of the tube-sheet cracking in slurry oil steam , L.J. Qiao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    -sheet cracking is a severe problem in the oil refinery industry with the consequences of shortened service life steam generator is a kind of shell and tube heat exchanger extensively used in the oil refinement in the oil refinery industry. Previous study has shown that corrosion, such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC