National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for induction furnace melting

  1. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  2. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  3. Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

  4. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connors, John J.; McConnell, John F.; Henry, Vincent I.; MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B.; Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C.; Adams, Michael E.; Leadbetter, James M.; Tomasewski, Jack W.; Operacz, Walter J.; Houf, William G.; Davis, James W.; Marvin, Bart G.; Gunner, Bruce E.; Farrell, Rick G.; Bivins, David P.; Curtis, Warren; Harris, James E.

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented with standard measuring equipment, such as flow meters, thermocouples, continuous gas composition

  5. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1994-07-26

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

  6. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  7. General information for operation of the high-temperature electromagnetic containerless vacuum induction furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahs, C.A.; Fox, R.J.

    1994-06-01

    The High-Temperature Electromagnetic Containerless Vacuum Induction Furnace was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama. The high-efficiency radio-frequency system developed for the conceptual design of the Modular Electromagnetic Levitator was created to evaluate this hardware on the KC135 microgravity airplane operated by NASA. Near-future KC135 flights are being planned to levitate, melt, and undercool 5-mm samples of niobium. General information on the operation of this hardware is included.

  8. Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part II: Effect of Batch and Bubbles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part II: Effect of Batch and thermal structure in glass melting furnaces with a throat. The effects of the following parameters This is a second part of a study concerned with the three-dimensional natural circulation in glass melting furnaces

  9. Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part I. Effects of the Heat Flux Distribution.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part I. Effects in the molten glass bath of a typical glass melting furnace with a throat but without air bubblers or electric constant. The main purpose of the work is to evaluate the capability of the furnace operators to control

  10. Numerical analysis of a finite element method for the axisymmetric eddy current model of an induction furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    of an induction furnace ALFREDO BERM ´UDEZ Departamento de Matem´atica Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de problem arising from the modeling of an induction furnace. By taking advantage of the cylindrical symmetry a formulation of the eddy current problem arising from the modeling of an induction furnace, which is based

  11. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-12-31

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  12. Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

    1983-06-14

    Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

  13. Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

  14. Vacuum Induction Melting Unit Induction heating is a process wherein induced eddy currents heat conductive materials. This heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Vacuum Induction Melting Unit Induction heating is a process wherein induced eddy currents heat can be melted at a time. There are three main parts to the system: chiller, power unit and vacuum unit. The vacuum unit with rotary and diffusion pumps can attain a vacuum of 106 m bar. The power can deliver

  15. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Rigby, Wayne [Specialty Vacuum, Placitas, New Mexico 87043 (United States); Wallace, John [Casting Analysis Corporation, Weyers Cave, Virginia 24468 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  16. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  17. The Use of Induction Melting for the Treatment of Metal Radioactive Waste - 13088

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Pastushkov, Vladimir; Poluektov, Pavel; Smelova, Tatiana; Shadrin, Andrey

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the work is to assess the efficacy of induction melting metal for recycling radioactive waste in order to reduce the volume of solid radioactive waste to be disposed of, and utilization of the metal. (authors)

  18. Cold Crucible Induction Melting Technology for Vitrification of High Level Waste: Development and Status in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugilal, G.; Sengar, P.B.S. [Nuclear Recycle Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2008-07-01

    Cold crucible induction melting is globally emerging as an alternative technology for the vitrification of high level radioactive waste. The new technology offers several advantages such as high temperature availability with long melter life, high waste loading, high specific capacity etc. Based on the laboratory and bench scale studies, an engineering scale cold crucible induction melter was locally developed in India. The melter was operated continuously to assess its performance. The electrical and thermal efficiencies were found to be in the range of 70-80 % and 10-20 % respectively. Glass melting capacities up to 200 kg m{sup -2} hr{sup -1} were accomplished using the ESCCIM. Industrially adaptable melter operating procedures for start-up, melting and pouring operations were established (author)

  19. Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structure in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part II: Effect of Batch and Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Zhao, Guochang; Viskanta, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    properties of soda-lime solicate glass of composition 74 SiOwas retained for ?H melt for soda-lime silicate glass having

  20. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-05-31

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  1. Method and apparatus for melting glass batch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (Kennewick, WA); Walkup, Paul C. (Richland, WA); Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    A glass melting system involving preheating, precalcining, and prefluxing of batch materials prior to injection into a glass furnace. The precursors are heated by convection rather than by radiation in present furnaces. Upon injection into the furnace, batch materials are intimately coated with molten flux so as to undergo or at least begin the process of dissolution reaction prior to entering the melt pool.

  2. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  3. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  4. Tube furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  5. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  6. Assessment of ceramic coatings for metal fuel melting crucible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a coating method and material for crucibles to prevent material interactions with the U-Zr/U-TRU-Zr fuels during the manufacturing of SFR fuels. Refractory coatings were applied to niobium substrates by vacuum plasma-spray coating method. Melt dipping tests conducted were the coated rods lowered into the fuel melt at 1600 C. degrees, and withdrawn and cooled outside the crucible in the inert atmosphere of the induction furnace. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods indicated that plasma-sprayed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating doesn't form significant reaction layer between fuel melt and coating layer. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods showed that TiC, TaC, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings exhibited the promising performance among other ceramic coatings. These materials could be promising candidate materials for the reusable melt crucible of metal fuel for SFR. In addition, in order to develop the vacuum plasma-spray coating method for re-usable crucible of metal fuel slugs to be overcome the issue of thermal expansion mismatch between coating material and crucible, various combinations of coating conditions were investigated to find the bonding effect on the substrate in pursuit of more effective ways to withstand the thermal stresses. It is observed that most coating methods maintained sound coating state in U-Zr melt. (authors)

  7. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    radiation and some convec- tion. These furnaces are characterized by poor thermal efficien- cies ranging from approximately 20%-45%. The Energy Efficient Isothermal Melting...

  8. Furnaces and Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most Americans heat their homes with a furnace or boiler, and high-efficiency models of all types of furnaces and boilers are available. Is it time for an upgrade?

  9. Furnaces Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnaces Data Furnaces Data Email Questions on 2014 LCC spreadsheet 2014-10-28 DOE Furnace Rule111414 Email 111414 Letter to DOE-c DOE Furnace Rule011415 Reponse Email...

  10. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  11. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  12. Thermally efficient melting for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. K. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is an integrated process for the production of glass utilizing combustion heat to melt glassmaking materials in a glassmaking furnace. The fuel combusted to produce heat sufficient to melt the glassmaking materials is combusted with oxygen-enriched oxidant to reduce heat losses from the offgas of the glassmaking furnace. The process further reduces heat losses by quenching hot offgas from the glassmaking furnace with a process stream to retain the heat recovered from quench in the glassmaking process with subsequent additional heat recovery by heat exchange of the fuel to the glassmaking furnace, as well as the glassmaking materials, such as batch and cullet. The process includes recovery of a commercially pure carbon dioxide product by separatory means from the cooled, residual offgas from the glassmaking furnace.

  13. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-03-24

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

  14. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT); Battleson, Daniel M. (Butte, MT); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (Butte, MT); Cashell, Patrick V. (Butte, MT); Filius, Krag D. (Butte, MT); Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Whitworth, Clarence G. (Butte, MT)

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

  15. Residential Furnace Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL 61467 Residential Furnace Blower Performance I.S. Walker Environmental Energy Technologies combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. The laboratory test and peak demand reductions in this study are based on replacing a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) blower

  16. Melt dumping in string stabilized ribbon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanuel M. (42 Old Middlesex Rd., Belmont, MA 02178)

    1986-12-09

    A method and apparatus for stabilizing the edge positions of a ribbon drawn from a melt includes the use of wettable strings drawn in parallel up through the melt surface, the ribbon being grown between the strings. A furnace and various features of the crucible used therein permit continuous automatic growth of flat ribbons without close temperature control or the need for visual inspection.

  17. Trends in furnace control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.J.; Keefe, M.D. (Italimpianti of America, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Dept.)

    1993-07-01

    This paper relates Italimpianti's experiences over the past few years in the area of control of reheat furnaces for the steel industry. The focus is on the level 1 area; specifically on the use of PLC-based systems to perform both combustion control and mechanical/hydraulic control. Some topics to be discussed are: overview of reheat furnace control system requirements; PLC only control vs separate PLC and DCS systems; PLC hardware requirements; man machine interface (MMI) requirements; purge, light-on and safety logic; implementation of more sophisticated level 1 control algorithms; furnace temperature optimization: look up tables vs full thermal modeling; and recent trends including integrated PLC/DCS system.

  18. Furnace Pressure Controllers; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 * September 2005 Industrial Technologies Program Furnace Pressure Controllers Furnace draft, or negative pres- sure, is created in fuel-fired furnaces when high temperature gases...

  19. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 * January 2006 Industrial Technologies Program Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace...

  20. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  1. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  2. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandler, T.

    2010-01-01

    ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship Channel, ~ 25 mi. east... Furnace tube hydrocarbon + steam 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1 2 time C o k e l a y e r Page 8 Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Efficiency ? Overall energy efficiency of furnace depends on ? Run length or % of time furnace is online (more...

  3. Furnaces | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpAFlexStock Co Ltd Jump to: navigation,NorteFurnaces

  4. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  5. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

    2005-01-01

    Electricity Use by New Furnaces: A Wisconsin Field Study,of Airflow in Residential Furnaces. , LBNL-53947 CMHC. 1993.B. 2002. The Impact of ECM furnace motors on natural gas use

  7. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase...

  8. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  9. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  10. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  11. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  12. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI���¢��������s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  13. Experimental Observations and Numerical Prediction of Induction Heating in a Graphite Test Article

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, Todd A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Debra P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jurney, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freer, Jerry E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dougherty, Lisa M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stout, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The induction heating coils used in the plutonium casting furnaces at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are studied here. A cylindrical graphite test article has been built, instrumented with thermocouples, and heated in the induction coil that is normally used to preheat the molds during casting operations. Preliminary results of experiments aimed at understanding the induction heating process in the mold portion of the furnaces are reported. The experiments have been modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics and the numerical and experimental results are compared to one another. These comparisons provide insight into the heating process and provide a benchmark for COMSOL calculations of induction heating in the mold portion of the plutonium casting furnaces.

  14. Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.; Grose, S.M.

    1997-04-15

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived. 5 figs.

  15. Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM); Grose, Stephen M. (Glenwood, WV)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived.

  16. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is demonstrating a technology that will eliminate melting and holding furnaces at the casting cell and move these operations to centralized and optimized off-site facilities.

  17. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  18. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  19. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  20. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  1. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01

    Star Program). 2006. Furnace Specification Rulemaking.spec. 2006. EPA Furnace Specification http://2007. Comparing Residential Furnace Blowers for Rating and

  2. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-01-01

    2004. Infinity 80 Gas Furnace Consumer Brochure. FebruaryConservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Boilers;Proposed Rule Furnace and Boiler Advanced Notice of Proposed

  3. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of Residential Furnace Blower Performance.Infinity 80 Variable Speed Furnace. August. Farmington,Standards for Residential Furnaces and Boilers; Proposed

  4. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01

    Inc. Pigg, Scott. 2003. Electricity Use by New Furnaces: Astage furnaces offer national electricity savings, but withABORATORY Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional

  5. Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces...

  6. Usage Policies Notebook for NanoFurnace Furnace (EasyTube 3000 System)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for NanoFurnace Furnace (EasyTube 3000 System) Revision date October 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for Nano Furnace Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies ContactTube3000 Furnace to grow carbon nanotubes, graphene, and annealing. To avoid any potential fire

  7. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces isthe total furnace electricity consumption and are primarilyto calculate the electricity consumption during cooling

  8. Behavior of melts during softening and melting down of iron ore sinter under load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Y.H. [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    In order to achieve effective operation in the blast furnace, the distribution control and quality improvement of burden materials are very important. In spite of the difficulties in obtaining suitable samples and making direct observation, significant progress including the placement of probes into the stack, tuyere drilling and laboratory simulation studies has been made. Investigation of the behavior of melts during softening and melting down was carried out in the temperature range of 800 C to 1,515 C. In this report, emphasis is given to investigating the mineral formation and properties of melts during softening and melting down of the iron ore sinter. Sized coke layers were placed above and below the sample to maintain uniform upward flow of gas and insure a smooth downward flow of melts. When the temperature of the sample reached the set point during the test the power was shut off and the sample was cooled in the furnace air. The weight, the height, porosity and contraction of each sample were measured. Chemical composition, observation of microstructures, SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are presented.

  9. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  10. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  11. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

  12. Furnaces Data | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11, SolarMat 4" | Department ofMotors |Furnaces Data

  13. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  14. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  15. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. and furnace temperature versus timein air-based atmospheres and furnace temperature versus time2 -based atmospheres and furnace temperature versus time for

  16. Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses of processes indicated low furnace efficiencies on certain hot oil furnaces. Further investigation, which included Infrared (IR) thermography testing of several furnaces, identified extremely hot surfaces on the outside...

  17. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  18. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  19. Partial SOP for Tube Anneal Furnace, EML: 9/04 Instructions for temp controller for Anneal furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Partial SOP for Tube Anneal Furnace, EML: 9/04 Instructions for temp controller for Anneal furnace the boat into the center of the furnace and replace the quartz and ceramic end caps, carefully aligning

  20. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Furnace...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Furnace Fans Energy Conservation Standards DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Furnace Fans Energy Conservation Standards October 25, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis...

  1. Probabilistic Data Management for Pervasive Computing: The Data Furnace Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garofalakis, Minos

    Probabilistic Data Management for Pervasive Computing: The Data Furnace Project Minos Garofalakis management challenges. The Data Furnace project at Intel Research and UC-Berkeley aims to build

  2. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs State-of-the-Art Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Optimizes Fuel Rate in Blast Furnaces The blast...

  3. Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking This factsheet...

  4. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

  5. Induction voidmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Brewer, John (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1986-01-01

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  6. Induction voidmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

    1983-12-21

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  7. High productivity in Australian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G. [BHP Slab and Plate Products Div., Port Kembla, New South Wales (Australia); Jelenich, L. [BHP Rod and Bar Products Div., Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Ward, R.F. [BHP Long Products Div., Whyalla, South Australia (Australia)

    1995-12-01

    Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

  8. Usage Policies Notebook for 2 inch Nano Furnace Revision date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for 2 inch Nano Furnace Revision date September 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for 2 inch Nano Furnace Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact information Person Phone;4 Usage Policies for 2 inch Nano Furnace Standard policies for usage The nano furnace can accept up to 2

  9. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M. [Siderar S.A.I.C./Ingdesi, San Nicolas (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  10. Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    who install high-performance furnace blowers with well-designed and installed ducts can achieve annual savings of 45% of fan energy or about 300 kWh per home. Read about...

  11. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  12. Increasing blast furnace productivity. Is there a universal solution for all blast furnaces?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaubal, P.C.; Ranade, M.G. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a major effort in the integrated plants in the US to increase blast furnace productivity. Record production levels have been reported by AK Steel using direct reduced/hot briquetted iron (DRI/HBI) and high levels of natural gas (NG)-oxygen injection at their Middletown blast furnace. Similarly, US Steel-Gary No. 13 reported high productivity levels with PCI and oxygen enrichment. A productivity of 6 NTHM/day/100 ft{sup 3}WV was the norm in the past, but today levels higher than 11 NTHM/day/100ft{sup 3}WV have been reached on a sustained basis. These high productivity levels have been an important aspect of facility rationalization efforts, as companies seek to maximize their throughput while reducing costs. Hot metal demand in a particular plant depends on downstream capabilities in converting hot metal to saleable steel. Single vs. multi-furnace plants may have different production requirements for each facility. Business cycles may influence productivity requirements from different furnaces of a multiple furnace plant, more so for those considered as swing furnaces. Therefore, the production requirement for individual blast furnaces is different for different plants. In an effort to understand productivity improvement methods, calculations were made for a typical 8 m hearth diameter furnace using data and experience gathered on Inland`s operation. Here the authors present the results obtained in the study.

  13. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Independence, OR); Addison, Gerald W. (St. Stephen, SC)

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  14. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W. (AJT Enterprises, Inc.)

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  15. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    for residential gas furnaces in the U.S. In the proceedingsconsumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S.consumer products: Residential furnaces and boilers. Energy

  16. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01

    of Residential Central Furnaces and Boilers, October, 2003.Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Boilers;Proposed Rule Furnace and Boiler Advanced Notice of Proposed

  17. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    vol. ) in IVlethano'J Furnace II 1-2. III-3. III-4. III-5.vol. ) in Methanol Furnace , 2 , . . . . . . . . , . , .Velocity Profiles in Methanol Furnace Temperature Profiles:

  18. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  19. Melt containment member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  20. Blast furnace control after the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyllenram, R.; Wikstroem, J.O. [MEFOS, Luleaa (Sweden); Hallin, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Rapid technical development together with developments in work organization makes it important to investigate possible ways to achieve a cost efficient process control of different metallurgical processes. This paper describes a research project, and proposes a human oriented Information Technology Strategy, ITS, for control of the Blast Furnace process. The method used is that of deductive reasoning from a description of the prevailing technological level and experiences from various development activities. The paper is based on experiences from the No. 2 Blast Furnace at Luleaa Works but the conclusions do not at this stage necessarily reflect the opinion of the management and personnel or reflect their intentions for system development at SSAB.

  1. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  2. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  3. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01

    of the protocol are implemented, resulting in cost savings of greater than $200,000 per year. PROJECT OVERVIEW The glass industry is a major energy consumer. Depending on the market sector, a glass furnace heated by oxy-fuel burners may use from 3..., the manufacturer of the burners used in the PPG furnace, brought extensive field experience to the team, as well as in-depth knowledge of burner performance. ENERGY ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL The project team developed the protocol based on DIAL, Eclipse and PPG...

  4. Oxidation Tube Furnace (Lindberg/Blue 1100C)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Oxidation Tube Furnace (Lindberg/Blue 1100C) Basic User Manual 1st Edition Jan 2013 NR #12;Logon Oxidation Tube Furnace on FOM System Sign Log Book #12;Example Program: Room temperature to 1100C

  5. Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2011-01-01

    A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

  6. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Power curves show blower motor input power as a function ofOverall, it appears the BPM motors used in furnaces offerThe impact of ECM furnace motors on natural gas use and

  7. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  8. Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumm, E. D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of metallic heat exchangers on medium- and high-temperature industrial furnaces is examined. A thorough technical understanding of all furnace operating conditions and the duties imposed upon heat exchangers is identified as a key...

  9. Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

    1984-01-01

    is four burners and furnace exhaust flue positi~ns and the combustion air manifold. The system ~as the capability of completely bypassing the recup~r? ator during operation for maintanence purposes. RECUPERATOR DESIGN The recuperator configuration... of the system took place during November 1982. The installation included a newly fabricated furnace, furnace-ducting-recuperator in tegration controls integration, and burner place ment. The furnace is approximately 12 foot cubed in outside dimensions...

  10. Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, T.

    2008-01-01

    designed consumes power and fuel that yields an energy efficiency of approximately 40% (Total Btu’s required to reduce to elemental form/ Btu Input). The vast majority of heat is lost to the atmosphere or cooling water system. The furnaces can be modified...

  11. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  12. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    vol. ) in Methanol Furnace , 2 , . . . . . . . . , . , .Velocity Profiles in Methanol Furnace Temperature Profiles:to Pure Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . C02

  13. OBJECT-ORIENTED FERROMANGANESE FURNACE MODEL Stein O. Wasb*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    OBJECT-ORIENTED FERROMANGANESE FURNACE MODEL Stein O. Wasbř* , Bjarne A. FossŔŔ and Ragnar Tronstad-7034 Trondheim, Norway, e-mail:Bjarne.Foss@itk.ntnu.no Abstract: The high-carbon ferromanganese furnace inside it. The furnace operation has been characterized by fluctuations in vital process variables. Many

  14. Usage Policies Notebook for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace system Revision date September 2014 #12;2 Emergency Plan for Diffusion Furnaces Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact;4 Usage Policies for Thermco Atmospheric Diffusion Furnace Standard policies for usage The Atmospheric

  15. Fig. 1 Photograph (a) and Schematic (b) of our NEC SCI-MDH-20020-S image floating zone furnace system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    furnace system. (a) Advantages of an IR furnace: * Uniform illumination and temperature profile. * Non

  16. Development of models and online diagnostic monitors of the high-temperature corrosion of refractories in oxy/fuel glass furnaces : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Gupta, Amul; Walsh, Peter M.; Rice, Steven F.; Velez, Mariano; Allendorf, Mark D.; Pecoraro, George A.; Nilson, Robert H.; Wolfe, H. Edward; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Bugeat, Benjamin American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Spear, Karl E.; Marin, Ovidiu American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Ghani, M. Usman

    2005-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-year effort to understand the mechanisms and develop models that predict the corrosion of refractories in oxygen-fuel glass-melting furnaces. Thermodynamic data for the Si-O-(Na or K) and Al-O-(Na or K) systems are reported, allowing equilibrium calculations to be performed to evaluate corrosion of silica- and alumina-based refractories under typical furnace operating conditions. A detailed analysis of processes contributing to corrosion is also presented. Using this analysis, a model of the corrosion process was developed and used to predict corrosion rates in an actual industrial glass furnace. The rate-limiting process is most likely the transport of NaOH(gas) through the mass-transport boundary layer from the furnace atmosphere to the crown surface. Corrosion rates predicted on this basis are in better agreement with observation than those produced by any other mechanism, although the absolute values are highly sensitive to the crown temperature and the NaOH(gas) concentration at equilibrium and at the edge of the boundary layer. Finally, the project explored the development of excimer laser induced fragmentation (ELIF) fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of gas-phase alkali hydroxides (e.g., NaOH) that are predicted to be the key species causing accelerated corrosion in these furnaces. The development of ELIF and the construction of field-portable instrumentation for glass furnace applications are reported and the method is shown to be effective in industrial settings.

  17. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van [Sidmar N.V., Ghent (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  18. Method to decrease loss of aluminum and magnesium melts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Calaway, Jr., Wallis F. (Woodridge, IL); Moore, Jerry F. (Naperville, IL); Krumdick, Gregory K. (Crete, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method to minimize oxidation of metal during melting processes is provided, the method comprising placing solid phase metal into a furnace environ-ment, transforming the solid-phase metal into molten metal phase having a molten metal surface, and creating a barrier between the surface and the environment. Also provided is a method for isolating the surface of molten metal from its environment, the method comprising confining the molten metal to a controlled atmos-phere, and imposing a floating substrate between the surface and the atmosphere.

  19. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C. [Didier-M and P Energietechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany); Steiger, R. [Didier-M and P Engineering Services, Highland, IN (United States); Jeschar, R. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1995-12-01

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  20. Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    SYSTEMS AND FURNACE INTEGRATION A. S. McMullan and H. D. Spriggs, Linnhoff March, Inc., Leesburg, Va. ABSTRACT Conventional process design philosophy usually results in utility systems being designed after process design defines the Process.../Utility interface. Clearly, changing the process design can result in different utility demands and possibly in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design of process and utility...

  1. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

  2. CX-011069: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Induction Furnace Melting CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/29/2013 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    arc/induction furnaces, metal casting Steel melting,blast cupola, metal casting Unit kg/t kWh/t kWh/t kgce/t

  4. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  5. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF), developed by NREL, uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency.

  6. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  7. DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DOE) has published a final rule regarding test procedures for residential furnace fans. 79 FR 500 (January 3, 2014). Find more information on the rulemaking, including milestones,...

  8. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief (November 2004) More...

  9. Advanced Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enables spatially resolved hot zone measurements, optimizing and tuning of furnace burners, improving heat transfer, and minimizing undesirable combustion by-products....

  10. DOE Increases Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Furnaces...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has increased the energy efficiency standards for residential furnaces and boilers, underscoring the...

  11. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the furnace can result in metal failure from erosion, corrosion, and thermal stress cracking. With AMO support, the Energy Industries of Ohio, Oak Ridge National...

  12. List of Furnaces Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressed air IncentivesEquipmentFuelFurnaces

  13. Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2003-02-11

    A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

  14. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  15. Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

    2013-02-01

    A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

  16. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    for residential gas furnaces in the U.S. In the proceedingsEconomics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters inconsumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S.

  17. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    for residential gas furnaces in the U.S. In the proceedingsconsumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S.fuel consumption. The gas furnace fuel consumption (FuelUse)

  18. Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    ,Particulates (Environmental norms) Global competitiveness #12;3 April, 2006 4Source: www.oilnergy.com Crude Oil Price #12, 2006 8 Energy Consumption in Glass Plant Melting 75% Forehearth 7% Anneling 4% Other 10% Printing Energy Consumption Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)­ Energy Consumption per unit of product output Units

  19. Spatio-temporal modelling of corrosion in an industrial furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John

    Spatio-temporal modelling of corrosion in an industrial furnace John Little, Michael Goldstein) 191 334 3051 Abstract Optimal inspection and maintenance of complex systems in modern industry-scale industrial furnace subject to corrosion will be considered. A suitable Bayesian spatio-temporal dynamic

  20. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  1. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  2. Computer Science Induction to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Ulrich

    Computer Science Induction to Postgraduate Research Studies Ulrich Berger Head of Postgraduate Research Supervision Regulations Progression Regulations Computer Science Induction to Postgraduate Research Studies Ulrich Berger Head of Postgraduate Research Department of Computer Science Swansea

  3. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-01

    1 FURNACE AND BOILER TECHNOLOGY19 Furnace and Boiler Lifetimes Used in the LCC Analysis (PBP RESULTS FOR GAS BOILERS USING ALTERNATIVE INSTALLATION

  4. Interated Intelligent Industrial Process Sensing and Control: Applied to and Demonstrated on Cupola Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; roger Haggard; Wagdy Mahmoud; Kevin Moore; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Paul King

    2003-02-12

    The final goal of this project was the development of a system that is capable of controlling an industrial process effectively through the integration of information obtained through intelligent sensor fusion and intelligent control technologies. The industry of interest in this project was the metal casting industry as represented by cupola iron-melting furnaces. However, the developed technology is of generic type and hence applicable to several other industries. The system was divided into the following four major interacting components: 1. An object oriented generic architecture to integrate the developed software and hardware components @. Generic algorithms for intelligent signal analysis and sensor and model fusion 3. Development of supervisory structure for integration of intelligent sensor fusion data into the controller 4. Hardware implementation of intelligent signal analysis and fusion algorithms

  5. Device for use in a furnace exhaust stream for thermoelectric generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2013-06-11

    A device for generating voltage or electrical current includes an inner elongated member mounted in an outer elongated member, and a plurality of thermoelectric modules mounted in the space between the inner and the outer members. The outer and/or inner elongated members each include a plurality of passages to move a temperature altering medium through the members so that the device can be used in high temperature environments, e.g. the exhaust system of an oxygen fired glass melting furnace. The modules are designed to include a biasing member and/or other arrangements to compensate for differences in thermal expansion between the first and the second members. In this manner, the modules remain in contact with the first and second members. The voltage generated by the modules can be used to power electrical loads.

  6. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E. [CSM Taranto (Italy); Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILP Taranto Works (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  7. No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

  8. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  9. Induction slag reduction process for purifying metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR); Fisher, II, George T. (Albany, OR); Hansen, Dennis A. (Corvallis, OR)

    1991-01-01

    A continuous method is provided for purifying and recovering transition metals such as neodymium and zirconium that become reactive at temperatures above about 500.degree. C. that comprises the steps of contacting the metal ore with an appropriate fluorinating agent such as an alkaline earth metal fluosilicate to form a fluometallic compound, and reducing the fluometallic compound with a suitable alkaline earth or alkali metal compound under molten conditions, such as provided in an induction slag metal furnace. The method of the invention is advantageous in that it is simpler and less expensive than methods used previously to recover pure metals, and it may be employed with a wide range of transition metals that were reactive with enclosures used in the prior art methods and were hard to obtain in uncontaminated form.

  10. Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A.

    2007-12-31

    The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale demonstration. First, the structure of the plutonium metal/oxide interface was compared to potential surrogates. Second the data for plutonium oxidation kinetics were reviewed and rates for oxidation were compared with surrogates. The criteria used as a basis for recommendation was selected in order to provide a reasonable oxidation rate during the validation phase. Several reference documents were reviewed and used to compile the information in this report. Since oxidation of large monolithic pieces of plutonium in 75% oxygen is the preferable oxidizing atmosphere for the intended process, this report does not focus on the oxidation of powders, but focuses instead on larger samples in flowing gas.

  11. Melt-spin processing of high {Tc} oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folkerts, T.J.; Wu, Hengning; Yoo, S.I.; Merkle, B.D.; Arrasmith, S.R.; Dennis, K.W.; Kramer, M.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1993-10-01

    Containerless techniques offer distinct advantages for the melt processing of oxide superconductors. The majority of these materials form liquids which are highly reactive with standard crucible materials such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Pt, resulting in non-negligible contamination. We have developed a containerless melt-spin processing technique where in 50--400 {mu}m particles of REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} high temperature oxide superconductors are melted in free fall through a vertical tube furnace and quenched onto a copper wheel. Previously this method has been successful in producing glasses of NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}. In this report we discuss the results for both stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (Y123). Thermal, microstructural, and superconducting characterization of both the as-quenched and the annealed materials will be presented.

  12. 2015-12-29 Consumer Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedures Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Consumer Furnaces and Boilers

  13. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  14. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  15. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the...

  16. Sandjet- A New Alternative for Cleaning Furnace Tubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy management in modern refineries is becoming more difficult as the real cost of in-house and purchased fuel escalates and the quality of feed stocks decreases. Furnace tube maintenance has been made more complex by ...

  17. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    by at least 3 billion metric tons in total by 2030, equal to more than a year's carbon pollution from the entire U.S. electricity system. Furnace fans are used to circulate air...

  18. Valorization of Automotive Shredder Residues in metallurgical furnaces Project REFORBA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) and the electric arc furnace (EAF) routes, P1 could be used as substitute for coal or coke, and P2 could replace with raw materials cheaper than coke. As additional potential benefits the amount of CO2 generated

  19. Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

    1985-01-01

    At present China has large quantities of two-regenerator gas reheating furnaces which are old in fashion and low in calorific efficiency. Therefore, the question how to increase the calorific efficiency is very much concerned on condition...

  20. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    gas heat losses can be calculated by the equation: Furnace exhaust heat losses W * Cp * (T exhaust - T ambient) Where: * W Mass of the exhaust gases * Cp Specific heat of...

  1. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of...

  2. Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on alkali vaporization, batch carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of...

  3. Furnace Controls Using High Temperature Preheated Combustion Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzales, J. M.; Rebello, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    FURNACE CONTROLS USING HIGH TEMPERATURE PREHEATED COMBUSTION AIR Jeffrey M. Gonzalez Wilfred J. Rebello GTE Products Corporation PAR Enterprises, Inc. Towanda, Pennsylvania Fairfax, Virginia ABSTRACT GTE Products Corporation (Towanda... available ratio control apparatus. Various control sys (I) was the development of a different way of looking at combustion. As preheated combustion air temperatures increase, excess air Industrial furnaces generally utilize air as the basic source...

  4. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  5. High pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is an experimental study of the high pressure ejection of molten material and subsequent interactions within a concrete cavity. The program focuses on using prototypic system conditions and scaled models of reactor geometries to accurately simulate the ex-vessel processes during high-pressure accident sequences. Scaling analyses of the experiment show that the criteria established for core debris removal from the cavity are met or exceeded. Tests are performed at two scales, representing 1/10th and 1/20th linear reproductions of the Zion reactor plant. Results of the 1/20th scale tests are presented.

  6. Hume, Induction, Probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    Hume, Induction, and Probability Peter J.R. Millican The University of Leeds Department is to understand Hume's famous argument concerning induction, and to appraise its success in establishing its for the argument (§4.3); (g) Refutation of Stove's well-known alternative diagram (§5.1); (h) Likewise of Stove

  7. 'Like cupcakes melting in the sun...' /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skaller, Philip Emmanuel; Skaller, Philip Emmanuel.

    2014-01-01

    cupcakes melting in the sun’ A Dissertation submitted incupcakes melting in the sun’ by Philip Emmanuel SkallerLike cupcakes melting in the sun ’ was a performance of 7

  8. The 1994 intermediate reline of H-3 furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, J.D.; Nanavati, K.S.; Spirko, E.J.; Wakelin, D.H.

    1995-12-01

    LTV Steel`s Indiana Harbor Works H-3 Blast Furnace was rebuilt in 1988 to provide reliable operations at high production rates without damage to the shell for an overall campaign. This Rebuild included: (1) complete bosh and partial stack shell replacement; (2) a spray cooled carbon bosh; (3) a row of staves at the mantle and six rows of stack staves, all stack staves had noses (ledges at the top of the stave) with the exception of row 5; (4) silicon carbide filled semi graphite brick for the bosh, silicon carbide brick from the mantle area and to the top of stave row No. 1, super duty brick in front of the remaining staves and phosphate bonded high alumina brick in the upper stack; (5) movable throat armor; (6) upgraded instrumentation to follow furnace operation and lining wear occurring in the furnace. No work was done to the hearth walls and bottom, since these had been replaced in 1982 with a first generation graphite cooled design and has experienced 7.7 million NTHM. The furnace was blown in November 18, 1988 and operated through September 3, 1994, at which time it was blown down for its first intermediate repair after 7.85 million NTHM. This paper summarizes the operation of the furnace and then discusses the major aspects of the 1994 intermediate repair.

  9. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W. [British Steel Technical, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teesside Labs.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  10. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works

    1995-12-01

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  11. Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

  12. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

  13. Induction melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  14. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1995-12-01

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  15. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  16. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  17. Linear induction accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  18. Blast furnace key to earth's birth P11 Balancing the body clock P14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liley, David

    Newage Blast furnace key to earth's birth P11 Balancing the body clock P14 Research readies to the stars Julian criBB 11 blast furnace holds key to earth's birth Julian criBB 12 agency audit raises

  19. Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel...

  20. NREL's Optical Cavity Furnace Brings Together a Myriad of Advances for Processing Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on 2011 R&D 100 Award winner, the Optical Cavity Furnace. The innovative furnace uses light and unique light-induced effects to make higher-efficiency solar cells at lower cost.

  1. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  2. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W. [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  3. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Furnace Fans Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for residential furnace fans.

  4. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualifyboth a gas furnace and gas storage water heater. This study

  5. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States); Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  6. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  7. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1996-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

  8. Combustion in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    2004-03-02

    Improved operational characteristics such as improved fuel efficiency, reduction of NOx formation, reduction of the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, and lessened tendency to corrosion at the tube wall, in a multi-burner furnace are obtained by reducing the flow rate of combustion air to the burners and selectively individually feeding oxidant to only some of the burners.

  9. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  10. STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE Mark McGuinness1 and Stephen Taylor2 We Zincalume are produced in a range of dimensions, grades and coating weights. The steel strip is annealed prior to being coated, by heating to a predeter- mined temperature for a definite time. Annealing

  11. Device for rapid sample insertion and extraction in thermal chemical vapor deposition tube furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Device for rapid sample insertion and extraction in thermal chemical vapor deposition tube furnace a tube furnace is described. The device operates in an atmosphere that is separate from ambient actuation through the walls of a quartz tube furnace is entirely general to any procedure using a tube

  12. Application of flash-assist rapid thermal processing subsequent to low-temperature furnace anneals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Application of flash-assist rapid thermal processing subsequent to low-temperature furnace anneals and then implanted with 1 keV, 1 1015 cm-2 B. Low-temperature furnace anneals are performed at 500 °C for 30 minV. Implants were per- formed at a standard tilt of 7° and twist of 27°. Low- temperature furnace anneals were

  13. Sensitivity analysis of a dynamic model for submerged arc silicon furnaces.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    Sensitivity analysis of a dynamic model for submerged arc silicon furnaces. B. F. Lund1 , B. A for a dynamic model of submerged arc silicon furnaces. The model we study, called "Simod", was developed updating a nonlinear, dynamic model of a silicon furnace. We have identified a parameter set that has

  14. Electrode Arrangement As Substitute Bottom For An Electrothermic Slag Smelting Furnace.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur (Enebakk, NO); Brinch, Jon Christian (Oslo, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

    2005-12-27

    The electrode arrangement uses vertically oriented electrodes with side wall contacts for an electrothermic smelting furnace for aluminum production. The side wall contacts are radially moveable into the furnace to compensate for wear on the contacts. The side wall contacts can be hollow to allow a slag forming charge to be fed to the furnace.

  15. High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    725 High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin maintained in a tantalum box. In a neutron beam, the furnaces produce a very low scattering level (without

  16. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  17. On Automating Inductive and Non-Inductive Termination Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamareddine, Fairouz

    On Automating Inductive and Non-Inductive Termination Methods Fairouz Kamareddine and Francois of the function which satis es a notion of terminal prop- erty and then verifying that this construction processPre can only deal with the termination proofs that are inductive. There are however many functions

  18. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  19. Melting Objects M. W. Jones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Mark W.

    both thermal flow and the latent heat during the phase change. The mechanism for energy transfer realistic animations of melting objects. The work presented here introduces a method that accurately models object and the method is particularly suited to rigid solids with complex surface geometry

  20. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  1. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergyEnterpriseDepartment ofFurnaces

  2. Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codesPhiladelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule

  3. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  4. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  5. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION OF SNOW MELTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION OF SNOW MELTING ON HEATED HORIZONTAL SURFACES By SEAN INVESTIGATION OF SNOW MELTING ON HEATED HORIZONTAL SURFACES Thesis Approved: Dean of the Graduate College Thesis..............................................................................................................5 2.3 Snow/Ice Physical Properties

  7. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    on soda-silicate or soda-lime- silicate melts [2-5,9], or on6]. However, even for soda- lime glasses and metallurgicalon the foaming of soda-lime glass batch in air atmospheres

  8. Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structure in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part I: Effect of the Net Heat Flux Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Zhao, Guochang; Viskanta, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    the available data concerning soda-lime silicate glass.Soda-lime silicate glass is the most widespread andO-10 CaO (mol. %)] soda-lime silicate glass or very similar

  9. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  10. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  11. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  12. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  13. Reaction of Inconel 690 and 693 in Iron Phosphate Melts: Alternative Glasses for Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Delbert E.

    2005-09-13

    The corrosion resistance of candidate materials used for the electrodes (Inconel 690 & 693) and the melt contact refractory (Monofrax K-3) in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) has been investigated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) during the period from June 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (DE-FG02-04ER63831). The unusual properties and characteristics of iron phosphate glasses, as viewed from the standpoint of alternative glasses for vitrifying nuclear and hazardous wastes which contain components that make them poorly suited for vitrification in borosilicate glass, were recently discovered at UMR. The expanding national and international interest in iron phosphate glasses for waste vitrification stems from their rapid melting and chemical homogenization which results in higher furnace output, their high waste loading that varies from 32 wt% up to 75 wt% for the Hanford LAW and HLW, respectively, and the outstanding chemical durability of the iron phosphate wasteforms which meets all present DOE requirements (PCT and VHT). The higher waste loading in iron phosphate glasses, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass, can reduce the time and cost of vitrification considerably since a much smaller mass of glass will be produced, for example, about 43% less glass when the LAW at Hanford is vitrified in an iron phosphate glass according to PNNL estimates. In view of the promising performance of iron phosphate glasses, information is needed for how to best melt these glasses on the scale needed for practical use. Melting iron phosphate glasses in a JHM is considered the preferred method at this time because its design could be nearly identical to the JHM now used to melt borosilicate glasses at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Westinghouse Savannah River Co. Therefore, it is important to have information for the corrosion of candidate electrode and refractory materials in iron phosphate melts in a JHM. During the period from June 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005, the corrosion resistance of coupons of Inconel 690 & 693 metals and Monofrax K-3 refractory, partially submerged in several iron phosphate melts at 950-1200?C, has been investigated to determine whether iron phosphate glasses could be melted in a JHM equipped with such electrodes and refractory in the same manner as now being used to melt borosilicate glass. These representative iron phosphate melts, which contained 30 wt% Hanford LAW and 40 wt% Idaho SBW simulants, did not corrode the Inconel 690 to any greater extent than what has been reported for Inconel 690 in the borosilicate melt in the JHM at DWPF. Inconel 693 appeared to be an even better candidate for use in iron phosphate melts since its corrosion rate (1.8 to 25.4 ?m/day) was only about one half that (5.4 to 45.4 ?m/day) of Inconel 690. The dynamic corrosion measured for the candidate refractory, Monofrax K-3, by iron phosphate melts is quite encouraging since the measured corrosion (0.011 to 0.132 mm/day at 9.2 rpm) is less than the corrosion (0.137 mm/day) that has been reported in the JHM used to melt borosilicate glass at DWPF. During the period covered by this final report, the results of the research on iron phosphate glasses have been described in seven technical papers and have been presented at one national meeting. In addition to the principal investigator, one research professor and one undergraduate research aide were supported by this project.

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  16. Minimization of Blast Furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-08-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose proposed CFD model will focus on the complex physics and chemistry found within the upper part of the blast furnace.

  17. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01

    offsets the sizable electricity savings. References TitleElectricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forfueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace

  18. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  19. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  20. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  1. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  2. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu [Nippon Steel Corp., Kimitsu, Chiba (Japan). Kimitsu Works; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu, Chiba (Japan); Imuta, Akira [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Plant and Machinery Div.

    1997-12-31

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  3. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

    1995-12-01

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  4. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  5. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  6. Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosaj, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

  7. Process control techniques at the blast furnaces of Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Beppler, E.; Kreibich, K.; Muelheims, K.; Peters, M.; Wieters, C.U. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Process improvements, capacity increases and the use of modern measuring and process control techniques have helped to ensure that the blast furnace will remain an indispensable means of supplying steelworks with hot metal until well into the next century. The survival of a future-oriented company such as Thyssen Stahl AG depends on long-term improvements in economic viability. Today, Thyssen Stahl AG operates two blast furnace plants comprising a total of five blast furnaces with hearth diameters ranging from 9.3 to 14.9m. This choice of furnaces permits flexible adjustment to changing workload situations and enables about ten million tons of hot metal to be produced each year. The wide range of measuring devices specially fitted on Schwelgern blast furnace No. 1 made a vital contribution to the development of blast furnace models. The purpose of these models was to make a general assessment of the state of the furnace and so create an objective basis for furnace operation. The paper describes the development of these measuring techniques and process model and the application of the model.

  8. Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

    1997-12-31

    The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

  9. Analysis of candidate silicon carbide recuperator materials exposed to industrial furnace environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federer, J.I.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kotchick, D.M.; Petrak, D.

    1985-07-01

    Several SiC ceramics were exposed to the combustion environment in six industrial furnaces to determine their corrosion resistance. The matrials were sintered-..cap alpha.. (Hexoloy SA), Sintride, recrystallized (NC-400), CVD SiC coated NC-400, siliconized (NC-430), reaction sintered (SC-X and KT), and Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/-bounded (C/75 and CN-178). Tubes of these materials were exposed in two aluminum remelt furnaces, a forge furnace, a steel reheat furnace, and two steel soaking pits at temperatures of 925 to 1250/sup 0/C for periods of 530 to 5545 h. Significant corrosion occurred in specimens exposed to aluminum remelt furnaces and one of the steel soaking pits, whereas corrosion in the other furnaces was substantially less or negligible. The average C-ring fracture strengths of Hexoloy SA and NC-430, the only materials so tested, were substantially affected by the exposures. The lowest strength in Hexoloy SA occurred in specimens exposed in an aluminum remelt furnace, while the lowest strength in NC-430 occurred in specimens exposed in a steel soaking pit. These results show that SiC ceramics are susceptible to both corrosion and strength degradation when exposed to certain furnace environments.

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  11. Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  12. Accounting & Finance (BAcc) Induction 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, University of

    Accounting & Finance (BAcc) Induction 2014 Monday 15 September 2014 Induction Programme: 0945] Welcome from the Business School and Accounting & Finance 1000 The Accountancy Degrees 1015 Programme & 3 on Level 4 Accounting & Finance Bldg Tuesday 16 September 2014 Advising Session Lunch (provided

  13. HEALTH AND SAFETY INDUCTION Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    HEALTH AND SAFETY INDUCTION Introduction Welcome to Curtin's online health and safety induction University is committed to providing and maintaining high standards of health and safety so we can prevent with staff, and by continually improving our health and safety management system. This course is designed

  14. CX-005040: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Induction Furnace Melting (Includes Graphite and Mold Prep)CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 01/19/2011Location(s): Albany, OregonOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  15. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  16. Optimization of ferrous burden high temperature properties to meet blast furnace requirements in British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrand, R.

    1996-12-31

    The high temperature properties of ferrous burden materials have long been an important consideration in the operation of British Steel blast furnaces. Previous research presented at this conference has shown that the behavior of materials in the lower stack and bosh can have a significant effect on furnace permeability and stability of operation. However, with increasing levels of hydrocarbon injection via the tuyeres, the reduction conditions inside British Steel blast furnaces have significantly altered over recent years. This paper focuses on the further work that has been undertaken to study the effect on ferrous burden high temperatures properties of the widely differing reduction regimes which can be experienced in today`s blast furnaces. The implications of the findings, and how they have been used in optimizing blast furnace operation and burden quality, are discussed.

  17. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  18. Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  19. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under

  20. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming Dong-Sang Kim a,*, Bryan C. Dutton b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming Dong-Sang Kim a,*, Bryan C. Dutton b , Pavel R in revised form 21 August 2006 Abstract The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming has been studied with the specific goal of understanding the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E

  1. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  2. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  3. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  4. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, David E. (Concord, MA); Lee, Steven G. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1996-01-01

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  5. Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Korzekwa, Deniece R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting. The level of oxygen and carbon impurities in tantalum was reduced by plasma arc melting the tantalum using a flowing plasma gas generated from a gas mixture of helium and hydrogen. The flowing plasma gases of the present invention were found to be superior to other known flowing plasma gases used for this purpose.

  6. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David; Mireles, Jose; Marquez, Noel; Quinones, Stella

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  7. USING THE UTAH ENERGY BALANCE SNOW MELT MODEL TO QUANTIFY SNOW AND GLACIER MELT IN THE HIMALAYAN REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    USING THE UTAH ENERGY BALANCE SNOW MELT MODEL TO QUANTIFY SNOW AND GLACIER MELT IN THE HIMALAYAN of glacier ice as a substrate and generation of melt from the ice substrate when seasonal snow has melted for the entire domain. Therefore, regional variability in snow and glacier melting is computed. Outflow can

  8. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  9. Induction loop detector systems crosstalk 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhagat, Victor

    1994-01-01

    traffic control systems are necessary to obtain maximum possible efficiency from our freeway systems. A major component of freeway management systems is the induction loop detector. This research effort evaluated the methods by which crosstalk could...

  10. Operating an induction melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Jay A.; Richardson, John G.; Raivo, Brian D.; Soelberg, Nicholas R.

    2006-01-31

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  11. Parallel algorithms for inductance extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahawar, Hemant

    2007-09-17

    In VLSI circuits, signal delays play an important role in design, timing verification and signal integrity checks. These delays are attributed to the presence of parasitic resistance, capacitance and inductance. With ...

  12. Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gracio, Filipe

    Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

  13. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  14. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  15. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  16. [A variable frequency microwave furnace]. CRADA final report for CRADA Number ORNL91-0055

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauf, R.J.

    1994-12-08

    The goals of this CRADA were to: (1) development and demonstrate a highly frequency-agile microwave furnace; (2) explore applications of the furnace for materials processing; and (3) develop control systems and packaging that are robust, user-friendly, and suitable for sale as a turnkey system. Microwave Laboratories, Inc. (MLI) designed, built, and successfully brought to market a benchtop Variable Frequency Microwave Furnace (VFMF). The concept has demonstrated advantages in polymer curing, waste remediation, and diamond (CVD). Through experimentation and modeling, the VFMF approach has gained credibility within the technical community.

  17. ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and...

  18. Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet International research team's field work shows that, well, things...

  19. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  20. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  1. Loop formation in graphitic nanoribbon edges using furnace heating or Joule heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Xiaoting

    Here the authors report the use of either furnace heating or Joule heating to pacify the exposed graphene edges by loop formation in a novel graphitic nanoribbonmaterial, grown by chemical vapor deposition. The edge energy ...

  2. Innovative Energy Conservation Through Scrao Pre-heating in an Electric Arc Furnace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dicion, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will present an innovative energy conservation technology for scrap pre-heating in an Electric Arc Furnace that is being implemented in an industrial facility in Ontario. The objective of the paper is to examine the electrical...

  3. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  4. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    a Furnace Burning City of Heavy Fuel Oil (from Sato, et . ~"of emittance from city gas and heavy fuel oil burning in theis dominant for the heavy fuel oil and the wave- length

  5. A Ceramic Waste Heat Recovery System on a Rotary Forge Furnace: An Installation and Operating History 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, S. B.; Campbell, T. E.; Worstell, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    heavy duty high temperature ceramic tube recuperator and five high temperature recirculating burners. The energy conservation system was retrofitted onto a rotary hearth furnace with an inside diameter of 11' 5'' (3.5m) and an available hearth area...

  6. ORNL/TM-2014/624 Condensing Furnace Venting Part 1: The Issue,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2014/624 Condensing Furnace Venting Part 1: The Issue, Prospective Solutions, and Facility or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2014/624 Energy

  7. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    a Furnace Burning City of Heavy Fuel Oil (from Sato, et . ~"a copper catalyst. heavy fuel oil, naptha, or natural gas,from city gas and heavy fuel oil burning in the Kyoto

  8. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  9. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  10. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost effectiveness. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  12. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  13. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. (Center de Recherches Metallurgiques, Liege (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  14. Muffle furnace evaluation of FGD sludge-coal-clay mixtures as potential synthetic aggregates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettit, Jesse William

    1978-01-01

    MUFFLE FURNACE EVALUATION OF FGD SLUDGE-COAL-CLAY MIXTURES AS POTENTIAL SYNTHETIC AGGREGATES A Thesis JESSE WILLIAM PETTIT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Suoject: Civil Engineering MUFFLE FURNACE EVALUATION OF FGD SLUDGE-COAL-CLAY MIXTURES AS POTENTIAL SYNTHETIC AGGREGATES A Theseus by JESSE WILLIAM PETTIT Approved as to style and content by: r n of Commi tee...

  15. Frustration and Melting of Colloidal Molecular Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2002-10-14

    Using numerical simulations we show that a variety of novel colloidal crystalline states and multi-step melting phenomena occur on square and triangular two-dimensional periodic substrates. At half-integer fillings different kinds of frustration effects can be realized. A two-step melting transition can occur in which individual colloidal molecules initially rotate, destroying the overall orientational order, followed by the onset of interwell colloidal hopping, in good agreement with recent experiments.

  16. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  17. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  18. THE CHOICE OF THE PROPER REFRACTORY FOR THE CASTING OF HIGH MELTING ELECTROPOSITIVE METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Leo

    2008-01-01

    for the Casting of High Melting Electropositive Metals Leothe Casting of High Melting Electropositive Metals" (Report

  19. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, T.J.; Palmer, B.A.; Hof, D.E.

    1990-11-06

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies is disclosed. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy. 1 fig.

  20. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300°C-700°C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

  1. Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.E.

    1991-12-01

    The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  3. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  5. The Automation Of Proof By Mathematical Induction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bundy, Alan

    This paper is a chapter of the Handbook of Automated Reasoning edited by Voronkov and Robinson. It describes techniques for automated reasoning in theories containing rules of mathematical induction. Firstly, inductive reasoning is defined and its...

  6. Sensorless performance evaluation of induction motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shehab

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, various aspects of induction motor performance are discussed. The importance of the speed-torque curve for an induction motor system and its various applications are emphasized. Difficulties in the presently available methods...

  7. Vacuum Arc Melting Unit Arc Melting is used for melting metals typically to form alloys. Heating is via an electric arc struck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Vacuum Arc Melting Unit Arc Melting is used for melting metals­ typically to form alloys. Heating unit is used as a power source. Heat generated by the electric arc struck between the electrode unit. The vacuum unit with rotary and diffusion pumps can attain a vacuum of 106 m bar. The cold

  8. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  9. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  10. Development and application of new techniques for blast furnace process control at SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braemming, M.; Hallin, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Zuo, G. [Luleaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Process Metallurgy

    1995-12-01

    SSAB Tunnplaat AB operates two blast furnaces (M1 and M2) in Luleaa. In recent years research efforts have to a great extent been aimed at the development of new techniques for blast furnace process control. An example is the installation of a burden profile measurement system, which was useful in the development of a new burden distribution praxis on the big furnace (M2), equipped with a bell-less-top. Hearth level detection and continuous measurement of the hot metal temperature in the runner are under evaluation. The purpose of these techniques is to give earlier information concerning the state of the blast furnace process. Parallel to this work, models for prediction of silicon in hot metal, the position and shape of the cohesive zone and slip-warning are being developed and tested off-line. These new models and information from new measuring techniques will be integrated into a new Operating Guidance System, hopefully resulting in a powerful tool in the efforts to stabilize blast furnace operations.

  11. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  12. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  13. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  14. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maekinen, A.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.; Niskanen, J.

    2013-04-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  15. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  16. Method and apparatus for melting metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Alan F.; Schechter, Donald E.; Morrow, Marvin Stanley

    2006-03-14

    A method and apparatus for melting metals uses microwave energy as the primary source of heat. The metal or mixture of metals are placed in a ceramic crucible which couples, at least partially, with the microwaves to be used. The crucible is encased in a ceramic casket for insulation and placed within a microwave chamber. The chamber may be evacuated and refilled to exclude oxygen. After melting, the crucible may be removed for pouring or poured within the chamber by dripping or running into a heated mold within the chamber. Apparent coupling of the microwaves with softened or molten metal produces high temperatures with great energy savings.

  17. Pressurized melt ejection into scaled reactor cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Ross, J.W.; Gilbert, D.W.

    1986-10-01

    This report describes four tests performed in the High-Pressure Melt Streaming Program (HIPS) using linear-scaled cavities of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. These experiments were conducted to study the phenomena involved in high-pressure ejection of core debris into the cavity beneath the reactor pressure vessel. One-tenth and one-twentieth linear scale models of reactor cavities were constructed and instrumented. The first test used an apparatus constructed of alumina firebrick to minimize the potential interaction between the ejected melt and cavity material. The remaining three experiments used scaled representations of the Zion nuclear plant geometry, constructed of prototypic concrete composition.

  18. Rock melting tool with annealer section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bussod, Gilles Y. (Santa Fe, NM); Dick, Aaron J. (Oakland, CA); Cort, George E. (Montrose, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A rock melting penetrator is provided with an afterbody that rapidly cools a molten geological structure formed around the melting tip of the penetrator to the glass transition temperature for the surrounding molten glass-like material. An annealing afterbody then cools the glass slowly from the glass transition temperature through the annealing temperature range to form a solid self-supporting glass casing. This allows thermally induced strains to relax by viscous deformations as the molten glass cools and prevents fracturing of the resulting glass liner. The quality of the glass lining is improved, along with its ability to provide a rigid impermeable casing in unstable rock formations.

  19. INDUCTION MOTOR FAULT DIAGNOSTIC AND MONITORING METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Povinelli, Richard J.

    INDUCTION MOTOR FAULT DIAGNOSTIC AND MONITORING METHODS by Aderiano M. da Silva, B.S. A Thesis;i Abstract Induction motors are used worldwide as the "workhorse" in industrial applications material. However, induction motor faults can be detected in an initial stage in order to prevent

  20. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  1. The formation of an ore free blast furnace center by bell charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exter, P. den; Steeghs, A.G.S.; Godijn, R.; Chaigneau, R.; Timmer, R.M.C. [Hoogovens Research and Development, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Toxopeus, H.L.; Vliet, C. van der [Hoogovens Staal Primary Products, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    A research program has been started to clarify and support the central gas flow control philosophy of Hoogovens` bell-charged No. 7 blast furnace. Small scale burdening experiments and sampling of the stock surface during shut-downs suggest that a sufficiently high central gas flow is an important condition for maintenance of an ore free, highly permeable furnace center and that fluidization of coke plays a part in its formation. On the basis of these experiments a hypothesis was formulated regarding the formation of an ore free blast furnace center, but could not be confirmed satisfactorily. Forthcoming full-scale burdening experiments will provide a better insight in the burden distribution and its control.

  2. Hoogovens blast furnace No. 6 -- The first eleven years of a continuing campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tijhuis, G.; Toxopeus, H.; Berg, H. van den; Vliet, C. van der [Hoogovens Steel, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Blast furnace No. 6 of Hoogovens Steel has just completed its eleventh year of the fourth (running) campaign, with a total production of approx. 23 million metric tonnes of hot metal. During the last reline in 1985 the furnace was equipped with a third taphole and a bell-less top. The lining consists of graphite and semi-graphite and the cooling consists of a dense pattern of copper plate coolers. The current campaign is marked by several important operational events, in particular the high productivity and PCI rates, but also by the remarkable performance of the lining which has shown limited wear in the first four years of the campaign, and hardly any reduction of the lining thickness in the last seven years. This paper discusses the design of the furnace, and the history of the current campaign with respect to its productivity, PCI rates and lining wear.

  3. Rankine and Brayton Cycle Cogeneration for Glass Melting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hnat, J. G.; Patten, J. S.; Sheth, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are made of the performance and installation costs of Rankine and Brayton power cycles when applied to waste heat recovery from a 350 ton/day container glass furnace. The power cycles investigation included: a) a conventional steam...

  4. Method for the melting of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR)

    1992-01-01

    A method of quantitatively determining the molten pool configuration in melting of metals. The method includes the steps of introducing hafnium metal seeds into a molten metal pool at intervals to form ingots, neutron activating the ingots and determining the hafnium location by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  5. Up-grade of process control system, U.S. Steel Fairfield No. 8 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camlic, R.L. [U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL (United States). Fairfield Works; Goodman, N.J. [Kvaerner Davy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The No. 8 blast furnace at US Steel`s Fairfield, AL facility is the only blast furnace remaining in operating at the plant. The blast furnace has a production capacity of 5,500 tons per day of hot metal and provides 100% of the iron requirements for the steel plant that has an annual production capacity of 2,200,000 tons of steel. Therefore, any outage on No. 8 blast furnace has a major impact on the operation of the total Fairfield facility. During the planning stages of the latest reline outage of No. 8 blast furnace, significant measures were taken to insure that maximum production of iron was maintained before and immediately after the outage. A significant portion of the reline activity was centered on the total replacement of the existing process control system. The scope of replacement was so extensive that it was determined that if all areas of the process control system were replaced during the reline outage, then the installation and commissioning of the new system would have been the critical path on the project. In addition, the requirements for training and start-up of the new process control system would have imposed risks to obtaining maximum production after the reline outage, as operators experienced the learning curve of the new system. It was therefore decided that the critical areas of the new process control system would be installed before the reline outage. In addition, all training and start-up activities would take place on the new working system while it was operating in a `shadow` mode in parallel with the existing system. This would provide a proven process control system for blast furnace operations before the reline outage, and eliminate the learning curve after the outage. The reline outage is described.

  6. Altos Hornos de Mexico blast furnace No. 5 certification in ISO-9002 standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamez, O.; Liceaga, F.; Arredondo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico`s Blast Furnace No. 5, as a means to improve its product quality, sought and obtained the certification of its quality system based on the international standard ISO-9002. The certification was obtained under this quality standard in Dec. 1995 and has successfully been maintained after two continuance audits. For blast furnace No. 5 (BF5) the benefits are reflected by a reduction in the hot metal silicon content variability, a decrease in fuel consumption and a higher productivity. Benefits were also obtained in the working environment where the personnel became more highly motivated, procedures were carried out to completion and the quality records were filled correctly.

  7. Continuous measurement of blast furnace burden profile at SSAB Tunnplat AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtala, J.; Edberg, N.; Hallin, M. (SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea (Sweden). Ironmaking Division)

    1993-01-01

    A unique profile meter system is installed on Blast Furnace No. 2 in SSAB - Swedish Steel AB, Lulea, Sweden. This system measures the charge material burden profile across the furnace top diameter before and after each charge. The system generates real-time data, which is graphically presented by the system on a monitor and includes burden descent speed, layer thickness of the coke and ore (corrected for descent), ore to coke ratio, and burden skewing. The system is described along with operational results.

  8. Bosh repairs No. 3 blast furnace, Edgar Thomson Plant Mon Valley Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoupis, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes in detail the steps taken from quenching to dry out of the furnace to repair the bosh area of the No.3 blast furnace. Inspection of the area revealed that there was no brick anywhere in the bosh. Brick in the tuyere breast area had been peeled back to reveal the steel plate, and descaling revealed 14 pipes fully exposed. None were leaking, but one seemed badly deteriorated. Conventional repairs could not take place before the scheduled blow-in. Installation of coolers were instead tried.

  9. Evaluation of Advanced PSA and Oxygen Combustion System for Industrial Furnace Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delano, M. A.; Lagree, D.; Kwan, Y.

    1988-01-01

    and a low NO x oxygen burner was evaluated for industrial furnace applications. The PSA system employs a two-bed vacuum cycle design with a capacity of 1.3 TPD at 90% O 2 purity. The oxygen generated from the PSA system was directly fed to a... Linde "A" Burner with a nominal capacity of 1 MMBTU/hr. The PSA system has shown an excellent reliability, a low power consumption, and good turndown characteristics. The burner produced a uniform temperature profile in a test furnace operated...

  10. Blast-furnace ironmaking -- Existing capital and continued improvements are a winning formula for a bright future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshnock, T.W.; Colinear, J.A. [U.S. Steel, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the years the blast-furnace process has been improved upon significantly. Increases to the hot-blast temperature, improvements to the physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties of coke and burden materials, the use of more fuel injectants, and improvements to the design of the furnace facilities have led to significant decreases in furnace coke rate, increases in productivity, and increases in furnace campaign life. As a result, many of the alternative cokeless reduction processes have not replaced blast-furnace hot-metal production in North America. In the future, these continued blast-furnace improvements will potentially result in coke rates decreasing to 400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM) as more pulverized coal is injected. These improvements, coupled with the fact that existing blast furnaces and coke plants can be refurbished for approximately $110 per annual ton of hot metal [$100 per annual net ton of hot metal (NTHM)], will result in extending the life of the North American blast furnaces well into the twenty-first century.

  11. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. 1 Introduction The ability to model the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under a a two­step scheme for natural gas combustion [30] coupled with a simplified turbulent kinetics model [6

  12. Dynamics and pattern selection at the crystal-melt interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummins, H.Z.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses: light scattering at the crystal-melt interface; morphological instability and pattern selection; and sidebranching.

  13. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we will discuss some of the early pioneering work as well as some of our more recent research. The Albany Research Center (ARC) has been involved with the melting and processing of metals since it was established in 1942. In the early days, hardly anything was known about melting refractory or reactive metals and as such, virtually everything had to be developed in-house. Besides the more common induction heated air-melt furnaces, ARC has built and/or utilized a wide variety of furnaces including vacuum arc remelt ingot and casting furnaces, cold wall induction furnaces, electric arc furnaces, cupola furnaces and reverberatory furnaces. The melt size of these furnaces range from several grams to a ton or more. We have used these furnaces to formulate custom alloys for wrought applications as well as for such casting techniques as spin casting, investment casting and lost foam casting among many. Two early spin-off industrializations were Wah Chang (wrought zirconium alloys for military and commercial nuclear applications) and Oremet (both wrought and cast Ti). Both of these companies are now part of the ATI Allegheny Ludlum Corporation.

  14. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  15. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W. [U.S. Steel, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  16. Development of quick repairing technique for ceramic burner in hot stove of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Atsushi; Doura, Kouji; Nakamura, Hirofumi [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1997-12-31

    Refractories of ceramic burner in hot stoves at Wakayama No. 4 blast furnace were damaged. There are only three hot stoves, so repairing must be done in a short. Therefore, a quick repairing technique for ceramic burners has been developed, and two ceramic burners were repaired in just 48 hours.

  17. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  18. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

  19. Determination of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead in urine using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.G.; Farrar, R.B.

    1980-12-01

    Procedures using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the determination of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead are described in this report. The lowest concentrations reported using the procedure are 5 ..mu..g/l for cadmium, chromium, and nickel and 10 ..mu..g/l for lead.

  20. Laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in a graphite furnace with an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel, Robert G.

    Laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry in a graphite furnace with an optical parametric oscillator laser for sequential multi-element determination of cadmium, cobalt, lead, manganese and thallium, for the ® rst time, that solid-state lasers required for analysis (ml or mg) and the technique has direct based

  1. Temperature Compensated Air/Fuel Ratio Control on a Recuperated Furnace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferri, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    When recuperation is added to a furnace, air/ fuel ratio control seemingly becomes more complicated. Two methods normally used are mass flow control where the fuel pressure or flow is proportional to the mass flow of air or cross-connected control...

  2. Directly induced swing for closed loop control of electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damkroger, Brian (Corrales, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace, imposing a periodic fluctuation on electrode drive speed and thereby generating a predictable voltage swing signal. The fluctuation is preferably done by imposition of a sine, square, or sawtooth wave on the drive dc offset signal.

  3. Directly induced swing for closed loop control of electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damkroger, B.

    1998-04-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace, imposing a periodic fluctuation on electrode drive speed and thereby generating a predictable voltage swing signal. The fluctuation is preferably done by imposition of a sine, square, or sawtooth wave on the drive dc offset signal. 8 figs.

  4. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces Fans; Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On January 3, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a final rule in the Federal Register that established the test procedure for residential furnace fans. Due to drafting errors, that document inadvertently removed necessary incorporation by reference material in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This final rule rectifies this error by once again adding the removed material.

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Performance Furnace Blowers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovations profile describes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's work with furnace blower design that led to the creation of a standard for rating blowers, credits for the use of good blowers in Federal tax credit programs and energy codes, and consideration in current federal rulemaking procedures.

  6. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State's Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  7. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A2-WetOxBond" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A2-WetOxBond" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "A2-Wet. Three Eurotherm temperature controllers provide a 20 inch long, flat profile in the Center Zone resistant gloves to handle those parts PROCEDURE. 1) "ENGAGE" the machine in CORAL for TRL tube "A2-WetOxBond"machine

  8. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A4-Polyiamide" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A4-Polyiamide" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "A4. Three Eurotherm temperature controllers provide a 20 inch long, flat profile in the Center Zone. Use the special heat resistant gloves to handle those parts PROCEDURE. 1) "ENGAGE" the machine

  9. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B3-DryOx" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B3-DryOx" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "B3-Dry profile in the Center Zone; they are arranged in a master/slave configuration and the temperature profile to handle those parts PROCEDURE. 1) "ENGAGE" the machine in CORAL for TRL tube "B3-DryOx"machine, before you

  10. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A1-GateOx" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A1-GateOx" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "A1-Gate. Three Eurotherm temperature controllers provide a 20 inch long, flat profile in the Center Zone the special heat resistant gloves to handle those parts PROCEDURE. 1) "ENGAGE" the machine in CORAL for TRL

  11. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B1-Au" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B1-Au" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "B1-Au. Three Eurotherm temperature controllers provide a 20 inch long, flat profile in the Center Zone PROCEDURE. 1) "ENGAGE" the machine in CORAL for TRL tube "B1-Au"machine, before you start. Tube B1-Au

  12. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B2-Ox-Alloy" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B2-Ox-Alloy" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "B2-Ox. Three Eurotherm temperature controllers provide a 20 inch long, flat profile in the Center Zone PROCEDURE. 1) "ENGAGE" the machine in CORAL for TRL tube "B2-Ox-Alloy"machine, before you start. Tube B2

  13. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A3-Sinter" furnace in TRL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A3-Sinter" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "A3-Sinter which is a mixture of Hydrogen and Nitrogen. The tube is a CMOS machine. The system is operated in manual mode. Three Eurotherm temperature controllers provide a 20 inch long, flat profile in the Center

  14. ORNL/TM-2014/656 Condensing Furnace Venting Part 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2014/656 Condensing Furnace Venting Part 2: Evaluation of Same-Chimney Vent Systems Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2014/656 Energy and Transportation Science Division CONDENSING 2.2 ENTRAINVENT DEVELOPED AT ORNL

  15. Brian Somerday, an SNL researcher, prepares to load a hydrogen pressure vessel into a laboratory furnace.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    include hydrogen production, fuel cells, thermophysical properties, hydrogen storage materials, and carbonI2CNER n Brian Somerday, an SNL researcher, prepares to load a hydrogen pressure vessel into a laboratory furnace. Unequivocally Sandia's strong research record and industrial experience on hydrogen

  16. Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular method are adopted to solve the global heat transfer and the radiative heat exchange, respectively rate QJ diffuse radiation heat transfer rate QX net rate of radiative heat loss QT heat generation rate

  17. An X-based spatial oxide growth visualization software for furnace characterization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ravi C.K

    1994-01-01

    and PostScript conversion for hard copies are provided. The software is expected to be useful to process engineers in understanding their furnace better and thus reduce the time taken to stabilize the process line. Demand for high quality control...

  18. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerdemann, Stephen J. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR)

    1999-01-01

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag.

  19. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerdemann, S.J.; White, J.C.

    1998-08-04

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag. 1 fig.

  20. Recovery of titanium values from titanium grinding swarf by electric furnace smelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerdemann, Stephen J. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the recovery of valuable materials from titanium grinding swarf is provided comprising the steps of sieving the accumulated titanium grinding swarf to remove unwanted coarse trash and grinding wheel fragments, pelletizing, and smelting in an electric arc furnace to produce ferrotitanium and/or high titanium slag.

  1. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  2. Specific heat in two-dimensional melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sven Deutschländer; Antonio M. Puertas; Georg Maret; Peter Keim

    2014-05-14

    We report the specific heat $c_N$ around the melting transition(s) of micrometer-sized superparamagnetic particles confined in two dimensions, calculated from fluctuations of positions and internal energy, and corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. Since colloidal systems provide single particle resolution, they offer the unique possibility to compare the experimental temperatures of peak position of $c_N(T)$ and symmetry breaking, respectively. While order parameter correlation functions confirm the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young melting scenario where translational and orientational order symmetries are broken at different temperatures with an intermediate so called hexatic phase, we observe a single peak of the specific heat within the hexatic phase, with excellent agreement between experiment and simulation. Thus, the peak is not associated with broken symmetries but can be explained with the total defect density, which correlates with the maximum increase of isolated dislocations. The absence of a latent heat strongly supports the continuous character of both transitions.

  3. Physics of polymer melts: A novel perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirish M. Chitanvis

    2000-02-25

    We have mapped the physics of polymer melts onto a time-dependent Landau-Ginzburg $|\\psi|^4$ field theory using techniques of functional integration. Time in the theory is simply a label for the location of a given monomer along the extent of a flexible chain. With this model, one can show that the limit of infinitesimal concentration of a polymer melt corresponds to a {\\em dynamic} critical phenomenon. The transition to the entangled state is also shown to be a critical point. For larger concentrations, when the role of fluctuations is reduced, a mean field approximation is justifiably employed to show the existence of tube-like structures reminiscent of Edwards' model.

  4. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel (Oakland, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of five inorganic salts including about 29.1-33.5 mol % LiNO.sub.3, 0-3.9 mol % NaNO.sub.3, 2.4-8.2 mol % KNO.sub.3, 18.6-19.9 mol % NaNO.sub.2, and 40-45.6 mol % KNO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures below 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  5. Deuterium fusion through nonequilibrium induction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, P.H. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents a deuterium fusion system that is based on the induction of fusion through a nonequilibrium thermodynamical configuration. Mechanical excitation using ultrasound is applied to a palladium electrode with deuterium-containing liquid, a mixture of palladium powder and deuterium-containing liquid, and a system of palladium and a highly compressed deuterium gas that approximates a deuterium solid. The ultrasound, when coupled with the medium of these systems, instantaneously creates a high temperature and pressure that would induce fusion between deuterons.

  6. Topological Constraints in Directed Polymer Melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serna, Pablo; Nahum, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Polymers in a melt may be subject to topological constraints, as in the example of unlinked polymer rings. How to do statistical mechanics in the presence of such constraints remains a fundamental open problem. We study the effect of topological constraints on a melt of directed polymers using simulations of a simple quasi-2D model. We find that fixing the global topology of the melt to be trivial changes the polymer conformations drastically. Polymers of length $L$ wander in the transverse direction only by a distance of order $(\\ln L)^\\zeta$ with $\\zeta \\simeq 1.5$. This is strongly suppressed in comparison with the Brownian scaling $L^{1/2}$ which holds in the absence of the topological constraint. It is also much less than the prediction $L^{1/4}$ of a mean-field-like `array of obstacles' model: thus we rule out such a model in the present setting. Dynamics are also strongly affected by the constraints, and a tagged monomer in an infinite system performs logarithmically slow subdiffusion. To cast light on...

  7. Induction slag reduction process for making titanium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR)

    1991-01-01

    Continuous process for preparing titanium comprising fluorinating titanium ore, and reducing the formed alkaline earth fluotitanate with an alkaline earth metal in an induction slag reactor.

  8. Localized Induction Equation for Stretched Vortex Filament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimiaki Konno; Hiroshi Kakuhata

    2006-03-02

    We study numerically the motion of the stretched vortex filaments by using the localized induction equation with the stretch and that without the stretch.

  9. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  10. Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H. [AG der Dillinger Huettenweke, Dillingen (Germany); Grisse, H.J. [Dango and Dienenthal Siegen (Germany); Speranza, B.E. [Dango and Dienenthal, Inc., Highland, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

  11. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  12. 164 INDUCTIVE LOGIC "Corroboration versus Induction," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    164 INDUCTIVE LOGIC "Corroboration versus Induction," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science: D. C. Stove,review of Popper's, Logic of Scientij5c Discovery, AustralasianJournal of Philosophy 38 Measures of Evidential Strength" appears in Aspects of Inductive Logic (Hintikka and Suppes, eds.), North

  13. A Material Theory of Induction* John D. Nortonyz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that there are no universal inductive inference schemas. The inductive inferences of science are grounded in matters of fact assess and control the inductive risk taken in an induction by investigating the warrant for its to be reconciled with our continued failure to agree on an explicit systematization of inductive inference

  14. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  15. Record production on Gary No. 13 blast furnace with 450 lb./THM co-injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G. [US Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States). Gary Works

    1996-12-31

    Coal injection was initiated on No. 13 Blast Furnace in 1993 with 400 lb/THM achieved in 9 months. In early 1994, cold weather and coal preparation upsets led to the use of a second injectant, oil atomized by natural gas, to supplement the coal. Various combinations of coal and oil were investigated as total injection was increased to 450 lb/THM. Beginning in the last half of 1994, a continuing effort has been made to increase furnace production while maintaining this high co-injection level. Typical furnace production is now in excess of 10,000 THM/day compared with about 8500 THM/day in late 1993.

  16. Melt state behaviour of PEEK and processing window interpretation for fast compression moulding process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessard, Emeline; De Almeida, Olivier; Bernhart, Gerard [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA (Institut Clement Ader), Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Ecole des Mines Albi, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi (France)

    2011-01-17

    Fast mould heating is nowadays possible by using induction technology for example with the Cage System registered developed by RocTool. It allows heating and cooling kinetics of about 100 deg. C per minute and new perspectives are thus possible to optimize the compression moulding process of long fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. Indeed, a high forming temperature may favour polymer creep and so on composite consolidation. Nevertheless, the processing time of PEEK composite above melt temperature must be reduced to a few minutes due to the fast thermal degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, high cooling rates may have negative effect on matrix crystallinity. The proposed procedure consist in performing a few minutes isotherm around 300 deg. C during the fast cooling. It would favour a high degree of crystallinity of PEEK without extending the cycle time.

  17. Depleted uranium dioxide melting in cold crucible melter and production of granules from the melt for use in casks for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Seredenko, V.A.; Shatalov, V.V.; Mironov, B.S.; Kaplenkov, V.N.; Seredenko, A.V.; Saranchin, V.K.; Shulgin, A.S. [All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology (ARRICT), Moscow (Russian Federation); Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a joint research program between the Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States to develop new radiation shielding materials for use in the construction of casks for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive wastes. Research and development is underway to develop SNF storage, transport, and disposal casks using shielding made with two new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO{sub 2}) materials: a DUO{sub 2}-steel cermet, and, DUCRETE with DUAGG (DUO{sub 2} aggregate). Melting the DUO{sub 2} and allowing it to freeze will produce a near 100% theoretical density product and assures that the product produces no volatile materials upon subsequent heating. Induction cold-crucible melters (ICCM) are being developed for this specific application. An ICCM is, potentially, a high throughput low-cost process. Schematics of a pilot facility were developed for the production of molten DUO{sub 2} from DU{sub 3}O{sub 8} to produce granules <1 mm in diameter in a continuous mode of operation. Thermodynamic analysis was conducted for uranium-oxygen system in the temperature range from 300 to 4000 K in various gas mediums. Temperature limits of stability for various uranium oxides were determined. Experiments on melting DUO{sub 2} were carried out in a high frequency ICCM in a cold crucible with a 120 mm in diameter. The microstructure of molten DUO{sub 2} was studied and lattice parameters were determined. It was experimentally proved, and validated by X-ray analysis, that an opportunity exists to produce molten DUO{sub 2} from mixed oxides (primarily DU{sub 3}O{sub 8}) by reduction melting in ICCM. This will allow using DU{sub 3}O{sub 8} directly to make DUO{sub 2}-a separate unit operation to produce UO{sub 2} feed material is not needed. Experiments were conducted concerning the addition of alloying components, gadolinium et al. oxides, into the DUO{sub 2} melt while in the crucible. These additives improve neutron and gamma radiation shielding and operation properties of the final solids. Cermet samples of 50 wt % DUO{sub 2} were produced. (authors)

  18. Implementation Techniques for Inductive Types in Plastic ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Zhaohui

    Implementation Techniques for Inductive Types in Plastic ? Paul Callaghan and Zhaohui Luo://www.dur.ac.uk/CARG fP.C.Callaghan, Zhaohui.Luog@durham.ac.uk Abstract. In the context of Plastic, a proof assistant the reduction mechanisms of Plastic, and briefly considers optimisations for inductive types. Key words: type

  19. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and reports commissioning results.

  20. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Jaselskis, Edward J. (Ames, IA)

    1999-03-30

    A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

  1. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1999-03-30

    A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

  2. Melting a granular glass by cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Plagge; Claus Heussinger

    2013-02-05

    Driven granular systems readily form glassy phases at high particle volume fractions and low driving amplitudes. We use computer simulations of a driven granular glass to evidence a re-entrance melting transition into a fluid state, which, contrary to intuition, occurs by \\emph{reducing} the amplitude of the driving. This transition is accompanied by anomalous particle dynamics and super-diffusive behavior on intermediate time-scales. We highlight the special role played by frictional interactions, which help particles to escape their glassy cages. Such an effect is in striking contrast to what friction is expected to do: reduce particle mobility by making them stick.

  3. Melting Instantons, Domain Walls, and Large N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. B. Thacker

    2008-10-22

    Monte Carlo studies of $CP^{N-1}$ sigma models have shown that the structure of topological charge in these models undergoes a sharp transition at $N=N_c\\approx 4$. For $NN_c$ it is dominated by extended, thin, 1-dimensionally coherent membranes of topological charge, which can be interpreted as domain walls between discrete quasi-stable vacua. These vacua differ by a unit of background electric flux. The transition can be identified as the delocalization of topological charge, or "instanton melting," a phenomenon first suggested by Witten to resolve the conflict between instantons and large $N$ behavior. Implications for $QCD$ are discussed.

  4. Microwave Melting | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection ofOctober10 Years2,2004Microwave Melting

  5. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of a vertical vacuum furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of a vertical vacuum furnace. Following a market survey carried out among 32 firms in seven Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2684/EST) was sent on 19 September 2000 to seven firms in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders from six firms in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with PVA VAKUUM-ANLAGENBAU (DE), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of a vertical vacuum furnace for a total amount of 926 900 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE - 59%; AT - 23%; SK - 10%; CH - 8%.

  7. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  9. On the long-term correlations and multifractal properties of electric arc furnace time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livi, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Antonello; Sadeghian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study long-term correlations and multifractal properties elaborated from time series of three-phase current signals coming from an industrial electric arc furnace plant. Implicit sinusoidal trends are suitably detected in the scaling of the fluctuation function of such time series. Time series are then initially filtered via a Fourier based analysis, removing hence such strong periodicities. In the filtered time series we detected long-term, positive correlations. The presence of persistent correlations is in agreement with the typical V--I characteristic (hysteresis) of the electric arc furnace, justifying thus the memory effects found in the current time series. The multifractal signature is strong enough in the filtered time series to be effectively classified as multifractal.

  10. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  11. Partial melting and melt segregation in a convecting mantle Harro Schmeling*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeling, Harro

    Abstract Various causes for mantle melting (decompression, heating or release of water) combined that the earth is a giant heat engine powered partly by primordial heat and partly by the decay of long lived in a deforming medium are discussed with emphasis on the physical processes involved. To combine these processes

  12. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  13. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis of isothermal turbulent flows in interacting low NOx burners in coal-fired furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cvoro, Valentina

    Coal firing power stations represent the second largest source of global NOx emissions. The current practice of predicting likely exit NOx levels from multi-burner furnaces on the basis of single burner test rig data has ...

  15. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01

    RETROFIT WITH GAS TURBINES ACHIEVE BOTH ENERGY SAVINGS AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS F. Giacobbe*, G. Iaquaniello**, R. G. Minet*, P. Pietrogrande* *KTI Corp., Research and Development Division, Monrovia, California **KTI SpA., Rome, Italy ABSTRACT... Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NO emissions while also generating electricity ~t an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented. INTRODUCTION Petroleum refining...

  16. AGA/APGA Questions re Pre-publication Furnace NOPR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks25 AMOSystemADAEnergyPre-publication Furnace

  17. Retrograde Melting and Internal Liquid Gettering in Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudelson, Steve; Newman, Bonna K.; Bernardis, Sarah; Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-07-01

    Retrograde melting (melting upon cooling) is observed in silicon doped with 3d transition metals, via synchrotron-based temperature-dependent X-ray microprobe measurements. Liquid metal-silicon droplets formed via retrograde melting act as efficient sinks for metal impurities dissolved within the silicon matrix. Cooling results in decomposition of the homogeneous liquid phase into solid multiple-metal alloy precipitates. These phenomena represent a novel pathway for engineering impurities in semiconductor-based systems.

  18. Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction and Permanent Magnet Electric Motors Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction and Permanent Magnet Electric...

  19. Improvements to Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative Analysis using Short Pulse UV Laser DESCRIPTION: Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass...

  20. Gary Works No. 13 blast furnace: A new removable trough design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; Pawlak, J.P. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States). Gary Works; Traina, L.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    No. 13 Blast Furnace at US Steel`s Gary Works is a 35 tuyere furnace with a 36.5 ft. hearth capable of producing over 9,000 tons of hot metal per day. The current casthouse design was placed in service following the second reline in the fall of 1979. This design anticipated daily production rates averaging 7,500 tons of hot metal per day and provided for removable troughs at two of the three tapholes. At the time, the troughs were rammed with a high alumina/silicon carbide granular ramming material that provided the operators with trough campaign lives between 60,000--70,000 tons of hot metal produced. As refractory technology progressed, low cement/low moisture castables were introduced to the trough systems on No. 13 Blast Furnace. The immediate success of the castables was tempered by emergence of a new unexpected problem. That problem was the thermal expansion of the castable. The paper describes the problems that resulted in the need to modify the trough design, the new design of the trough, and its improvement in iron trough campaign life and reliability.

  1. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  2. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  3. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  4. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  5. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  6. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Quality Molten Aluminum itmdelivery.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the...

  7. Arctic melt ponds and bifurcations in the climate system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudakov, Ivan; Golden, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how sea ice melts is critical to climate projections. In the Arctic, melt ponds that develop on the surface of sea ice floes during the late spring and summer largely determine their albedo $-$ a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a simple sea ice climate model passing through a bifurcation point $-$ an irreversible critical threshold as the system warms, by incorporating geometric information about melt pond evolution. This study is based on a nonlinear phase transition model for melt ponds, and bifurcation analysis of a simple climate model with ice - albedo feedback as the key mechanism driving the system to a potential bifurcation point.

  8. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph G. (Oakland, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid comprising a mixture of LiNO.sub.3, NaNO.sub.3, KNO.sub.3, NaNO.sub.2 and KNO.sub.2 salts where the Li, Na and K cations are present in amounts of about 20-33.5 mol % Li, about 18.6-40 mol % Na, and about 40-50.3 mol % K and where the nitrate and nitrite anions are present in amounts of about 36-50 mol % NO.sub.3, and about 50-62.5 mol % NO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures between 70.degree. C. and 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  9. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  10. Melting Alpine Glaciers Enrich High-Elevation Lakes with Reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    melt alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We foundMelting Alpine Glaciers Enrich High-Elevation Lakes with Reactive Nitrogen J A S M I N E E . S A R century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological

  11. THE CONTRIBUTION OF GREENLAND ICE SHEET MELTING TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE CONTRIBUTION OF GREENLAND ICE SHEET MELTING TO GLOBAL SEA-LEVEL CHANGE Conor Mc, orbital cycles, glacial isostatic adjustment and tectonics. Each of these elements contribute different it to be directly observed. This project examined the contribution to sea-level change due to melting of ice from

  12. DNA Melting in the Presence of Fluorescent Intercalating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    absorption characteristics that complicate conventional uv measurements of DNA melting. In this article, we was designed to be complementary to uv absorption measurements in that it reports the number of melted duplexes, Vol. 65, 40­44 (2002) © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 40 #12;conventional uv absorption measurements

  13. Network Modeling of Arctic Melt Ponds Meenakshi Barjatiaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Network Modeling of Arctic Melt Ponds Meenakshi Barjatiaa , Tolga Tasdizena,b, , Boya Songc. In late spring and summer, the albedo of the ice pack is determined primarily by melt ponds that form on the sea ice surface. The transition of pond configurations from isolated structures to interconnected

  14. Retrieval of Melt Pond Coverage from MODIS using Optimal Estimation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodd, Emma

    2011-11-24

    Melt pond coverage on sea ice is an important influence on sea ice albedo reduction during the summer and can also affect the monitoring of sea ice extent, sea ice models and sea ice forecasting. Techniques to estimate melt pond coverage from global...

  15. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  16. Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

  17. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  18. The rule of the stock distribution with large bell in blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yuncai [Shoudu Iron and Steel Co., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes in detail, starting from the basic equation of materials falling from a two bell furnace top system, how a number of mathematical expressions which govern the stock distribution of the throat were derived. An analysis was then made by applying these equations on topics, such as stockline levels, charging sequences, stock grain size, large bell angle and batch weight. This demonstrates that a reasonable two bells top charging system and practice could be established theoretically. Furthermore, character numbers for stock distribution, such as E{sub B} and D{sub K}, were developed for a possible computer application.

  19. A method for burden distribution estimation from probe data in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.; Bulsari, A. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach for estimation of burden distribution in the blast furnace is presented. The proposed model makes use of only temperature measurements from an above-burden probe, and interprets the changes in temperature at charging in terms of burden distribution. In this study it is demonstrated that the temperature changes can be predicted quite accurately for all dumps in a charging sequence using neural networks., The basic structures of both an on-line and an off-line model are presented.

  20. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

  1. MELTING OF GLASS BATCH: MODEL FOR MULTIPLE OVERLAPPING GAS-EVOLVING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: MELTING OF GLASS BATCH: MODEL FOR MULTIPLE OVERLAPPING GAS-EVOLVING REACTIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MELTING OF GLASS BATCH: MODEL FOR MULTIPLE...

  2. Geek-Up: K East Reactor Demolition, Retrograde Melting and Cloud Pattern Tracking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act funds help clean up the Hanford site, retrograde melting (melting as something cools) and how open-cell clouds could help predict climate change.

  3. Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of...

  4. String melting in a photon bath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouby, Johanna, E-mail: karoubyj@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

  5. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  6. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  7. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  8. Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1995-12-01

    The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

  9. Burden distribution tests of Siderar`s No. 2 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingiardi, O.; Partemio, C.; Burrai, O.; Etchevarne, P.

    1997-12-31

    Siderar is a company which was created through the merger of Propulsora Siderurgica and the privatized Aceros Parana (the former Somisa, a state-owned steel company). This plant manufacturers flat steel products: hot and cold rolled coils, as well as tin plate coils. After the privatization of the former Somisa in 1992, the new owners decided to modernize the Blast Furnace 2. The relining involved the following: complete furnace with bell less top; cast house with dust collection; INBA granulation system; gas cleaning system; cooling system; modern control system; and revamping of the stock house and the stoves. Burden distribution tests allowed the staff to familiarize themselves with the operation of the top under the three operation modes (manual, semiautomatic and automatic), and also to make adjustments to the top control system. In addition, the tests allowed them to see how materials behave during discharge and building up of ore and coke layers. All this information, together with the available instrumentation, such as fixed probes and heat flux monitoring system, proved to be of use for the gas flow control.

  10. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

    1993-03-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

  11. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Experimental characterization of an industrial pulverized coal-fired furnace under deep staging conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    Measurements have been performed in a 300 MWe, front-wall-fired, pulverized-coal, utility boiler. This boiler was retrofitted with boosted over fire air injectors that allowed the operation of the furnace under deeper staging conditions. New data are reported for local mean gas species concentration of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NOx, gas temperatures and char burnout measured at several ports in the boiler including those in the main combustion and staged air regions. Comparisons of the present data with our previous measurements in this boiler, prior to the retrofitting with the new over fire system, show lower O{sub 2} and higher CO concentrations for the new situation as a consequence of the lower stoichiometry in the main combustion zone associated with the present boiler operating condition. Consistently, the measured mean NOx concentrations in the main combustion zone are now lower than those obtained previously, yielding emissions below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3}at 6% O{sub 2}. Finally, the measured values of particle burnout at the furnace exit are acceptable being those measured in the main combustion zone comparable with those obtained with the conventional over fire system.

  13. Hybrid-secondary uncluttered induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An uncluttered secondary induction machine (100) includes an uncluttered rotating transformer (66) which is mounted on the same shaft as the rotor (73) of the induction machine. Current in the rotor (73) is electrically connected to current in the rotor winding (67) of the transformer, which is not electrically connected to, but is magnetically coupled to, a stator secondary winding (40). The stator secondary winding (40) is alternately connected to an effective resistance (41), an AC source inverter (42) or a magnetic switch (43) to provide a cost effective slip-energy-controlled, adjustable speed, induction motor that operates over a wide speed range from below synchronous speed to above synchronous speed based on the AC line frequency fed to the stator.

  14. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  15. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  16. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  17. Inaugural Lecture: The Warrant of Induction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor, David Hugh

    1988-01-21

    fatigue and caterpillars turning into butterflies are two more obvious examples. But we recognise them inductively. Our mortality statistics show that the observed chances of adults surviving another year have so far always or nearly always decreased... , or almost none, of the many lectures, on all subjects, which you've heard or heard of, have lasted that long. If many of them had, you wouldn't have known that this one won't; but as it is, you do know that. That's a piece of induction. We believe...

  18. Melt generation in the Earth's mantle at Convergent Plate Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Till, Christy B

    2011-01-01

    The five geologic studies presented in this thesis document how the recycling of tectonic plates at subduction zones has a profound effect on the melting behavior of the Earth's mantle. Two experimental studies (Chapters ...

  19. Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated with Nuclear Waste Glass Batch Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Alumina Source on...

  20. Building Icelandic Igneous Crust by Repeated Melt Injections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-10-27

    Observations of microseismicity provide a powerful tool for mapping the movement of melt in the crust. Here we record remarkable sequences of earthquakes 20 km below the surface in the normally ductile crust in the vicinity of Askja volcano...

  1. Melt extrusion and continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Erin R

    2011-01-01

    Melt extrusion is an alternative processing technique that operates continuously, reduces the total number of unit operations, allows for incorporation of difficult-to-process drug substances, and has the potential to ...

  2. Method and apparatus for melt growth of crystalline semiconductor sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.; Hurd, J.L.

    1981-02-25

    An economical method is presented for forming thin sheets of crystalline silicon suitable for use in a photovoltaic conversion cell by solidification from the liquid phase. Two spatially separated, generally coplanar filaments wettable by liquid silicon and joined together at the end by a bridge member are immersed in a silicon melt and then slowly withdrawn from the melt so that a silicon crystal is grown between the edge of the bridge and the filaments.

  3. Apparatus for melt growth of crystalline semiconductor sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO); Hurd, Jeffery L. (Golden, CO)

    1986-01-01

    An economical method is presented for forming thin sheets of crystalline silicon suitable for use in a photovoltaic conversion cell by solidification from the liquid phase. Two spatially separated, generally coplanar filaments wettable by liquid silicon and joined together at the end by a bridge member are immersed in a silicon melt and then slowly withdrawn from the melt so that a silicon crystal is grown between the edge of the bridge and the filaments.

  4. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic Waste Forms: A Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Maio, Vincent; McCloy, John S.; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian J.; Benefiel, Bradley; Vienna, John D.; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (~1/4 scale) cold crucible induction meter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  5. Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod; Maio, Vince; McCloy, John; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian; Benefiel, Brad; Vienna, John; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joe; Olszta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (approximately 1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  6. Incorporation of a physically based melt pond scheme into the sea ice component of a climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    Incorporation of a physically based melt pond scheme into the sea ice component of a climate model and evolution of melt ponds. Melt ponds accumulate on the surface of sea ice from snow and sea ice melt, melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice surface. We have developed a melt pond evolution theory. Here

  7. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, Alan C. (E. Windsor, NJ); Jardin, Stephen C. (Princeton, NJ); Yamada, Masaaki (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    The inductively formed spheromak plasma can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. Steady-state operation is obtained by forming the plasma in the linked mode, then oscillating the poloidal and toroidal fields such that they have different phases. Preferably, the poloidal and magnetic fields are 90.degree. out of phase.

  8. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  9. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  10. Control System Synthesis Through Inductive Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    Control System Synthesis Through Inductive Learning of Boolean Concepts Michael Lemmon, Panos the use of concept learning in the identification of discrete event system (DES) controllers. Introduction of bounded process uncertainty. If the resulting performance of the robust control system is unacceptable

  11. Global Electrical Conductivity Magnetic Satellite Induction Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constable, Steve

    CHAMPMeeting, September2003 c S.Constable SCRIPPSINST ITUTION OF OCE ANOGRAPHY UCSD #12;Contents: · Background: Earth conductivity · Background: EM induction · Some satellite results 2ndCHAMPMeeting, September2003 c SCHAMPMeeting, September2003 c S.Constable SCRIPPSINST ITUTION OF OCE ANOGRAPHY UCSD #12;Conductivity of Earth materials

  12. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Yamada, M.

    1985-02-20

    The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.

  13. Local Constructive Set Theory and Inductive Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aczel, Peter

    Local Constructive Set Theory and Inductive Definitions Peter Aczel 1 Introduction Local Constructive Set Theory (LCST) is intended to be a local version of con- structive set theory (CST principles, is also acceptable in topos mathematics, the mathematics that can be carried out in an arbi

  14. Changing monsoon patterns, snow and glacial melt, its impacts and adaptation options in northern India: Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Editorial Changing monsoon patterns, snow and glacial melt, its impacts and adaptation options of northern India. Flows in such Himalayan rivers are derived from both contemporary precipitation and melting glacier melt, and in warmer drier summers through enhanced melt making up for reduced precipita- tion (e

  15. Large-Scale Oceanographic Constraints on the Distribution of Melting and Freezing under Ice Shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnanadesikan, Anand

    Large-Scale Oceanographic Constraints on the Distribution of Melting and Freezing under Ice Shelves experience asymmetric melting and freezing. Topography may constrain oceanic circulation (and thus basal melt­freeze patterns) through its influence on the potential vorticity (PV) field. However, melting and freezing induce

  16. The Dynamic Creation of Induction Rules Using Proof Planning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gow, Jeremy

    A key problem in automating proof by mathematical induction is choosing an induction rule suitable for a given conjecture. Since Boyer & Moore’s NQTHM system the standard approach has been based on recursion analysis, ...

  17. Excitation and control of a high-speed induction generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Englebretson, Steven Carl

    2005-01-01

    This project investigates the use of a high speed, squirrel cage induction generator and power converter for producing DC electrical power onboard ships and submarines. Potential advantages of high speed induction generators ...

  18. Semantic Taxonomy Induction from Heterogenous Evidence Computer Science Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Andrew Y.

    Semantic Taxonomy Induction from Heterogenous Evidence Rion Snow Computer Science Department­ tic taxonomies. Previous algorithms for taxonomy induction have typically focused on independent over heterogenous relationships to optimize the entire structure of the taxonomy, using knowl­ edge

  19. Semantic Taxonomy Induction from Heterogenous Evidence Computer Science Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Andrew Y.

    Semantic Taxonomy Induction from Heterogenous Evidence Rion Snow Computer Science Department- tic taxonomies. Previous algorithms for taxonomy induction have typically focused on independent over heterogenous relationships to optimize the entire structure of the taxonomy, using knowl- edge

  20. Induction Lighting: An Old Lighting Technology Made New Again

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Induction lighting is one of the best kept secrets in energy-efficient lighting. Simply stated, induction lighting is essentially a fluorescent light without electrodes or filaments, the items that...

  1. Magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

    2007-01-01

    This thesis documents the design process for magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations. Two styles of magnetic induction systems - magnet-through-coil and magnet-across-coils - were analyzed. ...

  2. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State`s Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  3. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  4. Process Simulation and Control Optimization of a Blast Furnace Using Classical Thermodynamics Combined to a Direct Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Alain

    consisting mainly of N2, CO, CO2, H2, and H2O. This is a consequence of the reduction of the iron ore volume methods, data-mining models, heat and mass balance models, and classical thermodynamic simulations-tune the simulation of the blast furnace. Optimal operating conditions and predicted output stream properties

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement by Measurement and Control: A Case Study of Reheating Furnaces in the Steel Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martensson, A.

    1992-01-01

    is on energy use in steel reheating furnaces for rolling mills. The demands on the reheating process and the operational conditions that are essential for its control are described. An analysis is made of possible reductions in energy use as a result...

  6. Evaluation and application of SOX measurement procedures for kraft recovery furnaces. Project report July 1976-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, A.K.; Blosser, R.O.; Newport, D.B.; Oglesby, H.S.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the sulfuric acid (SO3/H2SO4) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from kraft recovery furnaces using an extractive sampling system. The Goksoyr and Ross controlled condensation technique was chosen. Equipment was designed and fabricated to evaluate the effect of coil length, grit porosity, temperature, flow rate, and concentration upon the efficiency of capture of H2SO4 in the modified Grahm condenser. The optimum design and operating conditions to minimize SO3/H2SO4 losses in filter holders used in the sampling train for particulate separation were determined, and the effects of recovery furnace particulate upon SO3/H2SO4 losses were investigated. Sampling of five representative Kraft recovery furnace stack gases showed that the SO3/H2SO4 concentrations varied from 0 to 2.98 ppm, while the range of SO2 concentrations was from 14 to 416 ppm. A comparison of these emissions with the SO3/H2SO4 and SO2 emissions from oil and coal fired utility boilers shows the kraft recovery furnace emissions to be much lower.

  7. A study on the flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Y.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Baik, C.Y. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31

    The flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace was investigated by using a water model test and a numerical simulation. The water model apparatus was set up in order to evaluate the effects of coke size, coke bed structure, drain rate, and coke free space on the fluidity of molten iron through measurement of residence time and visualization of flow pattern. In addition, the flow was calculated by solving momentum equation in porous media using finite element method. The residence time increased with the coke size decrease, but decreased with the drain rate increase. If small coke was placed in the center of deadman, peripheral flow was enhanced. The flow path was changed due to the coke free space.

  8. Variable firing rate power burner for high efficiency gas furnaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, H.H.; Demler, R.L.; Poulin, E.

    1980-02-01

    One method for increasing the efficiency of residential furnaces and boilers is to retrofit a burner capable of firing rate (FR) modulation. While maximum FR is still attainable, the average FR is significantly lower, resulting in more effective heat exchanger performance. Equally important is the capability for continuous firing at a very low rate (simmering) which eliminates off-cycle loss, a heavy contributor to inefficiency. Additional performance can be gained by reducing the excess air required by a burner. Based on its previous experience, Foster-Miller Associates, Inc. has designed and tested a low excess air (about 15%) variable firing rate (VFR) burner. The theory of operation and the construction of the test burner are described. Test results are given along with a conclusion/recommendation. A Phase II plan is outlined which suggests methods and steps for fabrication and field testing of a number of prototype units.

  9. Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A controller for automatically regulating the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves and small furnaces. The controller includes a movable air valve for controlling the amount of secondary air admitted into the chamber. A self powered means monitors the concentration of combustible gases and vapors and actuates the movable air valve to increase the supply of secondary air in response to increasing concentrations of the combustible gases and vapors. The self-powered means can be two fluid filled sensor bulbs, one of which has a coating of a combustion catalyst. Alternatively, the self powered means can be two metallic stripes laminated together, one of which is coated with a combustion catalyst, and when heated, causes the air valve to actuate.

  10. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project involving two homes, the IBACOS team evaluated the performance of the two space conditioning systems and the modeled efficiency of the two tankless domestic hot water systems relative to actual occupant use. Each house was built by Insight Homes and is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler).

  11. Volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides from soil heated in an induction ``cold`` crucible melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, A.S.; Belov, V.Z.; Trofimenko, A.S. [Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, S.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V. [SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gombert, D.; Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of heavy metals and radionuclides during high-temperature treatment is very important for the design and operational capabilities of the off-gas treatment system, as well as for a better understanding of the nature and forms of the secondary waste. In Russia, a process for high-temperature melting in an induction heated cold crucible system is being studied for vitrification of Low Level Waste (LLW) flyash and SYNROC production with simulated high level waste (HLW). This work was done as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) funded research project for thermal treatment of mixed low level waste (LLW). Soil spiked with heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and radionuclides (Cs-137, U-239, Pu-239) was used as a waste surrogate. The soil was melted in an experimental lab-scale system that consisted of a high-frequency generator (1.76 MHz, 60 kW), a cold crucible melter (300 mm high and 90 mm in diameter), a shield box, and an off-gas system. The process temperature was 1,350--1,400 C. Graphite and silicon carbide were used as sacrificial conductive materials to start heating and initial melting of the soil batch. The off-gas system was designed in such a manner that after each experiment, it can be disconnected to collect and analyze all deposits to determine the mass balance. The off-gases were also sampled during an experiment to analyze for hydrogen, NO{sub x}, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and chlorine formation. This paper describes distribution and mass balance of metals and radionuclides in various parts of the off-gas system. The leach rate of the solidified blocks identified by the PCT method is also reported.

  12. Curvature fluctuations and the Lyapunov exponent at melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehra, V.; Ramaswamy, R. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)] [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    1997-09-01

    We calculate the maximal Lyapunov exponent in constant-energy molecular-dynamics simulations at the melting transition for finite clusters of 6{endash}13 particles (model rare-gas and metallic systems) as well as for bulk rare-gas solids. For clusters, the Lyapunov exponent generally varies linearly with the total energy, but the {ital slope} changes sharply at the melting transition. In the bulk system, melting corresponds to a jump in the Lyapunov exponent, and this corresponds to a singularity in the variance of the curvature of the potential-energy surface. In these systems there are two mechanisms of chaos{emdash}local instability and parametric instability. We calculate the contribution of the parametric instability toward the chaoticity of these systems using a recently proposed formalism. The contribution of parametric instability is a continuous function of energy in small clusters but not in the bulk where the melting corresponds to a decrease in this quantity. This implies that the melting in small clusters does not lead to enhanced local instability. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Device and method for skull-melting depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Heestand, R.L.

    1993-02-09

    A method of skull-melting comprises the steps of: (a) providing a vessel adapted for a skull-melting process, the vessel having an interior, an underside, and an orifice connecting the interior and the underside; (b) disposing a waveguide in the orifice so that the waveguide protrudes sufficiently into the interior to interact with the skull-melting process; (c) providing a signal energy transducer in signal communication with the waveguide; (d) introducing into the vessel a molten working material; (e) carrying out the skull-melting process so that a solidified skull of the working material is formed, the skull and the vessel having an interface therebetween, the skull becoming fused to the waveguide so the signal energy can be transmitted through the waveguide and the skull without interference from the interface; (f) activating the signal energy transducer so that a signal is propagated through the waveguide; and, (g) controlling at least one variable of the skull-melting process utilizing feedback information derived from the propagated signal energy.

  14. Ising model for melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Y -P; Golden, K M

    2014-01-01

    The albedo of melting Arctic sea ice, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by pools of water on the ice surface. Recent observations show an onset of pond complexity at a critical area of about 100 square meters, attended by a transition in pond fractal dimension. To explain this behavior and provide a statistical physics approach to sea ice modeling, we introduce a two dimensional Ising model for pond evolution which incorporates ice-albedo feedback and the underlying thermodynamics. The binary magnetic spin variables in the Ising model correspond to the presence of melt water or ice on the sea ice surface. The model exhibits a second-order phase transition from isolated to clustered melt ponds, with the evolution of pond complexity in the clustered phase consistent with the observations.

  15. Melt processing of Bi--2212 superconductors using alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting articles and a method of forming them, where the superconducting phase of an article is Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.y (Bi-2212). Alumina is combined with Bi-2212 powder or Bi-2212 precursor powder and, in order to form an intimate mixture, the mixture is melted and rapidly cooled to form a glassy solid. The glassy solid is comminuted and the resulting powder is combined with a carrier. An alternative to melting is to form the mixture of nanophase alumina and material having a particle size of less than about 10 microns. The powder, with the carrier, is melt processed to form a superconducting article.

  16. Circuit level modeling of inductive elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muyshondt, G.P.; Portnoy, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Design and analysis of spacecraft power systems have been difficult to perform because of the lack of circuit level models for nonlinear inductive elements. This paper reviews some of the models which have been proposed, their limitations, and applications. An improved saturation dependent model will be described. The model has been implemented in SPICE and with a commercial circuit program and demonstrated to be satisfactory in both implementations. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Feasibility study for reconstruction of the reheat furnaces for the 2000 Hot Strip Mill (Novolipetsk Steel Works, Lipetsk, Russia): Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a furnace design that would be instrumental in advancing the NLMK 2000 Hot Strip Mill to a level of world class strip mills capable of producing high quality strip with improved energy efficiency and minimal environmental impact. The contents include the following: (1) executive summary; (2) capital cost assessment; (3) project financial analysis; (4) study overview; (5) basic furnace design; (6) silicon design specification; (7) utilities; (8) NOx reduction technologies for reheat furnaces; (9) site investigation and construction schedule; (10) hot connect.

  18. Aerosol source term in high pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1984-11-01

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10 ..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term that has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  19. Diffusive over-hydration of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Neave, David A.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thor

    2015-06-11

    to co m fic en is Zh er an te Ce pi en se pr th at th pr pr W ou close to their centres as possible (which reduces the likelihood of mpositions into magma reservoirs where crystallisation is oc- rring (Maclennan, 2008; Rudge et al., 2013). Mixing... primary melts In order to assess the extent of diffusive re-equilibration in the Z inclusions, H2O/Ce must be determined for undegassed melts. olatile saturation models indicate that the Skuggafjöll magma upted under ice/water pressures of ?1.4 MPa...

  20. RESEARCH PAPER How are leaves plumbed inside a branch? Differences in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sack, Lawren

    ), hydraulic press, milling equipment (e.g., attritors and SPEX mills), furnaces, induction heating, vacuum presses, melt spinning, arc melter, servo-hydraulic and screw driven tensile testing, extensometry, particle/powder size analysis, porosity measurement, hot- and cold- isostatic pressing (HIP, CIP

  1. A Mechanism for Extrusion Instabilities in Polymer Melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgiou, Georgios

    POLYMER ENGINEERINGAND SCIENCE, DECEMBER 1999, Vol. 39, No. 12 #12;A Mechanismfor ExtrusionA Mechanism for Extrusion Instabilities in Polymer Melts M.FWULLAS Faculty of Applied Physics Foundationfor Research and Technology-HeUas(Fo. R. T.H.) Znstitute of Electronic Structure and Laser,P.O. Box

  2. Hot repair of ceramic burner on hot blast stoves at USS/Kobe`s {number_sign}3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernarding, T.F.; Chemorov, M.; Shimono, S.; Phillips, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    During the 1992 reline of the No. 3 blast furnace, three new stoves were constructed. The design of the stoves, equipped with internal ceramic burners, was for providing a hot blast temperature of 2,000 F at a wind rate of 140,000 SCFM. After 3 years the performance had deteriorated so the burners were cleaned. When a second cleaning did not improve the performance of No. 3 blast furnace, it was decided to repair the refractory while still hot. The paper describes the hot repair procedures, taking a stove off for repairs, maintenance heat up during repairs, two stove operation, stove commissioning, repair of a ceramic burner, and wet gas prevention.

  3. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  4. Preserving the ethos of industry at the Carrie furnaces: the redevelopment of an industrial heritage site and the interpretation of manufacturing culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menozzi, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    This thesis proposes design principles and a program for site of the Carrie Blast Furnace Plant, a National Historic Landmark in Pittsburgh's Monongahela Valley. The Redevelopment Authority of Allegheny County intends to ...

  5. Simulation of blast-furnace tuyere and raceway conditions in a wire mesh reactor: extents of combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long Wu; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    A wire mesh reactor has been modified to investigate reactions of coal particles in the tuyeres and raceways of blast furnaces. At temperatures above 1000{sup o}C, pyrolysis reactions are completed within 1 s. The release of organic volatiles is probably completed by 1500{sup o}C, but the volatile yield shows a small increase up to 2000{sup o}C. The additional weight loss at the higher temperature may be due to weight loss from inorganic material. The residence time in the raceway is typically 20 ms, so it is likely that pyrolysis of the coal will continue throughout the passage along the raceway and into the base of the furnace shaft. Combustion reactions were investigated using a trapped air injection system, which admitted a short pulse of air into the wire mesh reactor sweep gas stream. In these experiments, the temperature and partial pressure of O{sub 2} were limited by the oxidation of the molybdenum mesh. However, the tests have provided valid insight into the extent of this reaction at conditions close to those experienced in the raceway. Extents of combustion of the char were low (mostly, less than 5%, daf basis). The work indicates that the extent of this reaction is limited in the raceway by the low residence time and by the effect of released volatiles, which scavenge the O{sub 2} and prevent access to the char. CO{sub 2} gasification has also been studied and high conversions achieved within a residence time of 5-10 s. The latter residence time is far longer than that in the raceway and more typical of small particles travelling upward in the furnace shaft. The results indicate that this reaction is capable of destroying most of the char. However, the extent of the gasification reaction appears limited by the decrease in temperature as the material moves up through the furnace. 44 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Trials with a 100% pellet burden in blast furnace No. 6 at Hoogovens IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoone, E.; Toxopeus, H.; Vos, D. [Hoogovens IJmuiden (Netherlands). Ironmaking and Raw Materials Div.

    1995-12-01

    The burden consists of 50% high basicity sinter and 50% home made olivine pellets. Two coke oven plants produce the required coke, about 340 kg/t (680 lb/NT). The average pulverized coal injection rate is 150 kg/t (300 lb/NT). To anticipate the aging coke oven plant No. 2 the coal injection capacity will e increased by 50% in 1996, by the installation of a third coal grinding line. In the Netherlands environmental issues have a high impact on further developments. In particular the environmental regulations require a significant decrease of dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxins emitted by the sinter plant. The appropriate measures must be concluded in the second part of this decade. To avoid costly conventional solutions Hoogovens has been testing since April, 1994 the Emission Optimized Sintering (EOS). In case of failure of EOS, the situation of a (partially) closed sinter plant was tested. Purchased pellets replaced sinter, leading to a 100% pellet and an 80% pellet/20% sinter trial. The trials were executed in the first half of 1994 at blast furnace No. 6, equipped with a PW-bell less top. Results are described.

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Replacement of Variable-Speed Motors for Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-02-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces in eight homes in Syracuse, NY. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh, with average cost savings of $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load.

  9. Effect of blast furnace slag on self-healing of microcracks in cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Haoliang; Ye, Guang; Damidot, Denis

    2014-06-01

    The physico-chemical process of self-healing in blast furnace slag cement paste was investigated in this paper. With a high slag content i.e., 66% in cement paste and saturated Ca(OH)? solution as activator, it was found that the reaction products formed in cracks are composed of C-S-H, ettringite, hydrogarnet and OH–hydrotalcite. The fraction of C-S-H in the reaction products is much larger than the other minerals. Large amount of ettringite formed in cracks indicates the leaching of SO??˛ ions from the bulk paste and consequently the recrystallization. Self-healing proceeds fast within 50 h and then slows down. According to thermodynamic modeling, when the newly formed reaction products are carbonated, the filling fraction of crack increases first and then decreases. Low soluble minerals such as silica gel, gibbsite and calcite are formed. Compared to Portland cement paste, the potential of self-healing in slag cement paste is higher when the percentage of slag is high. Highlights: • Self-healing reaction products in slag cement paste were characterized. • Self-healing reaction products formed in time were quantified with image analysis. • Self-healing in slag cement paste was simulated with a reactive transport model. • Effect of carbonation on self-healing was investigated by thermodynamic modeling. • Effect of slag on self-healing was discussed based on experiments and simulation.

  10. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinante, A., E-mail: anvinante@fbk.eu [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR - Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100??T, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2?K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  11. Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1996-03-01

    A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

  12. Shear wave attenuation and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interpretation and seismological implications Ulrich H. Faul, John D. Fitz Gerald, and Ian Jackson Research: seismic wave attenuation, olivine, partial melting, grain boundary sliding, grain boundary structure and dispersion in melt-bearing olivine polycrystals: 2. Microstructural interpretation and seismological

  13. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION BY ZINC CHLORIDE MELTS AT PRE-PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01

    CHLORIDE MELTS AT PRE-PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE T. Vermeulen, C.CHLORIDE MELTS AT PRE-PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE T. Vermeulen, C.rather than by thermal pyrolysis which requires appreciably

  14. ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  15. Porous compaction in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminski, Edouard

    Porous compaction in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B

  16. A melting model for variably depleted and enriched lherzolite in the plagioclase and spinel stability fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Till, Christy B.

    Here we develop a lherzolite melting model and explore the effects of variations in mantle composition, pressure, temperature, and H[subscript 2]O content on melt composition. New experiments and a compilation of experimental ...

  17. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  18. 2 Internal melting in Antarctic sea ice: Development of ``gap layers'' 3 S. F. Ackley,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at San Antonio, University of

    accelerate melting by 63increasing the absorption of solar radiation within the sea 64ice. Algal blooms only in the Antarctic to date. 48 In contrast, massive surface melt, resulting in the complete 49 loss

  19. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  20. UDC 552.161 MELTING OF ACID VOLCANITES IN CONTACT WITH A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podladchikov, Yuri

    of Sciences, Moscow, and Sakhalin Pedagogic Institute, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk There is evidence of melting of acid

  1. A simple model for induction core voltage distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard J.; Fawley, William M.

    2004-01-01

    3 Electric fields around Metglas-mylar interface where •-,gaps between the four Metglas induction cores is veryare composed of 4"-wide Metglas tapewith anorrinal thickness

  2. Apparatus and method for reducing inductive coupling between...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and method for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic propulsion system United States Patent Patent Number: 6,250,230 Issued: June 26,...

  3. Felix Bloch, Nuclear Induction, Bloch Equations, Bloch Theorem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Felix Bloch, Nuclear Induction, and Bloch Equations Resources with Additional Information Stressing "the importance both of demonstrating the neutron's magnetic moment and of...

  4. Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Seismic...

  5. Feasibility Evaluation and Retrofit Plan for Cold Crucible Induction Melter Deployment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, A.B. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Iverson, D.C.; Adkins, B.J. [Liquid Waste Operations, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Tchemitcheff, E. [AREVA NC Inc., Richland Office, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 kHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 deg. C to 200 deg. C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 deg. C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature distribution and increase heat transfer to the slurry fed High Level Waste (HLW) sludge, the CCIM may be equipped with bubblers and/or water cooled mechanical agitators. The DWPF could benefit from use of CCIM technology, especially in light of our latest projections of waste volume to be vitrified. Increased waste loading and increased throughput could result in substantial life cycle cost reduction. In order to significantly surpass the waste throughput capability of the currently installed JHM, it may be necessary to install two 950 mm CCIMs in the DWPF Melt Cell. A cursory evaluation of system design requirements and modifications to the facility that may be required to support installation and operation of two 950 mm CCIMs was performed. Based on this evaluation, it appears technically feasible to position two CCIMs in the Melt Cell of the DWPF within the existing footprint of the current melter. Interfaces with support systems and controls including Melter Feed, Power, Melter Cooling Water, Melter Off-gas, and Canister Operations must be designed to support dual CCIM operations. This paper describes the CCIM technology and identifies technical challenges that must be addressed in order to implement CCIMs in the DWPF. (authors)

  6. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 8118

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2008-02-06

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 KHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 C to 200 C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature distribution and increase heat transfer to the slurry fed High Level Waste (HLW) sludge, the CCIM may be equipped with bubblers and/or water cooled mechanical agitators. The DWPF could benefit from use of CCIM technology, especially in light of our latest projections of waste volume to be vitrified. Increased waste loading and increased throughput could result in substantial life cycle cost reduction. In order to significantly surpass the waste throughput capability of the currently installed JHM, it may be necessary to install two 950 mm CCIMs in the DWPF Melt Cell. A cursory evaluation of system design requirements and modifications to the facility that may be required to support installation and operation of two 950 mm CCIMs was performed. Based on this evaluation, it appears technically feasible to position two CCIMs in the Melt Cell of the DWPF within the existing footprint of the current melter. Interfaces with support systems and controls including Melter Feed, Power, Melter Cooling Water, Melter Off-gas, and Canister Operations must be designed to support dual CCIM operations. This paper describes the CCIM technology and identifies technical challenges that must be addressed in order to implement CCIMs in the DWPF.

  7. Noise performance of magneto-inductive cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltshire, M. C. K. Syms, R. R. A.

    2014-07-21

    Magneto-inductive (MI) waveguides are metamaterial structures based on periodic arrangements of inductively coupled resonant magnetic elements. They are of interest for power transfer, communications and sensing, and can be realised in a flexible cable format. Signal-to-noise ratio is extremely important in applications involving signals. Here, we present the first experimental measurements of the noise performance of metamaterial cables. We focus on an application involving radiofrequency signal transmission in internal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where the subdivision of the metamaterial cable provides intrinsic patient safety. We consider MI cables suitable for use at 300 MHz during {sup 1}H MRI at 7 T, and find noise figures of 2.3–2.8?dB/m, together with losses of 3.0–3.9?dB/m, in good agreement with model calculations. These values are high compared to conventional cables, but become acceptable when (as here) the environment precludes the use of continuous conductors. To understand this behaviour, we present arguments for the fundamental performance limitations of these cables.

  8. Verification and validation for induction heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, Kin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tippetts, Trevor B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, David W [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Truchas is a software package being developed at LANL within the Telluride project for predicting the complex physical processes in metal alloy casting. The software was designed to be massively parallel, multi-material, multi-physics, and to run on 3D, fully unstructured meshes. This work describes a Verification and Validation assessment of Truchas for simulating the induction heating phase of a casting process. We used existing data from a simple experiment involving the induction heating of a graphite cylinder, as graphite is a common material used for mold assemblies. Because we do not have complete knowledge of all the conditions and properties in this experiment (as is the case in many other experiments), we performed a parameter sensitivity study, modeled the uncertainties of the most sensitive parameters, and quantified how these uncertainties propagate to the Truchas output response. A verification analysis produced estimates of the numerical error of the Truchas solution to our computational model. The outputs from Truchas runs with randomly sampled parameter values were used for the validation study.

  9. Blast from the Past: Melting Glaciers as a Relevant Source for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    melting in the future (1). Glacial ice may contain significant amounts of chemicals deposited in earlierBlast from the Past: Melting Glaciers as a Relevant Source for Persistent Organic Pollutants C H R, 2009. Accepted August 31, 2009. In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may

  10. Surface energy balance and melt thresholds over 11 years at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    , Antarctica, melting of glacial ice is the primary source of water to streams, lakes, and associated, 1981; Gooseff et al., 2006]. Consequently, glacial melt is the critically important water source an understanding of glacial melt- water production. [3] Past runoff modeling for the MDV has included both

  11. Freezing, melting, nonwetting, and coexistence in (KCl)32 John P. Rose and FL Stephen Berry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Freezing, melting, nonwetting, and coexistence in (KCl)32 John P. Rose and FL Stephen Berry that of homogeneousclusters. The melting and freezing, nonwetting, and the complexity of the potential surfaceof (KC1)33areCl clustersexhibit simpleisomerizationdynamics, large NaCl clusters exhibit freezing/melting behavior sim- ilar

  12. Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, David

    Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica Keith doubles. With tidal forcing, the spatial pattern and magnitude of basal melting and freezing generally), Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett

  13. Sediment Melt-Migration Dynamics in Perennial Antarctic Lake Ice Steven M. Jepsen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priscu, John C.

    Sediment Melt-Migration Dynamics in Perennial Antarctic Lake Ice Steven M. Jepsen* Edward E. Adams examined sediment melt-migration dynamics in the ice cover of Lake Fryxell, Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry. The specific objectives were to determine the thermal conditions required for sediment melt and how sediment

  14. A continuum model of melt pond evolution on Arctic sea ice Daniela Flocco1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    A continuum model of melt pond evolution on Arctic sea ice Daniela Flocco1 and Daniel L. Feltham1 to generate meltwater that accumulates in ponds. The melt ponds reduce the albedo of the sea ice cover during), which simulates the formation and evolution of the melt pond cover. In order to be compatible

  15. A model of the threedimensional evolution of Arctic melt ponds on firstyear and multiyear sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    A model of the threedimensional evolution of Arctic melt ponds on firstyear and multiyear sea ice F in Arctic melt ponds on the surface of sea ice. An accurate estimate of the fraction of the sea ice surface covered in melt ponds is essential for a realistic estimate of the albedo for global climate models. We

  16. Melting in an Enclosure with Discrete Heating at a Constant Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    - Melting in an Enclosure with Discrete Heating at a Constant Rate Yuwen Zhang Zhongqi Chen Qijie · The melting of n-octadecane that is discretely heated at a constant rate from one side of an enclosure- Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 1993; 6:196-201 rate heating mode of the melting process

  17. Polymer crystal-melt interfaces and nucleation in polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott T. Milner

    2010-09-22

    Kinetic barriers cause polymers to crystallize incompletely, into nanoscale lamellae interleaved with amorphous regions. As a result, crystalline polymers are full of crystal-melt interfaces, which dominate their physical properties. The longstanding theoretical challenge to understand these interfaces has new relevance, because of accumulating evidence that polymer crystals often nucleate via a metastable, partially ordered "rotator" phase. To test this idea requires a theory of the bulk and interfacial free energies of the critical nucleus. We present a new approach to the crystal-melt interface, which represents the amorphous region as a grafted brush of loops in a self-consistent pressure field. We combine this theory with estimates of bulk free energy differences, to calculate nucleation barriers and rates via rotator versus crystal nuclei for polyethylene. We find rotator-phase nucleation is indeed favored throughout the temperature range where nucleation is observed. Our methods can be extended to other polymers.

  18. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-09-23

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  19. Applications of risk management to waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrostowski, P.C.; Foster, S.A.; Kimball, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    Human health and ecological risk assessments have become routine for waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) as a result of USEPA`s Combustion Strategy, questions raised by citizens about the health effects of incineration, and the desire for the regulated community to have a level playing field regarding emissions regulations. The USEPA, National Academy of Sciences, various trade organizations, and individual researchers have published widely regarding methods for facility-specific risk assessments. Often these risk assessments are highly complex, site-specific documents that use advanced techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation. However, the risks that are calculated in these risk assessments are usually only used to compare to criteria for health effects and, thereby, develop permit conditions that are protective of health and the environment. Thus, the risk assessment is only used to derive a simple set of numbers and most of the information derived in the complex risk computations is lost. The object of this paper is to demonstrate how to derive more information from risk assessments that can be used in making management decisions. This paper will discuss the theory of risk management and present applications to combustion of waste in BIFs. For example, a permit applicant needed to make a decision among alternative air pollution control (APC) equipment sequences including scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators. Limited life cycle analysis was used to determine the amount of direct and total waste produced by each of the alternatives. Monte Carlo risk assessment was used to determine the health risks associated with each of the alternatives and reliability analysis was employed to minimize both waste production and health risk.

  20. Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Insight Homes constructed two houses in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with identical floor plans and thermal envelopes but different heating and domestic hot water (DHW) systems. Each house is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler). Both houses were occupied during the test period. Results indicate that efficiency of the two heating systems was not significantly different. Three issues dominate these results; lower system design performance resulting from the indoor refrigerant coil selected for the standard house, an incorrectly functioning defrost cycle in the standard house, and the low resolution of the natural gas monitoring equipment. The thermal comfort of both houses fell outside the ASHRAE Standard 55 heating range but was within the ACCA room-to-room temperature range when compared to the thermostat temperature. The monitored DHW draw schedules were input into EnergyPlus to evaluate the efficiency of the tankless hot water heater model using the two monitored profiles and the Building America House Simulation Protocols. The results indicate that the simulation is not significantly impacted by the draw profiles.