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1

Catalytic steam gasification of coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic steam gasification of coals ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ...

P. Pereira; G. A. Somorjai; H. Heinemann

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits... not extend the turbine outage. To assure that all of the turbine audit data are available, the audit engineer must be at the turbine site the day the steam path is first exposed. A report of the opening audit findings is generated to describe the as...

Mitchell, D. R.

3

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

5

Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on deaerators provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

6

Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34 39.76 66.29 70.83 70.95 82.81 150.58 NA Denmark 40.78 31.65 50.27 56.29 61.84 59.15 75.20 113.34 NA Finland 40.83 37.08 39.99 58.45 62.80 67.65 72.64 134.21 NA France 45.36 42.59 42.63 64.08 75.23 72.92 84.49 135.53 NA Germany 41.46 36.80 39.00 61.22 72.48 70.12 81.49 138.84 NA Ireland3 45.25 47.88 50.08 80.90 74.91 101.78 125.15 143.08 NA Italy 44.83 41.25 42.45 63.54 73.20 69.16 86.00 143.68 NA Japan 37.95 36.95 34.93 51.48 62.73 63.33 70.92 125.42 NA Netherlands 40.09 35.81 37.27 55.09 68.86 68.57 79.12 133.50 NA

7

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The...

8

The steam engine and industrialization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simon Schaffer in York Rail Museum talks to the camera about the relationship between the steam engine and industrialization and whatsteam meant; a regular supply of moving power for workshops and factories....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coal: evolving supply and demand in world seaborne steam coal trade. [1975 to 1985; forecasting to 1995  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the evolution of world seaborne steam coal trade since 1975. It highlights current trends and the historic and present sources of supply and demand and discusses selected factors that may affect future world trade patterns. It concludes with a general discussion on the prospects for United States participation in the growing world markets for steam coal. Worldwide seaborne steam coal trade is linked very closely to the generation of electricity and industrial use of process heat in cement and other manufacturing plants. The main factors that influence this trade are: economic growth, electricity demand, indigenous coal production (and degree of protection from lower cost coal imports), and the delivered costs of coal relative to other substitutable fuels. It may be of interest to know how these factors have changed seaborne steam coal trade in the past twelve years. In 1970, the total world use of steam coal was about two billion short tons. International trade in steam coal was only 80 million tons or about 4% of the total. Seaborne trade accounted for about 30% of international trade, or about 25 million tons. In 1982, the latest year for which good statistics are available, total world use of steam coal was about 3.6 billion tons. Seaborne steam coal trade was 110 million tons which is about 3% of the total and 37% of the international trade. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Yancik, J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Market integration in the international coal industry: A cointegration approach  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis of the existence of a single economic market for the international coal industry, separated for coking and steam coal, and to investigate market integration over time. This has been conducted by applying cointegration and error-correction models on quarterly price series data in Europe and Japan over the time period 1980-2000. Both the coking and the steam coal markets show evidence of global market integration, as demonstrated by the stable long-run cointegrating relationship between the respective price series in different world regions. This supports the hypothesis of a globally integrated market. However, when analyzing market integration over time it is not possible to confirm cointegration in the 1990s for steam coal. Thus, compared to the coking coal market, the steam coal market looks somewhat less global in scope.

Warell, L. [University of Lulea, Lulea (Sweden). Dept. of Business Administration & Social Science

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Health costs associated with the mining, transport and combustion of coal in the steam-electric industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... rarely takes into account factors other than the market value of the commodities1,2. The costs of such decisions to society in general are rarely considered. Some of these ... of such decisions to society in general are rarely considered. Some of these costs are environmental: for example, disposal of industrial waste has often been free. Others ...

L. A. Sagan

1974-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

12

The Global Steam Coal Market and Supply Curve  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The modern steam coal trade is only about three decades old. ... market difficulties. In order to understand the coal market one needs to understand the global ... . In the chapter the author considers the economic

Dr. Lars Schernikau

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

in Industrial Steam Systems Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Advanced Manufacturing Home Key Activities Research & Development Projects Facilities...

15

The US coal industry 1996  

SciTech Connect

Several years ago a friend and former classmate, Dr. Doug Dahl, put the coal industry into perspective. At that time he worked for Consol, whose parent company was DuPont. I will use his story, but update it with today`s statistics. As can be seen in Figure 1, total US coal production continues to show healthy growth. In 1995 we produced 1,032,000,000 tons, and 1,046,000,000 tons are projected for 1996. Unfortunately as seen in Figure 2, the average price per ton of coal sold is still dropping. The coal industry is experiencing the unusual situation of falling coal prices with increasing coal demand! In 1994 (1995 data not available) the average price for a ton of coal was only $19.41. Multiplying the two numbers, yields the total sales value for our entire industry, $20.1 billion in 1994. That`s roughly half the approximately $40 billion per year sales value for a single chemical company, DuPont, Dr. Dahl`s parent company. As Dr. Dahl pointed out, the coal industry just isn`t that big. As we can see in Figure 3, the yearly trends show that the total value of the US coal production is shrinking. The total value has fallen through the 90`s and follows the average price per ton trend. Even increases in production have generally not been enough to offset the falling prices.

Campbell, J.A.L. [Custom Coals International, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Central Appalachia: Coal industry profile  

SciTech Connect

Central Appalachia, the most complex and diverse coal-producing region in the United States, is also the principal source of very low sulfur coal in the East. This report provides detailed profiles of companies and facilities responsible for about 90% of the area's production, conveying a unique view of the aggregate industry as well as its many parts.

McMahan, R.L.; Kendall, L.K. (Resource Data International, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, M.W.

1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

19

Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in todayâ??s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

20

Syngas Production from Coal through Microwave Plasma Gasification: Influence of Oxygen, Steam, and Coal Particle Size  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Syngas Production from Coal through Microwave Plasma Gasification: Influence of Oxygen, Steam, and Coal Particle Size ... Plasma gasification is widely applied because of its clean syngas production performance and high chemical reactivity accelerated by the free radicals produced by plasma. ... The syngas composition produced from plasma gasification at same conditions is affected by the physicochemical properties of coals. ...

Sang Jun Yoon; Jae Goo Lee

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

high-efficiency NG/fuel oil boilers · Slight reduction in steam production capacity · Requires: Building heating Domestic hot water Lab sterilization UT's Steam Plant #12;· Powered by 5 boilers: 2 emissions standard (Boiler MACT): · For existing boilers w/ heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater

Dai, Pengcheng

22

The methods of steam coals usage for coke production  

SciTech Connect

Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Table 9. U.S. Steam Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Steam Coal Exports U.S. Steam Coal Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 9. U.S. Steam Coal Exports (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 1,619,502 1,246,181 2,153,814 2,865,683 3,065,683 -6.5 Canada* 797,861 599,752 841,061 1,397,613 1,280,803 9.1 Dominican Republic 51,698 160,672 124,720 212,370 312,741 -32.1 Honduras - 41,664 34,161 41,664 68,124 -38.8 Jamaica 25 36,311 - 36,336 33,585 8.2 Mexico 717,687 407,422 1,116,653 1,125,109 1,331,754 -15.5 Other** 52,231 360 37,219 52,591 38,676 36.0 South America Total 853,693 806,347

24

Table 14. Steam Coal Exports by Customs District  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Steam Coal Exports by Customs District Steam Coal Exports by Customs District (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 14. Steam Coal Exports by Customs District (short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Customs District April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change Eastern Total 4,951,041 5,566,950 6,554,494 10,517,991 11,407,664 -7.8 Baltimore, MD 1,275,530 831,976 1,715,016 2,107,506 2,852,092 -26.1 Boston, MA 7 - 12 7 24 -70.8 Buffalo, NY 1,180 1,516 2,826 2,696 5,257 -48.7 New York City, NY 3,088 2,664 2,168 5,752 6,106 -5.8 Norfolk, VA 3,578,715 4,697,769 4,760,354 8,276,484 8,443,756 -2.0 Ogdensburg, NY 36,894 3,610 3,090 40,504 6,838 492.3 Philadelphia, PA

25

The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

Waterland, A. F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Kinetics of steam gasification of bituminous coals in terms of their use for underground coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The kinetics of steam gasification was examined for bituminous coals of a low coal rank. The examined coals can be the raw material for underground coal gasification. Measurements were carried out under isothermal conditions at a high pressure of 4 MPa and temperatures of 800, 900, 950, and 1000 °C. Yields of gasification products such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane were calculated based on the kinetic curves of formation reactions of these products. Also carbon conversion degrees are presented. Moreover, calculations were made of the kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation reaction in the coal gasification process. The parameters obtained during the examinations enable a preliminary assessment of coal for the process of underground coal gasification.

Stanis?aw Porada; Grzegorz Czerski; Tadeusz Dziok; Przemys?aw Grzywacz; Dorota Makowska

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOW RESTRICTED For internal DOW RESTRICTED For internal use only US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools Riyaz Papar, PE, CEM Hudson Technologies Company Phone: (281) 298 0975 Email: rpapar@hudsontech.com - Agenda * Introduction * Steam System BP Tools Suite - SSST - SSAT - 3EPlus * Q & A 1 Steam System Management Objective: Minimize Steam Use, Energy Losses And Most Importantly STEAM COST!! Steam Market Assessment Takeaways * Fuel savings estimates - individual projects - ranged from 0.6 percent to 5.2 percent * Estimated payback periods generally very attractive - Ranged from 2 to 34 months - Most less than 2 years * Potential steam savings in target industries - over 12 percent of fuel use 2 Promising Areas To Achieve Steam Energy and Cost Savings? Use Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST) For

28

Modification of sub-bituminous coal by steam treatment: Caking and coking properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Chinese sub-bituminous Shenfu (SF) coal was steam treated under atmospheric pressure and the caking and coking properties of the treated coals were evaluated by caking indexes (GRI) and crucible coking characterizations. The results show that steam treatment can obviously increase the GRI of SF coal. When the steam treated coals were used in the coal blends instead of SF raw coal, the micro-strength index (MSI) and particle coke strength after reaction (PSR) of the coke increased, and particle coke reactivity index (PRI) decreased, which are beneficial for metallurgical coke to increase the gas permeability in blast furnace. The quality of the coke obtained from 8% of 200 °C steam treated SF coal in coal blends gets to that of the coke obtained from the standard coal blends, in which there was no SF coal addition in the coal blends. The removal of oxygen groups, especially hydroxyl group thus favoring the breakage of the coal macromolecules and allowing the treated coal formation of much more amount of hydrocarbons, may be responsible for the modified results. The mechanism of the steam treatment was proposed based on the elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric (TG) and FTIR spectrometer characterizations of the steam treated coal.

Hengfu Shui; Haiping Li; Hongtao Chang; Zhicai Wang; Zhi Gao; Zhiping Lei; Shibiao Ren

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site September 18, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis A high-pressure water cannon is used to control dust for the demolition of the X-600 Steam Plant. A high-pressure water cannon is used to control dust for the demolition of the X-600 Steam Plant. One of three large smoke stacks comes down during the demolition. One of three large smoke stacks comes down during the demolition. A high-pressure water cannon is used to control dust for the demolition of the X-600 Steam Plant. One of three large smoke stacks comes down during the demolition. PIKETON, Ohio - Towering above most nearby buildings, the X-600 Coal-fired Steam Plant had been part of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

30

Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site September 18, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis A high-pressure water cannon is used to control dust for the demolition of the X-600 Steam Plant. A high-pressure water cannon is used to control dust for the demolition of the X-600 Steam Plant. One of three large smoke stacks comes down during the demolition. One of three large smoke stacks comes down during the demolition. A high-pressure water cannon is used to control dust for the demolition of the X-600 Steam Plant. One of three large smoke stacks comes down during the demolition. PIKETON, Ohio - Towering above most nearby buildings, the X-600 Coal-fired Steam Plant had been part of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

31

Continuing consolidation in the coal industry  

SciTech Connect

Extensive consolidation has occurred in the coal industry over the past decade. The greatest degree of consolidation has occurred in Northern Appalachia, the Illinois Basin, and the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin (PRB), which are the coal supply regions where most observers expect the greatest growth in coal production over the next decade. In addition to reducing the number of alternative suppliers, high level of concentration also tend to result in higher prices, more volatile spot markets, and lower levels of reliability. Therefore, coal-fired generators purchasing in these regions need to respond proactively and strategically to these market trends. 2 figs.

Gaalaas, T. [Pace Global Energy Services LLC (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

"Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

boiler technology currently in service in the U.S., it is critical to raise awareness and examine the role of emerging new technologies to address the energy and environmental challenges inherent with steam generation. In the same way that tank...

Smith, J. P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Advanced steam parameters for pulverized coal fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

After the enormous efforts made in the eighties towards minimization of pollutant concentration in flue gases from power stations, public attention today has turned increasingly toward CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel fired plants. This interest has, in turn, renewed interest in increasing the efficiency of thermal power plants, as this approach is by far the most practical means of reducing the specific CO{sub 2} emission rate. The Rankine steam cycle is the workhorse of the power industry. However, the steam power cycle is often regarded as having reached a maximum practical efficiency, and development effort has shifted to indirect fired cycles. In reality, Rankine cycle efficiencies equivalent to the combined Brayton/Rankine cycles are possible, and may be economically practical. The development work which would allow such steam cycle efficiencies to be realized has been limited in recent years, due to low growth rates, falling energy prices, and tying up of investment funds in environmental control equipment. This paper presents a short survey of the application for advanced steam parameters in power generation and discusses critical areas in more detail. A program undertaken by a consortium of European manufacturers and EC governments for the advancement of steam cycle efficiency is described.

Heiermann, G.; Husemann, R.U.; Kather, A.; Knizia, M.; Hougaard, P.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer equipment for various steam systems and applications.

35

Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Last year, the Alliance to Save Energy, the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies, and a cadre of private companies and associations formed an innovative "Steam Partnership" with the goal of developing a new, DOE technical...

Jones, T.; Hart, F.

36

Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This brief introduces heat-pump technology and its application in industrial processes as part of steam systems. The focus is on the most common applications, with guidelines for initial identification and evaluation of the opportunities being provided.

37

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Title Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6288E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Therkelsen, Peter L., and Aimee T. McKane Journal Energy Policy Volume 57 Start Page 318 Date Published 06/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords industrial energy efficiency, industrial energy efficiency barriers, steam system efficiency Abstract Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

38

Cash Flow Impacts of Industrial Steam Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam efficiency is a major opportunity for manufacturers to boost financial performance in an increasingly competitive environment. An immediate policy challenge is to raise manufacturers' awareness of these opportunities. A major barrier...

Russell, C.

39

AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

40

High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests  

SciTech Connect

As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Industrial coking of coal batch without bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years, Kuznetsk-coal batch has always included bituminous coal. Depending on the content of such coal, the batch may be characterized as lean ... classification was adopted by specialists of the Eastern

P. V. Shtark; Yu. V. Stepanov; N. K. Popova; D. A. Koshkarov…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES COAL AND THE EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

underpinning comparative European economic development during the Industrial Revolution. Our analysis exploits of coal-powered technologies, to quantify the effect of coal availability on historic city population.orourke@all-souls.ox.ac.uk #12;1 Introduction There is a long tradition in economic history that places coal at the centre

Huber, Bernhard A.

44

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. 2010. “Development of Coal Gasification & PolygenerationChina: 11 June 2010. China Coal Information ResearchInstitute (CIRI). N.d. China Coal Industry Yearbook (in

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group, Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation  

SciTech Connect

The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from implementing steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

48

Liquid Fuels from Coal: From R & D to an Industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...10 FEBRUARY 1978 the major tool that the United States is now...2). Coal is gasified with steam by the Lurgi technology to...in-frastructure and logistics system for feed and products. It...pe-troleum. While no accurate assessment of costs was really possible...

L. E. Swabb Jr.

1978-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

49

Air and steam coal partial gasification in an atmospheric fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Using the mixture of air and steam as gasification medium, three different rank coal partial gasification studies were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed with the various operating parameters. The effects of air/coal (Fa/Fc) ratio, steam/coal (Fs/Fc) ratio, bed temperature, and coal rank on the fuel gas compositions and the high heating value (HHV) were reported in this paper. The results show that there is an optimal Fa/Fc ratio and Fs/Fc ratio for coal partial gasification. A rise of bed temperature favors the semigasification reaction of coal, but the concentrations of carbon monoxide and methane and the HHV decrease with the rise of bed temperature, except hydrogen. In addition, the gas HHVs are between 2.2 and 3.4 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The gas yield and carbon conversion increase with Fa/Fc ratio, Fs/Fc ratio, and bed temperature, while they decrease with the rise of the rank of coal. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jing; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang; Rui Xiao [Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing (China). Department of Environmental Science & Engineering

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Reaction of aromatic compounds and coal-derived liquids with steam over alumina supported nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program has been to explore and define the potential of steam reforming to produce light gases from coal-derived liquids. This was achieved through a study of the reaction of a model aromatic compound and of a coal-derived liquid with steam over an alumina supported nickel catalyst. The reaction of steam with benzene and SRC-II liquids over an alumina supported nickel-catalyst has been investigated in a plug flow reactor. The primary process variables investigated were reactor pressure and temperature, contact time, and steam/carbon ratio. A proposed reaction network was also developed to explain the data obtained in this study. The empirical rate equation for the benzene steam reforming reaction at 973 K, 300 psig, and a steam/carbon ratio of approximately 3 was r/sub C6H6/ = 1.92 x 10 TP/sub C6H6/. The activation energy was 88 KJ/mol, or 21 kcal/mol in the temperature range 748-973 K. A correlation was developed to predict product yields and hydrocarbon conversion over the range of process variables investigated. A second correlation was developed to predict the yields and conversion beyond the range of variables investigated.

Chen, I.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 65.10 63.67 73.81 64.48 78.90 -18.3 Canada* 59.34 55.22 63.02 57.57 73.63 -21.8 Dominican Republic 78.47 74.41 73.89 75.40 76.61 -1.6 Honduras - 54.58 54.43 54.58 54.43 0.3 Jamaica 480.00 54.43 - 54.72 55.42 -1.3 Mexico 69.42 73.33 82.64 70.83 86.44 -18.1 Other** 80.33 389.30 70.37 82.45 76.10 8.3 South America Total 79.44 77.85 70.55

52

Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam System Process-Control Schemes (July 2003) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air Storage Strategies Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems CIBO Energy Efficiency...

54

Results From the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Steam Tool Benchmarking Support Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

developed is the "Steam System Scoping Tool." In the summer of 2001, six of the DOE Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) completed a project to provide data on the usefulness of the Steam System Scoping Tool. These six IACs performed eighteen plant steam...

Wright, A. L.; Bassett, K.; Eckerlin, H.; Ganji, A.; Hengeveld, D.; Jendrucko, R.; Kosanovic, D.; Turner, W.

55

Steam gasification of Indonesian subbituminous coal with calcium carbonate as a catalyst raw material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of Ca catalysts prepared from CaCO3 on the steam gasification of Indonesian subbituminous coal at 700–800 °C is examined. The char obtained by pyrolyzing the coal with 0.59 wt.% of Ca (dry basis) showed conversions in steam gasification at 750 and 800 °C of around 70 and 90 wt.% (dry ash and catalyst free basis), which were 2 and 1.5 times larger than those of the coal without the Ca catalyst, respectively. The activity of this Ca catalyst was as high as that prepared using an aqueous solution of Ca(OH)2. The TPD and XRD measurements demonstrated that the Ca catalyst from CaCO3 was initially present in the ion-exchanged form, and as a finely dispersed calcium species after pyrolysis. These results confirm that CaCO3 is effective as a catalyst raw material in the steam gasification of subbituminous coal, even at low catalyst loadings.

Kenji Murakami; Masahiko Sato; Naoto Tsubouchi; Yasuo Ohtsuka; Katsuyasu Sugawara

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Integrated catalytic coal devolatilization and steam gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon liquids and a methane-containing gas are produced from carbonaceous feed solids by contacting the solids with a mixture of gases containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a devolatilization zone at a relatively low temperature in the presence of a carbon-alkali metal catalyst. The devolatilization zone effluent is treated to condense out hydrocarbon liquids and at least a portion of the remaining methane-rich gas is steam reformed to produce the carbon monoxide and hydrogen with which the carbonaceous feed solids are contacted in the devolatilization zone. The char produced in the devolatilization zone is reacted with steam in a gasification zone under gasification conditions in the presence of a carbon-alkali metal catalyst and the resultant raw product gas is treated to recover a methane-containing gas.

Ryan, D.F.; Wesselhoft, R.D.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

57

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids - Systems and Industry Analyses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C&CBTL > Systems Analyses C&CBTL > Systems Analyses Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Reference Shelf – Systems and Industry Analyses Studies DOE/NETL possesses strong systems analysis and policy-support capabilities. Systems analysis in support of the Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Program consists of conducting various energy analyses that provide input to decisions on issues such as national plans and programs, resource use, environmental and energy security policies, technology options for research and development programs, and paths to deployment of energy technology. Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Program's Systems and Industry Analyses Studies Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Advanced Jet Propulsion Fuels: Fischer-Tropsch Based SPK-1 Case Study - Presentation

58

Energy Efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Simulation of Steam Challenge and CHP Incentives with ITEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two programs being considered to encourage energy efficiency in industry, as possible ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, are 1) "Steam Challenge," designed to improve steam use in industrial plants, and 2) incentives to encourage greater...

Roop, J. M.

59

Following Where the Steam Goes: Industry's Business Opportunity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many associated benefits accrue from plant projects which comprehensively address steam systems. The DOE-Alliance to Save Energy Steam Challenge program was initiated shortly after last year's IETC on April 30, 1998 to promote awareness...

Jaber, D.; Jones, T.

60

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Industrial Steam Power Cycles Final End-Use Classification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Final end uses of steam include two major classifications: those uses that condense the steam against heat transfer surfaces to provide heat to an item of process or service equipment; and those that require a mass flow of steam for stripping...

Waterland, A. F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Study on the Model of Coal Industry Cycle Economic Development and Evaluation System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Firstly, the development status and existing problems of China’s coal industry is analyzed. Then, the circular ... . In order to achieve the rationalization of coal exploration and use, the circular economy and coal

Bo Wang; Wei Jiang; Ji-hui Zhang…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Coal Conservation and the Gas Industry1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... won by mechanical excavation rather than underground mining. It is available, therefore, at the pit at a very low cost, and much of the German electric power supply is ... resinous bodies which cause many coals to fuse on heating and to evolve much gas, burning with a luminous smoky flame. It is owing to the absence of such components ...

J. W. COBB

1926-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

Advances in steam turbine technology for the power generation industry. PWR-Volume 26  

SciTech Connect

This is a collection of the papers on advances in steam turbine technology for the power generation industry presented at the 1994 International Joint Power Generation Conference. The topics include advances in steam turbine design, application of computational fluid dynamics to turbine aerodynamic design, life extension of fossil and nuclear powered steam turbine generators, solid particle erosion control technologies, and artificial intelligence, monitoring and diagnostics.

Moore, W.G. [ed.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Steam reforming analyzed  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Financial Impact of Good Condenser Vacuum in Industrial Steam Turbines: Computer Modeling Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial turbine throttle conditions are fixed by plant designs - materials of construction, steam requirements, etc. Condensing turbine exhaust conditions are limited by the atmosphere to which residual heat is rejected; and are fixed...

Viar, W. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office:   Industrial  Assessment  Centers.   U.S.  their   Industrial   Assessment   Centers  (IAC)  and  the  

Therkelesen, Peter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Challenges and Opportunities for the Illinois Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Challenges and Opportunities for the Illinois Coal Industry Joseph DiJohn Director Metropolitan.1.3. American Clean Energy and Security Act 7 3.2. Competition from Wind Energy 9 3.3. Expanding Export Markets 11 3.4. Mine Mouth Power Generation 11 3.5. Carbon Management Technologies 11 3.5.1. Carbon Capture

Illinois at Chicago, University of

69

EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

70

New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Performance of Steam Production by Biomass Combustor for Agro-industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This research paper aims to particularly raise the issue how optimization of steam production produced by a biomass combustor is regarded to agricultural industry, for the produced steam will consequently be applied to sterilization or even drying process. The most optimal level of steam production will be explored as to how to optimally achieve flow rate of air, rate of fuel input, the rate of steam production, and steam production in compliance with the given 100 kg/h capacity and the required temperature of between 90-100°C . Biomass steam production incorporates 3 major parts: 1) biomass combustor, 2) heat exchanger system (coiled tube), and 3) control system, administered the whole process, located at the School of Renewable Energy Technology, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok. A combustion system was tested through the implementation of eucalyptus charcoal as the main source of energy. The research finding revealed that the combustion system could generate steam at 100 kg/h which consumed eucalyptus charcoal at the temperature value of Heating value of fuel (HHV) was 30.0 MJ/kg. This was conducted within the biomass combustor, engaged with a coil tube, at the flow rate of 172.8 kg/h, the value of feed rate of fuel at 15 kg/h, and a steam production rate at 100 kg/h respectively. The efficiency of steam production was at 58.25%. When the taken result was brought to compare with a mathematical model with experiment result of steam production, it was found out that the error value was 0.9997 which could usefully be used to predict steam production in the system. With reference to the economical benefit, when compared to steam production produced by LPG fuel at 100 kg/h production rate, it was obvious that steam production generated by biomass could redeem the spent investing cost with less than one year. This would greatly be interesting and applicable to industry particularly agriculture that steam production by biomass combustor with helical coiled boiler technique will be used to energy backup for drying system. However steam production will be supported drying system after utilization in another thermal process the temperature not more than 100°C within industrial or industrial house hold.

B. Prasit; P. Maneechot

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Extending the useful life of industrial steam turbines  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that technology, uprating, and steam-path degradation reversal can extend the life and boost the efficiency of aging turbines. With the advent of modern machine tool technology, plus extensive R and D efforts, designers could apply improved bucket designs like the laminar flow design. Today's technology is represented by the Schlict design, which minimizes flow separations and boundary layer losses. Schlict buckets can be retrofitted in most designs as long as the diaphragm is also replaced. Adoption of steam-path design advance developed for new units and degradation reversal are the two areas of greatest opportunity in efficiency improvement of aging steam turbine-generators.

O'Connor, M.F.; Timmerman, D.C. (GE Power Generation, Schenectady, NY (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Preliminary Study on Coal Industrial Safety Evaluation Index System Under Low-Carbon Economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal industry occupies a dominant position in our ... problems becoming increasingly prominent, the constraints on economic development are increasingly influencing the stable and ... of the industrial security. ...

Lei Zhang; Cheng Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Optimization of industrial steam supply and steam-and-condensate farming of machine building enterprise  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article studies efficient control methods of steam condensing economy of the machine building enterprise. There are recommendations about development of complex decisions based on indicators of energy, technical and economic efficiency.

I A Konahina; N F Kashapov; I R Gil'manshin; R R Ganiev

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No. 20  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial facilities produce steam at a higher pressure than is demanded by process requirements. Steam passes through pressure-reducing valves (PRVs, also known as letdown valves) at various locations in the steam distribution system to let down or reduce its pressure. A non-condensing or backpressure steam turbine can perform the same pressure-reducing function as a PRV, while converting steam energy into electrical energy.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy  Use   and  Energy  Efficiency  Improvement  Summer   Study  on  Energy  Efficiency  in  Industry.  Summer  Study  on  Energy  Efficiency  in  Industry.  

Therkelesen, Peter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

3 - High temperature materials issues in the design and operation of coal-fired steam turbines and plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The basic design of steam plant is outlined, and it is emphasised how the increase in steam temperatures has required high steam pressures. High efficiency requires the use of feedheating, and reheating operation at high pressure and temperature has implications for superheaters. Critical issues are creep strength, resistance to fireside attack and oxide spallation from steam side surfaces. Coal-fired plant is increasingly required to operate in a two shift manner and to compensate for the effects of the intermittency of wind energy; the implications are summarised. Operation at steam temperatures in excess of 600 °C will require the use of even stronger austenitics. In 700 °C plants, precipitation-hardened nickel-based alloys will be required for superheaters.

F. Starr

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Wood/coal cofiring in industrial stoker boilers  

SciTech Connect

Realizing that a significant reduction in the global emissions of fossil carbon dioxide may require the installation of a wide variety of control technologies, options for large and small boilers are receiving attention. With over 1,500 coal-fired stoker boilers in the US, biomass co-firing is of interest, which would also open markets for waste wood which is presently landfilled at significant costs ranging from $20--200/ton. While much cofiring occurs inside the fence, where industrial firms burn wastes in their site boilers, other opportunities exist. Emphasis has been placed on stoker boilers in the northeastern US, where abundant supplies of urban wood waste are generally known to exist. Broken pallets form a significant fraction of this waste. In 1997, the cofiring of a volumetric mixture of 30% ground broken pallet material and 70% coal was demonstrated successfully at the traveling-grate stoker boilerplant of the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. Fourteen test periods, with various wood/coal mixtures blended on site, and two extended test periods, using wood/coal mixtures blended at the coal terminal and transported by truck to the brewery, were conducted. The 30% wood/70% coal fuel was conveyed through the feed system without difficulty, and combusted properly on the grate while meeting opacity requirements with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. Efforts are underway to commercialize a wood/coal blend at the brewery, to identify specific urban wood supplies in the Pittsburgh region and to conduct a demonstration at a spreader stoker.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Freeman, M.C.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Coking Coal Prices for Industry - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prices for Industry for Selected Countries1 Prices for Industry for Selected Countries1 U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton2 Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Argentina NA NA NA NA NA 37.24 NA NA NA Austria NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Belgium 54.03 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Brazil NA NA NA NA NA 106.77 NA NA NA Canada NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Chile NA NA NA NA NA 69.02 NA NA NA China NA 38.38 41.28 52.20 61.72 NA NA NA NA Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Colombia NA NA NA NA NA 33.84 NA NA NA Costa Rica NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Cuba NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Czech Republic 51.37 61.04 C C C C C C C Denmark - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

80

International Coal Prices for Industry- EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Industry for Selected Countries1 Industry for Selected Countries1 U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton2 Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Argentina NA NA NA NA NA 37.24 NA NA NA Australia NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Austria 55.54 74.15 86.26 168.56 175.88 178.48 199.93 245.60 239.30 Barbados NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Belgium NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Bolivia NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Brazil NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Bulgaria NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Canada NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Chile NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA China 27.15 30.40 32.14 43.17 NA NA NA NA NA Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Colombia NA NA NA NA NA NA 42.85 49.66 NA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

SciTech Connect

Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

82

Coal export financing: how it is done and who does it. (From the series, Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia)  

SciTech Connect

This publication, part of the series titled Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia provides information on export markets, contracts, and related matters for producers and others involved in mining, selling, and shipping Appalachian coal to foreign buyers. It also includes information on the financial institutions that provide export finance and how they are used. Senior officers of more than 40 banks ranged from the largest money center bank and a major foreign bank in New York City to small banks in Appalachia.

Kanter, L.E.; McSweeny, J.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Energy Savings By Recovery of Condensate From Steam Heating System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and reduces steam supply, saving 4061 tons of industrial water per year. The total saved steam amounts to 25.~ of the total amount of steM supply. The total saved cost is 39616 yuan per year; the total saved amount of coal is 329.9 tons per year... and reduces steam supply, saving 4061 tons of industrial water per year. The total saved steam amounts to 25.~ of the total amount of steM supply. The total saved cost is 39616 yuan per year; the total saved amount of coal is 329.9 tons per year...

Cheng, W. S.; Zhi, C. S.

84

DOE cost comparison study: industrial fluidized bed combustion vs conventional coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the capital and operating costs of two different industrial boiler technologies, each producing 250,000 lbs steam/hr: Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) and Pulverized Coal (PC) combustion used in conjunction with a limestone Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Three separate turnkey plant designs have been completed. Two of these plant designs incorporate FBC technology and have been designated FBA-16 and FBV-16. The first FBC design (FBA-16) contains two shop assembled, rail-shippable, fluid-bed boilers capable of producing 125,000 lbs/h each. The second plant design (FBV-16) utilizes a single fluid bed boiler shipped by rail in large sections for field assembly. This single unit is capable of producing 250,000 lbs/h. The third plant design utilizes a conventional pulverized coal (PC) boiler used in conjunction with a C-E Air Quaity Control System (AQCS) limestone scrubber. The FBA-16 and FBV-16 fluid bed designs were found to be competitive with the conventional unit. Capital costs were generated for the three turnkey plant designs just described. The FBA-16, FBV-16, and Conventional Unit plant designs have associated capital costs of $24.4, $22.8, and $24.7 million, respectively. A substantial cost reduction can be realized for plant capacities less than 180,000 lbs steam/h by incorporating a single FBA-16 type boiler. The operating costs for the bed designs are close enough to be considered similar when considering the nature of the study. The efficiency of the fluid bed plant designs can be increased and required capital equipment reduced by improvements to the plant design. Some potential design modifications are outlined. Extensive design and background research was prformed to increase the validity and relevance of this report.

Myrick, D.T.

1980-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

85

Case Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry Jump to: navigation, search Name Case Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry Agency/Company /Organization International Energy Agency Sector Energy Focus Area Conventional Energy Topics Implementation Resource Type Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://www.iea.org/papers/2006 Program Start 2006 References Case Studies in Sustainable Development in the Coal Industry[1] Summary "Widely held attitudes to coal's use have evolved greatly in the past five years - from those that largely dismissed a role for coal in sustainable development to a wider appreciation of coal's continuing role in providing a foundation for energy security and in meeting growing world energy

86

Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst–capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst–capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S capture, and (3) the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO–CaCO{sub 3} chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO{sub 3} was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycles. The increased steam–coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2–4% per CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier–calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO{sub 4} and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David, A

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - african coal industry Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the South African synthetic fuel industry consumed 24... of synthetic fuels in South Africa, this must also reflect their coal consumption (Figure 2). South African... was 57...

88

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

Not Available

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

91

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

92

Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Reduction: Opportunities and Issues How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions...

93

Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No.21  

SciTech Connect

Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other rotating equipment. This service generally calls for a backpressure non-condensing steam turbine. The low-pressure steam turbine exhaust is available for feedwater heating, preheating of deaerator makeup water, and/or process requirements.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Development of Steam Turbine Inlet Control Valve for Supercritical Pressure at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The development in the steam turbine business is heading for applications with much higher steam parameters since this enables a raised efficiency. Steam parameters… (more)

Sors, Felix

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Process development studies in coal gasification. Volume II. Reaction of aromatic compounds with steam. Final report, August 1, 1979-November 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research has been to explore and define the potential of steam reforming to produce light gases from coal-derived liquids. This was achieved through a study of the reaction of a model aromatic compound and of a coal-derived liquid with steam over an alumina supported nickel catalyst. The reaction of steam with benzene and SRC-II liquids over an alumina supported nickel catalyst has been investigated in a plug flow reactor. The primary process variables investigated were reactor pressure and temperature, contact time, and steam/carbon ratio. A proposed reaction network was also developed to explain the data obtained in this study. The effect of process variables on the conversion and product distribution when steam reforming the SRC-II coal-derived liquid was similar to that observed for benzene-steam reforming. The results indicated that a high yield of methane is favored at high pressures, low temperatures, and low steam-to-carbon ratios; and that a high yield of hydrogen is favored at low pressures and high steam-to-carbon ratios. The empirical rate equation for the benzene steam reforming reaction at 973 K, 300 psig, and a steam/carbon ratio of approximately 3 was r/sub C/sub 6/H/sub 6// = 1.92 x 10/sup -3/ P/sub C/sub 6/H/sub 6//. The activation energy was 88 KJ/mol, or 21 kcal/mol in the temperature range 748-973 K. A correlation was developed to predict product yields and hydrocarbon conversion over the range of process variables investigated. A second correlation was developed to predict the yields and conversion beyond the range of variables investigated. A reaction network for aromatic steam reforming was proposed. 87 refs., 47 figs., 3 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.

1984-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

97

Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

DOE cost comparison study industrial fluidized bed combustion vs conventional coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This study compares the capital and operating costs of two different industrial boiler technologies, each producing 250,000 lbs steam/hr. These technologies are: Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) and Pulverized Coal (PC) combustion used in conjunction with a limestone Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Three separate turnkey plant designs have been completed. Two of these plant designs incorporate FBC technology and have been designated FBA-16 and FBV-16. The first FBC design (FBA-16) contains two shop assembled, rail shippable fluid bed boilers capable of producing 125,000 lbs/hr each. The second plant design (FBV-16) utilizes a single 250,000 lbs/hr fluid bed boiler shipped by rail in large sections for field assembly. The third plant design utilizes a conventional pulverized coal (PC) boiler in conjunction with a C-E Air Quality Control System (AQCS) limestone scrubber. Capital costs were generated for the three turnkey plant designs just described. The FBA-16, FBV-16, and Conventional Unit plant designs have associated capital costs of $24.4, $22.8, and $24.7 million, respectively. Comparisons between plant capital cost estimates are valid and informative. The total operational costs, which include contingencies on new product design for the Fluid Bed Units, were found to vary between four and seven percent higher than the Conventional Unit. When contingencies are not included, the operating costs were found to be between one and three percent higher than the Conventional Unit. As can be seen, the operating costs for the bed designs are close enough to be considered similar when considering the nature of the study. The efficiency of the fluid bed plant designs can be increased and required capital equipment reduced by improvements to the plant design with time and more development. Some potential design modifications are outlined.

Myrick, D.T.

1980-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

99

Achieve Steam System Excellence- Steam Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This fact sheet describes a steam systems approach to help companies operate and maintain their industrial steam plants and thermal manufacturing processes more efficiently.

100

Successful so far, coal lobby's campaign may run out of steam  

SciTech Connect

The anti-coal lobby has mounted a highly successful campaign that has brought the permitting, financing, and construction of new conventional coal-fired plants to a virtual halt. But the coal lobby is not yet ready to concede defeat. With powerful constituents in coal-mining and coal-burning states and influential utilities, mining companies, and railroads, it continues to fight for its survival using any and all gimmicks and scare tactics in the book. The battle is being waged in courtrooms, public forums, media campaigns, and especially in Congress. The problem with the coal lobby is that it refuses to admit that coal combustion to generate electricity is among the chief sources of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions; unless they address this issue honestly, effectively, and immediately, their efforts are going to win few converts in the courts of law or public opinion.

NONE

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Computational Modeling of Coal Water Slurry Combustion Processes in Industrial Heating Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal water slurry (CWS) is typically composed of 60–70% coal, 30–40% water, and 1% chemical additives. It has been developed over the last 20 years as an alternative to fuel oil mainly in industrial and utility b...

L. J. Zhu; B. Q. Gu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Contamination from a Coal Tar Processing Chemical Industry: Investigations and Remedial Actions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the major cases of soil contamination in The Netherlands is presented: the site of a coal tar processing chemical industry and its surroundings. The environmental contamination, with PAH’s in particular, i...

Martien W. F. Yland

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Underground coal mining is an industry well suited for robotic automation. Human operators are severely hampered in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Underground coal mining is an industry well suited for robotic automation. Human operators approach meets the requirements for cutting straight entries and mining the proper amount of coal per cycle. Introduction The mining of soft materials, such as coal, is a large industry. Worldwide, a total of 435 million

Stentz, Tony

104

Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions. The nickel based Alloy 282 is selected for this project because it is one of the leading candidate materials for the high temperature/pressure section of an A-USC steam turbine. The methods developed in the project are expected to be applicable to other metal alloys in similar steam/oxidation environments. The major developments are: ? failure mechanism and microstructural characterization ? atomistic and first principles modeling of crack tip oxygen embrittlement ? modeling of gamma prime microstructures and mesoscale microstructure-defect interactions ? microstructure and damage-based creep prediction ? multi-scale crack growth modeling considering oxidation, viscoplasticity and fatigue The technology developed in this project is expected to enable more accurate prediction of long service life of advanced alloys for A-USC power plants, and provide faster and more effective materials design, development, and implementation than current state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from January 2011 to January 2014.

Shen, Chen

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

105

Sweetness and Light from Industry and Environmentalists on Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the nation's coal, as measured...Mid-west and Appalachia, with most of...only by deep mining.) * No proven...respect to strip mining on highly productive...im-pact of coal stripping in Appalachia, the issuance of mining permits in any...

LUTHER J. CARTER

1978-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

106

Characterization of Coal Combustion and Steam Temperature with Respect to Staged-Air Angle in a 600 MWe Down-Fired Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characterization of Coal Combustion and Steam Temperature with Respect to Staged-Air Angle in a 600 MWe Down-Fired Boiler ... The explanation behind this phenomenon is the combined effects of (i) the drop in the overall gas temperatures and (ii) the enhancement in the mixing of staged air with the ignited coal/air mixture in the primary combustion zone after the angle reduction. ... In order to reduce the oil consumption during the start up and low load operation of the W-shaped flame pulverized coal-fired utility boiler, tiny-oil technol. is introduced to the cyclone burner based on the design concept of staged ignition. ...

Min Kuang; Zhengqi Li; Zhongqian Ling; Zhuofu Chen; Danyan Yuan

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

Reduction of iron oxide as an oxygen carrier by coal pyrolysis and steam char gasification intermediate products  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of the reduction of oxygen carrier Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in chemical-looping combustion using solid fuel (lignite) provided a gasifying agent like steam was introduced into the reactor was investigated with a fixed-bed reactor. The X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope were used for the characterization of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its reduction residue. Results strongly supported the feasibility of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} reduction by lignite and obtaining pure CO{sub 2} from the off-gases. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fully converted to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by pyrolysis and gasification intermediates primarily H{sub 2} and CO, which was confirmed by both the off-gas concentrations and X-ray diffractometer analysis. A 0.75 g portion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be completely reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by the volatile matter released from 0.1 g coal, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fully reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} by steam char gasification products provided that the molar ratio of carbon in char to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 1:6. The purity of CO{sub 2} in the outlet gases was higher than 85% when Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reduced by intermediate products during coal pyrolysis, and the purity of CO{sub 2} in the off-gases was higher than 95% when Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reduced by intermediate products resulting from steam char gasification, making CO{sub 2} sequestration disposal desirable for high purity CO{sub 2}. The char gasification reaction rate was slow compared with the reactivity of the iron oxide with the char gasified intermediates, indicating that char gasification was the rate-limiting step in the reduction process. In the steam char gasification process, the times it took to reach 90% carbon conversion for K-10-char and Ca-10-char were 15 and 30 min, respectively, at 1123 K, but the time for the raw char was 50 min at 1173 K. 40 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Jing-biao Yang; Ning-sheng Cai; Zhen-shan Li [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Industrial pulverized coal low-NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Arthur D. Little, Inc., jointly with its university partner, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and its industrial partner, Hauck Manufacturing Corporation, is developing a low NO{sub x} pulverized coal burner for use in industrial processes, including those which may require preheated air or oxygen enrichment. The design of the burner specifically addresses the critical performance requirements of industrial systems, namely: high heat release rates, short flames, even heat flux distribution, and high combustion efficiency. The design is applicable to furnaces, industrial boilers, and cement kilns. The development program for this burner includes a feasibility analysis, performance modelling, development of the burner prototype design, and assessment of the economic viability of the burner. The Phase 1 activities covered by this report consisted of three principal tasks: preliminary burner design; fluid flow/combustion modelling and analyses; and market evaluation. The preliminary design activities included the selection of a design coal for the Phase 1 design, preliminary design layout, and preliminary sizing of the burner components. Modelling and analysis were conducted for the coal pyrolysis zone, the rich combustion zone and the lean bumout zone. Both chemical kinetics and one-dimensional coal combustion modelling were performed. The market evaluation included a review of existing industrial coal use, identification of potential near- and long-term markets and an assessment of the optimum burner sizes.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

NETL: News Release - Power Industry Signals Strong Support for Clean Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

May 4, 2001 May 4, 2001 Power Industry Signals Strong Support For Clean Coal Technology DOE Receives 24 Proposals, Valued at Half Billion Dollars, For Technologies to Improve Power Plants, Cut Emissions The coal-fueled power industry has responded enthusiastically to the first new government competition for clean coal technology projects in more than eight years. In a limited competition that is likely to be the precursor to President Bush's new 10-year commitment to advanced clean coal technologies, the Department of Energy has received 24 proposals for projects totaling nearly $535 million, $251 million of which is requested from the Federal government. The department is offering $95 million for the initial competition called the Power Plant Improvement Initiative. The private sector must at least match the government's share. Proposed projects would be sited in at least 15 states (some proposers did not designate a site).

110

Laboratory Study on Gasification Reactivity of Coals and Petcokes in CO2/Steam at High Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A diffusion term associated with the carbon structure may be needed for modelling the gasification behaviors of the petcoke-like materials. ... Gasification technology is used to convert feedstocks, not only coal but also petcoke and other carbonaceous materials, to fuel gas or syngas,(1, 2) which can be used to generate electricity and heat or to synthesize liquid fuel and chemicals. ... It is certain that petcoke, derived from oil refinery coke units or other cracking processes, has a much lower gasification reactivity than coal chars, especially at low temperatures. ...

Liwei Ren; Jianli Yang; Feng Gao; Jinding Yan

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Steam System Survey Guide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This guide provides technical information for steam system operational personnel and plant energy managers on some of the major opportunities available to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of industrial steam systems. The guide covers five main areas of investigation: (1) profiling a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam system, and (5) investigating energy losses in the steam distribution system.

112

Numerical study of the partial oxidation of a coal particle in steam and dry air atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and oxygen on particle combustion rate are approximately...modelling of particle combustion, studies on the in...coupled with a simple chemistry) on the influences...and velocity of the coal char particle, and...establishment of the combustion or gasification regimes......

M. Kestel; P. Nikrityuk; O. Hennig; C. Hasse

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic Prioritization of Research Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic and Policy Program #12;- 2 - #12;Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry must be developed for capturing CO2 from power plants. Current CO2 capture technology is expensive

114

Evaluation of Oxy-coal Combustion Modelling at Semi-industrial Scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Duringthe oxy-fuelcombustion processpulverizedcoalisburntinan atmosphere consistingofpureO2mixedwith recycled ?uegas whereas during the conventional process air serves as the only oxidant. This entails speci?c conditions regarding thermo-physical properties which impact both combustion characteristics and heat transfer. Accordingly, adjustments within CFD codes are required in order to maintain accuracyand prediction quality criteria within simula–tions of oxy-coal combustion. The CFD code AIOLOS was used to evaluate recent oxy-coal speci?c implementations concerning the global chemistry mechanism and the heat transfer. For validation purposes extensive tests have been carried out at IFK's semi-industrial scale furnace (500kWth). Simulations have been performed for both, conventional air-?ring and oxy-coal combustion conditions with US bituminous coal, and a comparison of simulation results and corresponding experimental data is given. In general, satisfactory agreement is observed.

Michael Müller; Uwe Schnell; Simon Grathwohl; JörgMaier; Günter Scheffknecht

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993  

SciTech Connect

Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

Not Available

1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

116

Numerical modeling and investigation of unsteady phenomena in condensing flows of industrial steam turbines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The condensation process in a steam turbine is in reality an essentially unsteady phenomenon. There are differences between steady and time-accurate calculations introduced by the… (more)

Fakhari, Keramat

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STEAMMASTER: STEAM SYSTEM ANALYSIS SOFTW ARE Greg Wheeler Associate Professor Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 9733 I ABSTRACT As director of Oregon's ]ndustrial Assessment Center, [ have encountered many industrial steam systems during... plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. [n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a...

Wheeler, G.

118

Table 40. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code 0. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 40. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 NAICS Code June 30, 2013 March 31, 2013 June 30, 2012 Percent Change (June 30) 2013 versus 2012 311 Food Manufacturing 875 926 1,015 -13.9 312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Mfg. 26 17 19 35.8 313 Textile Mills 22 22 25 -13.9 315 Apparel Manufacturing w w w w 321 Wood Product Manufacturing w w w w 322 Paper Manufacturing 570 583

119

Table 35. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 35. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date NAICS Code April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change 311 Food Manufacturing 2,256 2,561 1,864 4,817 4,343 10.9 312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Mfg. 38 50 48 88 95 -7.7 313 Textile Mills 31 29 21 60 59 2.2 315 Apparel Manufacturing w w w w w w 321 Wood Product Manufacturing w w w

120

Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These two coals represent the two main types of non-lignite coals currently used in the U.S.: a medium-sulfur eastern bituminous coal and a low-sulfur western sub-bituminous coal. ... At a commercial scale, this would likely mean that there could be a roughly 3-fold decrease in the size of the gasifier compared to the case of dry mixing coal and the regenerated calcium oxide. ...

Nicholas S. Siefert; Dushyant Shekhawat; Shawn Litster; David A. Berry

2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Inspect and Repair Steam Traps  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

122

Chapter 5 - Technologies for Coal Utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter deals with the technologies for coal utilization. Coal use in the United States had been primarily for iron and steel production, locomotives for transportation, and household heat. In addition, many chemicals, including medicines, dyes, flavorings, ammonia, and explosives were produced from coal. Coal is used in the industrial sector for producing steam and to a lesser extent electricity, and some chemicals are produced from coal. The chapter explores the technologies used for generating power, heat, coke, and chemicals and includes combustion, carbonization, gasification, and liquefaction, which have been referred to as the four “grand processes” of coal utilization. Advances in materials of construction, system designs, and fuel firing have led to increasing capacity and higher steam operating temperatures and pressures. In the United States, utilities typically choose between two basic pulverized coal-fired watertube steam generators: subcritical drum-type boilers with nominal operating pressures of either 1900 or 2600 psig or once-through supercritical units operating at 3800 psig advances. The chapter concludes by emphasizing on coal combustion, as this technology is the single largest user of coal.

Bruce G. Miller

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect

A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

Not Available

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3  

SciTech Connect

In the second half of calendar year 1998, no work was performed on the present project. The 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was operated for 11 tests, primarily with Coal Tech resources on biomass combustion and gasification. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of August 1998 was 119. Of these, 36 tests were part of another DOE project on sulfur retention is slag, and 8 were on an in-house biomass combustion effort. The test days on the other project are listed here because they demonstrate the durability of the combustor, which is one of the objectives of the present project. Also, the test work of 1998 revealed for the first time the major potential of this combustor for biomass combustion. These tests are double the 63 tests in the original plan for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. However, as part of the commercialization effort for this combustor technology, Coal Tech is planning to maintain the combustor facility in an operational mode at least through 2001. Coal Tech is focusing on utilizing the combustor with biomass fuels in very low cost, small (1 MW nominal) steam power plants. Worldwide application of this technology would have a major impact in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions because the energy content of agricultural biomass is equal to the energy content of the USA's annual coal production.

Dr. Bert Zauderer

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

clean fuel gas for the gas turbine is produced by gasification of coal, are presented. Waste heat from the gasifier and the gas turbine exhaust is converted to high pressure steam for steam turbines. Gas turbines may find application in other industrial...

Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Coal fly ash: the most powerful tool for sustainability of the concrete industry  

SciTech Connect

In the last 15 years the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct emissions of carbon dioxide. These can be cut back by reducing global concrete consumption, reducing the volume of cement paste in mixtures and reducing the proportion of portland clinker in cement. It has recently been proved that use of high volumes of coal fly ash can produce low cost, durable, sustainable cement and concrete mixtures that would reduce the carbon footprint of both the cement and the power generation industries. 2 photos.

Mehta, P.K. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

Holcomb, Gordon R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prices but rising coal prices). The Chinese government hasenergy price reform, the coal price of major state-ownedwith rising market coal prices but fixed electricity and

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler - Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we model a hybrid system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch-Vaandrager Timed Automata model to show formally that certain safety requirements can be guaranteed under the described assumptions and failure model. We prove incrementally that a simple controller model and a controller model tolerating sensor faults preserve the required safety conditions. The specification of the steam boiler and the failure model follow the specification problem for participants of the Dagstuhl Meeting "Methods for Semantics and Specification." 1

Gunter Leeb; Gunter Leeb; Nancy Lynch

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Southern Coal finds value in the met market  

SciTech Connect

The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

Not Available

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Industrialization and Urbanization: Did the Steam Engine Contribute to the Growth of Cities in the United States?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Century of the Steam Engine, Vol. 1. University Pressat Work: The Corliss Steam Engine in the Late-Nineteenth-and Adoption of the Steam Engine in American Manufacturing,”

Kim, Sukkoo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

135

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

138

Coal Export Financing: methods and trends (from the series Market Guides for Steam-Coal Exports from Appalachia). Report for January 1982-December 1983  

SciTech Connect

The new 1984 version of Coal Export Financing is published as a joint effort of the ARC and the U.S. Department of Commerce. It was updated to include information on new trends and developments that have occurred since late 1982 in coal-export financing as a result of the intense price competition from other coal-exporting nations. This includes new information on developments under the Export Trading Company Act of 1982, reverse investments, and barter/countertrade. Information previously provided on political and commercial risk insurance and on governmental assistance has been expanded to reflect the increasing importance of these areas. Any information on banks providing coal-export financing services has been updated, as well as expanded to encompass the entire United States, rather than just the Appalachian region.

Not Available

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

An evaluation of integrated-gasification-combined-cycle and pulverized-coal-fired steam plants: Volume 1, Base case studies: Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the performance and costs for a Texaco-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant as compared to a conventional pulverized coal-fired steam (PCFS) power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is provided. A general set of groundrules was used within which each plant design was optimized. The study incorporated numerous sensitivity cases along with up-to-date operating and cost data obtained through participation of equipment vendors and process developers. Consequently, the IGCC designs presented in this study use the most recent data available from Texaco's ongoing international coal gasification development program and General Electric's continuing gas turbine development efforts. The Texaco-based IGCC has advantages over the conventional PCFS technology with regard to environmental emissions and natural resource requirements. SO/sub 2/, NOx, and particulate emissions are lower. Land area and water requirements are less for IGCC concepts. Coal consumption is less due to the higher plant thermal efficiency attainable in the IGCC plant. The IGCC plant also has the capability to be designed in several different configurations, with and without the use of natural gas or oil as a backup fuel. This capability may prove to be particularly advantageous in certain utility planning and operation scenarios. 107 figs., 114 tabs.

Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Milkavich, R.J.; Booras, G.S.; Thomas, G.O.; Doss, H.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 °C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. 2. Results and Recommendations for Scaling Up  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 °C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. ... Once the existence of segregation in the bed of the gasifier with the particles' sizes used for coal and for the CaO in the preliminary tests are confirmed and analyzed, the particle size of the coal was increased to 0.4?2.0 ... In general small differences in d. readily lead to segregation while quite differently sized particles are fairly easily mixed. ...

Jose Corella; Jose M. Toledo; Gregorio Molina

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications  

SciTech Connect

PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

Not Available

1992-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

142

Research on pollution prevention and control technologies in the industry of vanadium extraction from stone coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The technology of pollution prevention and control in the industry of vanadium extraction from stone coal acts as a key factor in deciding whether the vanadium can be extracted from stone coal effectively. This paper focuses on analysing related pollutants, including their features, and major problems existing in field of vanadium extraction, as well as investigating the technology used to prevent and control the pollutants in wastewater, gas and slag. In accordance with the current efforts of pollution prevention, it can be concluded that this industry must reduce its resources, energy consumption and pollutant discharge strength, enhance pollution prevention, guarantee ecology safety and human health so that improvement in production capacity, craft and pollution abatement technique can be promoted. Therefore, concrete proposals and expectations on technological control are offered, including building up a real-time monitoring system and a decision support system. This study can help the research and development staff to understand technologies related to reducing the environmental pollution clearly and to achieve sustainable development simultaneously.

Jia Li; Yimin Zhang; Tao Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Waste biomass from production process co-firing with coal in a steam boiler to reduce fossil fuel consumption: A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Waste biomass is always generated during the production process in industries. The ordinary way to get rid of the waste biomass is to send them to landfill or burn it in the open field. The waste may potentially be used for co-firing with coal to save fossil fuel consumption and also reduce net carbon emissions. In this case study, the bio-waste from a Nicotiana Tabacum (NT) pre-treatment plant is used as the biomass to co-fire with coal. The samples of NT wastes were analysed. It was found that the wastes were of the relatively high energy content which were suitable for co-firing with coal. To investigate the potential and benefits for adding NT wastes to a Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) boiler in the plant, detailed modelling and simulation are carried out using the European Coal Liquefaction Process Simulation and Evaluation (ECLIPSE) process simulation package. The feedstock blending ratios of NT waste to coal studied in this work are varied from 0% to 30%. The results show that the addition of NT wastes may decrease the emissions of CO2 and \\{SOx\\} without reducing the boiler performance.

Hongyan Gu; Kai Zhang; Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Neil Hewitt; Anthony P Roskilly

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the slowing growth in coking coal production after 2005,the relative share of coking coal has continued to declinein domestic production of coking coal can be linked to the

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Techno-economic evaluation of coal-based polygenerationits double-digit economic growth, coal remains the principalTranslated into economic terms, coal contributes to China’s

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2010. “Development of Coal Gasification & Polygeneration insystem based on coal- gasification. ” Energy for Sustainablethrough oxygen- blown gasification to produce a syngas

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Table 28. U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 28. U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date NAICS Code April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change 311 Food Manufacturing 2,214 2,356 1,994 4,570 4,353 5.0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Mfg. 48 37 53 85 90 -5.6 313 Textile Mills 31 29 22 59 63 -6.1 315 Apparel Manufacturing w w w w w w 321 Wood Product Manufacturing w w w w w w 322 Paper Manufacturing

153

Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

Not Available

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

Lee Nelson

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

4 - Future industrial coal utilization: forecasts and emerging technological and regulatory issues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Coal production and utilization will grow substantially in the future. This chapter starts by describing coal production and consumption, with a focus on future trends. A discussion of major technology and regulatory issues for coal-fired power plants and the production of metallurgical coal then follows.

J.K. Alderman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

157

Temperature Measurements Through Dust or Steam for Energy-Intensive Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of industrial situations including those which prevent direct contact with the material, airborne particulates can make remote process temperature measurement difficult or impossible. We have developed a prototype remote temperature measurement instrument which...

Stephan, K. D.; Pearce, J. A.; Wang, L.; Ryza, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

FBC could give new life to low-grade coal  

SciTech Connect

Fluidised-bed combustion is gaining a foothold in the US industrial steam boiler market because of the wide range of coals that can be utilised, including those which are of very low grade. The prospects for using this technology for electricity generation are also considered to be good, and information is given on several demonstration plants which are planned.

Not Available

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Coal combustion products in Europe - sustainable raw materials for the construction industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The production of coal combustion products (CCPs) in all the European member states is estimated to be about 100 million tonnes. The utilisation of CCPs is well established in some European countries, based on long term experience and technical as well as environmental benefits. The CCPs are mainly utilised in the building material and construction industry as a replacement for natural resources. By their utilisation, they help to reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions to atmosphere for mining and production of products which are replaced and to save natural resources. By this, the use of CCPs contributes to the sustainability of construction materials. Furthermore, the majority of the CCPs is produced to meet certain requirements of standards or other specifications with respect to utilisation in certain areas. The standards and specifications are subject to regular revision by CEN or national authorities.

Hans-Joachim Feuerborn

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Occupational health and safety regulation in the coal mining industry: public health at the workplace  

SciTech Connect

The strategy for preventing occupational disease and injury in the coal mining industry employs several elements. Standards are set and enforced; technical assistance, research, and development are provided; and surveillance is conducted. Compensation for black lung is a vivid reminder of the consequences of failure to prevent disease. And, workers are represented by a union that encourages active participation in all aspects of this strategy. There are significant problems in each of these elements. Regulatory reform threatens to weaken many standards, there is a decline in government research budgets, surveillance is not well monitored, and compensation for black lung is significantly more difficult to obtain now than in the past. Moreover, the conservative governments of the past decade are not friendly towards unions. Nevertheless, the fundamental structure of disease and injury prevention remains intact and, more importantly, it has a historical record of success. The Mine Safety and Health Act provided for a wide array of basic public health measures to prevent occupational disease and injury in the mining industry. These measures have been effective in reducing both risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable coal mine dust. They are also associated with temporary declines in productivity. In recent years, however, productivity has increased, while risk of fatal injury and exposure to respirable dust have declined. At individual mines, productivity with longwall mining methods appear to be associated with increases in exposure to respirable dust. These trends are not inconsistent with similar trends following implementation of regulations by OSHA. When OSHA promulgated regulations to control exposure to vinyl chloride monomer, enforcement of the standard promoted significant efficiencies in vinyl chloride production (5).21 references.

Weeks, J.L. (Department of Occupational Health and Safety, United Mine Workers of America, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of its relatively recent application to coal fired steam production, fluid beds have been uti lized in industry for over 60 years. Beginning in Germany in the twenties for coal gasification, the technology was applied to catalytic cracking of heavy... system cost), use of minimum excess air required, and maintaining the min"imum reactor temperature neces sary to sustain combustion. For superautogenous fuels, where incineration. only is desired, minimum capital cost is achieved by using direct bed...

Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

162

Steam gasification of coal at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) temperature with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture in fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure: The effect of inorganic species. 1. Literature review and comments  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the H{sub 2} production with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture by steam gasification of coal in a fluidized bed, at low/medium temperatures (600-800{sup o}C) and atmospheric pressure. This work is mainly aimed at reviewing the effects of the inorganic species present in the matrix of the coal or added to the gasifier bed. The most promising species seems to be the calcined limestone (CaO), which intervenes in the overall gasification reaction network in at least five different types of reactions. The effectiveness of the CaO for CO{sub 2} capture in the coal gasifier is, therefore, affected/influenced by the other four simultaneous or competitive types of reactions in the gasifier. The effects of the temperature in the gasifier and of the (CaO/coal) ratio fed to the gasifier are finally reviewed and discussed in detail.

Corella, J.; Toledo, J.M.; Molina, G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality...

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Impact of a 1,000-foot thermal mixing zone on the steam electric power industry  

SciTech Connect

Thermal discharge requirements for power plants using once-through cooling systems are based on state water quality standards for temperatures that must be met outside of designated mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones to no more than 1,000 feet from the discharge point. Data were collected from 79 steam electric plants. Of the plants currently using once-through cooling systems, 74% could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone. Of this total, 68% would retrofit cooling towers, and 6% would retrofit diffusers. The estimated nationwide capital cost for retrofitting plants that could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone is $21.4 billion. Conversion of a plant from once-through cooling to cooling towers or addition of diffusers would result in a lower energy output from that plant. For the affected plants, the total estimated replacement cost would be $370 to $590 million per year. Some power companies would have to construct new generating capacity to meet the increased energy demand. The estimated nationwide cost of this additional capacity would be $1.2 to $4.8 billion. In addition to the direct costs associated with compliance with a 1,000-foot mixing zone limit, other secondary environmental impacts would also occur. Generation of the additional power needed would increase carbon dioxide emissions by an estimated 8.3 million tons per year. In addition, conversion from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers at affected plants would result in increased evaporation of about 2.7 million gallons of water per minute nationwide.

Veil, J.A.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

166

The concept of new-generation steam turbines for the coal power engineering of Russia. Part 2. Substantiating the long-term strength of the steam turbine’s high-temperature rotors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of constructing a K-660-30 two-cylinder steam turbine for ultrasupercritical steam conditions with reheating, the ... is substantiated. It is shown that this turbine can be constructed using the a...

A. G. Kostyuk; V. G. Gribin; A. D. Trukhnii

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

High-Temperature Air/Steam-Blown Gasification of Coal in a Pressurized Spout-Fluid Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

7-10 However, in the MEET system a pebble bed slagging entrained-flow gasifier was used that had to be operated at very high temperatures (1350?1550 °C), which required excessive energy input to maintain such a high gasification temperature when compared with fluidized bed gasifiers, such as spout-fluid bed gasifiers which used medium temperatures (800?1100 °C) to convert coal to fuel gas. ... The typical size distribution is shown in Table 2, where is specific surface-equivalent diameter. ...

Rui Xiao; Mingyao Zhang; Baosheng Jin; Yaji Huang; Hongcang Zhou

2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

168

Assessing determinants of industrial waste reuse: The case of coal ash in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Devising effective strategies to facilitate waste reuse depends on the solid understanding of reuse behaviors. However, previous studies of reuse behavior have been limited in scope, focusing mostly on household recycling behaviors or very limited types of industrial wastes. To gain a better understanding of the business reuse behaviors, this study examined the impact of various factors in technical, economic, regulatory, and behavioral categories in the case of coal ash generated in the United States. The results of fixed effect models for fly ash and bottom ash particularly showed the significance role of the behavioral factor. In both models, a proxy variable, which represents knowledge sharing among the power plants or the utility's decision-making, turned out to be statistically significant and had the largest coefficient estimates among a group of variables. This finding may imply that the characteristics of waste reuse behavior are determined more by business decision-making behaviors than by market or institutional factors. However, the role of the behavioral variable was stronger in the bottom ash models than in the fly ash models. While the reuse of bottom ash was determined primarily by the behavioral variable, fly ash reuse was determined by more diverse factors including economic and regulatory variables. This could be explained by material characteristics in relation to competing resources and the nature of reuse applications.

Joo Young Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

170

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 2: Coal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 Coal Coal is a mixture of organic mineral material produced by a natural process of growth and decay, or an accumulation of debris both vegetal and mineral with some sorting and stratification. The process is accomplished by chemical, biological, bacteriological and metamorphic action. 1 Forms of Coal Coal is a hydrocarbon that is classified according to the amount of heat it produces. Heat content depends upon the amount of fixed carbon it contains. Rank is the degree of progressive alteration in the transformation from lignite to anthracite. There are four primary ranks of coal: * Anthracite (semi-anthracite, anthracite, and meta-anthracite) * Bituminous (high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile) * Subbituminous * Lignite (brown coal and lignite)

171

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

two coal water slurry gasifiers capable of processing 1,150to develop its own gasifier technology, a core technology inthe import dependence of gasifier technology raises initial

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

total energy consumption, energy mix and carbon emission;current coal- dominated energy mix. In conjunction with theproduct mix; low production costs; high energy conversion

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Catalytic aspects of high-temperature methanation of synthesis gas from coal or steam reforming of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Pilot and catalyst tests showed that the Haldor Topsoe A/S MCR-2X catalyst allows methanation from 250/sup 0/ to well above 700/sup 0/C. Catalyst regeneration by oxidation and reduction after 4700 hr of operation restored > 50% of the original activity. The Topsoe recycle methanation process would give an over-all conversion of 95% in three adiabatic reactors, according to a comparison with results to be expected from the use of a steam reforming catalyst. The Topsoe catalyst maintained a high total surface area and mechanical strength during sintering at 400/sup 0/-800/sup 0/C for 140-170 hr in a comparison with nickel/..cap alpha..-alumina and nickel/ceramic catalyst. Prevention of carbon formation was also demonstrated in the pilot test. In general, it appeared that the use of a nickel catalyst for methanation is limited to a minimum operating temperature because of the risk of nickel carbonyl formation and catalyst deactivation and to a maximum-operating temperature because of sintering, and in some cases, carbon formation.

Pedersen, K.; Skov, A.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

The concept of new-generation steam turbines for coal power engineering of Russia. Part 1. Economic and technical substantiation of the concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of the concept of designing modern steam turbines and its application to turbines for ultrasupercritical steam conditions are considered. The results from predraft designing of a turbine for ultras...

A. G. Kostyuk; V. G. Gribin; A. D. Trukhnii

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Welcome Module Slide 1 ­ Steam End User Training Welcome to the Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam End-User Training. The Department of Energy

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

176

Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to support the steam efficiency program. Today, the Steam Team includes, the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA), the American Gas Association (AGA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (ClBO), Armstrong International... pinch technology, and high performance steam. ? Armstrong International - Three worldwide factory seminar facilities, 13 North American sales representative facilities, 4 international sales representative facilities, 8 co-sponsored facilities, 2...

Jones, T.

177

Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect

The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

Joseph Rabovitser

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

178

Comparative Study of Gasification Performance between Bituminous Coal and Petroleum Coke in the Industrial Opposed Multiburner Entrained Flow Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY : Co-gasification performance of coal and petroleum coke (petcoke) blends in a pilot-scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was studied exptl. ... Two different coals, including a subbituminous coal (Coal A) and a bituminous coal (Coal B), individually blended with a petcoke in the gasifier were considered. ... results suggested that, when the petcoke was mixed with Coal A over 70%, the slagging problem, which could shorten the operational period due to high ash content in the coal, was improved. ...

Zhonghua Sun; Zhenghua Dai; Zhijie Zhou; Jianliang Xu; Guangsuo Yu

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

179

Improving steam turbine efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the condition of a significant number of fossil steam turbines operating in the United States and the maintenance practices used to improve their performance. Through the use of steam path audits conducted by the authors` company and by several utilities, a large data base of information on turbine heat rate, casing efficiency, and maintenance practices is available to help the power generation industry understand how different maintenance practices and steam path damage impact turbine performance. The data base reveals that turbine cycle heat rate is typically 5.23% poorer than design just prior to major outages. The degraded condition of steam turbines presents an opportunity for utilities to improve heat rate and reduce emissions without increasing fuel costs. The paper describes what losses typically contribute to the 5.23% heat rate degradation and how utilities can recover steam turbine performance through maintenance actions aimed at improving steam path efficiency.

Cioffi, D.H.; Mitchell, D.R.; Whitecar, S.C. [Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

A portfolio approach to energy governance : state management of China's coal and electric power supply industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study addresses the extent to which China's central state devolved ownership and investment levels in its energy sector to other actors during the modern reform period (1978- 2008). The project focused on China's coal ...

Cunningham, Edward A., IV (Edward Albert)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

182

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

186

The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

187

The true cost of renewables: An analytic response to the coal industry`s attack on renewable energy  

SciTech Connect

In April 1995, the Center for Energy and Economic Development (CEED), an umbrella organization of pro-coal interests, released a report entitled Energy Choices in a Competitive Era: The Role of Renewable and Traditional Energy Resources in America`s Electric Generation Mix. The report purports to show that a very modest growth in the use of renewable energy in the U.S. power sector would entail unaffordable costs for the nation`s electricity ratepayers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to review the assumptions contained in the report, which was prepared for CEED by Resource Data International, Inc. (RDI). The NREL analysis finds that the conclusions of the CEED/RDI study are based on faulty data and assumptions regarding the comparative economics of coal and renewable energy development. After correcting these errors, NREL finds that a modest growth path of renewable resource development would essentially cost the nation little more than projected electricity market costs for coal-fired generation, even before considering the environmental benefits that would accompany this development.

Swezey, B.G.; Wan, Yih-huei

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

189

An in-line microwave steam quality sensor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Saturated steam is a widely used industrial medium for the efficient transfer of energy. The proportion of saturated vapor steam to saturated condensate of the… (more)

Faulkner, Christopher D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

WCI Case for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with the steam cycle of coal-fired power plants offers the potential to convert 40% of solar energy into electricity. This compares to 13% for large-scale photovoltaic systems,...

191

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industries, mainly including wind power equipment, solarnuclear, wind, solar and other renewable power at calorific

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips No.3  

SciTech Connect

A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler flue gases are often rejected to the stack at temperatures more than 100 F to 150 F higher than the temperature of the generated steam. Generally, boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for every 40 F reduction in flue gas temperature. By recovering waste heat, an economizer can often reduce fuel requirements by 5% to 10% and pay for itself in less than 2 years. The table provides examples of the potential for heat recovery.

Not Available

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Chapter 3 - Coal-fired Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal provides around 40% of the world’s electricity, more than any other source. Most modern coal-fired power stations burn pulverized coal in a boiler to raise steam for a steam turbine. High efficiency is achieved by using supercritical boilers made of advanced alloys that produce high steam temperatures, and large, high-efficiency steam turbines. Alternative types of coal-fired power plants include fluidized bed boilers that can burn a variety of poor fuels, as well as coal gasifiers that allow coal to be turned into a combustible gas that can be burned in a gas turbine. Emissions from coal plants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and trace metals, all of which must be controlled. Capturing carbon dioxide from a coal plant is also under consideration. This can be achieved using post-combustion capture, a pre-combustion gasification process, or by burning coal in oxygen instead of air.

Paul Breeze

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

Wenglarz, R.A.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

196

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JL, Kinetics of Coal Gasification, New York, John Wiley &applications to technical gasification processes- A review.kinetics of steam gasification for a transport gasifier.

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

Not Available

1992-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

198

5 - Introduction to Coal Utilization Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary The primary applications for coal use became electricity generation and the production of iron and steel. Coal has varied uses in the industrial sector for producing steam and electricity and also some chemicals are produced from coal. This chapter introduces the technologies and explains the processes for generating power, heat, coke, and chemicals including carbonization, combustion, liquefaction and gasification. These are referred to as “grand processes” in coal utilization and are explained in detail under separate sections. A brief history on the history of the processes and designs are provided with figures. The modern designs and processes are explained further with diagrams and the different boiler types and their relevance in technologies are available. The chemical processes involved in coal combustion, the involved and characteristics are summarized in table. Emphasis is also made on coal combustion and sets the stage for further reading on clean coal technologies in later portion of the book. Several direct liquefaction processes are introduced in this chapter. Although these are important, however, there are other processes conceived and researched.

Bruce G. Miller

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Coal: An energy bridge to the future  

SciTech Connect

For years, coal drove the transportation business in this country and it may be poised for a comeback when it comes to moving people and things. A hundred years ago, steam engines burned tons of coal as they pulled trains across the country. Now researchers are looking at converting that coal to liquid fuel that would fill up our gas tanks and move our cars and trucks. The technology already exists to transform coal into a liquid fuel. In fact, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and engineers have researched forms of coal and hydrocarbon gasification on and off for more than 30 years. But oil has never sustained a high enough price to kick start a coal-to-liquid fuel industry. That may be changing now. In addition to high crude oil prices, experts agree worldwide petroleum resources won’t last forever, and hydrocarbon resources like coal may be the only resource available, at a large enough scale, to off-set oil consumption, in the near term.

Bauer, Susan J.

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

200

Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics The industrial sector is vital to the U.S. economy, but at the same time consumes the most energy in the country to manufacture products we use every day. Among the most energy-intensive industries are aluminum, chemicals, forest product, glass, metal casting, mining, petroleum refining, and steel. The energy supply chain begins with electricity, steam, natural gas, coal, and other fuels supplied to a manufacturing plant from off-site power plants, gas companies, and fuel distributors. Energy then flows to either a central energy generation utility system or is distributed immediately for direct use. Energy is then processed using a variety of highly energy-intensive systems, including steam, process heating, and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Evolving performance characteristics of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of {open_quotes}semicommercial{close_quotes} facilities. These demonstrations are on a scale large enough to generate all the data, from design, construction, and operation, that are necessary for the private sector to judge commercial potential and make informed, confident decisions on commercial readiness. The projects in the program are demonstrating technologies that will encompass advanced electric power generation systems, high-performance pollution control devices, coal processing for clean fuels and industrial applications. The innovative CCTs being demonstrated offer tremendous potential as solutions to many complex problems in a rapidly changing arena dominated by energy, economic, and environmental issues. These issues include the following: air quality; global climate change; energy security; international competitiveness; acid rain; power production; and technology awareness. These technologies are expected to be of particular importance to the utility industry. Power production in the United States, particularly in the form of electricity, is expected to increase rapidly during the next 20 years. The growth in electricity consumption between 1990 and 2000 translates into the need for at least an additional 200,000 MWe of capacity by 2010. The ability to continue to use coal to produce electricity and as a source of industrial heat and power is critical. In the United States approximately 86 percent of coal is critical. The CCT Program is developing through demonstration new power and steam production systems using coal-based technologies that will permit coal to be a clean, efficient, reliable source of affordable energy.

Miller, C.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

204

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

205

The Future of Steam: A Preliminary Discussion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam production represents a significant proportion of today's industrial energy demand. But the evolution of process technologies, as well as turbulence in energy markets, suggests that steam's role may be subject to change in the next decade...

Russell, C.; Harrell, G.; Moore, J.; French, S.

206

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Evaluating Steam Trap Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~LmT " TRIf' 1 TRIf' 2 Figure 2 It has become common practice for engineers to oversize steam traps and place more emphasis on first cost than on maintenance cost and operating 766 3 4 ESL-IE-86-06-126 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial...EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data...

Fuller, N. Y.

209

Coal-Fuelled Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined cycle power plant, when used as a generic ... which converts heat into mechanical energy in a combined gas and steam turbine process. Combined cycle processes with coal gasification or coal combustion .....

Dr. Hartmut Spliethoff

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Market and equipment performance analysis for the application of coal-based fuels/advanced combustion systems: Commercial and small industrial applications: Volume B, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

In March 1985, Burns and Roe Services Corporation (BRSC) under Contract No. AC22-84PC72571 with the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) initiated a task entitled ''Market and Equipment Performance Analysis for the Application of Coal-Based Fuels/Advanced Combustion Systems.'' This volume contains the following Appendices: Commercial sector applications of coal based fuels and advanced technologies, EOS Technologies, Inc.; Estimation of fuel use and population for industrial boilers <50 mm Btu/hr and direct fired combustors <100 mm Btu/hr firing oil and gas, PEI Associates; Characteristics of oil and gas fired boilers; Characteristics of oil and gas fired process heaters; Environmental permitting considerations; States air emission rules and regulations applying to commercial/industrial boilers and process heaters <100 mm Btu/hr heat input; Advanced coal combustion systems; Application of advanced coal combustion systems to watertube boilers; Application of advanced coal combustion systems to firetube boilers; and Application of advanced coal combustion systems to process heaters.

Not Available

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Operating experience with a coal-fired two-stage FBC in an industrial plant setting  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design, operation and emissions performance of a 70,000-lb/h coal-fired fluidized-bed combustor (FBC). The FBC is a novel dual-bed design that enables it to achieve high desulfurizing efficiencies in a short (14 ft. tall) package unit. Topics considered include the dual-bed package boiler, the improved coal feed system, the controls, retrofit capability, and current status. The FBC was installed at the Iowa Beef Processor's, Inc., plant in Texas. In 300 hours of round-the-clock testing, the FBC has demonstrated an availability of 98%. The gaseous emission levels were low, with CO, SO2 and NOx emissions at 100, 50 and 100 ppm respectively as the burner operated at 20% excess air. It is emphasized that FBC's must be designed to meet the requirements of retrofit, including a remote coal handling system (for use in buildup areas), a sufficiently compact boiler (to fit in the existing boilerhouse), and a water circulation system that allows the FBC to operate in conjunction with the existing boiler.

Sadowski, R.S.; Wormser, A.F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

213

Table 29. Average Price of U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Price of U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code Price of U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 29. Average Price of U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date NAICS Code April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change 311 Food Manufacturing 51.17 49.59 50.96 50.35 50.94 -1.2 312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Mfg. 111.56 115.95 113.47 113.49 117.55 -3.5 313 Textile Mills 115.95 118.96 127.41 117.40 128.07 -8.3 315 Apparel Manufacturing

214

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

215

Preliminary Experimental Studies of Waste Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal mining is one of Australia’s most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects ... . To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to ...

S. Su; Y. G. Jin; X. X. Yu; R. Worrall

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Hydrogen production with coal using a pulverization device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing hydrogen from coal is described wherein high temperature steam is brought into contact with coal in a pulverizer or fluid energy mill for effecting a steam-carbon reaction to provide for the generation of gaseous hydrogen. The high temperature steam is utilized to drive the coal particles into violent particle-to-particle contact for comminuting the particulates and thereby increasing the surface area of the coal particles for enhancing the productivity of the hydrogen.

Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Emerging Opportunities in Industrial Electrification Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safe EI Uncertain 0 Vulnerable Figure 7a - Competitive Position of Natural Gas: Metals Industries 1000 j ! J ~ i - 200 ~ Safe ? Uncertain 0 Vulnerable 800 600 400 Melling F1.Ht. Drying Calcining Firing Appllcallon Figure 7b...-frred systems. Drying, on the other hand, is considered a relatively vulnerable or uncertain market, with significant competition from both coal-fired steam-heated dryers and such electrotechnologies as infrared and dielectric heating. Gas use for calcining...

Schmidt, P. S.

218

Energy & Environmental Benefits from Steam & Electricity Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the electricity required by TEX and sells excess power to wholesale customers in the region. It provides a large portion of TEX steam requirements, with sufficient reliability such that TEX decommissioned its coal-fired powerhouse and reduced operations...

Ratheal, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts  

SciTech Connect

Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA.

Veil, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

around 8-9% for good coking coal (IISI, 1982). Dryingof steam coal and coking coal to be $15/t (IEA, 1995). This

Xu, T.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Channel, ~ 25 mi. east of Houston ? Includes 4 manufacturing sites, 2 technology/engineering offices ?Significant community involvement Baytown Refinery Page 4 Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Process 60+ years old; ExxonMobil one of pioneers... Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview...

Gandler, T.

223

EIA - Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

category "Industrial Plants" includes coal distributed to synthetic fuel plants that transform coal into synthetic coal and then redistribute to a final end-use sector. The...

224

Industrial experience with the thermal preparation of coal batch before coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basic industrial results obtained with thermal preparation of batch, followed by bed coking in horizontal furnaces, are briefly reviewed. Precarbon technology, which, in various forms, has been successfull...

Yu. S. Vasil’ev; A. I. Gordienko; G. V. Dolgarev

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

CIBO's Energy Efficiency Handbook for Steam Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) has developed a handbook to help boiler operators get the best performance from their industrial steam systems. This energy efficiency handbook takes a comprehensive look at the boiler and steam system...

Bessette, R. D.

226

United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

natural gas, petroleum, coal, steam, and biomass/byproducts, respectively – disaggregated by end-use for each of the NAICS

Shehabi, Arman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Fluidised bed co-gasification of coal and olive oil industry wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-gasification of bagasse wastes mixed with coal is technically feasible, without major installation changes. The effect of experimental conditions on co-gasification process was analysed, to enhance gas production and improve its composition and energetic content. The rise of bagasse content increased tars and gaseous hydrocarbons contents, which can be reduced by increasing gasification temperature and/or air flow rate. The rise of temperature till 890 °C favoured hydrocarbons further reactions and allowed an increase of 45% in hydrogen release and a decrease in gaseous hydrocarbons of 55%. A reduction of around 30% in gaseous hydrocarbons was also achieved by rising O2/fuel ratio till 0.6 g/g daf, which decreased gas heating value, due to nitrogen diluting effect. Though no significant changes in gaseous hydrocarbons composition were obtained, the presence of dolomite in the fluidised bed had the benefit of decreasing tars content and rising gas yield, being the gas richer in hydrogen content.

Rui Neto André; Filomena Pinto; Carlos Franco; M. Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; M.A.A. Matos; I. Cabrita

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Experience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of two interactive stations (figure 2) where visitors can add coal and water to the steam engine at station 1 and regulate the steam pressure in the engine at station 2, as well as a number of visualExperience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive Multimodal Interactive Museum

Hornecker, Eva

231

Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Experimental characterization of an industrial pulverized coal-fired furnace under deep staging conditions  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been performed in a 300 MWe, front-wall-fired, pulverized-coal, utility boiler. This boiler was retrofitted with boosted over fire air injectors that allowed the operation of the furnace under deeper staging conditions. New data are reported for local mean gas species concentration of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NOx, gas temperatures and char burnout measured at several ports in the boiler including those in the main combustion and staged air regions. Comparisons of the present data with our previous measurements in this boiler, prior to the retrofitting with the new over fire system, show lower O{sub 2} and higher CO concentrations for the new situation as a consequence of the lower stoichiometry in the main combustion zone associated with the present boiler operating condition. Consistently, the measured mean NOx concentrations in the main combustion zone are now lower than those obtained previously, yielding emissions below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3}at 6% O{sub 2}. Finally, the measured values of particle burnout at the furnace exit are acceptable being those measured in the main combustion zone comparable with those obtained with the conventional over fire system.

Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3  

SciTech Connect

In the second quarter of calendar year 1998, no work was performed on the present project. The 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was not operated during this period. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of June 1998 remained at 108 as in the previous quarter. Of these, 34 tests were part of the other DOE project. The test days on the other project are listed here because they demonstrate the durability of the combustor, which is one of the objectives of the present project. As noted previously, this exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NO{sub x} control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. Also, as part of the commercialization effort for this combustor technology, Coal Tech is developing alternative designs of the combustor that allow its fabrication as substantially reduced costs from the present unit.

Dr. Bert Zauderer

1998-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

234

Superheated steam power plant with steam to steam reheater. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

A desuperheater is disposed in a steam supply line supplying superheated steam to a shell and tube reheater.

Silvestri, G.J.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

235

Where Appalachia Went Right: White Masculinities, Nature, and Pro-Coal Politics in an Era of Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impacts of the Appalachian Coal Industry and Its Future inCommunity Economic Identity: The Coal Industry and IdeologyPress, 1882. “Citizens for Coal. ” Facebook. Accessed March

Schwartzman, Gabe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected 10 projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the various subcontractors on March 1, 2004.

Andresen, John; Schobert, Harold; Miller, Bruce G

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hydrogen production from the steam-iron process with direct reduction of iron oxide by chemical looping combustion of coal char  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results performed with a fluidized-bed reactor supported the feasibility of the three processes including direct reduction of iron oxide by char, H{sub 2} production by the steam-iron process, and the oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} resulting from the steam-iron process to the original Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air. Chars resulting from a Chinese lignite loaded with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were used successfully as a reducing material, leading to the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to FeO and Fe for the steam-iron process, which was confirmed by both the off-gases concentrations and X-ray diffractometer analysis. The reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by K-10-char at 1073 K is desirable from the perspective of the carbon conversion rate and high concentration of CO{sub 2}. The carbon in char was completely converted to CO{sub 2} when the mass ratio of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/K-10-char was increased to 10/0.3. The oxidation rate of K-10-char by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} without a gasifying agent was comparable to the K-10-char steam gasification rate. The fractions of FeO and Fe in the reduced residue were 43 and 57%, respectively, in the case of 3 g of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 0.5 g of K-10-char, which was verified by the total H{sub 2} yield equaling 1000 mL/g K-10-char from the steam-iron process. The time that it took to achieve complete oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air with an 8.7% O{sub 2} concentration at 1073 K was about 15 min. 53 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing-biao Yang; Ning-sheng Cai; Zhen-shan Li [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

countries Recent years Steam coal for industry Steam coal for electricity generation Coking coal for industry Import costs Steam coal Coking coal PDF XLS U.S. coal imports...

240

Industrial  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products Industrial Institutional Multi-Sector Residential Momentum Savings Regional Efficiency Progress Report Utility Toolkit Energy Smart Industrial - Energy Management...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004). US DOE’s Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) are anof Energy’s Industrial Assessment Center program in SMEs

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

An economic analysis of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an economic comparison of the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology with conventional coal-fired steam power plants; the comparisons made are based on a levelized Cost of Electricity for similarly sized plants. A revenue requirement analysis was used for the economic evaluation of engineering alternatives in the electric utility industry. The basis for the MHD technology used in the comparison is a recently completed conceptual design done by the MHD Development Corporation for retrofitting the coal-fired J.E. Corette plant with a 250-MW MHD unit. A 500-MW MHD consideration is based on the Advanced Power Train predictions of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the conventional plant considerations are based on the Technical Assessment Guide of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The economic comparisons indicate that MHD is considerably more attractive than a conventional unit.

Lohrasbi, J.; Ashby, G. (MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States)); Walter, F.E. (Montana Power Co., Butte, MT (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Planning the future of Botswana's coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Botswana has vast proven deposits of steam coal, which, for a long time, the government has wanted to develop but without much success. The main objectives of this study are: to forecast possible coal exports from Botswana and the land routes for these exports; to determine the competitiveness of Botswana's coal in world steam coal trade; to make recommendations on the appropriate policy for the exploitation of this coal. To accomplish these objectives, we construct a model of the global steam coal trade and apply this model to forecast the likely optimal size of mine, timing of capacity, and choice of export port for the years 2005 and 2010 from a 2000 base forecast year. The results of our regional analysis suggest that Botswana's coal exports are competitive in Asia and Western Europe. These results are shown to be least sensitive to changes in rail transportation costs and marginal supply costs but more sensitive to changes in capital costs for mine development.

Khaulani Fichani; Walter C. Labys

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Consensus Coal Production Forecast for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rate Forecasts 19 5. EIA Forecast: Regional Coal Production 22 6. Wood Mackenzie Forecast: W.V. Steam to data currently published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), coal production in the state in this report calls for state production to decline by 11.3 percent in 2009 to 140.2 million tons. During

Mohaghegh, Shahab

246

A Methodology for Estimating the Parameters of Steam Turbine Generator Shaft Systems for Subsynchronous Resonance Studies .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The increase of coal and nuclear power steam turbines over the past few decades combined with transmission line series capacitors creates a potential drawback known… (more)

Sambarapu, Krishna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Kinetic models comparison for steam gasification of different nature fuel chars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reactivity in steam of five different types of solid fuels (two coals, two types of biomass and a petcoke) has been studied. The fuel chars...

J. Fermoso; B. Arias; C. Pevida; M. G. Plaza…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A landscape analysis of surface coal mine permits in the Coal River Watershed of West Virginia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In Appalachia, coal mining is a vital economic activity. Steps must be taken to ensure the future of the coal mining industry as well as… (more)

Kunkel, Lafe Joseph.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Effect of Steam Sterilization and Gamma Irradiation of Peat on Quality of Rhizobium Inoculants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and Industrial Microbiology Effect of Steam Sterilization and Gamma Irradiation of...Inoculants for M. sativa manufactured with steam-sterilized peat were similar in quality...higher gamma irradiation dosage. Effect of steam sterilization and gamma irradiation of...

Barend W. Strijdom; Henri Jansen van Rensburg

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Coal - prices tumble as the glut continues  

SciTech Connect

The oil price collapse was the major event affecting coal markets around the world in 1986. The 8% expansion in international coal trade in 1985 was halted, and prices fell considerably. World coking coal trade declined and import and export prices fell due to a decrease in steel production and the use of oil, rather than pulverized coal, in blast furnaces. However steam coal trade increased by about 5 million mt because of various institutional constraints to utilities switching from coal burning to oil burning. The article covers coal trade and production in the following countries: Australia; Canada; China; Colombia; Western Europe; Japan; Poland; South Africa; and the USSR.

Lee, H.M.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

NONE

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

252

Industrial cofiring reaps big rewards  

SciTech Connect

US industry operates over 2,000 coal-fired stoker boilers. They are typically over 30 years old, difficult to maintain, and hard to keep in environmental compliance. Natural gas cofiring of industrial stoker boilers offers a wide range of operational benefits. Boiler efficiency is improved because combustion air requirements are reduced (low excess air of LEA) and carbon burnout is improved (loss on ignition or LOI). On the emissions side, opacity problems are reduced and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions reduced as natural gas replaces a percentage of the coal. Further, operation is improved through easier, smoke-free start-up and warm-up, recovered steam generation, increased short-term peaking capacity, improved plant availability and improved low load operation. Fuel flexibility also increases and maintenance decreases. Cofire benefits and economics are, however, very site specific. Important factors include relative coal and gas pricing, coal and gas supply security, boiler capacity factor and seasonal use, and backup boiler capability. These factors are discussed using the example of the Dover Light and Power of Ohio.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Changes in char structure during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in steam and oxygen at 800{degree}C  

SciTech Connect

Char structure is an important factor influencing its reactivity during gasification. This study aims to investigate the changes in char structure during the gasification of brown coal. A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a fluidized-bed/fixed-bed reactor at 800{degree}C in atmospheres containing 15% H{sub 2}O, 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, or 15% H{sub 2}O and 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, respectively. Although the char gasification in 2000 ppm O{sub 2} was mainly rate-limited by the external diffusion of O{sub 2}, the char-H{sub 2}O reaction was mainly rate-limited by the chemical reactions. The structural features of char at different levels of char gasification conversion were examined with FT-Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that the chars from the gasification in the mixture of 2000 ppm O{sub 2} and 15% H{sub 2}O had almost the same features as the chars from the gasification in 15% H{sub 2}O alone when the same levels of char conversion were achieved. Both the thermal decomposition of char and the char gasification reactions could result in changes in char structure during gasification. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Xin Guo; Hui Ling Tay; Shu Zhang; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

256

Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on using vent condensers to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

257

Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on vent condenser to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine  

SciTech Connect

Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E. [Alstom (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Carbon dioxide capture technology for the coal-powered electricity industry : a systematic prioritization of research needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal is widely relied upon as a fuel for electric power generation, and pressure is increasing to limit emissions of the CO2 produced during its combustion because of concerns over climate change. In order to continue the ...

Esber, George Salem, III

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

Peltier, R.

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

category "Industrial Plants" includes coal distributed to synthetic fuel plants that transform coal into synthetic coal and then redistribute to a final end-use sector. The...

262

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

263

Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys  

SciTech Connect

Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected eleven projects for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2005. Three additional projects were selected for funding during the April 2005 tutorial/funding meeting. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on July 1, 2005.

Miller, Bruce G

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting period (i.e., 10/01/05-09/30/06), is attached. At the annual funding meeting held in November 2004, eleven projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2005. Three additional projects were selected for funding during the April 2005 tutorial/funding meeting. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on July 1, 2005. Of these fourteen 2005 projects, eleven have been completed and the final reports are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2005 and the council selected five projects for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2006, except for one that started October 1, 2006.

Bruce G. Miller

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

268

Coal flows | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal flows Coal flows Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License

269

Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept.  

SciTech Connect

Microautoclave tests confirmed that first-stage subbituminous coal conversions were greater in a more aromatic first-stage solvent. First-stage liquefaction tests with hydride ion `E` showed that high coal conversions can be obtained with a number of different first-stage water-gas-shift catalysts. Eight one-liter autoclave tests were completed. All tests used Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and Reilly Industries anthracene oil. Differences among the tests were the hydride ion reagent used, the post-run flash of water, and the shift catalyst. Filtration tests were conducted with five one-liter autoclave products of subbituminous coal. The filtration rates were slower than those that had been obtained with North Dakota lignite products, but were still within a commercially acceptable range. The influence of the first-stage shift catalyst on filtration rates is being investigated. Second-stage hydrotreating of products of tests made to simulate the British coal LSE process and the Wilsonville pilot plant preheaters had lower resid conversion and higher hydrogen uptake than the products of the hydride ion liquefaction reaction. The 300 mL second-stage reactor system went on line this quarter. Refinements in the experimental procedures are under way. A conceptual commercial plant design for the hydride ion reagent `A` case was completed. Evaluations of hydride ion reagent `D` and `E` cases were initiated, and an integrated liquefaction system balance for the hydride ion reagent `E` case was begun. A preliminary review of the final technical and economic reports from the Alberta Research Council study of low-rank coal conversion using the CO-steam process generated a number of questions on the published reports; further analysis of the reports is planned.

Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

270

Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Savings through Steam Trap Management Chris Gibbs, Account Manager, Armstrong International, Inc., Three Rivers, MI ESL-IE-08-05-08 Proceedings from theThirtieth Industrial Energy Technology Conference...-based steam trap management application developed by Armstrong International. The application calculates steam loss, fuel loss, dollar loss and CO 2 emission generation. The database allows for trend analysis, automatic energy report generation...

Gibbs, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... mature technology. Steam turbines and engines have been used by industry to cogen erate power since before there were electric utilities. While the technology for turbines, generators and controls has continued to develop there is very little about...

Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

273

HP Steam Trap Monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consumption Peak Demand Mgt Peak Demand Mgt Similar Weather Day Analysis Metering and Verafication Steam Meter Monitoring ? Peak Demand Management ? Steam Consumption Management ? Steam Bill Verification ? Measurement and Verification ... Consumption Peak Demand Mgt Peak Demand Mgt Similar Weather Day Analysis Metering and Verafication Steam Meter Monitoring ? Peak Demand Management ? Steam Consumption Management ? Steam Bill Verification ? Measurement and Verification ...

Pascone, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

275

An investigation of steam production in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) for solid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are being actively explored as solid fuel combustion technologies that have the potential to facilitate CO2 capture. While CLC and CLOU have similarities operationally, there are some key differences. In particular, the CLC process requires a coal gasification step where coal is first broken down into a syngas with the use of steam or CO2. The resulting syngas is then oxidized with the metal oxide to release energy. In the CLOU process the metal oxide releases oxygen that combusts the solid fuel, resulting in a lower residence time, as the coal gasification reactions are avoided. The CLC and CLOU systems were modeled with ASPEN Plus at a 10 \\{MWth\\} scale, and the process streams were analyzed by ASPEN Energy Analyzer to determine the amount of industrial process steam that could be generated from CLC or CLOU. Both the air and fuel reactor were analyzed as two circulating fluidized beds, with metal oxide circulating between the two reactors. The air reactor, where metal oxide is oxidized, was fluidized with air. The fuel reactor, where the metal oxide is reduced, was fluidized with steam for CLC and recirculated CO2 for CLOU. It was identified that the CLOU process had the potential to produce more steam, approximately 7920 kg/hr, as compared to CLC (6910 kg/hr).

J.K. Dansie; A.H. Sahir; M.A. Hamilton; J.S. Lighty

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Coal dust explosibility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental mine tests. The parameters measured included minimum explosible concentrations, maximum explosion pressures, maximum rates of pressure rise, minimum oxygen concentrations, and amounts of limestone rock dust required to inert the coals. The effects of coal volatility and particle size were evaluated, and particle size was determined to be at least as important as volatility in determining the explosion hazard. For all coals tested, the finest sizes were the most hazardous. The coal dust explosibility data are compared to those of other hydrocarbons, such as polyethylene dust and methane gas, in an attempt to understand better the basics of coal combustion.

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports  

SciTech Connect

COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

278

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Information on corn wet milling. Corn Refiners Association corn wet milling industry: An ENERGYas an automotive fuel. Corn wet milling is the most energy-

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increased use of biomass and energy efficiency improvements,Moreira, J. , 2006: Global biomass energy potential. Journal1971–2004 Notes 1) Biomass energy included 2) Industrial

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The 1986-93 Clean Coal Technology Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Begun in 1986, the Clean Coal Technology Program was the most ambitious government-industry initiative ever undertaken to develop environmental solutions for the Nation's abundant coal resources.

282

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

283

Solar Steam Reforming of Methane (SSRM) Program Proposals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the intended development work to supply solar HT process heat to industrial processes, especially chemical processes, the steam reforming process is considered suitable in particular.

A. Kalt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...precursors, mainly methane and naphtha, is becom-ing...liquids (along with methane) from coal-for example...forms of cat-alytic reforming of coal with steam. These too would start...can be burned to raise steam and produce electric...

Ronald S. Wishart

1978-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

285

Where Appalachia Went Right: White Masculinities, Nature, and Pro-Coal Politics in an Era of Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

York. “Community Economic Identity: The Coal Industry andCurrent Economic Impacts of the Appalachian Coal Industrypolitical economic system of Appalachian coal mining since

Schwartzman, Gabe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Coal Gasification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

287

Coal science for the clean use of coal  

SciTech Connect

Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Directory of coal production ownership, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

Thompson, B.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Clean coal technologies: A business report  

SciTech Connect

The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

McConnell, Terry

292

Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Industry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Exploration of Innovation and An Exploration of Innovation and Energy Efficiency in an Appliance Industry Prepared by Margaret Taylor, K. Sydny Fujita, Larry Dale, and James McMahon For the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy March 29, 2012 ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY LBNL - 5689E An Exploration of Innovation and Energy Efficiency in an Appliance Industry Abstract This report provides a starting point for appliance energy efficiency policy to be informed by an understanding of: the baseline rate and direction of technological change of product industries; the factors that underlie the outcomes of innovation in these industries; and the ways the innovation system might respond to any given intervention. The report provides an overview of the dynamics of energy efficiency policy and innovation in the appliance

294

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for im- proving energy efficiency of corn wet milling havefor the corn wet milling industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide forfuel. Corn wet milling is the most energy-intensive food

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

options for combined heat and power in Canada. Office ofpolicies to promote combined heat and power in US industry.with fuel inputs in combined heat and power plants being

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EJ of primary energy, 40% of the global total of 227 EJ. Bytotal energy use by industry and on the fraction of electricity use consumed by motor driven systems was taken as representative of global

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Tope Iyun ExxonMobil Chemical Company May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...-23, 2014 Proprietary 2 Agenda • Baton Rouge Complex • Steam System Overview • Energy Efficiency Improvement Strategy • Site-Wide Steam System Optimization • Results • Benefits/Wrap-Up ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy...

Iyun, T.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

299

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

300

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Review of concurrent mass emission and opacity measurements for coal-burning utility and industrial boilers. Final report Aug 79-Feb 80  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of concurrent particulate emissions and opacity measurements based on visual observations and/or in-stack transmissometry for more than 400 compliance, acceptance, or experimental tests on coal-fired utility and industrial boilers. The sampling, which includes a capacity range of a few to several hundred megawatts and typical firing methods (pulverized, stoker, and cyclone), in most cases reflects flyash control by electrostatic precipitation, although filters or mechanical collectors were used at a few installations. All opacity measurements were standardized to their equivalent values for a 4 m (13.0 ft) diameter stack before being compared with their corresponding particulate emissions, the latter expressed as actual grams per cubic meter. No discernible correlations applicable to all sources were observed, although some modest (but apparently significant) correlations were noted on an individual source basis. Report findings were sufficiently encouraging to warrant further analyses relating to in-stack transmissometer measurements.

Brennan, R.J.; Dennis, R.; Roeck, D.R.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Calculating the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of the coal concentrates used in the Ukrainian coke industry yields a mathematical formula for predicting the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state on the basis of the coal’s charac...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; Ya. S. Balaeva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

FRAGMENTATION OF COAL AND IMPROVED DISPERSION OF LIQUEFACTION CATALYSTS USING IONIC LIQUIDS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal has been utilized for coal-to-liquid fuels and coal-to-chemical industries both historically in South Africa and recently in China. Abundant bituminous and low-rank coal reserves… (more)

Cetiner, Ruveyda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Coal Ash from Thermal Power Plants in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review summarizes formation mechanisms of coal ash, its chemistry and use pattern in the Finnish industry. Coal is composed of organic and inorganic materials. The properties of coal varies from one region t...

Arun B. Mukherjee; Ryunosuke Kikuchi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

Hahn, G.

306

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical--can continue in its role as a key component in the U.S. and world energy markets. The CCT Program also has global importance in providing clean, efficient coal-based technology to a burgeoning energy market in developing countries largely dependent on coal. Based on 1997 data, world energy consumption is expected to increase 60 percent by 2020, with almost half of the energy increment occurring in developing Asia (including China and India). By 2020, energy consumption in developing Asia is projected to surpass consumption in North America. The energy form contributing most to the growth is electricity, as developing Asia establishes its energy infrastructure. Coal, the predominant indigenous fuel, in that region will be the fuel of choice in electricity production. The CCTs offer a means to mitigate potential environmental problems associated with unprecedented energy growth, and to enhance the U.S. economy through foreign equipment sales and engineering services.

NONE

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Definition: Bituminous coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bituminous coal Bituminous coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Bituminous coal A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke; contains 45-86% carbon.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull

308

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Characteristics of coking coal burnout  

SciTech Connect

An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

Nakamura, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Bailey, J.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...appreciably larger sizes than coal to other...they grew to a size to fall upon an...air-blown Winkler gasifier pro-ducing power...additional gasification medium (air or oxygen-steam...provide "pure" gasifier Test revamp Develop larger sizes Develop pressure...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

311

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...superheating and water-heating sections of the boiler...percent on a higher heating value basis. Conclusions...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

312

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Solvent–Coal–Mineral Interaction during Solvent Extraction of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solvent extraction of Poplar lignite coal was studied with three model solvents (tetralin, quinoline, and 1-naphtol) and one industrial coal liquid derived solvent. ... Thanks to its wide distribution and large reserves, coal is a feasible local substitute feed material for conventional crude oil in many countries. ... Physical dissolution dominates at lower temperature, around 200 °C and lower temperatures for lignites; the role of the solvent is to relax the coal matrix and drag soluble molecules from the coal into the bulk solvent phase. ...

Mariangel Rivolta Hernández; Carolina Figueroa Murcia; Rajender Gupta; Arno de Klerk

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

314

Integration and operation of post-combustion capture system on coal-fired power generation: load following and peak power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...

Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Type (sales unit) Type (sales unit) Energy Content Combustion (Btu/sales unit) Efficiency (%) Natural Gas (therm) 100,000 81.7 Natural Gas (cubic foot) 1,030 81.7 Distillate/No. 2 Oil (gallon) 138,700 84.6 Residual/No. 6 Oil (gallon) 149,700 86.1 Coal (ton) 27,000,000 87.6 Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmarking the fuel cost of steam generation ($/1000 lbs of steam) is an effective way to assess the efficiency of your steam system. This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler efficiency, feedwater temperature, and steam pressure. This calculation provides a good first approximation for the cost of generating steam and serves as a tracking device to allow for boiler performance monitoring. Table 1 shows the heat input required to produce one pound of saturated

317

Table A23. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" 3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" " of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (Billion cu ft)" ,," -------------------------",," -------------------------",," ---------------------------------------",,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"

318

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect

A discussion covers steam reforming developments to the 1950's; the kinetics of methane-steam reforming, of the water-gas shift during methane-steam reforming, and of the carbon formation during methane-steam reforming, as approached by Akers and Camp.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Industrial  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Industrial Industrial 8,870,422 44.3% Commercial 3,158,244 15.8% Electric Utilities 2,732,496 13.7% Residential 5,241,414 26.2% Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." T e x a s L o u i s i a n a C a l i f o r n i a A l l O t h e r S t a t e s 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 30 60 90 120 Trillion Cubic Feet Industrial Billion Cubic Meters T e x a s C a l i f o r n i a F l o r i d a A l l O t h e r S t a t e s 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 30 60 90 120 Trillion Cubic Feet Electric Utilities Billion Cubic Meters N e w Y o r k C a l i f o r n i a I l l i n o i s A l l O t h e r S t a t e s 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 30 60 90 120 Trillion Cubic Feet Commercial Billion Cubic Meters I l l i n o i s C a l i f o r n i a N e w Y o r k A l l O t h e r S t a t e s 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 30 60 90 120 Trillion Cubic Feet Residential Billion Cubic Meters 11. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in the United States, 1996 Figure Volumes in Million Cubic Feet Energy Information Administration

320

Report of Shelton wood-coal firing tests conducted March 16-April 2, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood contributed up to 50% of the Btu requirements of the boilers during the tests. The Quinault-Pacific system will permit selected green mill residues to be used in place of coal at the rate of 2.5 tons of wood per ton of coal. Green wood and coal are compatible fuels. Heat provided by the coal and other combustion effects are enough to offset the effects of moisture in green wood and in some cases improve boiler performance. The combined firing of wood with coal at typical steam rates results in better flyash collection, lower emissions, improved opacity, better cinder recovery and lower steam costs.

Not Available

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

By Coal Destination State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Colorado Total 2,113 - - - 2,113 Colorado Railroad 2,113 - - - 2,113 Illinois Total 336 - - - 336 Illinois River 336 - - - 336 Indiana Total 1,076

322

By Coal Origin State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Florida Total - - 15 - 15 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Total 196 - 15 - 211 Georgia Railroad 189 - 1 - 190 Georgia Truck

323

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

World Class Boilers and Steam Distribution System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WORLD CLASS BOILERS AND STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vernon P. Portell, Ph.D. Manager Armstrong Service, Inc. ABSTRACT categorizing, measuring, and comparing subjects which are of interest to us is the way we identify the "World class" is a... of information can also be obtained through an independent firm that provides third-party assessment of steam systems. One of these third parties, Armstrong Energy Certification, Inc., has used data gleaned from decades of industrial experience...

Portell, V. P.

325

"Table A38. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" 8. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,,"Total United States"

326

"Table A46. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" 6. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural" " Gas by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries," 1991 " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","------------","-","RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Pipelines","Supplier(d)","Factors"

327

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Colorado Railroad 575 - - - 575 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 241 - - - 241 Kentucky Railroad 827 - 12 - 839 Kentucky (East) Railroad 76 - - - 76 Kentucky (West) Railroad

328

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Colorado Railroad 514 - - - 514 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 172 - - - 172 Kentucky Railroad 635 - 11 - 647 Kentucky (East) Railroad 45 - - - 45 Kentucky (West)

329

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Colorado Railroad 385 - - - 385 Illinois River 15 - - - 15 Indiana Railroad 1 - - - 1 Indiana River 350 - - - 350 Indiana Total 351 - - - 351 Kentucky Railroad 682 - 2 - 685 Kentucky (East)

330

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Colorado Railroad 640 - - - 640 Illinois River 123 - - - 123 Indiana River 312 - - - 312 Kentucky Railroad 622 - 36 - 658 Kentucky (East) Railroad 96 - 36 - 132 Kentucky (West)

331

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Colorado Total 468 - - - 468 Colorado Railroad 468 - - - 468 Illinois Total 90 - 26 - 116 Illinois River 90 - 26 - 116 Indiana Total 181 - - - 181 Indiana River 181 -

332

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2012 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Colorado Total 82 - - - 82 Colorado Railroad 82 - - - 82 Illinois Total 149 - 14 - 163 Illinois Railroad 44 - - - 44 Illinois River 105 - 14 - 119 Indiana Total 99 - - - 99

333

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Georgia Railroad 23 - - - 23 Georgia Truck s - - - s Georgia Total 23 - - - 23 Indiana Railroad - 115 - - 115 Indiana Truck - 71 - - 71 Indiana Total - 186 - - 186 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Tennessee Truck

334

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Colorado Railroad 600 - - - 600 Illinois River 203 - 13 - 217 Indiana River 180 - - - 180 Kentucky Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Kentucky (West) Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Utah Railroad 18 - - -

335

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,486 155 328 - 1,970 Alabama Railroad 1,020 - 75 - 1,095 Alabama River 417 - - - 417 Alabama Truck 49 155 253 - 458 Colorado Total 195 - - - 195 Colorado Railroad 195 - - - 195 Illinois Total 127 - 18 - 145 Illinois Railroad 20 - - - 20 Illinois River 107 - 18 - 125 Indiana Total

336

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2012 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Georgia Total s - s - s Georgia Truck s - s - s Indiana Total - 98 - - 98 Indiana Railroad - 98 - - 98 Kentucky Total - - 12 - 12 Kentucky Truck - - 12 - 12 Ohio Total - 30 - - 30 Ohio

337

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Colorado Total 621 2 - - 623 Colorado Railroad 621 2 - - 623 Illinois Total 113 - 11 - 123 Illinois River 113 - 11 - 123 Indiana Total 265 - - - 265 Indiana Railroad

338

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Georgia Total s - - - s Georgia Truck s - - - s Indiana Total - 72 - - 72 Indiana Railroad - 72 - - 72 Tennessee Total - - 7 - 7 Tennessee Truck - - 7 - 7 Origin State Total 1,896

339

NETL: Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

340

Online Modeling in the Process Industry for Energy Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"This paper discusses how steady state models are being used in the process industry to perform online energy optimization of steam and electrical systems. It presents process demands commonly found in the processing industry in terms of steam...

Alexander, J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination, 2001 Coal-Exporting State and Destination Metallurgical Steam Total Alaska - 761 761 South Korea - 761 761 Alabama 4,667 167 4,834 Argentina 155 - 155 Belgium 989 - 989 Brazil 1,104 - 1,104 Bulgaria 82 - 82 Egypt 518 - 518 Italy 115 - 115 Netherlands 56 83 139 Spain 412 84 496 Turkey 581 - 581 United Kingdom 654 - 654 Kentucky 2,130 - 2,130 Canada 920 - 920 France 22 - 22 Iceland 9 - 9 Italy 430 - 430 Netherlands 417 - 417 Spain 9 - 9 United Kingdom 323 - 323 Pennsylvania 1,086 14,326 15,722 Belgium - 203 203 Brazil 372 - 373 Canada - 12,141 12,418 France - 84 84 Germany 495 165 661 Ireland - 136 136 Netherlands 219 879 1,097 Norway - - 7 Peru - - 21 Portugal - 634 634 United Kingdom - 85 85 Venezuela - - 3 Utah - 1,420 1,420 Japan - 1,334 1,334 Taiwan - 86 86 Virginia 4,531

342

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

343

Quantitative description of steam channels after steam flooding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam channeling is one of the main barriers for EOR after steam flooding. In order to enhance the oil recovery in steam flooded reservoirs, steam channel volumes should be precisely known. In ... methods has bee...

Qiang Zheng; HuiQing Liu; Fang Li; Qing Wang…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Coal - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Most Requested Most Requested Change category... Most Requested Consumption Environment Imports & Exports Industry Characteristics Prices Production Projections Reserves Stocks All Reports Filter by: All Data Analysis Projections Weekly Reports Today in Energy - Coal Short, timely articles with graphs about recent coal issues and trends Coal News & Markets Summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAP), Northern Appalachia (NAP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Power River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. Weekly Coal Production Estimates of U.S. coal production by State based on railroad car loadings data. (archived versions) Archived Versions Weekly Coal Production - Archive Weekly NYMEX Coal Futures

345

Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BASF North America 7 ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 BASF?s strategic principles A conscientious commitment to our investors, customers, employees...Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization May 23rd, 2013 IET Conference Meredith Bailey, PDP Engineer BASF Corporation (734) 324-5047 meredith.bailey@basf.com ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...

Baily, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

New developments in coal briquetting technology  

SciTech Connect

Briquetting of coal has been with us for well over a century. In the earliest applications of coal briquetting, less valuable fine coal was agglomerated into briquettes using a wide variety of binders, including coal tar, pitch and asphalt. Eventually, roll briquetters came into more widespread use, permitting the process to become a continuous one. Coal briquetting went out of favor during the 1950s in most of the industrialized world. The major reason for this decline in use was the discovery that the coal gas distillates used for binders were harmful to human health. Also, the abundance of cheap petroleum made coal briquettes a less attractive alternative as an industrial or domestic fuel. The re-emergence of coal as a primary industrial fuel and also its increased prominence as a fuel for thermal electric power stations led to a large increase in the annual volume of coal being mined worldwide. Coal preparation technology steadily improved over the years with the general exception of fine coal preparation. The processes available for treating this size range were considerably more expensive per unit mass of coal treated than coarse coal processes. Also, costly dewatering equipment was required after cleaning to remove surface moisture. Even with dewatering, the high surface area per unit mass of fine coal versus coarse coal resulted in high moisture contents. Therefore, little incentive existed to improve the performance of fine coal processes since this would only increase the amount of wet coal fines which would have to be dealt with. With such an ever-increasing volume of coal fines being created each year, there emerged an interest in recovering this valuable product. Several schemes were developed to recover coal fines discarded in abandoned tailings impoundments by previous operations.

Tucker, P.V. [Kilborn Inc., Ontario (Canada); Bosworth, G.B. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kalb, G.W. [KKS Systems Inc., Wheeling, WV (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Study of Chemical Structure Changes of Chinese Lignite upon Drying in Superheated Steam, Microwave, and Hot Air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Study of Chemical Structure Changes of Chinese Lignite upon Drying in Superheated Steam, Microwave, and Hot Air ... An estimated 45% of the world’s coal reserves consist of low-rank coals. ... A range of samples varying from lignites to bituminous coals were used at 30-180°. ...

Arash Tahmasebi; Jianglong Yu; Yanna Han; Fengkui Yin; Sankar Bhattacharya; David Stokie

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

348

Materials Performance in USC Steam  

SciTech Connect

The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

High temperature properties and reactivity of coal and coke for ironmaking.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Rapid growth of the steel industry in coming years will be strongly dependent upon coal. Understanding of coal behavior in current or emerging ironmaking processes… (more)

Kim, Byong-Chul

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Waste Steam Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An examination has been made of the recovery of waste steam by three techniques: direct heat exchange to process, mechanical compression, and thermocompression. Near atmospheric steam sources were considered, but the techniques developed are equally...

Kleinfeld, J. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Downhole steam quality measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

352

Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Coal Sulfur Removal From Coal By Pyrolysis EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Experimental Apparatus Experimental Procedure Analyses of the Products RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Temperature Effect Upon Desulfurization Pressure Effect Upon Desulfurization... . Treatment Composition Effect Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of' Air V1 V111 ix 10 15 20 24 31 31 35 39 43 45 49 52 53 V11 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) PAGE Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of Steam and Air . . 53 Sulfur Removal...

Stone, Robert Reginald

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

., Chemical Engineering 9/1/75. 4. Maintenance Engineering, May 1976. 5. "How Much Does Lost Steam Cost",Armstrong Machine works, Hydrocarbon Processing, p.129, Jan. 1976. 6. "Setter Steam Trapping Cuts Energy Waste", wesley Yates, Yarway Corp..., Georgia Tech Industrial Energy Extension Service, Chemical Engineering, 2/11/80. 10. ''Basic Facts & Enerqv Saving Tips" ,Lawrence R. O'Dell, Armstrong Machine Works, Heating/Piping/ Air Conditioning, May 1977. 11. Steam Trap Report - Energy Loss...

Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Sequential steam; An engineered cyclic steaming method  

SciTech Connect

Cyclic steam injection has been the most widely used EOR method in areas of the Potter sand in the Midway-Sunset field, Kern County, CA. This paper discusses the field pilot and the statistical and theoretical studies leading to the design of a sequential steaming process,plus the implementation of this process on three leases.

Jones, J. (Santa Fe Energy Resources Inc., Bakersfield, CA (US)); Cawthon, J. (Groundwater Resources Inc. (US))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Hydrocarbon steam reforming using series steam superheaters  

SciTech Connect

In a process for steam reforming of a hydrocarbon gas feedstream wherein: the hydrocarbon gas feedstream is partially reformed at elevated temperatures in indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in a direct fired primary reforming furnace provided with a convection section for recovery of excess heat from said combustion gases; and the partially reformed feedstream is then further reformed in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas and steam in a secondary reformer to form a secondary reformer gaseous effluent; the improvement which comprises recovering waste heat from said secondary reformer effluent gas and from said primary reforming combustion products by heating a high pressure saturated steam in a first steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said secondary reformer effluent gas to form a first superheated steam stream; and further heating said first superheated steam in a second steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said primary reformer hot combustion gases for form a second superheated steam stream.

Osman, R. M.

1985-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

356

Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 EXCUSES Everybody thinks his or her steam trap maintenance is good. Surveysl have shown the following are the most popular excuses encountered when managers are confronted... for steam traps. 192 ESL-IE-96-04-28 Proceedings from the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 5. Set up a trap maintenance program C. Prepare and present a report to that will: management on the results...

Bouchillon, J. L.

357

Steam turbine upgrades: A utility based approach  

SciTech Connect

In the increasingly competitive power generation markets utilities must strive towards lower electricity generation costs, whilst relying on an aging steam turbine fleet. By the year 2000 more than 25% of the global steam turbine capacity will be older than 30 years. The heat rate of such units is generally considerably higher than that of equivalent new plant, and such equipment can be further disadvantaged by increased maintenance costs and forced outage rates. Over the past decade steam turbine conversion, modification, and upgrade packages have become an increasingly important part of the European steam turbine market. Furthermore, many utilities now realize that enhanced cost-effectiveness can often be obtained by moving away from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), and the upgrading of other manufacturers' plant is now routine within the steam turbine industry. By working closely with customers, GE has developed a comprehensive range of steam turbine upgrade packages, including advanced design steampaths which can increase the performance of existing turbine installations to levels comparable with new plant. Such packages are tailor-made to the requirements of each customer, to ensure that the most cost-effective engineering solution is identified. This paper presents an overview of GE's state-of-the-art steam turbine technology, and continues to describe typical economic models for turbine upgrades.

Wakeley, G.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Chapter 18 - Future Trends in the Gas Turbine Industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The future of gas turbine systems design development and the gas turbine business is steered by several factors. Business and political factors are a far greater influence on technology than the average engineer feels comfortable acknowledging. The major change in the gas turbine and gas turbine systems industries over the past several years has been the changes in turbine fuels strategy. In the power generation and land-based turbine sector, coal has lost its “number 1” place in the USA, due mostly to the advent of natural gas fracking exploration and production. Coal still remains number 1 in countries like China and much of Eastern Europe, because of those countries huge coal reserves. Oxy-fuel combustion potentially can be used in plants based on both conventional and advanced technology. Studies have shown that plants equipped with oxy-fuel systems could reach nominal efficiencies in the 30% range with today’s steam turbines when fueled with natural gas and when capturing the CO2. With anticipated advances in gasification, oxygen separation, and steam turbine technology, plants using oxy-fuel systems are expected to achieve efficiencies in the mid-40% range, with near-100% CO2 capture and near-zero \\{NOx\\} emissions. “I am enough of an artist to draw freely on my imagination. Imagination is more important that knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles.” —Albert Einstein

Claire Soares

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Annual Coal Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Report Annual Coal Report Release Date: December 12, 2013 | Next Release Date: November 2014 | full report Previous Annual Coal / Coal Industry Annual Reports historical data (PDF): 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 before 2001 Industry Annual 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 Go The Annual Coal Report (ACR) provides annual data on U.S. coal production, number of mines, productive capacity, recoverable reserves, employment, productivity, consumption, stocks, and prices. All data for 2012 and prior years are final. Highlights for 2012: U.S. coal production decreased 7.2 percent from 2011, driven by lower electric power sector demand, to roughly 1.02 billion short tons. Productive capacity of U.S. coal mines decreased 3.5 percent to 1.28

360

Quarterly coal report  

SciTech Connect

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Nitrogen oxide stack sampling at the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant  

SciTech Connect

On November 7, 1997, the EPA proposed a Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan Call (NO{sub x} SIP Call) for 22 states in the Eastern US which included the state of Tennessee. This initial proposal was followed by proposed statewide NO{sub x} budgets in the May 11, 1998, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. In the development of the NO{sub x} SIP Call, EPA performed a number of air quality analyses and determined that NO{sub x} emissions from Tennessee should be reduced. Industrial boilers, turbines, stationary internal combustion engines, and cement manufacturing are the only non-electric generating unit sources for which reductions are assumed in the budget calculation. Emission reductions are required if specific source heat input capacity is greater than 250 million Btu per hour. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes pulverized coal fired boilers each rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 298 million Btu per hour, and will therefore be impacted by these regulatory actions. Each boiler is equipped with two pulverizing mills. Coal or natural gas or a combination of these two fuels may be fired. This paper provides the results of NO{sub x} emission stack testing conducted June 15--21, 1999, on the Y-12 Steam Plant Boilers 1 and 2. Measurements of oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and stack gas flow were also performed. Information gained from these stack tests will be used to determine NO{sub x} emission control strategies for the steam plant for compliance with future emission requirements resulting from the NO{sub x} SIP Call.

L.V. Gibson, jr.; M.P. Humphreys; J.M. Skinner

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STIPE STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hørding Pedersen Björn Kjellström Thomas Koch Erik Balck stempelmotor med dampindsprøjtning". English title: "Steam injected piston engine, a feasibility study ......................................................................................12 Stationary engines for decentralised CHP or industrial CHP

364

Central Appalachia: Coal mine productivity and expansion  

SciTech Connect

Coal mine productivity is a key determinant of coal prices and vice versa. This report, focusing on supplies of very low sulfur coal in the eastern United States, presents alternative scenarios of how the price-productivity relationship may evolve in response to growing utility demand. It also documents the next tier of projects where the coal industry is prepared to expand capacity. 19 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

Suboleski, S.C.; Frantz, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Rao, G.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Mining Engineering Section); Price, J.P. (Resource Dynamics Corp., Vienna, VA (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2001 Review  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2001 Review U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2001 Review 1 U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2001 Review (Revised 5/6/2002) 1 by Fred Freme U.S. Energy Information Administration 1 This article has been revised, deleting 17.6 millions short tons of coal consumed by the manufacturers of synthetic coal from the consumption of coal by "other industrial plants." This change was made because the synthetic coal those plants produced was primarily consumed in the electric sector and reported as coal, resulting in an overstating of total coal consumption. Overview With the dawning of a new century came the beginning of a new era in the coal industry. Instead of the traditional prac- tice of only buying and selling produced coal in the United

366

Economic environment of coal mining operations in Appalachia, United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Appalachia is a mountainous coal region, in the United States, where the small mining operation dominates. The large number of small coal operations makes the coal industry in that area very competitive, the industry concentration ratio being low. The vast majority of the small coal operations are contractors and nonunionized. There are various circumstances under which a large company will elect to supplement their coal production from their, usually larger, coal mines. The size of the coal mine is generally dictated by the size and location of the coal reserves. The optimum rate of coal extraction, and hence the life of the mine, is a factor of the size of the coal reserves and the contribution margin (coal price less variable cost). Large companies tend to have better safety records than smaller companies due to greater numbers of professional engineers and better management. Small mines have the advantage of closer supervision.

A.B. Szwilski

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Coal Gasification in a Transport Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These simulations were used to compare the response of coals gasified to those combusted substoichiometrically, to evaluate the optimum operating conditions and to predict the performance in larger-scale units with less heat loss. ... Entrained-flow gasifiers use high temperatures (1350?1550 °C) and gasify coals in 2?3 s. ... Kinetic studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of steam and CO2 gasification of char and the interactions of these gasifying agents. ...

Lawrence J. Shadle; Esmail R. Monazam; Michael L. Swanson

2001-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

368

" Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Purchased Electricity and Steam by Type of Supplier," Quantity of Purchased Electricity and Steam by Type of Supplier," " Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam" ,," (million kWh)",," (billion Btu)" ,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors"

369

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R on the gasification in air and 3.1 kPa steam of North Dakota lignitic chars prepared under slow and rapid pyrolysis of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

370

Appalachia: the land of coal  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian region of the United States is an area known worldwide for its long history as a source of coal. If any area of the Unted States is to gain from the projected growth of the coal industry, both domestic and international, it would surely be the coal mining areas of this region, including its biggest coal producing states - Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio. An important facet of the region's coal industry is not only the presence of the giant coal companies but also the small, independent operator. These men are owner-operators and every dollar spent for their operations must bring a return. There is no room for error. WORLD COAL editors have recently traveled to areas in Appalachia and visited mines that are run by these independent operators. One such area was Harlan County, Kentucky. Virtually all mining done in Harlan is underground. Shaft mines are uncommon; most operations have access to exposed seams in the hillsides. Most of the small operations in this region use room and pillar mining and productivity is quite good. It is imperative that the transportation infrastructure be improved so that the expected increased movement of coal out of the region be handled efficiently. Potential domestic consumers of coal from Appalachia are numerous. New England, New York, the mid-Atlantic states, and the South are all looking to this nearby region to help reduce their dependence on oil. Other countries also are looking to the area.

Schneiderman, S.J. (ed.)

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

NYMEX Coal Futures - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

NYMEX Coal Futures Near-Month Contract Final Settlement Price 2013 NYMEX Coal Futures Near-Month Contract Final Settlement Price 2013 Data as of: December 13, 2013 | Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 30, 2013 U.S. coal exports, chiefly Central Appalachian bituminous, make up a significant percentage of the world export market and are a relevant factor in world coal prices. Because coal is a bulk commodity, transportation is an important aspect of its price and availability. In response to dramatic changes in both electric and coal industry practices, the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) after conferring with coal producers and consumers, sought and received regulatory approval to offer coal futures and options contracts. On July 12, 2001, NYMEX began trading Central Appalachian Coal futures under the QL symbol.

373

Coke and Coal Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A. Mott at the University of Sheffield, are concerned with problems affecting the hard coke industry, which enjoys facilities for large-scale experimentation through its member firms such as ... of the body organizing this work visited the Kingston and Fulham Laboratories of the British Coal Utilisation Research Association on September 9. Mr. J. G. Bennett, director of ...

1943-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications… (more)

Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Improving Process Performances in Coal Gasification for Power and Synfuel Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. ... Considering the world’s insatiable appetite for energy and oil, the only reasonable large-scale conventional source left in the medium term will have to be coal. ...

M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

2008-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

376

Simulation of Steam Reformers for Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed. Keywords: Steam Reforming, Reactor modeling, Digital Simulation, effectiveness factor

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

The 1986-93 Clean Coal Technology Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1986-93 Clean Coal Technology Program The 1986-93 Clean Coal Technology Program Begun in 1986, the Clean Coal Technology Program was the most ambitious government-industry...

378

The Use of English Coal in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th Centuries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Rise of the British Coal Industry. Hamden, Connecticut:increasing amounts of coal being shipped to Holland, around14, p. 42]. Fig. 4: English coal exports (tons). [14, p.

Swain, Gregory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

Lynch, Nancy

380

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

Lynch, Nancy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Opportunities and IssuesBestPractices Technical Brief Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam generation systems are found in industry and in the commercial and institutional sectors. Some of these plants employ large watertube boilers to produce saturated steam at pressures of 250 pounds per square inch (psig) or lower. They distribute steam for use in process applications, building heating, humidification, domestic hot water, sterilization autoclaves, and air makeup coils.

A Bestpractices

382

FACT SHEET: Clean Coal University Research Awards and Project Descriptions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SHEET: Clean Coal University Research Awards and SHEET: Clean Coal University Research Awards and Project Descriptions IMPROVED ALLOYS By substantially increasing the pressure and temperature of the steam used to produce power, advanced ultrasupercritical (AUSC) coal-fired power plants improve generation efficiency, use less coal and release less carbon pollution. The implementation of AUSC boilers requires materials with high-temperature oxidation, corrosion and deformation resistance. These selected projects will develop new surface modification techniques or optimize existing techniques for the protection of high-temperature alloys used in AUSC coal-fired boilers and in advanced gas turbines. Southern Illinois University (Carbondale, Ill.) - Southern Illinois University Carbondale

383

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Steam turbine materials and corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. The list of alloys being examined is discussed, including the addition of new alloys to the study. These include alloy 625, selected because of its use as one of the two alloys used for turbine rotors, valves, casings, blading and bolts in the European AD700 full-scale demonstration plant (Scholven Unit F). The other alloy, alloy 617, is already one of the alloys currently being examined by this project. Other new alloys to the study are the three round robin alloys in the UK-US collaboration: alloys 740, TP347HFG, and T92. Progress on the project is presented on cyclic oxidation in 50% air – 50% water vapor, furnace exposures in moist air, and thermogravimetric analysis in argon with oxygen saturated steam. An update on the progress towards obtaining an apparatus for high pressure exposures is given.

Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

Thomas Lynch

2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

Section 5 - Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal has the longest history of use among the fossil fuels, with use as a fuel dating to 3000 BC in China and Wales. Marco Polo’s “Description of the World” (1298) comments on many novel customs and practices of China, including the use of “stones that burn like logs” (coal). By the thirteenth century the mining of coal was widespread in England in regions such as Durham, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and North and South Wales. By the early seventeenth century nearly half of England’s maritime trade consisted of coal exports. Coal was the fuel that launched the Industrial Revolution in Europe and then the United States. By the late 1890s, the U.S. assumed the lead in world coal production. Britain now ranked second, after having been the world leader since the beginnings of the formal industry in the 1500s. Germany was third, an indication of its growing industrial power relative to continental rival France. Coal’s leading role in energy use peaked in the early twentieth century, after which it was supplanted by oil and natural gas. By the late twentieth century China’s rapid economic expansion, surging demand for electricity, and prodigious coal resources combined to propel it to become the world leader in production. Continuous improvements in coal mining technology have produced lower costs, improved safety, and greater labor productivity. John Buddle introduced the first air pump to ventilate coal mines (1803), followed shortly by the miner’s safety lamps that were developed independently by Sir Humphry Davy, William Clanny, and George Stephenson (1813-1816). Coal mining underwent a rapid transition in the 1880s to mechanical coal cutting in mines in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia. The St. Joseph Lead Company of Missouri (1900) invented the first underground mine roof bolts that became a key safety feature in underground coal mines. The first commercially successful bucket wheel excavator was used at the Luise Mine in Braunkohlemwerke, Germany (1925), followed by the first successful continuous miners in U.S. underground coal mining (1948). The first mechanized U.S. longwall mining system appeared in 1951, and was followed by the self-advancing hydraulic longwall support system that provided greater support for the roof of the mine. LeTourneau Technologies, Inc. of Texas manufactured the largest rubber tired front-end wheel loader in the world, the L-2350, which would play an important role in loading coal in Wyoming’s large surface mines (2005). Coal mining has always been a very hazardous occupation, and has produced some of history’s worst industrial disasters. The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, caused the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France (1906). An explosion in a coal mine in Liaoning province in northeastern China killed more than 1,500 Chinese miners (1942), as did other major accidents in Ky?sh?, Japan (1914), Wankie, Rhodesia (1972), Wales (1913), Bihar, India (1965), and West Virginia, U.S. (1907), to name just a few. Legislation such as the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act in the U.S. (1969) improved working conditions in many nations. The Great Smog of London (1952) occurred after an exceptionally cold winter forced homes and factories to burn large quantities of coal. A temperature inversion formed, trapping pollutants above the ground. More than 4,000 people died from respiratory ailments within the following week. The use of coal has been impacted by legislation to control the environmental impacts associated with its mining and combustion. The first known environmental regulation of coal dates to 1306 when King Edward II of England prohibited burning sea coal while Parliament was in session because of its offensive smoke. Sulfur dioxide from coal combustion was tied to acid rain in the 1960s, and carbon dioxide emissions became a concern beginning in the 1980s when climate change emerged as a critical environmental issue.

Cutler J. Cleveland; Christopher Morris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Geothermal steam quality testing  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal steam quality and purity have a significant effect on the operational efficiency and life of geothermal steam turbines and accessory equipment. Poor steam processing can result in scaled nozzles/blades, erosion, corrosion, reduced utilization efficiency, and early fatigue failures accelerated by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Upsets formed by undetected slugs of liquid entering the turbine can cause catastrophic failure. The accurate monitoring and determination of geothermal steam quality/purity is intrinsically complex which often results in substantial errors. This paper will review steam quality and purity relationships, address some of the errors, complexities, calibration and focus on: thermodynamic techniques for evaluating and monitoring steam quality by use of the modified throttling calorimeters.

Jung, D.B. [Two-Phase Engineering & Research, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Steam generator support system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Steam generator support system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

Moldenhauer, J.E.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

392

Multi-point and Multi-level Solar Integration into a Conventional Coal-Fired Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The integration assists the power plant to reduce coal (gas) consumption and pollution emission or to increase power output. ... The solar direct generated steam is used to replace part of the steam extractions from turbines. ... In other words, the solar heat carried by steam does not enter the turbine directly, different from that in other solar-power-generating systems. ...

Qin Yan; Yongping Yang; Akira Nishimura; Abbas Kouzani; Eric Hu

2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

393

Task 1: Steam Oxidation,”  

SciTech Connect

Need to improve efficiency, decrease emissions (esp. CO2) associated with the continued use of coal for power generation

I. G. Wright and G. R. Holcomb

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1994. Steam Coal Utilization Technology. Beijing. ChinaFazhan Baogao (World Coal Industry Development Report).Editorial Board of the China Coal Industry Yearbook. 1982-

Fridley, Ed., David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Invisibility of Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Almost everyone “knows” that steam is visible. After all one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature falls below 100 °C (under standard conditions).

Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...protect the glass from the products of combustion of the coal. 15. During the English...production of 2000 C superheated steam in a combustion section. Rapid va-porization and cracking...more difficult to picture coming from syngas; hence, even as coal's im-portance...

Ronald S. Wishart

1978-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

398

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...15.7 Nuclear 3.1 Geothermal Negligible 1973, use...home and commercial heating, transporta-tion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

399

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production Southern Research Institute (SRI) Project Number: FE0012054 Project Description The focus of the project will be to develop, test, and optimize steam-reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, NH3, and CH4 in high-temperature and sulfur environments, increasing the ratio of hydrogen in syngas, as part of a modified, advanced gasification platform for the conversion of low-rank coals to syngas for coal-to-liquid and integrated gasification combined cycle applications. Project Details Program Background and Project Benefits Project Scope and Technology Readiness Level Accomplishments Contacts, Duration, and Cost Project Images Abstract Performer website: Southern Research Institute

400

Process modeling and thermodynamic analysis of Lurgi fixed-bed coal gasifier in an SNG plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive steady state kinetic model of a commercial-scale pressurized Lurgi fixed-bed dry bottom coal gasifier. The model is developed using the simulator Aspen Plus. Five sequential modules: drying zone, pyrolysis zone, gasification zone, combustion zone and overall heat recovery unit, are considered in the main process model. A non-linear programming (NLP) model is employed to estimate the pyrolysis products, which include char, coal gas and high-weight hydrocarbons/distillable liquids (tar, phenol, naphtha and oil). To accelerate solution convergence, an external FORTRAN subroutine is used to simulate the kinetics of the combustion and gasification processes which are formulated in terms of a series of continuous stirred-tank reactors. The model is validated with industrial data. The effects of two key operating parameters, namely oxygen/coal mass ratio and steam/coal mass ratio, on the thermodynamic efficiencies of the Lurgi gasifier and the gasification system as a whole are investigated via extensive simulation studies.

Chang He; Xiao Feng; Khim Hoong Chu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Options for Generating Steam Efficiently  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

Ganapathy, V.

402

Coal production 1984. [USA; 1984  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1984 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (PL 93-275) as amended. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, and the 1983 coal preparation and shipments data presented in Appendix C, were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1984. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 76.3% of all US coal mining operations in 1984. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1984.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

China's Present Situation of Coal Consumption and Future Coal Demand Forecast  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article analyzes China's coal consumption changes since 1991 and proportion change of coal consumption to total energy consumption. It is argued that power, iron and steel, construction material, and chemical industries are the four major coal consumption industries, which account for 85% of total coal consumption in 2005. Considering energy consumption composition characteristics of these four industries, major coal demand determinants, potentials of future energy efficiency improvement, and structural changes, etc., this article makes a forecast of 2010s and 2020s domestic coal demand in these four industries. In addition, considering such relevant factors as our country's future economic growth rate and energy saving target, it forecasts future energy demands, using per unit GDP energy consumption method and energy elasticity coefficient method as well. Then it uses other institution's results about future primary energy demand, excluding primary coal demand, for reference, and forecasts coal demands in 2010 and 2020 indirectly. After results comparison between these two methods, it is believed that coal demands in 2010 might be 2620–2850 million tons and in 2020 might be 3090–3490 million tons, in which, coal used in power generation is still the driven force of coal demand growth.

Wang Yan; Li Jingwen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

The atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustion of coal in the Netherlands, cleaner it can't be  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal in atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustors for the generation of process steam is still a viable option for industrial applications world wide but interest in this as and electricity generation technology has also grown. The general advantages of AB-FBC are environmental acceptability and great fuel flexibility. As will be shown in this paper, it has a great potential for meeting possible future, even more stringent, regulations. Since 1979, Stork Boilers, TNO and Twente University have been carrying out a joint national research programme aimed at the design of industrial installations operating to stringent emission standards. This has led to the demonstration of a 90 MWth industrial boiler at the AKZO Chemical Works. The work has been under the control of NOVEM, the Netherlands Agency of Energy and the Environment. This body provides the financial resources on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs by awarding annual contracts.

van Gasselt, M.L.G. (TNO-Apeldoorn, P.O. Box 342,7300 AH Apeldoorn (NL))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

NONE

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Solar Steam Nanobubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar Steam Nanobubbles ... The generated steam may also be used to drive a turbine directly for electricity generation. ... Furthermore, sputtering at gas–solid and gas–liquid interfaces may occur, and thermal desorption at the metal–water interface may affect the heat transfer as well. ...

Albert Polman

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

407

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

408

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Railroad 105 - 1 - 106 Georgia Truck s - 4 - 4 Georgia Total 105 - 5 - 110 Indiana Railroad - 106 - - 106 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,065 259 321 - 2,644

409

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Georgia Railroad 9 - - - 9 Georgia Truck 7 - 5 - 12 Georgia Total 16 - 5 - 21 Indiana Railroad - 126 - - 126 Tennessee Truck - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,320 353 325 - 2,998 Railroad 848 137 83 - 1,068

410

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Georgia Railroad 52 - - - 52 Georgia Truck s - 5 - 5 Georgia Total 52 - 5 - 57 Indiana Railroad - 65 - - 65 Origin State Total 1,855 304 313 - 2,472 Railroad 996 81 89 - 1,165

411

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect

The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

None

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Georgia Total s - 3 - 3 Georgia Truck s - 3 - 3 Ohio Total - 3 - - 3 Ohio River - 3 - - 3 Origin State Total 1,942 163 338 - 2,443 Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 River 741 3 - - 745 Truck 52 160

413

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Georgia Truck s - 2 - 2 Indiana Railroad - 148 - - 148 Ohio Railroad - 25 - - 25 Ohio River - 18 - - 18 Ohio Total - 43 - - 43 Origin State Total 1,760 373 305 - 2,438 Railroad 1,040 191 80 - 1,311 River

414

The value of steam turbine upgrades  

SciTech Connect

Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Field measurement of solid particle erosion in utility steam turbines  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, extensive field testing has characterized solid particle erosion (SPE) in terms of size and frequency. This is particularly important because SPE damage to large steam turbine components can degrade plant efficiency, increasing operating costs by up to $3 million/yr per unit for a total of $150 million nationwide. The objective was to characterize under various operating conditions the level and distribution of magnetite particles in turbine steam and the resulting SPE. The project team developed a field test program to characterize the solid particles in turbine steam and measure the erosion resistance of various coatings. At Dayton Power Light, a 600-MW turbine generator unit with a coal-fired once-through supercritical boiler was fitted with two steam sampling systems, the first for isokinetic sampling and the second for erosion evaluation. The team took roughly 300 isokinetic steam samples from the main steam line during both startup and full-load operation. They condensed and filtered each steam sample, then determined the level and distribution of magnetite particles.

Duncan, D.; Vohr, J.H.; Shalvoy, R.S. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Turbine Technology Dept.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report  

SciTech Connect

X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Weak economy and politics worry US coal operators  

SciTech Connect

A potential decrease in demand, a new administration, and production constraints have coal operators worried about prospects for 2009. This and other interesting facts are revealed in this 2009 forecast by the journal Coal Age. Results are presented of the survey answered by 69 of the 646 executives contacted, on such questions about expected coal production, coal use, attitude in the coal industry, capital expenditure on types of equipment and productive capacity. Coal Age forecasts a 2.3% decline in coal production in 2009, down to 1.145 billion tons from 1.172 billion tons. 8 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Mining Industry Profile  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. mining industry consists of the search for, extraction, beneficiation, and processing of naturally occurring solid minerals from the earth. These mined minerals include coal, metals such...

419

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Coal availability and coal recoverability studies: A reevaluation of the United States coal resources  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative program between the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Bureau of Mines (USBM), and geological agencies of the principal coal-bearing States has began to (1) identify and delineate current major land-use/environmental and technologic/geologic restrictions on the availability of coal resources; (2) estimate the amount of remaining coal resources that may be available for development under those constraints; (3) estimate the amount that can be economically extracted and marketed; and (4) identify possible social and economic disruptions that could occur within local and regional economies as coal resources are exhausted. Within major coal-producing regions, selected 7.5-minute quadrangles are chosen to represent variations in geology, topography, and land-use patterns so that results might be extrapolated throughout the entire region. After identifying State and Federal coal mining regulations, USGS and State scientists consult with local coal-industry engineers, geologists, and mine operators to ascertain local mining practices. Coal bed outcrop lines, current and past mined areas, and restrictions to mining are plotted at 1:24,000 scale and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are applied. Coal availability/recoverability studies have expanded into the central and northern Appalachian regions, Illinois basin, and Powder River basin. The first four basins, with 75% of current US coal production, should be completed by 1998. The total program is designed to cover 150 quadrangles from within the 11 major coal regions of the US. These 11 regions represent 97% of current US coal production. Planned project completion is 2001.

Carter, M.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Teeters, D.D. [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Coal, geophysics, U.S. power generation, and mine safety  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...before and combustion waste is being recycled...permission). The industry has done a good...ones, but coal gasification plants can squeeze...sector, the coal industry has done little...before and combustion waste is being recycled...under way. The industry has done a good...

Lawrence M. Gochioco

423

Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

424

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends  

SciTech Connect

Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Coal Mine Safety Telecom Economic Functional StateEconomic Functional Ministry of Transport Work Safety Social Coaleconomic lifeline?) industries: military engineering, electricity, oil and petrochemical, coal,

Tsai, Chung-min

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 (Thousand Short Tons) " " Coal-Exporting State and Destination ",,"Metallurgical ","Steam ","Total "," " "Alabama ",,3977,"-",3977," " ," Argentina ",225,"-",225," " ," Belgium ",437,"-",437," " ," Brazil ",1468,"-",1468," " ," Bulgaria ",75,"-",75," " ," Egypt ",363,"-",363," " ," Germany ",71,"-",71," " ," Italy ",61,"-",61," " ," Netherlands ",219,"-",219," " ," Spain ",415,"-",415," " ," Turkey ",362,"-",362," "

429

Refurbishing steam turbines  

SciTech Connect

Power-plant operators are reducing maintenance costs of their aging steam turbines by using wire-arc spray coating and shot peening to prolong the service life of components, and by replacing outmoded bearings and seals with newer designs. Steam-turbine operators are pressed with the challenge of keeping their aging machines functioning in the face of wear problems that are exacerbated by the demand for higher efficiencies. These problems include intense thermal cycling during both start-up and shutdown, water particles in steam and solid particles in the air that pit smooth surfaces, and load changes that cause metal fatigue.

Valenti, M.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

The nuclear heated steam reformer — Design and semitechnical operating experiences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Good operating experiences of the EVA I- and EVA II-plant have been described. Therin the comparison of the different catalyst concepts has been given. Further the behaviour of the bundle of EVA II plant by isolation of individual reformer tubes as well as the performance of the bundle under transient conditions have been explained. Different design concepts for a nuclear heated steam reformer based on the concentric tubes and baffles have been given. Main points of studies are constructional details, thermohydraulic of the bundle and stress analysis. It can be shown that the present standard of knowledge allows the application of the steam reformer for coal refinement with nuclear heat.

J. Singh; H.F. Niessen; R. Harth; H. Fedders; H. Reutler; W. Panknin; W.D. Müller; H.G. Harms

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

432

Water Use at Pulverized Coal Power Plants with Postcombustion Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water Use at Pulverized Coal Power Plants with Postcombustion Carbon Capture and Storage ... (24) When CO2 is captured, the heat rejected around the primary condenser does not include the steam extracted for CO2 regeneration. ...

Haibo Zhai; Edward S. Rubin; Peter L. Versteeg

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

433

Theoretical principles of use of coal fractions with different densities for combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is reasonable to complement the conventional preparation of steam coal involving the removal of ash components and pyritic sulfur by the isolation of the lightest organic fractions, which possess enhanced p...

S. G. Gagarin; A. M. Gyul’maliev

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Investigation of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plants for power, heat, syngas, and hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methodology for determination of technical and economic efficiency of coal fired combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CCCP) with low-pressure ... steam-gas generator and continuous flow gasifier at combined pro...

V. E. Nakoryakov; G. V. Nozdrenko; A. G. Kuzmin

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Development of the Shell-Koppers Coal Gasification Process [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Development of the Shell-Koppers...entrained-bed technology, is characterized...production of a clean gas without by-products...featuring both gas and steam turbines. The integration...feed coals. The development programme includes...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

437

Coal royalty valuation: The federal perspective  

SciTech Connect

The MMS has embarked upon an aggressive coal royalty valuation odyssey, for which there is no common law mandated statutory basis. Accordingly, any form of deference to MMS interpretations, policy pronouncements and even regulatory rulemaking is tantamount to feeding steroids to King Kong. The coal industry must be vigilant first and pro-active second. The stark issue is {open_quotes}what we will yet permit the Federal Coal Valuation Program to become?{close_quotes}

McGee, B.E. [Parcel, Mauro, Hultin & Spaanstra, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

NONE

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Steam Champions in Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into equivalent corporate rewards, such as increased profitability, reliability, workplace safety, and other benefits. The prerequisites for becoming a true steam champion will include engineering, business, and management skills....

Russell, C.

440

Steam Trap Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characteristics. 2. Understand advantages and limitations of various checking methods. 3. Use more than one checking method. 4. Understand flash condensate. 5. Condensate makes more noise than steam. 6. Trouble shoot the system. 7. Review trap... or failed steam and condensate flow~' H closed to be undetected -Not always insensitive to back ground or ambient noise -Noise in electrical system if volume too high -Head set quality important -Location of probe on trap, contact force, pressure drop...

Murphy, J. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industrial steam coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Simulation of steam reformers for methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed.

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

Not Available

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Influences of energy economy on steam turbine design  

SciTech Connect

The pulp and paper industry uses condensing, backpressure, and automatic extraction types of steam turbines. Small drive turbines have better efficiency with multiple stages. The author presents a summary of some alternate steam turbine designs and shows the impact on operating energy costs. There is a summary of operating parameters for various cogeneration design options with illustration of the relative energy cost of each of the various designs.

Garner, J.W. (BE and K Engineering, Morrisville, NC (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Analysis and scaling of a two-stage fluidized bed for drying of fine coal particles using Shannon entropy, thermodynamic exergy and statistical methods.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Liquid water (moisture) in coal causes a number of economic and environmental issues for the mining and electrical power generation industries. Coal preparation plants utilize… (more)

Rowan, Steven Lee.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Gordon H. Holcomb

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Friedmann Talks Climate, CCS at National Coal Council Meeting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The coal industry must move aggressively to adapt to the new realities brought about by climate change. That’s the message that Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal Dr. Julio Friedmann delivered in a keynote address at the 30th annual meeting of the National Coal Council May 14 in Washington, DC.

448

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

449

Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.

Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

450

Oxidation of alloys targeted for advanced steam turbines  

SciTech Connect

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, D.E.

2006-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

451

Industry strengths open new services opportunities  

SciTech Connect

The environmental service industry is in a state of transition in which innovative technologies are increasingly playing a critical role. These changes play to the strengths of the chemical industry, and several firms are effectively growing environmental businesses. At the same time, chemical companies, which are among the largest buyers of environmental services, are making decisions that reflect the changes. Du Pont, for example, has decided to rethink its involvement with the controversial Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. Initially expecting a shortage of incineration capacity, Du Pont had signed a contract - along with BASF and Chemical Waste Management - for a share of capacity at the 60,000-tons/year WTI unit. A number of chemical firms are leveraging their strengths. Air Products and Chemicals (Allentown, PA), for one, has partnerships in the waste-to-energy and flue-gas desulfurization businesses. The company runs cogeneration plants that can burn a combination of coal and natural gas to make both steam and electricity. Air Products assorted businesses can be strong at different times, says Hinman. The flue-gas desulfurization business, for example, was active during the first phase of enforcement of the 1990 Clean Air Act requirements for lower sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions.

Heller, K.

1993-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

452

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2008 2008 Final May 2010 2008 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report contains actual annual data instead of imputed data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the

453

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

EIA - Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination Destination Glossary Home > Coal> Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination Release Date: January 2006 Next Release Date: 2006 Distribution of U.S Coal by Destination Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2004 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: ALASKA State of Origin by Method of Transportation Electricity Generation Coke Plants Industrial Plants (Except Coke) Residential and Commercial Total Alaska 460 - - 497 957 Railroad 256 - - 497 753 Truck 204 - - * 204 State Total 460 - - 497 957 Railroad 256 - - 497 753 Truck 204 - - * 204 EIA - Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination

455

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect

The literature relating to the kinetics of methane-steam reforming involving integral and differential reactor data, porous nickel catalysts and nickel foil, and data over large ranges of temperature (500 to 1700/sup 0/F), pressure (0.01 to 50 atm), and intrinsic catalyst activities (200,000-fold) was reviewed. A simple reversible first-order kinetic expression for the steam-methane reaction appears to be applicable throughout the operable region of steam-to-carbon ratios. Internal pore diffusion limitation on the conversion rate, due to catalyst size and/or intrinsic catalyst activity and total operating pressure was underlined. S-shaped Arrhenium plots (changing activation energy) are obtained when steam reforming is conducted over a temperature range sufficient to produce intrinsic kinetics (low temperature, inactive catalyst, or small catalyst size), pore diffusional limitations, and reaction on the outside surface. Homogeneous gas-phase kinetics appear to contribute only at relatively high temperature (1400/sup 0/F). In steam reforming, the water-gas shift reaction departs from its equilibrium position, especially at low methane conversion level. A general correlation of approach to water-gas shift equilibration as a function of conversion level only was indicated. (DP) 18 figures, 6 tables.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Retail Supplier Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Kentucky Department for Energy Development and Independence Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state. The Department of Natural Resources under the authority of the Energy and Environment Cabinet is responsible for enforcing these laws and assuring compliance with the 1977 Federal Surface Mining Control Act (SMCRA). The Division of Mine Reclamation and Enforcement is responsible for inspecting

457

Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

NONE

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

NONE

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Topping PCFB combustion plant with supercritical steam pressure  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted to develop a new type of coal fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a second generation or topping pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion (topping PCFB) plant, offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 46 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized coal fired plants with scrubbers. The topping PCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer fuel gas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2,300 F and higher. After completing pilot plant tests of a carbonizer, a PCFB, and a gas turbine topping combustor, all being developed for this new plant, the authors calculated a higher heating value efficiency of 46.2 percent for the plant. In that analysis, the plant operated with a conventional 2,400 psig steam cycle with 1,000 F superheat and reheat steam and a 2.5 inch mercury condenser back pressure. This paper identifies the efficiency gains that this plant will achieve by using supercritical pressure steam conditions.

Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); White, J. [Parsons Power Group Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland  

SciTech Connect

Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Table 7.7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million kWh) (million kWh) (million kWh) (billion cu ft) (billion cu ft)

462

Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (kWh) (kWh) (kWh) (1000 cu ft) (1000 cu ft) (1000 cu ft) (million Btu)

463

Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

464

Coal-fired diesel generator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)  

SciTech Connect

The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

G. R. Holcomb

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Reduction in Unit Steam Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

Gombos, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

Thomas, Andrew

468

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper discusses the applications of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation. Consultants, plant engineers and plant developers can evaluate the steam side performance of HRSGs and arrive at the optimum system which matches the needs...

Ganapathy, V.

469

Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment as part of optimized steam systems.

470

Reliable steam: To cogenerate or not to cogenerate?  

SciTech Connect

Leading industrial companies and institutions are forever seeking new and better ways to reduce their expenses, reduce waste, meet environmental standards, and, in general, improve their bottom-line. One approach to achieving all of these goals is a 100 year-old concept, cogeneration. Many industrial and institutional plants need thermal energy, generally as steam, for manufacturing processes and heating. They also need electric power for motors, lighting, compressed air and air conditioning. Traditionally, these fundamental needs are met separately. Steam is produced with industrial boilers and electricity is purchased from a local utility company. However, these needs can be met at the same time with cogeneration, using the same heat source. Cogeneration is the concurrent production of electrical power and thermal energy from the same heat source. Large steam users commonly take advantage of cogeneration by using high pressure steam with a back pressure turbine to generate electricity, and extract lower pressure steam from the turbine exhaust for their process needs. This approach reduces their electric utility bills while still providing thermal energy for industrial processes. The result is also a more efficient process that uses less total heat and discharges less smoke up the stack. Newer technologies are making cogeneration opportunities available to smaller-sized thermal plants, and electric utility deregulation opportunities are causing many CEOs to seriously consider cogeneration in their manufacturing plants. Whether steam is created through cogeneration or separate generation, many opportunities exist to improve productivity in the distribution system, operation, and maintenance. These opportunities are captured by taking a systems approach, which is promoted by programs such as the Department of Energy's Steam Challenge.

Jaber, D.; Jones, T.; D'Anna, L.; Vetterick, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

472

Extraction of Lignite Coal Fly Ash for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Modified and Unmodified Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Enhanced-Fluidity Solvents, and Accelerated Solvent Extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......7440-44-0 Carbon | Carbon analysis chemistry Coal analysis Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Hydrocarbons, Aromatic analysis chemistry Industrial Waste analysis Particulate...particles on the interaction of coal combustion stack ash with organic matter......

Donald V. Kenny; Susan V. Olesik

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Watt steam governor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physics of the fly-ball governor, introduced to regulate the speed of steam engines, is here analysed anew. The original analysis is generalized to arbitrary governor geometry. The well-known stability criterion for the linearized system breaks down for large excursions from equilibrium; we show approximately how this criterion changes.

Mark Denny

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Steamed dinosaur eggs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a Cretaceous hatchery shows that some dinosaurs liked their nesting sites steam-heated — by geothermal vents. A paper in Nature Communications today says that certain dinosaurs regularly returned to ... vents. A paper in Nature Communications today says that certain dinosaurs regularly returned to geothermal fields to shape nests and deposit eggs more than 100 million years ago. ...

Rex Dalton

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

475

Steam management in composite mature steam floods, Midway Sunset field  

SciTech Connect

Vogel noted that oil production rates in many steam floods are not predictable from steam injection rates and must be estimated on some other basis. He presented a conservative method, based on simple models assuming instantaneous steam overlay, to calculate heat requirements once the oil rate is known. By more accurately describing the reservoir being flooded and the steam flood process, Vogel`s method was refined resulting in significant steam savings for SWEPI`s leasehold in the northern part of the Midway Sunset field. Analytical expressions are presented for (1) the heat required to support a steam chest descending into an oil column, (2) the heating of a cap or base rock already partially heated by an adjacent steam flood and (3) the heating of a cap or base rock which is exposed to a uniformly growing steam zone. A method is also described to operate a mature steam flood at a constant oil steam ratio while scavenging some heat stored in the steam zone.

Dorp, J.J. van; Roach, R.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

476

Stochastic Modeling for Uncertainty Analysis and Multiobjective Optimization of IGCC System with Single-Stage Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The work initially focuses on developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the single-stage coal gasifier, which is a part of the IGCC system. ... Medium pressure (MP) steam is produced from the heat liberated from this reaction. ...

Yogendra Shastri; Urmila Diwekar

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

477

Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and closer temperature control. The heat storage capacity of water per cubic foot is considerably greater than steam at equivalent saturation pressures, as shown in Table No. II (below). This inherent reserve or "fly wheel" effect permits closer... furnace and convection section. Coal ash fouling characteristics will have a bearing on the convection section tube spacing. Low grade coals should be reviewed for their slagging and fouling characteristics. For example, lignite and low grade coals...

Boushell, C. C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Use of Fe2O3-Containing Industrial Wastes As the Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion of Coal: Effects of Pressure and Cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2006), 45 (17), 6075-6080 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ... Chemical-Looping Combustion with NiO and Fe2O3 in a Thermobalance and Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor with Double Loops ... Shen, L. H.; Wu, J. H.; Gao, Z. P.; Xiao, J. Combust. ...

Shuai Zhang; Chiranjib Saha; Yichao Yang; Sankar Bhattacharya; Rui Xiao

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

479

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of steam-methane reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model to calculate temperature, conversion and pressure profiles for static operations in steam-methane reformers was simulated. A rigorous kinetic model describing steam-methane reactions was compared to a first order one and an empirical heat distribution model was fitted to describe heat absorbed along the reactor length. A control interface was simulated to allow sensitivity analysis with different control schemes. The kinetic models were tested with data from industrial steam-gas reformers. Simulation results agreed with actual plant data for conversion, temperature and pressure. Nevertheless, the first order kinetic model gave unrealistic s