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  1. Kenya-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  2. Indonesia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  3. WorldWide Science.org

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Germany Ghana Greece Honduras India Indonesia Ireland Italy Japan Kenya Latvia Lesotho Libya Lithuania Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mauritius Mexico ...

  4. Analysis of Technology Transfer in CDM Projects | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam and significantly lower...

  5. Nairobi, Kenya: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centre Registered Policy Organizations in Nairobi, Kenya International Center for Environmental, Social, and Policy Studies Registered Energy Companies in Nairobi, Kenya...

  6. Kenya-GEF Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    database1 GEF Climate Projects in Kenya 1780 Kenya Joint Geophysical Imaging (JGI) Methodology for Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Climate Change UNEP Medium Size Project, GEF...

  7. Accelerating Investments in the Geothermal Sector, Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Accelerating Investments in the Geothermal Sector, Indonesia (Presentation) Author Paul Brophy Conference World Geothermal Energy Summit; Jakarta, Indonesia; 20120706...

  8. Kenya-UNDP Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Kenya Kenya Sustainable Transport Development: "Road Bypass Constructions" on Major Urban Centres along the Northern Corridor in Kenya Regional Project Building capacity in...

  9. Indonesia project underway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Unocal Corporation has given the Indonesian Government notice of intent to proceed with a geothermal project to provide steam for a 110 megawatt electrical generating plant. The company has drilled 11 wells, and has confirmed reserves for more than 230 megawatts of generating capacity. Indonesia's state electric company, PLN, will build the power plant. Ansaldo, an Italian company, will supply equipment and manage the construction. With the notice of intent to proceed, Unocal Geothermal of Indonesia, Ltd. will begin drilling additional wells and build the field facilities necessary to provide steam to the power plant.

  10. Indonesia Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Indonesia Geothermal Region Details Areas (5) Power Plants (4) Projects (0) Techniques (0)...

  11. Indonesia-IEA Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-IEA Activities Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-IEA Activities AgencyCompany Organization International Energy Agency Sector Energy Focus Area Conventional...

  12. Jakarta, Indonesia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jakarta, Indonesia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Jakarta, Indonesia Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 1642911 Coordinates -6.2182, 106.8584 Show Map...

  13. Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study (Redirected from ESMAP-Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study) Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon...

  14. Indonesia-Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing (Redirected from Indonesia Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing) Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia...

  15. Kenya-Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya-Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change(StARCK) (Redirected from Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change in Kenya (StARCK)) Jump to:...

  16. Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project...

  17. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  18. Solar Voltaic Malaysia Sdn Bhd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Voltaic Malaysia Sdn Bhd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Voltaic (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Place: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Zip: 58200 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Voltaic is a...

  19. Kenya-DLR Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2001 to 2004 the German Aerospace Center (DLR) worked with Kenya on solar resource and GIS analysis as part of UNEP's Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Programme....

  20. Kenya: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Kenya Population 38,610,097 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.21 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KE 3-letter ISO code KEN Numeric ISO...

  1. Kenya-Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya-Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change(StARCK) Jump to: navigation, search Name Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change in Kenya (StARCK)...

  2. Kenya-World Bank Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kengen, Kiambere, Tana, Eburru (2.77 M) Carbon Offset 1.4 Kenya KenGen Carbon Finance umbrella, Carbon Offset 1.5 Western Kenya Integrated Ecosystem Management Project (4.1M)...

  3. Indonesia Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Operation (DPO) Financing (Redirected from Colombian Low Carbon Development Strategy (CLCDS)) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Indonesia-Development...

  4. Bogor Barat, Indonesia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a city in Indonesia. Registered Policy Organizations in Bogor Barat, Indonesia Center for International Forestry Research References "NGA Geonames Search" Retrieved from...

  5. Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector...

  6. Indonesia-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Danish Government Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Danish Government Baseline Workstream AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government...

  7. Indonesia and Climate Change: Current Status and Policies | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia and Climate Change: Current Status and Policies Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia and Climate Change: Current Status and Policies AgencyCompany Organization...

  8. Indonesia-Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing AgencyCompany Organization France...

  9. Norway-Indonesia-Forest Management Agreement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Norway-Indonesia-Forest Management Agreement Jump to: navigation, search Name Norway-Indonesia-Forest Management Agreement AgencyCompany Organization Government of Norway,...

  10. Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Malaysia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks,...

  11. Kenya-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  12. Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project...

  13. Kenya-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe Centre...

  14. Low Carbon Society Toward 2050: Indonesia Energy Sector | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Global Environmental Strategies, Mizuho Information & Research Institute - Japan, Kyoto University, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) - Indonesia Sector: Energy Focus...

  15. Malaysia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Malaysia Population 28,334,135 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 2.45 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MY 3-letter ISO code MYS Numeric ISO...

  16. Kenya Becoming a Geothermal Powerhouse | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Powerhouse Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Kenya Becoming a Geothermal Powerhouse Abstract NA Author theGrio Published...

  17. An Integrated Geophysical Study Of The Northern Kenya Rift |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geophysical Study Of The Northern Kenya Rift Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: An Integrated Geophysical Study Of The Northern...

  18. Indonesia-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change (cities, states, districts) Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states, districts) AgencyCompany...

  19. Indonesia-Low Carbon Growth Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia Low Carbon Growth Project AgencyCompany Organization United Kingdom Department for International Development Partner...

  20. Indonesia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  1. Indonesia-IISD NAMA Support | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Indonesia-IISD NAMA Support AgencyCompany Organization International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate Topics Background analysis, Low emission...

  2. Indonesia-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  3. Core Analysis At International Geothermal Area, Indonesia (Boitnott...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location International Geothermal Area Indonesia Exploration Technique Core Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Greg N. Boitnott...

  4. CCAP-REDD+ Design in Cambodia, Indonesia, and Mexico: Lessons...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    REDD+ Design in Cambodia, Indonesia, and Mexico: Lessons to Inform International REDD+ Policy Development Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CCAP-REDD+...

  5. Indonesia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany...

  6. Indonesia National Action Plan Addressing Climate Change | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Action Plan Addressing Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Indonesia National Action Plan Addressing Climate Change AgencyCompany...

  7. Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and uniform set of data that will support Indonesia's decision-making process, as we work together with relevant ministries, regional governments, and others to reduce...

  8. File:DIA Kenya 0906 lw (2).pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DIA Kenya 0906 lw (2).pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:DIA Kenya 0906 lw (2).pdf Size of this preview: 800 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7...

  9. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:35 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103ID2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural...

  10. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul

    2015-04-29

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

  11. Kenya geothermal private power project: A prefeasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Twenty-eight geothermal areas in Kenya were evaluated and prioritized for development. The prioritization was based on the potential size, resource temperature, level of exploration risk, location, and exploration/development costs for each geothermal area. Suswa, Eburru and Arus are found to offer the best short-term prospects for successful private power development. It was found that cost per kill developed are significantly lower for the larger (50MW) than for smaller-sized (10 or 20 NW) projects. In addition to plant size, the cost per kill developed is seen to be a function of resource temperature, generation mode (binary or flash cycle) and transmission distance.

  12. Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data Abstract Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation (DNI, GHI and diffuse) and meteorological elements for a 1-year...

  13. Indonesia-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  14. ASEAN-IEA Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policiesdeployment programs, Technology characterizations Resource Type Workshop, Training materials Country Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam,...

  15. Malaysia-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Malaysia-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  16. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  17. LEDS GP Success Story: Fostering Coordinated LEDS Support in Kenya (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) strives to advance climate-resilient, low-emission development through catalyzing collaboration, information exchange, and action on the ground. The Government of Kenya is a key LEDS GP member and offers an inspiring example of how LEDS GP is having an impact globally. The 2012 LEDS Collaboration in Action workshop in London provided an interactive space for members to share experiences on cross-ministerial LEDS leadership and to learn about concrete development impacts of LEDS around the world. Inspired by these stories, the Kenya's Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 (MPND) began to collaborate closely with the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources to create strong links between climate change action and development in the country, culminating in the integration of Kenya's National Climate Change Action Plan and the country's Medium Term Development Plan.

  18. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  19. Public participation in and learning through SEA in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Heidi; Sinclair, A. John; Spaling, Harry

    2014-02-15

    Meaningful public engagement is a challenging, but promising, feature of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) due to its potential for integrating sustainability principles into policies, plans and programs in developing countries such as Kenya. This research examined two selected SEA case studies to identify the extent of participation, learning outcomes attributable to participation, and if any learning outcomes led to social action for sustainability at the community level. Strengths across the two cases were the inclusion of marginalized populations and consideration of socio-economic concerns. Consistent weaknesses included inadequate notice, document inaccessibility, lack of feedback and communication, and late analysis of alternatives. Despite some learning conditions being unfulfilled, examples of instrumental, communicative, and transformative learning were identified through a focus group and semi-structured interviews with community participants and public officials. Some of these learning outcomes led to individual and social actions that contribute to sustainability. -- Highlights: • The strengths and weaknesses of Kenyan SEA public participation processes were identified. • Multiple deficiencies in the SEA process likely frustrate meaningful public engagement. • Participant learning was observed despite process weaknesses. • Participant learning can lead to action for sustainability at the community level.

  20. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohd-Arrabe', A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini

    2013-11-27

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.

  1. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  2. Emerging nuclear programs in Asia: The Phillipines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    This article is a review of the potential for nuclear energy development in the developing nations of Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. In each country, there is a substantial need for new generating capacity, and each is exploring the idea of having nuclear energy supply a meaningful portion of this new capacity. Of the four countries, only Pakistan is currently a nuclear operator, and one vintage CANDU plant in operation and the Chashma unit under construction. Thailand and Indonesia have ambitious plans to have 12 reactors in service by the year 2015.

  3. Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Indonesia (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Indonesia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Indonesia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA 2000's 3.99 NA NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price of Liquefied

  4. Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Indonesia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- -- -- 2000's 3.99 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  5. Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (Dollars per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 NA NA 2001 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2002 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2003 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2004 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2005 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2006 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2007 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2008 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

  6. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  7. Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Switzerland, Albania, Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, China, Philippines,...

  8. Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Nominal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Malaysia (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 6.67 -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price of

  9. Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.36 2000's NA NA 3.43 4.97 4.93 10.00 -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price

  10. The institutional role of NGOs in protecting Indonesia's treasurehouse of natural resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrich, C.H. )

    1993-01-01

    As the world's fourth most populous nation, Indonesia faces enormous development pressures on its limited--but plentiful--resource base. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are playing an important role in protecting Indonesia's environmental bounty through a unique institutional status. Indonesia's decade-old environmental protection legislation lays out specific responsibilities for NGOs, but the government also keeps an extremely tight watch over their activities, their funding sources, and their overseas strategizing with other NGOs. They are not permitted to participate in political or commercial activities. Indonesian NGOs enjoy a unique funding relationship with the private business community wherein they may even eventually campaign against a particular donor's environmental management practices. All this occurs within the political context of highly centralized, hierarchical government control coupled with anti-North/West leanings. That NGOs have survived to the point of even having standing in court is not unique globally, but certainly noteworthy in this near-fledgling democracy. In this paper, the author recalls his experience working on environmental management issues with Indonesian government officials, power utility staff, NGOs, and private environmental practitioners, and Western environmental consultants and advocates to analyze the short history of, prospects for, and mechanisms of NGO influence over Indonesian environmental policy making and implementation.

  11. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jenny; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2009-09-14

    Flashlights that use LED technology have quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya. While flashlights do not normally provide a substitute for kerosene and other highly inefficient fuels, they are an important early manifestation of LED lighting in the developing world that can serve as a platform - or deterrent - to the diffusion of the technology into the broader off-grid lighting market. The lead acid batteries embedded in flashlights also represent an important source of hazardous waste, and flashlight durability is thus an important determinant of the rate of waste disposal. Low-cost LED flashlights with prices from $1 to $4 are now widely available in shops and markets throughout Kenya. The increased penetration of LED technology in the flashlight market is significant, as over half of all Kenyan households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). While this shift from conventional incandescent technology to modern LEDs may appear to be a promising development, end users that our research team interviewed expressed a number of complaints about the quality and performance of these new flashlights. This raises concerns about the interests of low-income flashlight users, and it may also indicate the onset of a broader market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007). The quality of low-cost LED flashlights can contribute to market spoiling because these products appear to represent the first contact that most Kenyans have with LED technology. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their experiences, perceptions, and preferences. We focus especially on highlighting common complaints from respondents about the flashlights that they have used, as well as on noting the features that they indicated were important when evaluating the quality of a flashlight. In previous laboratory tests, researchers from our team found a wide range of quality and performance among battery powered LED lights (Granderson, et al. 2008).

  12. Exploration of Ulumbu geothermal field, Flores-east nusa tenggara, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulasdi, Didi

    1996-01-26

    This paper describes the progress made in developing geothermal resources at Ulumbu Flores, Indonesia for utilization mini geothermal power generation. Two deep exploratory wells drilling drilled by PLN confirmed the existence of the resources. The well measurement carried out during drilling and after completion of the well indicated that the major permeable zone at around 680 m depth and that this zone is a steam cap zone, which is likely to produce high enthalpy steam. The above information indicates that well ULB-01 will produce a mass flow at least 40 tonnes per hour, which will ensure a 3 MW (E) Ulumbu mini geothermal power plant.

  13. Exploration of Ulumbu Geothermal field, Flores-East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulasdi, D. [Pt. PLN (PERSERO), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the progress made in developing geothermal resources at Ulurnbu Flores, Indonesia for utilization mini geothermal power generation. Two deep exploratory wells drilling drilled by PLN confirmed the existence of the resources. The well measurement carried out during drilling and after completion of the well indicated that the major permeable zone at around 680 m depth and that this zone is a steam cap zone, which is likely to produce high enthalpy steam. The above information indicates that well ULB-01 will produce a mass flow at least 40 tonnes per hour, which will ensure a 3 MW (E) Ulumbu mini geothermal power plant.

  14. Indonesia's Arun LPG plant production is unique in Far East markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naklie, M.M.; Penick, D.P.; Denton, L.A.; Kartiyoso, I.

    1987-08-03

    Entry of the Arun (Indonesia) LNG plant into the LPG Far East markets is significant because its supplies for those markets are not tied to gas being extracted in association with crude oil. Arun LPG products are extracted from gas that is processed into and marketed as LNG. This article on the Arun LNG plant analyzes its LPG process and the significance of the LPG project on the plant's markets. Particular attention is paid to: 1.) LPG recovery; 2.) LPG fractionation; and 3.) Far East trade.

  15. Mali-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

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    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

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  1. Rwanda-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

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  15. Nepal-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

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  16. Ukraine-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

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  18. Project Catalyst | Open Energy Information

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  19. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-02-16

    Flashlight usage is widespread across much of sub-Saharan Africa.1 In Kenya in particular, over half of all households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). Aside from household use, flashlights are also widely used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note No.4, the first report in this series documenting flashlight use in Kenya, highlights flashlight use patterns of night watchmen and bicycle taxi drivers. Both of these are occupations that rely on the use of flashlights on a nightly basis (Tracy et al., 2009). Also highlighted by Research Note No.4, flashlight users in Kenya have reported being highly dissatisfied with the quality of the low-cost LED flashlights that are available, and they identify several reoccurring problems they have faced as flashlight end-users (Tracy et al., 2009). The fact that there exists a substantial dependency upon flashlights in Kenya and that users are disgruntled with the available products suggests reasons for concern about flashlight quality. This concern is present despite two recent technological transitions in the flashlight market. First, LED technology has quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya, outpacing incandescent flashlights (Johnstone et al., 2009). LED technology has the potential to provide efficiency and performance benefits relative to incandescent bulbs, and low-cost LEDs have achieved price levels that make them cost competitive with conventional lighting sources for a number of applications (Mills, 2005). Second, rechargeable sealed-lead acid (SLA) batteries are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using rechargeable SLA batteries tend to have a lower total cost of ownership over a two-year period than a flashlight using dry cell batteries (Radecsky, 2009); however, as this current report highlights, this may vary depending on the intensity of use patterns. To avoid a potential market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007) a better understanding of flashlight use-patterns is crucial (Tracy et al., 2009). In addition, the economic implications faced by rural flashlight end-users provide further incentive for a move toward higher quality low-cost flashlights. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their use patterns and costs associated with owning and operating flashlight products. While flashlights used in their portable mode typically do not represent a substitute for kerosene or other forms of fuel-based lighting, at times they are used in stationary applications in place of a fuel-based lamp. In either case, these products often represent end users first exposure to LED technology and rechargeable dry cell batteries, and thus stand to either provide a positive or negative impression of these technologies for a diversity of lighting applications.

  20. Indonesia begins to realize its potential: New plants feed growing consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munthe, G.N.

    1997-02-19

    Compared with its neighbors, Indonesia, rich in oil and natural gas resources, has been slow to develop its petrochemical industry. This is partly because of the government`s past policy of not providing financial incentives for major investments and, conforming with the trend toward free trade in Southeast Asia, not protecting new industries with tariffs. Change is under way, however. With a large population and rapid economic growth forecast, Indonesian and foreign investors realize petrochemicals constitute an opportunity too good to miss. Two new steam cracker projects have recently been announced, while numerous downstream petrochemical plants were confirmed during 1996. Meanwhile, the government has demonstrated during the past year that it is willing to intervene to support new producers with tariffs if necessary.

  1. Diesel plant retrofitting options to enhance decentralized electricity supply in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Barley, C.D.; Drouilhet, S. [and others] [and others

    1997-09-01

    Over the last 20 years, the government of Indonesia has undertaken an extensive program to provide electricity to the population of that country. The electrification of rural areas has been partially achieved through the use of isolated diesel systems, which account for about 20% of the country`s generated electricity. Due to many factors related to inefficient power production with diesels, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with PLN, the Indonesian national utility, Community Power Corporation, and Idaho Power Company, analyzed options for retrofitting existing diesel power systems. This study considered the use of different combinations of advanced diesel control, the addition of wind generators, photovoltaics and batteries to reduce the systems of overall cost and fuel consumption. This analysis resulted in a general methodology for retrofitting diesel power systems. This paper discusses five different retrofitting options to improve the performance of diesel power systems. The systems considered in the Indonesian analysis are cited as examples for the options discussed.

  2. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, S.; Katz, J.; Wurtenberger, L.

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  3. Recent progress in the feasibility study for the first nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subki, I.R.; Iskandar, A.; Supadi, S. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    Many have come to realise that an increasing demand for and supply of energy is a necessity to support national development. Conservation efforts also contribute, by the more efficient use of energy and by avoiding its unnecessary use. However, some are of the opinion that conservation would be able to add to the supply of energy, but this viewpoint still requires further consideration. In Indonesia, the energy consumption since 1970 has been continually increasing with an average rate of 10.6%/year in support of the development in all sectors. In the case of electric energy for the whole of Indonesia, in the year 1990/1991 the installed capacity was 9275 MW in the State Electricity Company (PLN) network with an electrical consumption during that year amounting to 34.0 TWh. The increase of consumption during the last two years amounted to 17.5% and 17.9%/year. Over this period the share of supply of electricity has consistently increased. Specifically for the island of Java, which accounts for 80% of all of the Indonesian electricity consumptions, the installed capacity by PLN in the year 1990/1991 was 6363 MW (the same amount of capacity also exists outside PLN), and increased by 17%/year during it last three years. The actual and projected figures at Oven. It is worth noting that, for example, the projected installed capacity for 2003-04 is now 31.8 GW, which is far higher than the previous projection for 2010-11 of only 25.5 GW. In view of this the government has decided to conduct feasibility studies of the nuclear option, with the goal of fulfilling the deficit or gap in supply where other options are likely to reach their limitations.

  4. Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management - The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurbruegg, Christian; Gfrerer, Margareth; Ashadi, Henki; Brenner, Werner; Kueper, David

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our assessment tool helps evaluate success factors in solid waste projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success of the composting plant in Indonesia is linked to its community integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate technology is not a main determining success factor for sustainability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structured assessment of 'best practices' can enhance replication in other cities. - Abstract: According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction.

  5. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Lateh, Habibah

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area and Not hazardous area. The maps was assessed using ROC (Rate of Curve) based on the area under the curve method (AUC). The result indicates an increase of accuracy from 77.76% (with all 22 factors) to 79.00% (with 14 dominant factors) in the prediction of landslide occurrence.

  6. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  7. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  8. Assessment Of Carbon Leakage In Multiple Carbon-Sink Projects: ACase Study In Jambi Province, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boer, Rizaldi; Wasrin, Upik R.; Hendri, Perdinan; Dasanto,Bambang D.; Makundi, Willy; Hero, Julius; Ridwan, M.; Masripatin, Nur

    2007-06-01

    Rehabilitation of degraded forest land throughimplementation of carbon sink projects can increase terrestrial carbonstock. However, carbon emissions outside the project boundary, which iscommonly referred to as leakage, may reduce or negate the sequestrationbenefits. This study assessed leakage from carbon sink projects thatcould potentially be implemented in the study area comprised of elevensub-districts in the Batanghari District, Jambi Province, Sumatra,Indonesia. The study estimates the probability of a given land use/coverbeing converted into other uses/cover, by applying a logit model. Thepredictor variables were: proximity to the center of the land use area,distance to transportation channel (road or river), area of agriculturalland, unemployment (number of job seekers), job opportunities, populationdensity and income. Leakage was estimated by analyzing with and withoutcarbon sink projects scenarios. Most of the predictors were estimated asbeing significant in their contribution to land use cover change. Theresults of the analysis show that leakage in the study area can be largeenough to more than offset the project's carbon sequestration benefitsduring the period 2002-2012. However, leakage results are very sensitiveto changes of carbon density of the land uses in the study area. Byreducing C-density of lowland and hill forest by about 10 percent for thebaseline scenario, the leakage becomes positive. Further data collectionand refinement is therefore required. Nevertheless, this study hasdemonstrated that regional analysis is a useful approach to assessleakage.

  9. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    outweigh the benefits, especially for net oil importers. In Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka,...

  10. Channing Huntington

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    working and traveling from April to November. I've visited Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Panama, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore,...

  11. Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md Yunus, Sabarina Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Ahmad

    2015-04-29

    This study focuses on the levels of heavy metals in seawater and selected fish tissue at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia. Pulau Indah primarily contains Westport (Malaysia’s major port), and a host of full scales factories. Therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of pollution in this water body and the aquatic organisms in the long term effects, due to the human activities in this area. Water samples in this study were taken from 8 locations along the coastal area. The water samples were collected using water sampler and sampling locations were determined using a Global Positioning system (GPS). Similarly, in situ water quality parameters including temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using portable multi probes meter. Then, the samples were acidified until pH 2 and filtered. Fish samples were purchased from local fisherman along the Pulau Indah coastal area and samples were digested using concentrated nitric acid in wet digestion method. The levels of selected heavy metals in four species of fish and seawater from Pulau Indah coastal area were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution to the samples. In general, the quality of water at Pulau Indah is lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard except for few locations were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The concentration of heavy metals which are lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and uranium (U) in water samples are in the range of 0.36-5.43 µg/L, 75.20-621.58 µg/L, 11.92-30.52 µg/L, and 4.00-4.65 µg/L respectively. While the results of the four selected fish showed the following order of abundance Zn> U> Cu> Pb. Transfer factor (TF) of heavy metals in fish tissue of selected fish species from the water was discussed. However, the observed metal concentration in the sample tissue did not exceed the allowable limit of Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Regulation (1985). Therefore, it is safe for human consumption. Moreover, the pollution levels of these heavy metals were also compared with other studies. This present study can also be used to evaluate the safety dose uptake level of marine biota as well as to monitor environmental health.

  12. Estimation of stochastic volatility with long memory for index prices of FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kho Chia; Kane, Ibrahim Lawal; Rahman, Haliza Abd; Bahar, Arifah; Ting, Chee-Ming

    2015-02-03

    In recent years, modeling in long memory properties or fractionally integrated processes in stochastic volatility has been applied in the financial time series. A time series with structural breaks can generate a strong persistence in the autocorrelation function, which is an observed behaviour of a long memory process. This paper considers the structural break of data in order to determine true long memory time series data. Unlike usual short memory models for log volatility, the fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is neither a Markovian process nor can it be easily transformed into a Markovian process. This makes the likelihood evaluation and parameter estimation for the long memory stochastic volatility (LMSV) model challenging tasks. The drift and volatility parameters of the fractional Ornstein-Unlenbeck model are estimated separately using the least square estimator (lse) and quadratic generalized variations (qgv) method respectively. Finally, the empirical distribution of unobserved volatility is estimated using the particle filtering with sequential important sampling-resampling (SIR) method. The mean square error (MSE) between the estimated and empirical volatility indicates that the performance of the model towards the index prices of FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI is fairly well.

  13. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  14. Sediment infill within rift basins: Facies distribution and effects of deformation: Examples from the Kenya and Tanganyika Rifts, East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Lezzar, K.E. ); Richert, J.P. )

    1994-07-01

    Oil is known from lacustrine basins of the east African rift. The geology of such basins is complex and different depending on location in the eastern and western branches. The western branch has little volcanism, leading to long-lived basins, such as Lake Tanganyika, whereas a large quantity of volcanics results in the eastern branch characterized by ephemeral basins, as the Baringo-Bogoria basin in Kenya. The Baringo-Bogoria basin is a north-south half graben formed in the middle Pleistocene and presently occupied by the hypersaline Lake Bogoria and the freshwater Lake Baringo. Lake Bogoria is fed by hot springs and ephemeral streams controlled by grid faults bounding the basin to the west. The sedimentary fill is formed by cycles of organic oozes having a good petroleum potential and evaporites. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the grid faults, Lake Baringo is fed by permanent streams bringing into the basin large quantities of terrigenous sediments. Lake Tanganyika is a meromictic lake 1470 m deep and 700 km long, of middle Miocene age. It is subdivided into seven asymmetric half grabens separated by transverse ridges. The sedimentary fill is thick and formed by organic oozes having a very good petroleum potential. In contrast to Bogoria, the lateral distribution of organic matter is characterized by considerable heterogeneity due to the existence of structural blocks or to redepositional processes.

  15. Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Compared to Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Mumbi, Maina

    2009-02-11

    The notion of"productive use" is often invoked in discussions about whether new technologies improve productivity or otherwise enhance commerce in developing-country contexts. It an elusive concept,especially when quantitative measures are sought. Improved and more energy efficient illumination systems for off-gridapplication--the focus of the Lumina Project--provide a case in which a significant productivity benefit can be imagined, given the importance of light to the successful performance of many tasks, and the very low quality of baseline illumination provided by flame-based source. This Research Note summarizes self-reported quantitative and qualitative impacts of switching to LED lighting technology on the prosperity of night-market business owners and operators. The information was gathered in the context of our 2008 market testing field work in Kenya?s Rift Valley Province, which was performed in the towns of Maai Mahiu and Karagita by Arne Jacobson, Kristen Radecsky, Peter Johnstone, Maina Mumbi, and others. Maai Mahiu is a crossroads town; provision of services to travelers and freight carriers is a primary income source for the residents. In contrast, the primary income for Karagita's residents is from work in the large, factory style flower farms on the eastern shores of Lake Naivasha that specialize in producing cut flowers for export to the European market. According to residents, both towns had populations of 6,000 to 8,000 people in June 2008. We focused on quantifying the economics of fuel-based and LED lighting technology in the context of business use by night market vendors and shop keepers. Our research activities with the business owners and operators included baseline measurement of their fuel-based lighting use, an initial survey, offering for sale data logger equipped rechargeable LED lamps, monitoring the adoption of the LED lamps, and a follow-up survey.

  16. Grenzone Pte Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Singapore-based system integrator for solar PV projects in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. References: Grenzone Pte Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  17. Land-use Policy and Program Design Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pages S251-S264 | Wheater, H.; Evans, E. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia Land Use Policy, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages...

  18. System Impact Study of the Eastern Grid of Sumba Island, Indonesia: Steady-State and Dynamic System Modeling for the Integration of One and Two 850-kW Wind Turbine Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oswal, R.; Jain, P.; Muljadi, Eduard; Hirsch, Brian; Castermans, B.; Chandra, J.; Raharjo, S.; Hardison, R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to study the impact of integrating one and two 850-kW wind turbine generators into the eastern power system network of Sumba Island, Indonesia. A model was created for the 20-kV distribution network as it existed in the first quarter of 2015 with a peak load of 5.682 MW. Detailed data were collected for each element of the network. Load flow, short-circuit, and transient analyses were performed using DIgSILENT PowerFactory 15.2.1.

  19. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suseno, Heny; Wisnubroto, Djarot S.

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup ?1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup ?1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup ?3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup ?3}.

  20. Kenya SWERA-Country Report.pdf

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    plenty of room to play a significant role in national energy matrix. National Energy Consumption in Tonnes of Oil Equivalent, 2006 lpg 1% Petroleum fuels 24% Coal and coke 1% Solar...

  1. Indonesia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear 18 2008 NREL Coal Reserves 6,094.68 Million Short Tons 14 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 3,001,000,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 14 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  2. U.S. LNG Imports from Indonesia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1986-2015 Liquefied Natural Gas Prices -- -- -- -- -- -- 199

  3. U.S. LNG Imports from Indonesia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1997-2015 Liquefied Natural Gas Prices -- -- -- -- -- -- 199

  4. Magnetotellurics At International Geothermal Area, Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philippines. References Patrick Laney (2005) Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004 Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  5. Cuttings Analysis At International Geothermal Area, Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philippines. References Patrick Laney (2005) Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004 Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  6. U.S. LNG Imports from Malaysia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9-2015 Liquefied Natural Gas Prices -- -- -- -- -- -- 1999

  7. Kenya-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  8. Kenya-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  9. Kenya-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program...

  10. Kenya-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  11. Microsoft Word - Kenya_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  12. Kenya-Action Plan for National Climate Change Response Strategy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the National CC Task Force, HTSPE, IDLA, LTS International ACCLIMATISE, IISD, Adam Smith International +subcontractors Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Background analysis,...

  13. Kenya-Capital Markets Climate Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Markets Climate Initiative (CMCI) is a public-private initiative designed to support the scale up of private finance flows for low carbon technologies, solutions and...

  14. Kenya-LEDS Tier I Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG inventories and decision making and a general need for raising awareness of climate change activities. References "Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development...

  15. Kenya-Action Plan for National Climate Change Response Strategy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    these proceedings, CDKN is managing a procurement process to identify potential suppliers who may be interested in delivering this exciting and challenging Action Plan with...

  16. Biogeochemistry of manganese in ferruginous Lake Matano, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Crowe, S.A.; Sturm, A.; Leslie, K.L.; MacLean, L.C. W.; Katsev, S.; Henny, C.; Fowle, D.A.; Canfield, D.E.

    2012-12-13

    This study explores Mn biogeochemistry in a stratified, ferruginous lake, a modern analogue to ferruginous oceans. Intense Mn cycling occurs in the chemocline where Mn is recycled at least 15 times before sedimentation. The product of biologically catalyzed Mn oxidation in Lake Matano is birnessite. Although there is evidence for abiotic Mn reduction with Fe(II), Mn reduction likely occurs through a variety of pathways. The flux of Fe(II) is insufficient to balance the reduction of Mn at 125m depth in the water column, and Mn reduction could be a significant contributor to CH{sub 4} oxidation. By combining results from synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray spectroscopy, extractions of sinking particles, and reaction transport modeling, we find the kinetics of Mn reduction in the lake's reducing waters are sufficiently rapid to preclude the deposition of Mn oxides from the water column to the sediments underlying ferruginous water. This has strong implications for the interpretation of the sedimentary Mn record.

  17. Indonesia-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  18. Indonesia-GTZ Emissions Reductions in Urban Transport | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    policy on sustainable urban transport, as well as general deficiencies regarding personal and financial resources in city administrations. The methodological approach of GTZ...

  19. Indonesia-ECN Capacity building for energy policy formulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and...

  20. Indonesia-GTZ Mini-Hydropower Schemes for Sustainable Economic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "Energy supplies generated by mini-hydropower to selected rural areas in Sulawesi, Java and Sumatra are improved. Local economic cycles triggered by this are able to generate...

  1. Indonesia-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pontianak - LFG Recovery Project, Carbon Offset 1.2 Makassar - TPA Tamangapa Landfill Methane Collection and Flaring 1.3 Geothermal Power Generation Development 1.4 Geothermal...

  2. Indonesia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  3. Indonesia-Bank Danamon DCA Guarantee | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    officials and contractor staff in late 2008, each evaluation and the meta-evaluation synthesis are intended to provide EGATDC with information to (1) demonstrate and communicate...

  4. Strengthening Public and Private Climate Finance in Asia - Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support climate-resilient development in the developing world. Mitigation investment is substantial in parts of Asia, but lacking elsewhere; adaptation investment flows...

  5. Indonesia-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  6. Indonesia-Green Growth Strategy Support | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    economic development model has been based on natural resources extraction in the oil and gas, forestry, and mining sectors. Based on this model it has become the second wealthiest...

  7. Indonesia-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  8. MHK Projects/Sadap Indonesia SHP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydro Power GmbH Project Technology *MHK TechnologiesSHP Duofloat Project Licensing Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database...

  9. Indonesia-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Argentina-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe Centre...

  10. Indonesia-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  11. Indonesia-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4.85 billion from other sources, to accelerate global deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). It will do so by investing in the CSP programs of five countries in the...

  12. Indonesia-Forest Investment Program (FIP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and poverty reduction opportunities. FIP investments also mainstream climate resilience considerations and contribute to multiple co-benefits such as biodiversity...

  13. Indonesia-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market...

  14. Indonesia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  15. Indonesia-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    six to eight developing countries to strengthen their national low carbon development strategies and get a "quick start" on NAMAs. The focus will be on reducing emissions of...

  16. Indonesia-Paving the Way for Low Carbon Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview The projects has three main goals: to provide input for a general methodology for developing Low Carbon Development Strategies to contribute to knowledge, mutual...

  17. Core Analysis At International Geothermal Area, Indonesia (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philippines. References Patrick Laney (2005) Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004 Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  18. Reducing Forestry Emissions in Indonesia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    critically at the trade-offs between development pathways based on land-intensive enterprises and climate change mitigation. Without a coordinated approach to multiple...

  19. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa.

  20. Asian success stories in promoting energy efficiency in industry and building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ming

    1996-12-31

    This article describes the program of the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC), which has offices in Washington, Bangkok, Santiago, and London, in addition to staff in a number of other countries. The mission of this private organization is to promote the efficient use of energy as a tool for sustainable development by supporting the development of policies, technologies, and practices. Its focus is on energy efficiency, transportation systems, and renewable energy sources. Examples of specific program activities in Thailand, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore are discussed.

  1. Malaysia-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  2. Malaysia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  3. Malaysia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  4. Malaysia-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  5. Malaysia-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  6. Malaysia-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market...

  7. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-06-21

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, arural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.

  8. Kenya-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  9. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  10. Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  11. The Current Status of Radioactive Waste Management and Planning for Near Surface Disposal in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purnomo, A. S.

    2003-02-24

    Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. Near surface disposal also rely on active institutional controls, such as monitoring and maintenance. The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. In near surface disposal, the disposal facility is located on or below the ground surface, where the protective covering is generally a few meters thick. The se facilities are intended to contain low and intermediate level waste without appreciable quantities of long-lived radionuclides.

  12. Indonesia-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  13. Sediment facies, depositional environments, and distribution of phytoclasts in the recent Mahakam River delta, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastaldo, R.A. ); Huc, A.Y. )

    1992-12-01

    The Mahakam River delta is a tide- and wave-dominated delta located on the edge of the Kutei basin, eastern Kalimantan, Borneo. It is a coastal deltaic sequence, Neogene to Holocene in age, from which all recoverable hydrocarbons (crude oil and natural gas) are considered to be derived from kerogen III predecessors. However, a complete understanding of the types of sediments sourcing the hydrocarbons has not yet been achieved. A vibracoring program sampled the principal fine-grained depositional environments in two transects; one within the fluvially-dominated regime, one within the tidally-dominated regime. Ten sedimentary facies are distinguished and phytoclasts have been recovered from all environments of deposition. Canopy parts from the mixed tropical forest community are preserved throughout the delta, whereas dicotyledonous angiosperm mangroves are restricted to the subtidal zone and delta front. Nypa parts are preserved in most depositional environments. In sites where there appears to be an absence of macrodetritus, dispersed cuticle is recoverable. Identifiable plant parts include wood and fibrous tissues, Nypa petioles and leaf laminae, dicotyledonous angiosperm leaves and isolated cuticles, fruits and seeds, roots and rootlets, and moss. Dammar is found either as dispersed resin ducts or amorphous clasts. Additional biotic components found in bedded plant litters include insects, gastropods, bivalves, sand dollars, ostracods, and crabs. Fluvial channels and depositional sites associated with these systems in the delta front can be differentiated from Nypa swamps and mixed tropical hardwood-palm swamps based on their phytological components and accessory biotic elements. 39 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A new development on measurement and control software of SANS BATAN spectrometer (SMARTer) in Serpong, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharoto,; Suparno, Nadi; Putra, Edy Giri Rachman

    2015-04-16

    In 2005, the main computer for data acquisition and control system of Small-angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) BATAN Spectrometer (SMARTer) was replaced since it halted to operate the spectrometer. According to this replacement, the new software for data acquisition and control system has been developed in-house. Visual Basic programming language is used in developing the software. In the last two years, many developments have been made both in the hardware and also the software to conduct the experiment is more effective and efficient. Lately, the previous motor controller card (ISA Card) was replaced with the programmable motor controller card (PCI Card) for driving one motor of position sensitive detector (PSD), eight motors of four collimators, and six motors of six pinhole discs. This new control system software makes all motors can be moved simultaneously, then it reduces significantly the consuming time of setting up the instrument before running the experiment. Along with that development, the new data acquisition software under MS Windows operating system is also developed to drive a beam stopper in X-Y directions as well as to read the equipment status such as position of the collimators and PSD, to acquire neutron counts on monitor and PSD detectors, and also to manage 12 samples position automatically. A timer object which is set in one second to read the equipment status via serial port of the computer (RS232C), and general purpose interface board (GPIB) for reading the total counts of each pixel of the PSD from histogram memory was used in this new software. The experiment result displayed in real time on the main window, and the data is saved in the special format for further data reduction and analysis. The new software has been implemented and performed for experiment using a preset count or preset time mode for absolute scattering intensity method.

  15. U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 2,760 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015

  16. The preliminary results: Seismic ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography around Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trichandi, Rahmantara; Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc

    2015-04-24

    Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Greens function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Greens function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps.

  17. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9103id2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9103id2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:31:01 PM" "Back to

  18. U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,669 1990's 0 0 0 2000's 2,760 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's

  19. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  20. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M.; Deying, Xu

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  1. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. . Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu . Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  2. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  3. GeoWells International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: GeoWells International Place: Nairobi, Kenya Sector: Geothermal energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Kenya-based geothermal driller. The company also supplies and installs...

  4. Electrogen Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Place: Nairobi, Kenya Sector: Solar Product: A Kenyan firm who sets up a solar panel joint venture with a Chinese firm in Kenya. Coordinates: -1.277298,...

  5. Pan African Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Pan African Technologies Place: Nairobi, Kenya Sector: Solar Product: A Kenya-based solar panel manufacturer Coordinates: -1.277298, 36.806261 Show Map Loading map......

  6. Malaysia-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  7. Study on the financing mechanism and management for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, Lydia Ilaiza Ryong, Kim Tae

    2015-04-29

    The whole cycle of the decommissioning process development of repository requires the relevant bodies to have a financial system to ensure that it has sufficient funds for its whole life cycle (over periods of many decades). Therefore, the financing mechanism and management system shall respect the following status: the national position, institutional and legislative environment, technical capabilities, the waste origin, ownership, characteristics and inventories. The main objective of the studies is to focus on the cost considerations, alternative funding managements and mechanisms, technical and non-technical factors that may affect the repository life-cycle costs. As a conclusion, the outcomes of this paper is to make a good recommendation and could be applied to the national planners, regulatory body, engineers, or the managers, to form a financial management plan for the decommissioning of the Nuclear Installation.

  8. Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Dollars per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1999 -- -- -- -- -- -- 2.36 -- -- -- 2000 -- -- 2001 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2002 -- -- -- -- 3.43 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2003 -- -- -- -- -- -- 4.97 -- -- -- -- -- 2004 -- -- -- -- 4.91 -- 4.94 -- 4.91 -- -- -- 2005 5.35 -- 6.67 -- -- -- -- -- -- 14.47 -- -- 2006 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2007 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2008 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2009 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

  9. U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,576 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 2,423 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,704 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 2,667 0 11,336 0 5,996 0 0 0 2005 2,986 0 2,624 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,109 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0

  10. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9103my2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9103my2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:31:03 PM" "Back to

  11. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9103my2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9103my2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:31:03 PM" "Back to

  12. U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 2,576 2000's 0 0 2,423 2,704 19,999 8,719 0 0 0 0 2010's

  13. Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- -- 2.36 2000's -- -- 3.43 4.97 4.93 9.00 -- -- -- -- 2010's

  14. International oil companies in the Far East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlotok, P.

    1984-10-01

    All of the major international oil companies have extensive operations in the Far East, and in most cases, these operations account for a significant part of their worldwide earnings. In the refining and marketing end of the business, near-term profitability could be hampered by problems in the Singapore refining center. An expansion of Indonesian refining capacity has reduced profits from processing arrangements, and new Saudi product exports will enter Singapore starting this year. Longer term, however, the strong economic growth in the region renders it a highly attractive area in which to operate. On the producing end, rising output will boost profits for the international oil companies in Indonesia and Malaysia. Caltex (a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Texaco) is one of the largest marketers in the Far East. It will not initially be affected greatly by the Singapore refinery problem, as its production from this area goes directly into its own marketing system rather than into the open market. Exxon is a medium-size marketer with especially strong positions in Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. However, the company could be vulnerable to near-term problems in Singapore. Mobil, another medium-size marketer, has a very strong position in Japan but problems in Australia. As those problems are corrected, earnings should grow over time. The Royal Dutch Shell Group is one of the largest marketers in the Far East, with good positions in Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. Shell will have difficulty adjusting to the changing conditions in Singapore, but once this is complete, downstream earnings growth should resume. British Petroleum (BP) has a smaller upstream and downstream presence than the other international oils. Estimated 1983 Far East earnings are tabulated for these five companies. 5 figures.

  15. Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines and Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Makundi, W.; Andrasko, K.; Boer, R.; Ravindranath, N.; Sudha, P.; Rao, S.; Lasco, R.; Pulhin, F.; Masera, O.; Ceron, A.; Ordonez, J.; Deying, X.; Zhang, X.; Zuomin, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon (C) mitigation potential and costs of about 40 forestry options in seven developing countries. Each study uses the same methodological approach - Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (COMAP) - to estimate the above parameters between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios. Coupled with data on a per ha basis on C sequestration or avoidance, and costs and benefits, it allows the estimation of monetary benefit per Mg C, and the total costs and carbon potential. The results show that about half (3.0 Pg C) the cumulative mitigation potential of 6.2 Petagram (Pg) C between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries (about 200 x 106 Mg C yr-1) could be achieved at a negative cost and the remainder at costs ranging up to $100 Mg C-1. About 5 Pg C could be achieved, at a cost less than $20 per Mg C. Negative cost potential indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of these options. The achievable potential is likely to be smaller, however, due to market, institutional, and sociocultural barriers that can delay or prevent the implementation of the analyzed options.

  16. ,"Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9103id3m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9103id3m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:31:02 PM" "Back to

  17. ,"Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Indonesia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9103id3a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9103id3a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:31:02 PM" "Back to

  18. OpenEI - Organizations - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (SOX), particulate matter smaller than 2.5m and smaller than... CSV Indonesia Crude Oil Refinery Outlook to 2020 Market Research Background & Res... Description Indonesia...

  19. National Strategy Study on the Clean Development Mechanism in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Strategy Study on the Clean Development Mechanism in Indonesia Jump to: navigation, search Name National Strategy Study on the Clean Development Mechanism in Indonesia Agency...

  20. Southeast Asia: `A robust market`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-04-01

    Southeast Asia is emerging as a robust market for exploration and field development activities. While much of the worldwide attention is focused on lucrative deep water drilling and production in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Brazil, and West Africa, the burgeoning Pacific Rim region is very much in the spotlight. As the industry approaches the next century. Southeast Asia is a key growth area that will be the focus of extensive drilling and development. Regional licensing activity is buoyant as oil and gas companies continue to express interest in Southeast Asian opportunities. During 1996, about 75 new license awards were granted. This year, at least an equal number of licenses likely will be awarded to international major and independent oil companies. In the past five years, the number of production-sharing contracts and concessions awarded declined slightly as oil companies apparently opted to invest in other foreign markets. Brunei government officials plan to open offshore areas to licensing in 1997, including what may prove to be attractive deep water areas. Indonesia`s state oil company Pertamina will offer 26 offshore tracts under production-sharing and technical assistance contracts this year. Malaysia expects to attract international interest in some 30 blocks it will soon offer under production-sharing terms. Bangladesh expects to call for tenders for an unspecified number of concessions later this year. Nearby, bids were submitted earlier this year to the Australian government for rights to explore 38 offshore areas. Results are expected to be announced by mid-year.

  1. ,"Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9103my3m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9103my3m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:31:04 PM" "Back to

  2. ,"Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9103my3a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9103my3a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:31:03 PM" "Back to

  3. Combined heat and power systems that consist of biomass fired fluidised bed combustors and modern steam engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, S.D.; Errey, S.; Thomas, M.; Kruger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass energy is widely used in many processing industries in the ASEAN region. The residue produced by agricultural and wood processing plant is either inefficiently combusted in simple furnaces or in the open, or disposed of in land fill sites or in rivers. Many of these industries are paying high prices for electricity in rural areas and/or supply is unreliable. An ASEAN/Australian cooperation program has been under way for the last ten years to introduce clean burning biomass fired heat and/or combined heat and power equipment. It aims to transfer Australian know how in the design and manufacture of fluidised bed CHP technology to the ASEAN region. The main participants involved in the program include SIRIM and UKM in Malaysia, PCIERD, FPRI and Asia Ratan in the Philippines, King Monkutt Institute of Technology (KMITT) in Thailand, LIPI and ITB in Indonesia, and the University of Singapore. In this paper an outline of the program will be given including results of market research and development undertaken into fluidised bed combustion, the proposed plant design and costings, and research and development undertaken into modem steam engine technology. It will be shown that all of the projects to be undertaken are financially viable. In particular the use of simple low cost high efficient steam engines ensures that the smaller CHP plant (50-100 kWe) can be viable.

  4. Bibliography of information sources on East Asian energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salosis, J.

    1982-11-01

    The first section of this bibliography is a subject index by title to sources of information on East Asian energy. The countries considered were: Brunei, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Koreas, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. If the geographic coverage by any source is restricted to a particular country and was not indicated by the title, a country abbreviation in parentheses was added. Titles that include the term data base are computerized. The second section contains the Title Index which lists each printed publication alphabetically with frequency of publication and the US$ price for a yearly air mail subscription. The publisher or distribution office is listed below the title. The Data Base Index lists computerized sources with the author and the vendor providing either online access or tapes. No prices have been quoted in this section because of the wide range of methods in use and the impossibility of running benchmarks for this study. The Address Index lists the publishers, data base authors and vendors alphabetically.

  5. Southern Asia future plans feature long-distance lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that although pipe line mileage working, planned and under study has dipped slightly from 47,346 km (29,420 mi) to 44,853 km (27,871 mi), Southern Asia continues to hold a strong position for future projects with some of the most interesting programs in the international market. Two dramatic, long-distance natural gas transmission, gathering and lateral networks continue to hold the future pipe line construction spotlight in Southern Asia. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) continues to study a 7,830 km (4,865 mi) gas transmission system. With an estimated cost of $10 billion, the system includes some 6,276 km (3,900 mi) of transmission lines, with 1,094 km (680 mi) offshore. Group members include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The second project, the Trans-Asian Pipeline System, involves 3,380 km (2,100 mi) of transmission lines from the Iran's Bandar Abbas gas field across Pakistan to a terminal at Calcutta, India.

  6. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (15 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  7. 1978.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 70103.ERA 121878 77-010-LNG TennecoTennessee Gas PL 3 70102.ERA 092978 77-001-LNG Pac IndonesiaWestern LNG 2 Pro. Order 021078 77-001-LNG Pac IndonesiaWestern LNG --...

  8. Gunun-Salak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities (0) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Java, Indonesia Exploration Region: Sunda Volcanic Arc GEA Development Phase:...

  9. Ulumbu Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Name Ulumbu Geothermal Power Plant Facility Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Address Kupang Location Indonesia Coordinates...

  10. Ngatamariki Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia: World Geothermal Congress. Benjamin Matek. Geo-energy Internet. Geothermal Energy Association. updated 20150428;cited 20150428. Available from:...

  11. Geographic Information System At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At International Geothermal Area, Indonesia (Nash, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity...

  12. Slide 1

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Antonio, TX Agreements for Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation * Argentina * Australia * Bangladesh * Brazil * Canada * China * Colombia * Egypt * EURATOM * IAEA * Indonesia * Japan *...

  13. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  14. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F.; Deringer, J.J.

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  15. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  16. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  17. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  18. Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam), to share practices on setting national greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. The aim of the workstream is to...

  19. Microsoft Word - 2002_WREC_SWERA_full_paper.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data from geostationary satellites we provide solar irradiance data for Cuba, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Brazil, Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, China, Sri Lanka,...

  20. Nvision.Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    solar power plants in Bulgaria and currently has operations in Bulgaria, Kenya and Pakistan Phone number +442081448366 Website http:www.nvision.energy Coordinates...

  1. Create a workplan for how to complete the LEDS | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developing and Transition Countries Kenya-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia...

  2. Active Fault Segments As Potential Earthquake Sources- Inferences...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Segments As Potential Earthquake Sources- Inferences From Integrated Geophysical Mapping Of The Magadi Fault System, Southern Kenya Rift Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Lab News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    partner to Org. 6821, International Nuclear Threat Reduction. "I went to Qatar, Egypt, and Kenya," he says. "It was an eye-opening experience and really enjoyable working...

  4. National Action Programmes on Desertification | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho,...

  5. File:Kenyametst 229.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creation Date 20050901 Extent International Countries Kenya UN Region Eastern Africa Coordinates -0.023559, 37.906193 File history Click on a datetime to view the...

  6. An Integrated Mapping And Remote Sensing Investigation Of The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mapping And Remote Sensing Investigation Of The Structural Control For Fumarole Location In The Eburru Volcanic Complex, Kenya Rift Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  7. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Kate Shanks and Kenya Stump (Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development); Rachel Ackerman, Peter McPhee, Charlotte Wiman (Massachusetts Clean Energy Center); Lise Trudeau, ...

  8. Olkaria III Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type Single Flash Owner Ormat Technologies, Inc. Developer Ormat Technologies, Inc. Energy Purchaser Kenya Power and Lighting Company Limited Commercial Online Date 2014...

  9. James Madison University: Executive Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a proposal to distribute the prototype wind turbine to those living in energy poverty. ... Energy poverty remains a significant p roblem across Kenya, even though individuals own ...

  10. International Center for Environmental, Social, and Policy Studies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: International Center for Environmental, Social, and Policy Studies Address: PO BOX 79246 Place: Nairobi, Kenya Phone Number: +254-02-252969 Website: www.icesps.org...

  11. Petronas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    an oil and gas company located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. About Petronas is the national oil company of Malaysia, established in 1974. It maintains control and ownership over all...

  12. Evaluating impacts of development and conservation projects using sustainability indicators: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agol, Dorice; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N.

    2014-09-15

    There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of development and conservation projects. Past and recent experiences have shown that sustainability indicators can be powerful tools for measuring the outcomes of various interventions, when used appropriately and adequately. Currently, there is a range of methods for applying sustainability indicators for project impact evaluation at the environment–development interface. At the same time, a number of challenges persist which have implication for impact evaluation processes especially in developing countries. We highlight some key and recurrent challenges, using three cases from Kenya, Indonesia and Brazil. In this study, we have conducted a comparative analysis across multiple projects from the three countries, which aimed to conserve biodiversity and improve livelihoods. The assessments of these projects were designed to evaluate their positive, negative, short-term, long term, direct and indirect impacts. We have identified a set of commonly used sustainability indicators to evaluate the projects and have discussed opportunities and challenges associated with their application. Our analysis shows that impact evaluation processes present good opportunities for applying sustainability indicators. On the other hand, we find that project proponents (e.g. managers, evaluators, donors/funders) face challenges with establishing full impacts of interventions and that these are rooted in monitoring and evaluation processes, lack of evidence-based impacts, difficulties of measuring certain outcomes and concerns over scale of a range of impacts. We outline key lessons learnt from the multiple cases and propose ways to overcome common problems. Results from our analysis demonstrate practical experiences of applying sustainability indicators in developing countries context where there are different prevailing socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. The knowledge derived from this study may therefore be useful to a wider range of audience who are concerned with sustainable integration of development and environmental conservation. - Highlights: • Sustainability indicators are increasingly used for evaluating project impacts. • Lessons learnt are based on case studies from Africa, Asia and South America. • Similar challenges when assessing impacts of development and conservation projects • Need for pragmatic solutions to overcome challenges when assessing project impacts.

  13. Part 810-ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES Sec.

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... France Germany Greece Hungary Indonesia International Atomic Energy Agency Ireland Italy Japan Kazakhstan Korea, Republic of 23 1986 Version Final Rule (effective March 25, ...

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Indonesia Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Improving Exploration Models of...

  15. Pengalengan Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Profile Location: Bandung Regency, Indonesia Exploration Region: West Java GEA Development Phase: Operational"Operational" is not in the list of possible values...

  16. Kamojang Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Plant Facility Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Java, Indonesia Coordinates -7.1386705960014, 107.78536749043 Loading map......

  17. Dieng Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Plant Facility Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Java; Indonesia Coordinates -7.2227512797154, 110.01006889972 Loading map......

  18. A Review of the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    submitted by Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Panama and Suriname can be accessed online at: http:www.wri.orggfi ." To access...

  19. Category:LEDS Example | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on Climate Change (PNMC) C China's National Climate Change Programme G Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy I India National Action Plan on Climate Change Indonesia National...

  20. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  1. Mexico-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  2. Brazil-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  3. India-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  4. China-CCAP Developing Country Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China, India and Mexico. Indonesia was recently added to this project." Brazil Outcomes, Lessons Learned and Good Practices Phase 1 Country Report Synthesis Report Phase 2 Key...

  5. WWS_LorrieC157L_0915

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cameroon Canada Chile China Colombia Congo Cote d'lvoire Cuba Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Germany Ghana Greece Honduras India Indonesia...

  6. Fact #578: July 6, 2009 World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumptio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting Information World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumption, 2007 Crude oil ... United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Indonesia, Gabon, and Ecuador. OPEC ...

  7. Energy Secretary Moniz Launches Initiatives to Advance Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Under the CEM Global Lighting Challenge, Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, the United States, and the ...

  8. REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    getting-ready Country: Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Suriname, Panama Middle Africa, Western Africa, South America,...

  9. Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Research (ER) (US) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; DEFORESTATION; INDONESIA; AIR-WATER INTERACTIONS; ...

  10. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. c Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi...

  11. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. c Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi...

  12. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. b Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi...

  13. Table 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. b Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi...

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Total OPEC Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar,...

  15. Fast Start Financing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the government of the Netherlands, with support from the governments of Costa Rica, Colombia, Denmark, Germany, Indonesia, the Marshall Islands, Mexico, Norway, the United...

  16. Property:Project Status | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SHP + Active + MHK ProjectsSadap Indonesia SHP + Inactive + MHK ProjectsSalvajina Colombia SHP + Active + Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:Projec...

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2_Peter J. Habighorst_NRC Remarks 2013...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    EURATOM (27 countries) - Turkey - India - Ukraine - Indonesia - United Arab Emirates - Japan - International Atomic Energy Agency - Kazakhstan - Taiwan (through non-gov't...

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - 7_James Warden_2013-05-06 123 agreements...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    EURATOM (27 countries) - Turkey - India - Ukraine - Indonesia - United Arab Emirates - Japan - International Atomic Energy Agency - Kazakhstan - Taiwan (through non-gov't...

  19. This form may be submitted to the EIA by mail, fax, e-mail, or...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS COMPANY","9087 Blast Furnace Gas","California","CA" "BP AMOCO PRODUCTION ... PIPELINE COMPANY",,"Nigeria" "NORTH BAJA PIPELINE COMPANY",,"Malaysia" "NORTH ...

  20. EIA-819

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... PIPELINE COMPANY",,"Nigeria" "NORTH BAJA PIPELINE COMPANY",,"Malaysia" "NORTH ... WATER,GAS AND ELECTRIC" "SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA GAS COMPANY" "SOUTHERN LNG ...

  1. Asian Development Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kazakhstan-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Malaysia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia Mekong Brahmaputra Clean Development Fund L.P....

  2. APS 2004 Conferences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPIE's 49th Annual Meeting. (Aug. 2-6) Denver, CO Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Engineering and Technology. (Aug. 3-5) Koto Kinabalu, Malaysia...

  3. MMC Corporation Berhad | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services Product: Malaysia-based investment holding company that operates container port, provides power generation, distributes natural gas and provides engineering and...

  4. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Japan, Malaysia, Ethiopia, Australia, Hong Kong, Mexico, Jamaica, South Korea, Turkey, and the Netherlands, stopped by the exhibit. ARM's Live Data Display was popular with...

  5. DOE - Fossil Energy:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States. The United States imports natural gas from Canada, Mexico, Algeria, Australia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, and...

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Natural Gas Regulation | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Algeria, Trinidad & Tobago, Qatar, Malaysia, Australia, and the United Arab Emirates and exported to Japan aboard ocean going tankers. The Quarterly Report Page can give...

  7. Matt Schatzman € Houston € 22 October 2007

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... US as the balancing market in action 11 US as part of the global marketplace Algeria Australia Egypt Equatorial Guinea Malaysia Nigeria Trinidad & Tobago Oman Qatar Belgium Japan ...

  8. LEDSGP/AnnualEvent2014 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this extraordinary situation. We would also like to express our deepest gratitude to Stephen King'Uyu and the Government of Kenya for offering to host this workshop and for...

  9. Solar Cookers International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Cookers International Jump to: navigation, search CooKit Each group of items costs 75 Kenya Shillings (about US1) as does the pile of charcoal shown. By using a CooKit or...

  10. Cacao Intensification in Sulawesi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-09-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates techniques to improve cacao farming in Sulawesi Indonesia with an emphasis on Farmer Field Schools and Cocoa Development Centers to educate farmers and for train the trainer programs. The study estimates the economic viability of cacao farming if smallholder implement techniques to increase yield as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  12. Electromagnetic Evidence For An Ancient Avalanche Caldera Rim...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electromagnetic (LOTEM) data and VIBROTEM data from the south flank of Mount Merapi on Java island, Indonesia, are interpreted with one-dimensional (1D) inversions as well as...

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Beowawe Hot Springs Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  15. Patuha Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interest to Supply Major Plant Components -30 MW Cibuni Geothermal Power Project, West Java, Indonesia. Personal Communication sent to Na. 3.0 3.1 Achmad Fadillah, Tubagus...

  16. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  18. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  1. Behavior Of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems, A NewExploratio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  2. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  4. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  5. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  6. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mccredie Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  7. 1985.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    88A 70609.ERA 110885 85-12-NG Northwest Pipeline 87A 70126.ERA 102385 77-001-LNG Pac IndonesiaWestern LNG 8A 70608.ERA 101585 85-17-NG Vermont Gas Systems 91 70607.ERA...

  8. 1977.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORDER DOCKET ERA CITE DATE NUMBER APPLICANT NAME ORDER NO. 70101.ERA 123077 77-001-LNG Pac IndonesiaWestern LNG 1 Pro. Order 122377 77-005-NG St. Lawrence Gas Company -- Pro....

  9. 1979.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    110979 78-006-LNG Gas ServiceManchester Gas 10 70108.ERA 092679 77-001-LNG Pac IndonesiaWestern LNG 8 70107.ERA 082279 79-014-LNG ColumbiaConsolidatedS.E. ---...

  10. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OPEC Algeria Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC b Total OPEC c 1978 ... 14.12 13.61 13.24 14.05...

  11. Table 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OPEC Algeria Canada Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC a Total OPEC b 1978 ... 14.93 14.41 14.65...

  12. Climate Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia and China, gives assistance to companies and governments in climate change strategy plan. References: Climate Consulting1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  13. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the centerpoint of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SASTM access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  14. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the center-point of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bcf from the Point Fortin plant. Algeria was the source of approximately 52 Bcf, while Egypt supplied 5.7 Bcf. Nigeria, Malaysia, Oman, and Qatar delivered the remaining 14 Bcf....

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bcf from the Point Fortin plant. Algeria was the source of approximately 52 Bcf, while Egypt supplied 5.7 Bcf. Nigeria, Malaysia, Oman, and Qatar delivered the remaining 14 Bcf....

  17. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  18. Methane for Power Generation in Muaro Jambi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-07-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates electricity generation from the organic content of wastewater at a palm oil mill in Muaro Jambi, Sumatra. Palm mills use vast amounts of water in the production process resulting in problematic waste water called palm oil mill effluent (POME). The POME releases methane to the atmosphere in open ponds which could be covered to capture the methane to produce renewable electricity for rural villages. The study uses average Indonesia data to determine the economic viability of methane capture at a palm oil mill and also evaluates technology as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  19. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Imports by Country of Origin Total, 2000-2011 By Country, 2011 By Selected Country, 2000-2011 204 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Note: Sum of components may not equal 100 percent due to independent rounding. Source: Table 7.4. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 0 10 20 30 40 Million Short Tons Indonesia 10% Canada 9% Total 13.1 million short tons Canada 13% Colombia 73% Venezuela 6% Other 2% Indonesia 7% Colombia 2000 2001 2002

  20. Europe

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    124 1,115 Indonesia 3 108 46 Mongolia - - 4 Thailand 1 10 5 South Asia 4 86 201 183 470 India 2 44 96 Pakistan 1 24 105 Middle East and North Africa 26 3,117 1,003 1,651 5,772...

  1. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-04-15

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  2. Mangroves - what are they worth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is based on a study for FAO and on the management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. Land use options are examined in relation to the different roles which mangroves play (provision of firewood, charcoal, timber and pulp; wildlife; fisheries and aquaculture; and agriculture). Special attention is paid to mangrove management in Malaysia. (Refs 26)

  3. Sabah barge-mounted power plant in service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, T.

    1995-03-01

    The world`s largest barge-mounted simple-cycle power plant, constructed by the Sabah Shipyards in Malaysia, is now in service in the Philippines. Construction of similar barges from Westinghouse should begin shortly. This paper discusses in brief the projects in progress at present and prospects in the Asian market from the perspective of the manufacturers.

  4. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 662 0 0 0 Ecuador 68,467 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 198 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 176 0 209 209 Korea, South 0 0 41 0 0 1,444 1,444 Malaysia 2,417 0 45 1,443 0 43...

  5. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    360 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ecuador 4,705 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 481 481 Malaysia 334 0 0 363 0 0 0 Mexico 2,246 0...

  6. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 662 0 0 0 Ecuador 68,516 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 198 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 176 0 209 209 Korea, South 0 0 41 0 0 1,444 1,444 Malaysia 2,417 0 90 1,443 0 43...

  7. Nuclear power programs in developing countries of the world: Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This article reviews the present and future status of the nuclear industry in the developing nations of China, North Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Each of the countries has a booming export-driven economy, which is turn requires considerable new generating capacity. The nuclear option is being considered as a provider of much of this additional capacity. China is committed to an extensive nuclear power program, and Indonesia has an ambitious plan to have seven to twelve reactors in service by the year 2015. North Korea will receive two LWRs to replace its current non-power nuclear units. The nuclear option is still under discussion in the Philippines and in Thailand.

  8. Vernacular design based on sustainable disasters mitigation communication and education strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process wont be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  9. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  10. SREL Reprint #3197

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Marine Reptiles Arne Redsted Rasmussen1, John C. Murphy2, Medy Ompi3, J. Whitfield Gibbons4, Peter Uetz5 1School of Conservation, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, Denmark 2Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, USA 3Marine Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia 4Savannah River Ecology Lab, University of Georgia, Aiken, South Carolina, USA

  11. The two paitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    Eastern Java, Indonesia, is the site of an unusual coal-fired power complex. First, the project is unusually large, totaling nearly 5,000 MW. Second, the project`s ownership structure is peculiar, with its six awarded units owned separately by three different companies. Two international independent power consortia are developing two units each, while PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN), the Indonesian state utility, owns and operates two others. Two final units have yet to be awarded.

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2009 - 2015" "(short tons and dollars per short ton)" "Year and Quarter","Australia","Canada","Colombia","Indonesia","China","Venezuela","Other","Total" ,,,,,,,"Countries" 2009,151738,1287626,17787441,2084271,9364,1297214,20861,22638515 2010,380404,1766896,14583950,1904040,52869,581700,82828,19352687

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3b : Non-OPEC Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply (Million Barrels per Day) Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player - = no data available OPEC = Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela. Notes: The approximate

  14. When Sukamo sought the bomb: Indonesian nuclear aspirations in the mid-1960s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornejo, R.M.

    1999-03-01

    Proponents of nuclear nonproliferation, such as the United States, seek to develop policies that address the root causes of nuclear proliferation. The discipline of international relations aids in this effort by providing theories that attempt to explain why states choose to build nuclear weapons. Most theories simplify the process of proliferation by using only one of three generally accepted explanations: security, domestic politics, or norms. The case of Indonesia, however, illustrates that proliferation is best explained by investigating all three dimensions as well as the role of technology. This thesis evaluates competing theories of nuclear proliferation using a historical case study of Indonesia's aspirations to acquire nuclear weapons during 1964--1965, and supports the view that multiple variables are necessary to explain the spread of nuclear weapons. As evidence, this thesis examines Indonesian President Sukamo's little-known nuclear aspirations in the mid-1960s. Although Sukamo was ultimately unsuccessful in his effort to acquire atomic weapons, his decision to seek them was influenced by a variety of factors that included Indonesia's security needs, domestic political considerations, norms, and available nuclear energy technology.

  15. Current status of SPINNORs designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su'ud, Zaki

    2010-06-22

    This study discuss about the SPINNOR (Small Power Reactor, Indonesia, No On-site Refuelling) and the VSPINNOR (Very Small Power Reactor, Indonesia, No On-site Refuelling) which are small lead-bismuth cooled nuclear power reactors with fast neutron spectrum that could be operated for more than 10 or 15 years without on-site refuelling. They are based on the concept of a long-life core reactor developed in Indonesia since early 1990 in collaboration with the Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors of the Tokyo Institute of Technology (RLNR TITech). The reactor cores are designed to have near zero (less then one effective delayed neutron fraction) burn-up reactivity swing during the whole course of their operation to avoid a possibility of prompt criticality accident. The basic concept is that central region of the reactor core is filled with fertile (blanket) material. During the reactor operation fissile material accumulates in this central region, which helps to compensate fissile material loss in the peripheral core region and also contributes to negative coolant loss reactivity effect. A concept of high fuel volume fraction in the core is applied to achieve smaller size of a critical reactor. In this paper we consider to add Np-237 to the fuel to enhance non proliferation characteristics of the systems. The effect of Np-237 amount variation is discussed.

  16. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ecuador 5,890 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Malaysia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mexico 2,397 0 0 0 0 0...

  17. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 431 0 0 0 Ecuador 50,492 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 198 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 176 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 1,384 1,384 Malaysia 1,759 0 45 1,443 0 30 30...

  18. Nuclear energy: Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muslim, Dato’ Dr Noramly

    2015-04-29

    As Malaysia progresses towards 2020, the depleting resource of oil and gas has forced a re-look at alternatives to replace fossil fuels as energy sources. Among the viable options is nuclear energy, enabling us to meet energy needs and sustain national development in the twenty-first century. Three essential steps Malaysia must take to introduce nuclear power into its energy mix are: energy planning, infrastructure development, and deployment. Malaysia has to face a series of challenges, including public acceptance, waste management, minimizing proliferation risk, and ensuring the security of nuclear plants and materials. Timely development of qualified and competent manpower is a key limiting factor in the development and transfer of nuclear technologies — and education and training take time, effort and money. There is a need for political will. Within the Asian region, China, Korea and Japan are in the forefront in utilizing nuclear power to meet electricity demands. Countries such as UAE, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Turkey are moving ahead with the nuclear option for electricity generation and they have begun planning and construction of nuclear power plants. Against this backdrop, what are Malaysia’s moves? This paper discusses various options and challenges, obstacles and repercussions in meeting future energy demands.

  19. Monotoring of mangrove ecosystem in relation with exploration and production activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alamsyah, C.; Dwistiadi, D.

    1996-11-01

    From Indonesia`s initial 13 million hectares of mangrove forests, presently only 2.6 million hectares remains which must be certainly protected. Mangrove swamps are of considerable ecological importance not only because of their use as spawning and feeding grounds for a many variety of fish and shrimps but also of economical importance and last but not least as coastal protection. In such a sensitive ecosystem, i.e. in the mangrove swamp area of Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, TOTAL Indonesie, an affiliate of the French oil company {open_quotes}TOTAL{close_quotes} and one of the production sharing contractors of PERTAMINA, the Indonesian owned state oil company, has undertaken its E&P operations since 1974. Realizing the sensitivity of the mangrove area, TOTAL Indonesie has undertaken continuous monitoring of the environment as part of its Environmental Management System. This monitoring is very important not only to measure the impact to the mangrove ecosystem in particular due to TOTAL Indonesie activities but also as a feed back for the environmental management. Physicochemical and biological aspects of the environment are monitored and various measurements are taken covering: (1) Hydrology and hydrodynamics of the water streams i.e. the water quality, productivity and flow characteristic of the region (2) Sedimentation and biodegradation (3) The influence of accidental and chronic pollution mangrove ecosystem (3) Sensitivity of the mangroves. The above monitoring has led to the conclusion that after more than 20 years of operation, there has significant adverse impact to the mangrove ecosystem by the exploration and production activities of Indonesie.

  20. Power Plays: Geothermal Energy In Oil and Gas Fields

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SMU Geothermal Lab is hosting their 7th international energy conference and workshop Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields May 18-20, 2015 on the SMU Campus in Dallas, Texas. The two-day conference brings together leaders from the geothermal, oil and gas communities along with experts in finance, law, technology, and government agencies to discuss generating electricity from oil and gas well fluids, using the flare gas for waste heat applications, and desalinization of the water for project development in Europe, China, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and the US. Other relevant topics include seismicity, thermal maturation, and improved drilling operations.

  1. Sustainable Energy in Remote Indonesian Grids. Accelerating Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, Brian; Burman, Kari; Davidson, Carolyn; Elchinger, Michael; Hardison, R.; Karsiwulan, D.; Castermans, B.

    2015-06-30

    Sustainable Energy for Remote Indonesian Grids (SERIG) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to support Indonesia’s efforts to develop clean energy and increase access to electricity in remote locations throughout the country. With DOE support, the SERIG implementation team consists of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Winrock International’s Jakarta, Indonesia office. Through technical assistance that includes techno-economic feasibility evaluation for selected projects, government-to-government coordination, infrastructure assessment, stakeholder outreach, and policy analysis, SERIG seeks to provide opportunities for individual project development and a collective framework for national replication office.

  2. Integrated rural energy planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

  3. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  4. 4 oil firms turn secret on reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaffer, P.

    1980-04-14

    US oil companies are complying with Saudi Arabia's and Indonesia's request by not revealing the companies' shares of oil reserves, adding to supply uncertainties and increasing the power of the producing countries. The information blackout reduces the reserve estimates filed by Exxon, Mobil, Standard Oil of California, and Texaco with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which plans to deal with the reporting problem on a case-by-case basis. Unless the companies decide the information can be disclosed to DOE's Financial Reporting System, a legal battle will ensue. A summary of reserve reports indicates a trend in declining production relative to new discoveries as well. (DCK)

  5. Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration (EIA) Analysis & Projections ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Exports and Imports Exports Total U.S. coal exports for 2010 increased by 38.3 percent to 81.7 million short tons (Figure 8). Figure Data This increase was largely due to two factors. First, heavy rains and flooding in Australia, Indonesia, and Colombia reduced world coal supply and

  6. Non-OPEC oil supply continues to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.H.

    1995-12-25

    Global reserves of crude oil remain at 1 trillion bbl, according to OGJ`s annual survey of producing countries. Significant gains are in Brazil, Colombia, Congo, Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Oman, and Papua New Guinea. Decreases were reported by Indonesia, Norway, the U.K., Iran, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Natural gas reserves slipped to 4.9 quadrillion cu ft. The major production trend is a lasting surge from outside of OPEC. This year`s Worldwide Production report begins with a detailed analysis of this crucial development by an international authority. This article discusses the OECD outlook by region and the turnaround in production in the former Soviet Union.

  7. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You Wrote: Hi...my name is Amy. I'm a high school student in Indonesia. I want to know whether lightning could be an electricity power source, such as water electricity, nuclear electricity, etc. Please reply to my Email because I am doing a paper about lightning electricity. Thank You. Amy, Thank you for your question on lightning electricity. The answer below is from one of Fermilab's utility experts and may be more information than you need for your report. The challenge with electricity in

  8. APEC experts` group on clean coal technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Expert`s Group on Clean Coal Technology`s Technical Seminar held in Jakarta, Indonesia, from October 10-13, 1994 are presented. A total of 28 papers were presented at the seminar. These papers addressed issues of relevance to APEC member economies associated with the application of clean coal technologies (CCTs) and created a forum where information and ideas about CCTs and their application in the Asia-Pacific Region could be exchanged. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Overview of 2007 ANL progress for conversion of HEU- based Mo-99 production as part of the U.S. global threat reduction--conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandegrift, George F.; Bakel, Allen J.; Thomas, Justin W.

    2008-07-15

    ANL effort is divided into five areas: (1) cooperation with Argentina to demonstrate the use of LEU-foil targets in alkaline-based processes, (2) cooperation with Indonesia in converting their HEU-based Cintichem process to LEU-foil targets, (3) technical assistance to two potential U.S. domestic suppliers (MURR and BWTX), (4) responding to the National Academies Study, and (5) participation in the IAEA CRP for Indigenous Mo-99 production. This paper presents highlights of these activities. A short description of how the dose emitted by spent HEU target material compared to spent fuel is also included. (author)

  10. Overview of 2007 ANL progress for conversion of HEU-based Mo-99 production as part of the U.S. Global Threat Reduction--Conversion program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Bakel, A. J.; Thomas, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    ANL effort is divided into five areas: (1) cooperation with Argentina to demonstrate the use of LEU-foil targets in alkaline-based processes, (2) cooperation with Indonesia in converting their HEU-based Cintichem process to LEU-foil targets, (3) technical assistance to two potential U.S. domestic suppliers (MURR and BWTX), (4) responding to the National Academies Study, and (5) participation in the IAEA CRP for Indigenous Mo-99 production. This paper presents highlights of these activities. A short description of how the dose emitted by spent HEU target material compared to spent fuel is also included.

  11. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azwin, I. N. Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J.; Mokhtar, S.

    2015-03-30

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100?m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100?m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  12. Gamma greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agrobiotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azhar, M. Ahsanulkhaliqin, A. W.

    2014-02-12

    Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for {sup 60}Co and 30.1 years for {sup 137}Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the gamma greenhouse mainly cover Research and Development, Research Collaboration, Exchange of Information, Irradiation Services, Training Programs, Education, Exchange of Scientists and Seminars/ Conferences.

  13. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  14. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  15. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  16. Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ?) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at {approximately}1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

  17. Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, G.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at [approximately]1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

  18. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.81014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.21016 to 2.51016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.11013 to 3.61014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  19. Iraqi crude exports may rise further

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-08

    Iraq will soon start exporting crude oil through a 550 mi, 500,000 bbl/day capacity pipeline from Iraq to Banias, Syria, on the Mediterranean. Iraq has already been transporting a reported 400,000 bbl/day in a 700,000 bbl/day capacity pipeline that goes to Dortyol, Turk., on the Mediterranean. Iraq's theoretical export capacity will soon reach 1.2 million bbl/day (compared with 3.2 million bbl/day before the war), assuming that the facilities are undamaged. Iran has been exporting some crude from its Kharg Island terminal, presumably by Iranian boat to the Lavan Island terminal at the southern end of the gulf, where it would be transported along with crude from offshore fields in the area. The exports apparently had been large enough to keep spot-market prices from rising much above the $40/bbl level, and in Dec. 1980, the spot-market prices eased to just under the $40 mark. Indonesia has raised the premium on its Sumatran light crude by $1/bbl, bringing the total to $35.20. Other producers have not yet raised their prices correspondingly. The agenda of the Dec. 1980 price-fixing meeting in Indonesia (assuming it takes place as planned) is discussed.

  20. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  1. Reserves hike to buoy Bontang LNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that a redetermination of reserves in an Indonesian production sharing contract (PSC) will boost liquefied natural gas sales for an Indonesian joint venture (IJV) of Lasmo plc, Union Texas (South East Asia) Inc., Chinese Petroleum Corp. (CPC), and Japex Rantau Ltd. The Indonesian reserves increase involves the Sanga PSC operated by Virginia Indonesia Co., a 50-50 joint venture of Lasmo and Union Texas. Union Texas holds a 38% interest in the IJV and Lasmo 37.8%, with remaining interests held by CPC and Japex. meantime, in US LNG news: Shell LNG Co. has shelved plans to buy an added interest in the LNG business of Columbia Gas System Inc. Panhandle Eastern Corp. units Trunkline Gas Co., Trunkline LNG Co., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. (PEPL) filed settlement agreements with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to recover from customers $243 million in costs associated with Panhandle's Trunkline LNG operation at Lake Charles, Louisiana.

  2. A Decade of Giant Earthquakes - What does it mean?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, Terry C. Jr.

    2012-07-16

    On December 26, 2004 the largest earthquake since 1964 occurred near Ache, Indonesia. The magnitude 9.2 earthquake and subsequent tsunami killed a quarter of million people; it also marked the being of a period of extraordinary seismicity. Since the Ache earthquake there have been 16 magnitude 8 earthquakes globally, including 2 this last April. For the 100 years previous to 2004 there was an average of 1 magnitude 8 earthquake every 2.2 years; since 2004 there has been 2 per year. Since magnitude 8 earthquakes dominate global seismic energy release, this period of seismicity has seismologist rethinking what they understand about plate tectonics and the connectivity between giant earthquakes. This talk will explore this remarkable period of time and its possible implications.

  3. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.

  4. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  5. International and Domestic Market Opportunities for Biomass Power: Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-09-01

    This report examines the domestic and international markets for biopower. Domestic and foreign markets present fundamentally different challenges to private power developers. Volume I focuses on the domestic market for biopower. The domestic challenge lies in finding economically viable opportunities for biopower. Vol. I outlines the current state of the U.S. biomass industry, discusses policies affecting biomass development, describes some demonstration projects currently underway, and discusses the future direction of the industry. Volume II focuses on the international market for biopower. Recent literature states that the electricity investment and policy climate in foreign markets are the key elements in successful private project development. Vol. II discusses the financing issues, policy climate, and business incentives and barriers to biopower development. As India and China are the largest future markets for biopower, they are the focus of this volume. Three other top markets- -Brazil, Indonesia, and the Philippines--are also discussed. Potential financial resources wrap up the discussion.

  6. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  7. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 0.2 0.0 1.9 (s) 7.6 2.0 (s) (s) 0.7 0.0 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 12.5 2001 .3 (s) 2.6 (s) 11.2 3.3 .1 (s) .9 (s) .5 .2 .0 .1 (s) .8 .4 .1 19.8 2002 .8 .0 2.1 (s) 9.2 3.3 .1 (s) 1.0 .0 .1 .1 .0 (s) (s) .2 .1 (s) 16.9 2003 .3 .1 2.1 .0 15.5

  8. Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 167,595 0 1,923,434 6,671 7,636,614 2,038,774 19,646 205 718,149 0 0 1,212 0 238 0 1,450 0 85 12,512,623 2001 315,870 24,178 2,571,415 8,325 11,176,191 3,335,258 109,877 1,169 882,455 15,933 514,166 219,077 0 75,704 12 824,892 440,408 97,261 19,787,299 2002 821,280 0

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report (Abbreviated), Ju

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6. Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2009 - 2015 (short tons and dollars per short ton) Year and Quarter Australia Canada Colombia Indonesia China Venezuela Other Countries Total 2009 151,738 1,287,626 17,787,441 2,084,271 9,364 1,297,214 20,861 22,638,515 2010 380,404 1,766,896 14,583,950 1,904,040 52,869 581,700 82,828 19,352,687 2011 61,745 1,680,490 9,500,387 856,038 22,128 778,887 187,931 13,087,606 2012 - 1,107,727 6,951,515 517,532 77,738 287,147 217,598 9,159,257

  10. DOE studies on coal-to-liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

  11. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  12. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  13. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  14. Natural gas: Governments and oil companies in the Third World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, A.; Hurst, C.; Mabro, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is asserted that oil companies claim to be generally receptive to gas development proposals; however, the lack of potential markets for gas, problems of foreign exchange convertibility, and lack of a legal framework often hinders their engagement. Governments, on the other hand, need to secure domestic energy supply and, if possible, gain some export earnings or royalties. An extensive discussion on the principles of pricing and fiscal regimes, potential points of disagreement is provided. A course of action is outlined from the managerial point of view to circumvent the most common pitfalls in planning and financing a gas project. Eight very detailed case studies are presented for Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Thailand.

  15. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-12

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  16. Making choices for sectoral organization in water and sanitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, D.B.; Salt, E.; Rosenweig, F.

    1992-03-01

    The report provides an analytical framework for assessing the organization of the water and sanitation (W S) sector and uses the framework to develop case studies of Paraguay, Chile, Tunisia, Malaysia, and Zimbabwe. The analytical framework covers four areas: (1) the primary factors influencing sectoral organization, including historical background, political system, level of economic development, land area and population, and availability of water resources; (2) the division of roles and responsibilities among sectoral agencies; (3) the adequacy of institutional arrangements for setting policies and standards, and planning, financing, and implementing projects; and (4) the sector's ability to address the issues of cost recovery, community management, health and hygiene education, and operations and maintenance. A final section details the lessons learned from the case studies.

  17. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as problematic waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  18. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  19. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  20. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Preliminary results of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes around Indonesian archipelago region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian Widiyantoro, Sri; Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro

    2015-04-24

    Indonesian archipelago region is located in active tectonic setting and high seismicity zone. During the last decade, Indonesian was experienced with destructive major earthquakes causing damage and victims. The information of precise earthquake location parameters are very important in partular for earthquake early warning to the society and for advance seismic studies. In this study, we attempted to improve hypocenter location compiled by BMKG for time periods of April, 2009 up to June, 2014 for about 22,000 earthquake events around Indonesian region. For the firts time, we applied teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD) to improve hypocenter region in Indonesia region combining regional and teleseismic stations. Hypocenter relocation was performed utilizing local, regional, and teleseismic P-wave arrival time data. Our relocation result show that travel-time RMS errors were greatly reduced compared to the BMKG catalog. Seismicity at shallower depth (less than 50?km) shows significantly improvement especially in depth, and refined shallow geological structures, e.g. trench and major strike slip faults. Clustered seismicity is also detected beneath volcanic region, and probably related volcano activities and also major faults nearby. In the Sunda arc region, seismicity at shallower depth centered at two major distributions parallel to the trench strike direction, i.e. around fore-arc and in mainland that related to major fault, e.g. the Sumatran fault, and volcanic fronts. Below Central Java region, relocated hypocenter result showed double seismic zone pattern. A seismic gap is detected around the Sunda-Banda transition zone where transition between oceanic subduction to continental crust collision of Australian plate occurs. In Eastern Indonesia region, shallow earthquakes are observed related to major strike slip faults, e.g. Sorong and Palu-Koro fault, volcanism, and shallow part of subduction and collision zones. We also compare our result in the Sunda Arc region with slab1.0 model and our relocated seismicity shows good agreement with the previous slab geometry. Horizontal position shift of relocated events are mostly perpendicular to the trench directions.

  2. An application of the theory of planned behaviour to study the influencing factors of participation in source separation of food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab.; Rusli, Iffah Farizan; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Idris, Azni

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been conducted to identify the influencing factors for participation in source separation of food waste using self administered questionnaires. ? The findings suggested several implications for the development and implementation of waste separation at home programme. ? The analysis indicates that the attitude towards waste separation is determined as the main predictors where this in turn could be a significant predictor of the repondents actual food waste separation behaviour. ? To date, none of similar have been reported elsewhere and this finding will be beneficial to local Authorities as indicator in designing campaigns to promote the use of waste separation programmes to reinforce the positive attitudes. - Abstract: Tremendous increases in biodegradable (food waste) generation significantly impact the local authorities, who are responsible to manage, treat and dispose of this waste. The process of separation of food waste at its generation source is identified as effective means in reducing the amount food waste sent to landfill and can be reused as feedstock to downstream treatment processes namely composting or anaerobic digestion. However, these efforts will only succeed with positive attitudes and highly participations rate by the public towards the scheme. Thus, the social survey (using questionnaires) to analyse publics view and influencing factors towards participation in source separation of food waste in households based on the theory of planned behaviour technique (TPB) was performed in June and July 2011 among selected staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. The survey demonstrates that the public has positive intention in participating provided the opportunities, facilities and knowledge on waste separation at source are adequately prepared by the respective local authorities. Furthermore, good moral values and situational factors such as storage convenience and collection times are also encouraged publics involvement and consequently, the participations rate. The findings from this study may provide useful indicator to the waste management authorities in Malaysia in identifying mechanisms for future development and implementation of food waste source separation activities in household programmes and communication campaign which advocate the use of these programmes.

  3. Illuminating the Pecking Order in Off-Grid Lighting: A Demonstration of LED Lighting for Saving Energy in the Poultry Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Mills, Evan

    2010-11-06

    The Lumina Project and Lighting Africa conducted a full-scale field test involving a switch from kerosene to solar-LED lighting for commercial broiler chicken production at an off-grid farm in Kenya. The test achieved lower operating costs, produced substantially more light, improved the working environment, and had no adverse effect on yields. A strategy using conventional solar-fluorescent lighting also achieved comparable yields, but entailed a six-fold higher capital cost and significantly higher recurring battery replacement costs. Thanks to higher energy and optical efficiencies, the LED system provided approximately twice the illumination to the chicken-production area and yet drew less than half the power.At the study farm, 3000 chickens were grown in each of three identical houses under kerosene, fluorescent, and LED lighting configurations. Under baseline conditions, a yearly expenditure of 1,200 USD is required to illuminate the three houses with kerosene. The LED system eliminates this fuel use and expense with a corresponding simple payback time of 1.5 years, while the solar-fluorescent system has a payback time of 9.3 years. The corresponding reduction in fuel expenditure in both cases represents a 15percent increase in after-tax net income (revenues minus expenses) across the entire business operation. The differential cost-effectiveness between the LED and fluorescent systems would be substantially greater if the fluorescent system were upsized to provide the same light as the LED system. Providing light with the fluorescent or LED systems is also far more economical than connecting to the grid in this case. The estimated grid-connection cost at this facility is 1.7 million Kenya Schillings (approximately 21,250 USD), which is nearly six-times the cost of the fluorescent system and 35-times the cost of the LED system.The LED system also confers various non-energy benefits. The relative uniformity of LED lighting, compared to the fluorescent or kerosene lighting, reduced crowding which in turn created a less stressful environment for the chickens. The far higher levels of illumination also created a better environment for the workers, while eliminating the time required for obtaining fuel and maintaining kerosene lanterns. An additional advantage of the LED system relative to the solar fluorescent system was that the former does not require a skilled technician to carry out the installation. The portable LED system lighting layout is also more easily adjusted than that of the hardwired fluorescent systems. Furthermore, switching to the LED system avoids over one metric ton of carbon dioxide emissions per house on an annual basis compared to kerosene. There is high potential for replication of this particular LED lighting strategy in the developing world. In order to estimate the scale of kerosene use and the potential for savings, more information is needed on the numbers of chickens produced off-grid, as well as lighting uses for other categories of poultry production (egg layers, indigenous broilers ). Our discovery that weight gain did not slow in the solar-fluorescent house after it experienced extended lighting outages beginning on day 14 of the 35-day study suggests that conventional farming practices in Kenyan broiler operations may call for more hours of lighting than is needed to achieve least-cost production.

  4. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alstone, Peter; Mills, Evan; Jacobson, Arne

    2011-01-25

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuel-based lighting are substantial given the paltry levels of lighting service provided to users, leading to a great opportunity for GHG mitigation byencouraging the switch from fuel-based to rechargeable LED lighting. However, as with most new energy technology, switching to efficient lighting requires an up-front investment of energy(and GHGs) embedded in the manufacture of replacement components. We studied a population of off-grid lighting users in 2008-2009 in Kenya who were given the opportunity to adopt LEDlighting. Based on their use patterns with the LED lights and the levels of kerosene offset we observed, we found that the embodied energy of the LED lamp was"paid for" in only one month for grid charged products and two months for solar charged products. Furthermore, the energyreturn-on investment-ratio (energy produced or offset over the product's service life divided by energy embedded) for off-grid LED lighting ranges from 12 to 24, which is on par with on-gridsolar and large-scale wind energy. We also found that the energy embodied in the manufacture of a typical hurricane lantern is about one-half to one-sixth of that embodied in the particular LEDlights that we evaluated, indicating that the energy payback time would be moderately faster if LEDs ultimately displace the production of kerosene lanterns. As LED products improve, weanticipate longer service lives and more successful displacement of kerosene lighting, both of which will speed the already rapid recovery of embodied energy in these products. Our studyprovides a detailed appendix with embodied energy values for a variety of components used to construct off-grid LED lighting, which can be used to analyze other products.

  5. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  6. Joint seismic-geodynamic-mineral physical modelling of African geodynamics: A reconciliation of deep-mantle convection with surface geophysical constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forte, A M; Quere, S; Moucha, R; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P; Mitrovica, J X; Rowley, D B

    2008-08-22

    Recent progress in seismic tomography provides the first complete 3-D images of the combined thermal and chemical anomalies that characterise the unique deep mantle structure below the African continent. With these latest tomography results we predict flow patterns under Africa that reveal a large-scale, active hot upwelling, or superplume, below the western margin of Africa under the Cape Verde Islands. The scale and dynamical intensity of this West African superplume (WASP) is comparable to that of the south African superplume (SASP) that has long been assumed to dominate the flow dynamics under Africa. On the basis of this new tomography model, we find the dynamics of the SASP is strongly controlled by chemical contributions to deep mantle buoyancy that significantly compensate its thermal buoyancy. In contrast, the WASP appears to be entirely dominated by thermal buoyancy. New calculations of mantle convection incorporating these two superplumes reveal that the plate-driving forces due to the flow generated by the WASP is as strong as that due to the SASP. We find that the chemical buoyancy of the SASP exerts a strong stabilising control on the pattern and amplitude of shallow mantle flow in the asthenosphere below the southern half of the African plate. The asthenospheric flow predictions provide the first high resolution maps of focussed upwellings that lie below the major centres of Late Cenozoic volcanism, including the Kenya domes and Hoggar massif that lies above a remnant plume head in the upper mantle. Inferences of sublithospheric deformation from seismic anisotropy data are shown to be sensitive to the contributions of chemical buoyancy in the SASP.

  7. Assessing the Performance of LED-Based Flashlights Available in the Kenyan Off-Grid Lighting Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-03-02

    Low cost rechargeable flashlights that use LED technology are increasingly available in African markets. While LED technology holds promise to provide affordable, high quality lighting services, the widespread dissemination of low quality products may make it difficult to realize this potential. This study includes performance results for three brands of commonly available LED flashlights that were purchased in Kenya in 2009. The performance of the flashlights was evaluated by testing five units for each of the three brands. The tests included measurements of battery capacity, time required to charge the battery, maximum illuminance at one meter, operation time and lux-hours from a fully charged battery, light distribution, and color rendering. All flashlights tested performed well below the manufacturers? rated specifications; the measured battery capacity was 30-50percent lower than the rated capacity and the time required to fully charge the battery was 6-25percent greater than the rated time requirement. Our analysis further shows that within each brand there is considerable variability in each performance indicator. The five samples within a single brand varied from each other by as much as 22percent for battery capacity measurements, 3.6percent for the number of hours required for a full charge, 23percent for maximum initial lux, 38percent for run time, 11percent for light distribution and by as much as 200percent for color rendering. Results obtained are useful for creating a framework for quality assurance of off-grid LED products and will be valuable for informing consumers, distributors and product manufacturers about product performance.

  8. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Korr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; December 1, 1994-January 19, 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, A.V.

    2003-09-15

    This document describes the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations taken during the R/V Knorr Indian Ocean cruises (Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2) in 1994-1996. The measurements were conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The expedition began in Fremantle, Australia, on December 1, 1994, and ended in Mombasa, Kenya, on January 22, 1996. During the nine cruises, 12 WOCE sections were occupied. Total carbon dioxide was extracted from water samples and measured using single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMAs) coupled to coulometers. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.20 {micro}mol/kg. The second carbonate system parameter, TALK, was determined by potentiometric titration. The precision of the measurements determined from 962 analyses of certified reference material was {+-} 4.2 {micro}mol/kg (REFERENCE). This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Department of Energy, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. The R/V Knorr Indian Ocean data set is available as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of 18 oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a readme file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  9. Alteration of Iron-Rich Lacustrine Sediments by Dissimilatory Iron-Reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe,S.; Roberts, J.; Weisener, C.; Fowle, D.

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of Fe during bacterial anaerobic respiration in sediments and soils not only causes the degradation of organic matter but also results in changes in mineralogy and the redistribution of many nutrients and trace metals. Understanding trace metal patterns in sedimentary rocks and predicting the fate of contaminants in the environment requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms through which they are redistributed during Fe reduction. In this work, lacustrine sediments from Lake Matano in Indonesia were incubated in a minimal media with the dissimilatory iron reducing (DIR) bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens 200R. These sediments were reductively dissolved at rates slower than pure synthetic goethite despite the presence of an 'easily reducible' component, as defined by selective extractions. DIR of the lacustrine sediments resulted in the substrate-dependent production of abundant quantities of extracellular polymeric substances. Trace elements, including Ni, Co, P, Si, and As, were released from the sediments with progressive Fe reduction while Cr was sequestered. Much of the initial trace metal mobility can be attributed to the rapid reduction of a Mn-rich oxyhydroxide phase. The production of organo-Fe(III) reveals that DIR bacteria can generate significant metal complexation capacity. This work demonstrates that DIR induces the release of many elements associated with Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides, despite secondary mineralization.

  10. Structural Basis for a Switch in Receptor Binding Specificity of Two H5N1 Hemagglutinin Mutants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Xueyong; Viswanathan, Karthik; Raman, Rahul; Yu, Wenli; Sasisekharan, Ram; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-11-01

    Avian H5N1 influenza viruses continue to spread in wild birds and domestic poultry with sporadic infection in humans. Receptor binding specificity changes are a prerequisite for H5N1 viruses and other zoonotic viruses to be transmitted among humans. Previous reported hemagglutinin (HA) mutants from ferret-transmissible H5N1 viruses of A/Viet Nam/1203/04 and A/Indonesia/5/05 showed slightly increased, but still very weak, binding to human receptors. From mutagenesis and glycan array studies, we previously identified two H5N1 HA mutants that could more effectively switch receptor specificity to human-like α2-6 linked sialosides with avidity comparable to wild-type H5 HA binding to avian-like α2-3 linked sialosides.more »Here, crystal structures of these two H5 HA mutants free and in complex with human and avian glycan receptor analogues reveal the structural basis for their preferential binding to human receptors. These findings suggest continuous surveillance should be maintained to monitor and assess human-to-human transmission potential of H5N1 viruses.« less

  11. Neutron scattering study on cathode LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and solid electrolyte 5(Li{sub 2}O)(P{sub 2}O{sub 5})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kartini, E. Putra, Teguh P. Jahya, A. K. Insani, A.; Adams, S.

    2014-09-30

    Neutron scattering is very important technique in order to investigate the energy storage materials such as lithium-ion battery. The unique advantages, neutron can see the light atoms such as Hydrogen, Lithium, and Oxygen, where those elements are negligible by other corresponding X-ray method. On the other hand, the energy storage materials, such as lithium ion battery is very important for the application in the electric vehicles, electronic devices or home appliances. The battery contains electrodes (anode and cathode), and the electrolyte materials. There are many challenging to improve the existing lithium ion battery materials, in order to increase their life time, cyclic ability and also its stability. One of the most scientific challenging is to investigate the crystal structure of both electrode and electrolyte, such as cathodes LiCoO{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and LiFePO{sub 4}, and solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Since all those battery materials contain Lithium ions and Oxygen, the used of neutron scattering techniques to study their structure and related properties are very important and indispensable. This article will review some works of investigating electrodes and electrolytes, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 5(Li{sub 2}O)(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}), by using a high resolution powder diffraction (HRPD) at the multipurpose research reactor, RSG-Sywabessy of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Indonesia.

  12. Preliminary result of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes in the Molucca collision zone with a 3D velocity model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash E-mail: h.a.shiddiqi@gmail.com; Widiyantoro, Sri; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro

    2015-04-24

    We have relocated hypocenters of earthquakes occurring in the Molucca collision zone and surrounding region taken from the BMKG catalog using teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD). We used P-wave arrival times of local, regional, and teleseismic events recorded at 304 recording stations. Over 7,000 earthquakes were recorded by the BMKG seismographicnetworkin the study region from April, 2009 toJune, 2014. We used a 3D regional-global nested velocity modelresulting fromprevious global tomographystudy. In this study, the3D seismic velocity model was appliedto theIndonesian region, whilethe1D seismicvelocity model (ak135)wasused for regions outside of Indonesia. Our relocation results show a better improvement in travel-time RMS residuals comparedto those of the BMKG catalog.Ourresultsalso show that relocation shifts were dominated intheeast-west direction, whichmaybeinfluenced by theexistingvelocity anomaly related to the reversed V-shaped slabbeneaththestudy region. Our eventrelocation results refine the geometry of slabs beneath the Halmahera and Sangihe arcs.

  13. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Marlina, Dwi E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Wiratomo, Yogi E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com

    2014-03-24

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  14. Oil exports, structural change, and economic development in Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emami-Khoi, A.

    1981-01-01

    Within the broad Chenery-Kuznets framework, using structural change as a major indicator of economic development, this study investigates the direction and magnitude and broad features of structural change in Iran, and the role of oil production and exports in that change. Although the study covers a larger horizon, the analysis is focused on the period 1955 through 1977. A similar but less-detailed investigation is conducted for Algeria, Indonesia, and Venezuela also, and a cross-country, comparative perspective is generated. The study shows that, in general, the structural changes in Iran have either been weak (for example, in production and employment), or they are contrary to what the model would predict (for instance in trade). The pattern of structural change observed in Iran, therefore, does not indicate any significant economic development even though per capita income increased five-fold over the period 1955 through 1977. In short, oil does not appear to have been an engine of economic development in Iran. The situation appears broadly similar for the other three countries. Based on these findings, the study offers some suggestions concerning the future economic strategies that should enhance very considerably the contribution that oil industry can make toward Iran's economic development, and should thus accelerate the pace of economic development. These suggestions may be useful to other oil-exporting countries as well.

  15. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990.

  16. Fractal Studies on Titanium-Silica Aerogels using SMARTer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putra, E. Giri Rachman; Ikram, A.; Bharoto; Santoso, E. [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Fang, T. Chiar; Ibrahim, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Mohamed, A. Aziz [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2008-03-17

    Power-law scattering approximation has been employed to reveal the fractal structures of solid-state titanium-silica aerogel samples. All small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were performed using 36 meters SANS BATAN spectrometer (SMARTer) at the neutron scattering laboratory (NSL) in Serpong, Indonesia. The mass fractal dimension of titanium-silica aerogels at low scattering vector q range increases from -1.4 to -1.92 with the decrease of acid concentrations during sol-gel process. These results are attributed to the titanium-silica aerogels that are growing to more polymeric and branched structures. At high scattering vector q range the Porod slope of -3.9 significantly down to -2.24 as the roughness of particle surfaces becomes higher. The cross over between these two regimes decreases from 0.4 to 0.16 nm{sup -1} with the increase of acid concentrations indicating also that the titanium-silica aerogels are growing.

  17. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  18. Potential of Melastoma malabathricum as bio-accumulator for uranium and thorium from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saat, Ahmad; Kamsani, Ain Shaqina; Kamri, Wan Nur Aina Nadzira; Talib, Nur Hasyimah Mat; Wood, Ab Khalik; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    Uranium and Thorium are naturally occuring radionuclides. However, due to anthropogenic activities in some locations their concentrations in the soils could be elevated. This study explores the potential of Melastoma malabathricum (locally known as pokok senduduk) as bio-accumulator of uranium and thorium from soils of three different study areas, namely former tin mining, industrial and residential/commercial areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The study found elevated concentrations of uranium and thorium in former tin mining soils as compared to natural abundance. However in industral and residential/commercial areas the concentrations are within the range of natural abundance. In terms of transfer factor (TF), in ex-mining areas TF > 1 for uranium in the leaf, stem and roots, indicating accumulation of uranium from soil. However for thorium TF < 1, indicating the occurence of transfer from soil to root, stem and leaf, but no accumulation. For other areas only transfer of uranium and thorium were observed. The results indicated the potential of Melastoma malabathricum to be used as bio-accumulatior of uranium, especially in areas of elevated concentration.

  19. Prototyping and validating requirements of radiation and nuclear emergency plan simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid, AHA.; Rozan, MZA.; Ibrahim, R.; Deris, S.; Selamat, A.

    2015-04-29

    Organizational incapability in developing unrealistic, impractical, inadequate and ambiguous mechanisms of radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and response plan (EPR) causing emergency plan disorder and severe disasters. These situations resulting from 65.6% of poor definition and unidentified roles and duties of the disaster coordinator. Those unexpected conditions brought huge aftermath to the first responders, operators, workers, patients and community at large. Hence, in this report, we discuss prototyping and validating of Malaysia radiation and nuclear emergency preparedness and response plan simulation model (EPRM). A prototyping technique was required to formalize the simulation model requirements. Prototyping as systems requirements validation was carried on to endorse the correctness of the model itself against the stakeholders intensions in resolving those organizational incapability. We have made assumptions for the proposed emergency preparedness and response model (EPRM) through the simulation software. Those assumptions provided a twofold of expected mechanisms, planning and handling of the respective emergency plan as well as in bringing off the hazard involved. This model called RANEPF (Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework) simulator demonstrated the training emergency response perquisites rather than the intervention principles alone. The demonstrations involved the determination of the casualties absorbed dose range screening and the coordination of the capacity planning of the expected trauma triage. Through user-centred design and sociotechnical approach, RANEPF simulator was strategized and simplified, though certainly it is equally complex.

  20. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0?mm.

  1. Energy management study: A proposed case of government building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Mohd Faizal

    2015-05-15

    Align with the current needs of the sustainable and green technology in Malaysian construction industry, this research is conducted to seek and identify opportunities to better manage energy use including the process of understand when, where, and how energy is used in a building. The purpose of this research is to provide a best practice guideline as a practical tool to assist construction industry in Malaysia to improve the energy efficiency of the office building during the post-production by reviewing the current practice of the building operation and maintenance in order to optimum the usage and reduce the amount of energy input into the building. Therefore, this paper will review the concept of maintenance management, current issue in energy management, and on how the research process will be conducted. There are several process involves and focuses on technical and management techniques such as energy metering, tracing, harvesting, and auditing based on the case study that will be accomplish soon. Accordingly, a case study is appropriate to be selected as a strategic research approach in which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence for the data collection process. A Government office building will be selected as an appropriate case study for this research. In the end of this research, it will recommend a strategic approach or model in a specific guideline for enabling energy-efficient operation and maintenance in the office building.

  2. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60C and passed through 2 m sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  3. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A countrys adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that countrys commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEAs regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  4. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-15

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50?mg/L, natural pH, 0.1?g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  5. Interconnection economics of small power systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloethe, W.G.; Thakar, H.C. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Kim, L.C. [Sarawak Electricity Supply Corp., Kuching (Malaysia); Samin, S. [PT PLN Persero, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-11-01

    The advantages of interconnecting large electric power systems has been almost universally accepted in those parts of North America that are not geographically isolated. However, interconnecting power systems can result in significant economic advantages, even in those parts of the world where power systems are small and widely separated. This paper examines two small, isolated power systems on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian State of Srawak lies on the north coast of Borneo. With an area of 123,156 square km (47,555 square mi.) and population of 1.7 million, it is the largest, but most sparsely populated, state in the Federation of Malaysia. Its neighbor to the south is the Indonesian Province of West Kalimantan. A study examining the feasibility of interconnecting these two power systems was undertaken in 1994 as a part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) initiative to interconnect the power systems in the region. The ASEAN region is characterized by rapidly growing economies and rapid load growth.

  6. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zain, Zakiyah Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com Raduan, Farhana E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com Sagap, Ismail E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com; Aziz, Nazrina

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  7. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 C using the EFB particle size of 866 ?m which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 7101000 ?m and holding time of 483 seconds.

  8. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff Anuar, Abul Adli Idris, Hairul Nizam Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  9. Geothermal Energy Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Renner

    2007-08-01

    Following is complete draft.Geothermal Summary for AAPG Explorer J. L. Renner, Idaho National Laboratory Geothermal energy is used to produce electricity in 24 countries. The United States has the largest capacity (2,544 MWe) followed by Philippines (1,931 MWe), Mexico (953 MWe), Indonesia (797 MWe), and Italy (791 MWe) (Bertani, 2005). When Chevron Corporation purchased Unocal Corporation they became the leading producer of geothermal energy worldwide with projects in Indonesia and the Philippines. The U. S. geothermal industry is booming thanks to increasing energy prices, renewable portfolio standards, and a production tax credit. California (2,244 MWe) is the leading producer, followed by Nevada (243 MWe), Utah (26 MWe) and Hawaii (30 MWe) and Alaska (0.4 MWe) (Bertani, 2005). Alaska joined the producing states with two 0.4 KWe power plants placed on line at Chena Hot Springs during 2006. The plant uses 30 liters per second of 75C water from shallow wells. Power production is assisted by the availability of gravity fed, 7C cooling water (http://www.yourownpower.com/) A 13 MWe binary power plant is expected to begin production in the fall of 2007 at Raft River in southeastern Idaho. Idaho also is a leader in direct use of geothermal energy with the state capital building and several other state and Boise City buildings as well as commercial and residential space heated using fluids from several, interconnected geothermal systems. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 modified leasing provisions and royalty rates for both geothermal electrical production and direct use. Pursuant to the legislation the Bureau of Land management and Minerals Management Service published final regulations for continued geothermal leasing, operations and royalty collection in the Federal Register (Vol. 72, No. 84 Wednesday May 2, 2007, BLM p. 24358-24446, MMS p. 24448-24469). Existing U. S. plants focus on high-grade geothermal systems located in the west. However, interest in non-traditional geothermal development is increasing. A comprehensive new MIT-led study of the potential for geothermal energy within the United States predicts that mining the huge amounts of stored thermal energy in the Earths crust not associated with hydrothermal systems, could supply a substantial portion of U.S. electricity with minimal environmental impact (Tester, et al., 2006, available at http://geothermal.inl.gov). There is also renewed interest in geothermal production from other non-traditional sources such as the overpressured zones in the Gulf Coast and warm water co-produced with oil and gas. Ormat Technologies, Inc., a major geothermal company, recently acquired geothermal leases in the offshore overpressured zone of Texas. Ormat and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center recently announced plans to jointly produce geothermal power from co-produced water from the Teapot Dome oilfield (Casper Star-Tribune, March 2, 2007). RMOTC estimates that 300 KWe capacity is available from the 40,000 BWPD of 88C water associated with oil production from the Tensleep Sandstone (Milliken, 2007). The U. S. Department of Energy is seeking industry partners to develop electrical generation at other operating oil and gas fields (for more information see: https://e-center.doe.gov/iips/faopor.nsf/UNID/50D3734745055A73852572CA006665B1?OpenDocument). Several web sites offer periodically updated information related to the geothermal industry and th

  10. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  11. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dianhar, Hanhan Syah, Yana Maolana Mujahidin, Didin Hakim, Euis Holisotan Juliawaty, Lia Dewi

    2014-03-24

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR ({sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC{sub 50} value of 60.04 ?g/mL and 5.40 ?g/mL, respectively.

  12. Advanced solids NMR studies of coal structure and chemistry. Progress report, March 1 - September 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zilm, K.W.

    1996-12-31

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utili- zation of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NNM methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methine groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. We will also develop NMR methods for probing coal macropore structure using hyperpolarized {sup 29}Xe as a probe, and study the molecular dynamics of what appear to be mobile, CH{sub 2} rich, long chain hydrocarbons. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples.

  13. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1983-12-15

    The attendance at the Workshop was similar to last year's with 123 registered participants of which 22 represented 8 foreign countries. A record number of technical papers (about 60) were submitted for presentation at the Workshop. The Program Committee, therefore, decided to have several parallel sessions to accommodate most of the papers. This format proved unpopular and will not be repeated. Many of the participants felt that the Workshop lost some of its unique qualities by having parallel sessions. The Workshop has always been held near the middle of December during examination week at Stanford. This timing was reviewed in an open discussion at the Workshop. The Program Committee subsequently decided to move the Workshop to January. The Tenth Workshop will be held on January 22-24, 1985. The theme of the Workshop this year was ''field developments worldwide''. The Program Committee addressed this theme by encouraging participants to submit field development papers, and by inviting several international authorities to give presentations at the Workshop. Field developments in at least twelve countries were reported: China, El Salvador, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States. There were 58 technical presentations at the Workshop, of which 4 were not made available for publication. Several authors submitted papers not presented at the Workshop. However, these are included in the 60 papers of these Proceedings. The introductory address was given by Ron Toms of the U.S. Department of Energy, and the banquet speaker was A1 Cooper of Chevron Resources Company. An important contribution was made to the Workshop by the chairmen of the technical sessions. Other than Stanford Geothermal Program faculty members, they included: Don White (Field Developments), Bill D'Olier (Hydrothermal Systems), Herman Dykstra (Well Testing), Karsten Pruess (Well Testing), John Counsil (Reservoir Chemistry), Malcolm Mossman (Reservoir Chemistry), Greg Raasch (Production), Manny Nathenson (Injection), Susan Petty (Injection), Subir Sanyal (Simulation), Marty Molloy (Petrothermal), and Allen Moench (Reservoir Physics). The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Joanne Hartford, Terri Ramey, Amy Osugi, and Marilyn King for their valued help with the Workshop arrangements and the Proceedings. We also owe thanks to the program students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Ninth Workshop was supported by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U . S . Department of Energy through contract DE-AT03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. H. J. Ramey, Jr., R. N. Horne, P. Kruger, W. E. Brigham, F. G. Miller, J. S . Gudmundsson -vii

  14. Nineteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1994-01-20

    PREFACE The Nineteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 18-20, 1994. This workshop opened on a sad note because of the death of Prof. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. on November 19, 1993. Hank had been fighting leukemia for a long time and finally lost the battle. Many of the workshop participants were present for the celebration of his life on January 21 at Stanford's Memorial Church. Hank was one of the founders of the Stanford Geothermal Program and the Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop. His energy, kindness, quick wit, and knowledge will long be missed at future workshops. Following the Preface we have included a copy of the Memorial Resolution passed by the Stanford University Senate. There were one hundred and four registered participants. Participants were from ten foreign countries: Costa Rica, England, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines and Turkey. Workshop papers described the performance of fourteen geothermal fields outside the United States. Roland N. Home opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a presentation about the future of geothermal development. The banquet speaker was Jesus Rivera and he spoke about Energy Sources of Central American Countries. Forty two papers were presented at the Workshop. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: sciences, injection, production, modeling, and adsorption. Session chairmen are an important part of the workshop and our thanks go to: John Counsil, Mark Walters, Dave Duchane, David Faulder, Gudmundur Bodvarsson, Jim Lovekin, Joel Renner, and Iraj Ershaghi. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Xianfa Deng who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Roland N. Home Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  15. Sixteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1991-01-25

    The Sixteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23-25, 1991. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Mohinder Gulati of UNOCAL Geothermal. Dr. Gulati gave an inspiring talk on the impact of numerical simulation on development of geothermal energy both in The Geysers and the Philippines. Dr. Gulati was the first recipient of The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award. The registered attendance figure of one hundred fifteen participants was up slightly from last year. There were seven foreign countries represented: Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Japan. As last year, papers on about a dozen geothermal fields outside the United States were presented. There were thirty-six papers presented at the Workshop, and two papers were submitted for publication only. Attendees were welcomed by Dr. Khalid Aziz, Chairman of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Stanford. Opening remarks were presented by Dr. Roland Horne, followed by a discussion of the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Activities by Barbara Crowley, Vice Chairman; and J.E. ''Ted'' Mock's presentation of the DOE Geothermal Program: New Emphasis on Industrial Participation. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: hot dry rock, geochemistry, tracer injection, field performance, modeling, and chemistry/gas. As in previous workshops, session chairpersons made major contributions to the program. Special thanks are due to Joel Renner, Jeff Tester, Jim Combs, Kathy Enedy, Elwood Baldwin, Sabodh Garg, Marcel0 Lippman, John Counsil, and Eduardo Iglesias. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Angharad Jones, Rosalee Benelli, Jeanne Mankinen, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate the audiovisual equipment and to Michael Riley who coordinated the meeting arrangements for a second year. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  16. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5?g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5?mg/L, 10?mg/L, 15?mg/L, 20?mg/L, 25?mg/L and 40?mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53?mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  17. Progress of teaching and learning of nuclear engineering courses at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid, Nasri A. Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, Mohd. Zamri

    2015-04-29

    Developing human capital in nuclear with required nuclear background and professional qualifications is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in the near future. Sufficient educational and training skills are required to ensure that the human resources needed by the nuclear power industry meets its high standard. The Government of Malaysia has made the decision to include nuclear as one of the electricity generation option for the country, post 2020 in order to cater for the increasing energy demands of the country as well as to reduce CO{sub 2} emission. The commitment by the government has been made clearer with the inclusion of the development of first NPP by 2021 in the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) which was launched by the government in October 2010. The In tandem with the government initiative to promote nuclear energy, Center for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) is taking the responsibility in developing human capital in the area of nuclear power and technology. In the beginning, the College of Engineering has offered the Introduction to Nuclear Technology course as a technical elective course for all undergraduate engineering students. Gradually, other nuclear technical elective courses are offered such as Nuclear Policy, Security and Safeguards, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, Radiation Detection and Nuclear Instrumentation, Introduction to Reactor Physics, Radiation Safety and Waste Management, and Nuclear Thermal-hydraulics. In addition, another course Advancement in Nuclear Energy is offered as one of the postgraduate elective courses. To enhance the capability of teaching staffs in nuclear areas at UNITEN, several junior lecturers are sent to pursue their postgraduate studies in the Republic of Korea, United States and the United Kingdom, while the others are participating in short courses and workshops in nuclear that are conducted locally and abroad. This paper describes the progress of teaching and learning in nuclear engineering and technology at UNITEN that include curriculum development, students enrolment and performance, and teaching staffs human resource development.

  18. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  19. Web-GIS oriented systems viability for municipal solid waste selective collection optimization in developed and transient economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, E.C.; Ragazzi, M.; Fedrizzi, P.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? As an appropriate solution for MSW management in developed and transient countries. ? As an option to increase the efficiency of MSW selective collection. ? As an opportunity to integrate MSW management needs and services inventories. ? As a tool to develop Urban Mining actions. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a multidisciplinary activity that includes generation, source separation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery, and, last but not least, disposal. The optimization of waste collection, through source separation, is compulsory where a landfill based management must be overcome. In this paper, a few aspects related to the implementation of a Web-GIS based system are analyzed. This approach is critically analyzed referring to the experience of two Italian case studies and two additional extra-European case studies. The first case is one of the best examples of selective collection optimization in Italy. The obtained efficiency is very high: 80% of waste is source separated for recycling purposes. In the second reference case, the local administration is going to be faced with the optimization of waste collection through Web-GIS oriented technologies for the first time. The starting scenario is far from an optimized management of municipal solid waste. The last two case studies concern pilot experiences in China and Malaysia. Each step of the Web-GIS oriented strategy is comparatively discussed referring to typical scenarios of developed and transient economies. The main result is that transient economies are ready to move toward Web oriented tools for MSW management, but this opportunity is not yet well exploited in the sector.

  20. Vulnerability of Karangkates dams area by means of zero crossing analysis of data magnetic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunaryo, E-mail: sunaryo.geofis.ub@gmail.com; Susilo, Adi

    2015-04-24

    Study with entitled Vulnerability Karangkates Dam Area By Means of Zero Crossing Analysis of Data Magnetic has been done. The study was aimed to obtain information on the vulnerability of two parts area of Karangkates dams, i.e. Lahor dam which was inaugurated in 1977 and Sutami dam inaugurated in 1981. Three important things reasons for this study are: 1). The dam age was 36 years old for Lahor dam and 32 years old for Sutami dam, 2). Geologically, the location of the dams are closed together to the Pohgajih local shear fault, Selorejo local fault, and Selorejo limestone-andesite rocks contact plane, and 3). Karangkates dams is one of the important Hydro Power Plant PLTA with the generating power of about 400 million KWH per year from a total of about 29.373MW installed in Indonesia. Geographically, the magnetic data acquisition was conducted at coordinates (112.4149oE;-8.2028oS) to (112.4839oE;-8.0989oS) by using Proton Precession Magnetometer G-856. Magnetic Data acquisition was conducted in the radial direction from the dams with diameter of about 10 km and the distance between the measurements about 500m. The magnetic data acquisition obtained the distribution of total magnetic field value in the range of 45800 nT to 44450 nT. Residual anomalies obtained by doing some corrections, including diurnal correction, International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) correction, and reductions so carried out the distribution of the total magnetic field value in the range of -650 nT to 700 nT. Based on the residual anomalies, indicate the presence of 2 zones of closed closures dipole pairs at located in the west of the Sutami dam and the northwest of the Lahor dam from 5 total zones. Overlapping on the local geological map indicated the lineament of zero crossing patterns in the contour of residual anomaly contour with the Pohgajih shear fault where located at about 4 km to the west of the Sutami dam approximately and andesite-limestone rocks contact where located at about 6 km to the west of the Lahor dam approximately. These shown a possible of vulnerability on geohazards at the west zone of the Karangkates (Lahor-Sutami) dams area if there are triggers by the vibration (earthquake) on the Pohgajih shear fault, andesite-limestone contact plane, and instability rocks on two zones of closed closure dipole pairs area. Reality, on the location of the study shown some local landslide at the several locations and the main road that need considering for disaster mitigation.

  1. Calibrating and training of neutron based NSA techniques with less SNM standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, William H; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Bracken, David S; Freeman, Corey R; Newell, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Accessing special nuclear material (SNM) standards for the calibration of and training on nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments has become increasingly difficult in light of enhanced safeguards and security regulations. Limited or nonexistent access to SNM has affected neutron based NDA techniques more than gamma ray techniques because the effects of multiplication require a range of masses to accurately measure the detector response. Neutron based NDA techniques can also be greatly affected by the matrix and impurity characteristics of the item. The safeguards community has been developing techniques for calibrating instrumentation and training personnel with dwindling numbers of SNM standards. Monte Carlo methods have become increasingly important for design and calibration of instrumentation. Monte Carlo techniques have the ability to accurately predict the detector response for passive techniques. The Monte Carlo results are usually benchmarked to neutron source measurements such as californium. For active techniques, the modeling becomes more difficult because of the interaction of the interrogation source with the detector and nuclear material; and the results cannot be simply benchmarked with neutron sources. A Monte Carlo calculated calibration curve for a training course in Indonesia of material test reactor (MTR) fuel elements assayed with an active well coincidence counter (AWCC) will be presented as an example. Performing training activities with reduced amounts of nuclear material makes it difficult to demonstrate how the multiplication and matrix properties of the item affects the detector response and limits the knowledge that can be obtained with hands-on training. A neutron pulse simulator (NPS) has been developed that can produce a pulse stream representative of a real pulse stream output from a detector measuring SNM. The NPS has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for detector testing and training applications at the Agency due to the lack of appropriate SNM standards. This paper will address the effect of reduced access to SNM for calibration and training of neutron NDA applications along with the advantages and disadvantages of some solutions that do not use standards, such as the Monte Carlo techniques and the NPS.

  2. Accumulation of Pb and Cu heavy metals in sea water, sediment, and leaf and root tissue of Enhalus sp. in the seagrass bed of Banten Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauziah, Faiza Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-24

    Banten Bay in Indonesia is a coastal area which has been highly affected by human activity. Previous studies have reported the presence of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) heavy metals in the seawater of this area. This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of Pb and Cu in seawater, sediment, leaf tissue, and root tissue of the seagrass species Enhalus sp. Sampling was conducted at two observation stations in Banten Bay: Station 1 (St.1) was located closer to the coastline and to industrial plants as source of pollution, while Station 2 (St.2) was located farther away offshore. At each station, three sampling points were established by random sampling. Field sampling was conducted at two different dates, i.e., on 29 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Samples were processed by wet ashing using concentrated HNO{sub 3} acid and measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Accumulation of Pb was only detected in sediment samples in St.1, while Cu was detected in all samples. Average concentrations of Cu in May were as follows: sediment St.1 = 0.731 ppm, sediment St.2 = 0.383 ppm, seawater St.1 = 0.163 ppm, seawater St.2 = 0.174 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.102 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.132 ppm, root St.1= 0.139 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.075 ppm. Average measurements of Cu in June were: sediment St.1 = 0.260 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.335 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.301 ppm, root St.1= 0.047 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.060 ppm. In June, Cu was undetected in St.2 sediment and seawater at both stations. In May, Cu concentration in seawater exceeded the maximum allowable threshold for water as determined by the Ministry of the Environment. Spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cu accumulation were most probably affected by distance from source and physical conditions of the environment (e.g., water current and mixing)

  3. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M. Majid, Amran Ab. Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and ?-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 129 ppm (5274.9 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.917.6 ppm (7987.4 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by ?- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 0.6% and 4.7 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  4. Mobility of heavy metals through granitic soils using mini column infiltration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarime, Nur 'Aishah; Yaacob, W. Z.W.

    2014-09-03

    This study is about the mobility of cadmium through compacted granitic soils. Two granitic soils namely the Broga (BGR) and Kajang (KGR) granitic soils were collected in Selangor, Malaysia. Physical and chemical tests were applied for both granitic soils to determine the physical and chemical properties of soil materials. Physical test results shows granitic soils (BGR and KGR) have high percentage of sand ranging between 54%–63% and 46%–54% respectively, an intermediate and intermediate to high plasticity index as well as high specific gravity ie; 2.50–2.59 and 2.45–2.66 respectively. For chemical test, granitic soils shows acidic pH values ranged from 5.35–5.85 for BGR and pH 5.32–5.54 for KGR. For organic matter, SSA and CEC test, it shows low values ranged from 0.22%–0.34% and 0.39%– 0.50% respectively for organic matter test, 17.96 m{sup 2}/g–21.93 m{sup 2}/g and 25.76 m{sup 2}/g–26.83 m{sup 2}/g respectively for SSA test and 0.79 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g and 1.31 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g respectively for CEC test. Mini column infiltration test was conducted to determine the retention of cadmium while flowing through granite soils. This test conducted based on the falling head permeability concepts. Different G-force ranging from 231G to 1442G was used in this test. The breakthrough curves show the concentration of Cd becomes higher with the increasing of G-force for both granitic samples (BGR and KGR). The selectivity sorption for both granites ranked in the following decreasing order of; 231G>519G>923G>1442G. Results demonstrated that granitic soils also have low buffering capacity due to low resist of pH changes.

  5. Final Report DOE Contract No. DE-FG36-04G014294 ICEKAP 2004: A Collaborative Joint Geophysical Imaging Project at Krafla and IDDP P.E. Malin, S.A. Onacha, E. Shalev Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences Nicholas School of the Environment Duke University Durham, NC 27708

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malin, Peter E.; Shalev, Eylon; Onacha, Stepthen A.

    2006-12-15

    In this final report, we discuss both theoretical and applied research resulting from our DOE project, ICEKAP 2004: A Collaborative Joint Geophysical Imaging Project at Krafla and IDDP. The abstract below begins with a general discussion of the problem we addressed: the location and characterization of blind geothermal resources using microearthquake and magnetotelluric measurements. The abstract then describes the scientific results and their application to the Krafla geothermal area in Iceland. The text following this abstract presents the full discussion of this work, in the form of the PhD thesis of Stephen A. Onacha. The work presented here was awarded the Best Geophysics Paper at the 2005 Geothermal Resources Council meeting, Reno. This study presents the modeling of buried fault zones using microearthquake and electrical resistivity data based on the assumptions that fluid-filled fractures cause electrical and seismic anisotropy and polarization. In this study, joint imaging of electrical and seismic data is used to characterize the fracture porosity of the fracture zones. P-wave velocity models are generated from resistivity data and used in locating microearthquakes. Fracture porosity controls fluid circulation in the hydrothermal systems and the intersections of fracture zones close to the heat source form important upwelling zones for hydrothermal fluids. High fracture porosity sites occur along fault terminations, fault-intersection areas and fault traces. Hydrothermal fault zone imaging using resistivity and microearthquake data combines high-resolution multi-station seismic and electromagnetic data to locate rock fractures and the likely presence fluids in high temperature hydrothermal systems. The depths and locations of structural features and fracture porosity common in both the MT and MEQ data is incorporated into a joint imaging scheme to constrain resistivity, seismic velocities, and locations of fracture systems. The imaging of the fault zones is constrained by geological, drilling, and geothermal production data. The objective is to determine interpretation techniques for evaluating structural controls of fluid circulation in hydrothermal systems. The conclusions are: directions of MT polarization and anisotropy and MEQ S-splitting correlate. Polarization and anisotropy are caused by fluid filled fractures at the base of the clay cap. Microearthquakes occur mainly on the boundary of low resistivity within the fracture zone and high resistivity in the host rock. Resistivity is lowest within the core of the fracture zone and increases towards the margins of the fracture zone. The heat source and the clay cap for the hydrothermal have very low resistivity of less than 5?m. Fracture porosity imaged by resistivity indicates that it varies between 45-5% with most between 10-20%, comparable to values from core samples in volcanic areas in Kenya and Iceland. For resistivity values above 60?m, the porosity reduces drastically and therefore this might be used as the upper limit for modeling fracture porosity from resistivity. When resistivity is lower than 5?m, the modeled fracture porosity increases drastically indicating that this is the low resistivity limit. This is because at very low resistivity in the heat source and the clay cap, the resistivity is dominated by ionic conduction rather than fracture porosity. Microearthquakes occur mainly above the heat source which is defined by low resistivity at a depth of 3-4.5 km at the Krafla hydrothermal system and 4-7 km in the Longonot hydrothermal system. Conversions of S to P waves occur for microearthquakes located above the heat source within the hydrothermal system. Shallow microearthquakes occur mainly in areas that show both MT and S-wave anisotropy. S-wave splitting and MT anisotropy occurs at the base of the clay cap and therefore reflects the variations in fracture porosity on top of the hydrothermal system. In the Krafla hydrothermal system in Iceland, both MT polarization and MEQ splitting directions align with

  6. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

  7. The Role of Gravity Waves in the Formation and Organization of Clouds during TWPICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeder, Michael J.; Lane, Todd P.; Hankinson, Mai Chi Nguyen

    2013-09-27

    All convective clouds emit gravity waves. While it is certain that convectively-generated waves play important parts in determining the climate, their precise roles remain uncertain and their effects are not (generally) represented in climate models. The work described here focuses mostly on observations and modeling of convectively-generated gravity waves, using the intensive observations from the DoE-sponsored Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), which took place in Darwin, from 17 January to 13 February 2006. Among other things, the research has implications the part played by convectively-generated gravity waves in the formation of cirrus, in the initiation and organization of further convection, and in the subgrid-scale momentum transport and associated large-scale stresses imposed on the troposphere and stratosphere. The analysis shows two groups of inertia-gravity waves are detected: group L in the middle stratosphere during the suppressed monsoon period, and group S in the lower stratosphere during the monsoon break period. Waves belonging to group L propagate to the south-east with a mean intrinsic period of 35 h, and have vertical and horizontal wavelengths of about 5-6 km and 3000-6000 km, respectively. Ray tracing calculations indicate that these waves originate from a deep convective region near Indonesia. Waves belonging to group S propagate to the south-south-east with an intrinsic period, vertical wavelength and horizontal wavelength of about 45 h, 2 km and 2000-4000 km, respectively. These waves are shown to be associated with shallow convection in the oceanic area within about 1000 km of Darwin. The intrinsic periods of high-frequency waves are estimated to be between 20-40 minutes. The high-frequency wave activity in the stratosphere, defined by mass-weighted variance of the vertical motion of the sonde, has a maximum following the afternoon local convection indicating that these waves are generated by local convection. The wave activity is strongest in the lower stratosphere below 22 km and, during the suppressed monsoon period, is modulated with a 3-4-day period. The concentration of the wave activity in the lower stratosphere is consistent with the properties of the environment in which these waves propagate, whereas its 3-4-day modulation is explained by the variation of the convection activity in the TWP-ICE domain. At low rainfall intensity the wave activity increases as rainfall intensity increases. At high values of rainfall intensity, however, the wave activity associated with deep convective clouds is independent of the rainfall intensity. The convection and gravity waves observed during TWP-ICE are simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. These simulations are compared with radiosonde observations described above and are used to determine some of the properties of convectively generated gravity waves. The gravity waves appear to be well simulated by the model. The model is used to explore the relationships between the convection, the gravity waves and cirrus.

  8. Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briffett, Clive; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Mackee, Jamie

    2003-03-01

    In the developing and transitional countries of Asia, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely practiced as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with developments and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigating measures. Not withstanding its extensive use in many Asian countries, certain limitations are now being increasingly recognised with regard to achieving sustainable development within the planning process. It is also noted that the natural environment in Asia has continued to be severely degraded despite the adoption of EIA. This research project was undertaken at the National University of Singapore to review the status on the implementation of EIA procedures and to investigate the status and potential of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. The research project generally investigated the existing physical attributes of six countries including Hong Kong and Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and discussed their prevailing environmental conditions. It more specifically reviewed policymaking and environmental planning, environmental legislation and the practice and procedures of environmental impact assessment. It also evaluated environmental assessment education and training activities. In some cases such as Hong Kong, an opportunity to analyse actual SEA practice was included. In other cases, the potential for possible take up of formal SEA was assessed. A comparative review assesses the degree to which EIA and SEA procedures have been utilized, considers how the use of SEA could overcome the deficiencies of the EIA project-based system and includes aspects of meeting sustainability criteria. Results show that the use and application of EIA is relatively strong across all countries with the possible exception of Singapore which relies more heavily on its planning and control system to address potential environmental impacts arising from development projects. Despite this, EIAs have been undertaken in every country due to aid and bank lending agencies requiring them and multinational companies and many local NGOs completing voluntary EIAs. Even though the mandatory introduction of EIA into some countries is fairly recent such as Hong Kong (1999) and Vietnam (1994), efforts to conduct such investigations may have started many years before. The country reviews highlight many common problems and adverse influences that give rise to inadequate EIA practice, and in some cases, recommendations for improvement are proposed. The potential for SEA is assessed on the basis of its present usage which is generally small except for Hong Kong and the environmental strategic decision-making that is being conducted in policy, plan and programme formulations. While the more comprehensive and well-refined westernized model of SEA is generally weakly implemented at present, there is evidence to suggest that Agenda 21, along with other international treaties such as the Biodiversity Charter and the Ramsar Convention, has motivated certain sustainability initiatives that are resulting in increased environmental considerations at a strategic level. In some cases, these may be reflected in National Plan policymaking or in the sector and area-based activities of various ministries and departments. It is concluded that SEA potential is generally strong in those countries with smaller centralized bureaucracies but that its successful implementation will be highly dependent on changing the mind-sets and motivations of top personnel at ministerial level.

  9. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 76.8 Bq m{sup ?3} to 571.1 251.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 101.0 41.0 Bq m{sup ?3} to 245.3 100.2 Bq m{sup ?3}, 53.1 7.5 Bq m{sup ?3} to 181.8 9.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, 256.1 59.3 Bq m{sup ?3} to 652.2 222.2 Bq m{sup ?3} and 164.5 75.9 Bq m{sup ?3} to 653.3 240.0 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 194.3 Bq m{sup ?3}, 192.1 75.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 176.1 85.9 Bq m{sup ?3} and 28.4 5.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m{sup ?3} proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas, all building material samples have exceeded the radon concentration in concrete and building materials of 3 to 7 Bq m{sup ?3} estimated by ICRP. The annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, and radon exhalation rates in tin tailings were calculated to be in the range of 2.47 to 11.46 mSv, 5.94 to 1090.56 mSv y{sup ?1}, and 0.23 to 1.18 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. For building materials, the calculated risk assessment of the annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk were 0.72 to 10.00 mSv, 1.73 to 24.00 mSv y{sup ?1}, 0.010 to 0.06 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1} and 40 to 550 chances of persons will suffer the cancer per million (1 10{sup 6}), respectively.

  10. Health, safety, and environmental risks from energy production: A year-long reality check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Large-scale carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) offers the benefit of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions and thereby mitigating climate change risk, but it will also bring its own health, safety, and environmental risks. Curtis M. Oldenburg, Editor-in-Chief, considers these risks in the context of the broader picture of energy production. Over the last year, there have been major acute health, safety, and environmental (HSE) consequences related to accidents involving energy production from every major primary energy source. These are, in chronological order: (i) the Upper Big Branch (coal) Mine disaster, (ii) the Gulf of Mexico Macondo (oil) well blowout, (iii) the San Bruno (natural gas) pipeline leak and explosion, and (iv) the Fukushima (nuclear) reactor radioactivity releases. Briefly, the Upper Big Branch Mine disaster occurred in West Virginia on April 5, 2010, when natural methane in the mine ignited, causing the deaths of 29 miners, the worst coal mine disaster in the USA since 1970. Fifteen days later, the Macondo oil well in the Gulf of Mexico suffered a blowout, with a gas explosion and fire on the floating drilling platform that killed 11 people. The oil and gas continued to flow out of the well at the seafloor until July 15, 2010, spilling a total of approximately 5 million barrels of oil into the sea. On September 9, 2010, a 30-inch (76-cm) buried, steel, natural gas pipeline in San Bruno, California, leaked gas and exploded in a residential neighborhood, killing 8 people in their homes and burning a total of 38 homes. Flames were up to 1000 ft (300 m) high, and the initial explosion itself reportedly measured 1.1 on the Richter scale. Finally, on March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the coast of Japan's main island, Honshu, caused a tsunami that crippled the backup power and associated cooling systems for six reactor cores and their spent fuel storage tanks at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At time of writing, workers trying to bring the crisis under control have been exposed to dangerous levels of radiation, and radioactive water and particulates have been released to the sea and atmosphere. These four disasters, all of which occurred within the past 12 months, were not unprecedented; similar events differing only in detail have happened around the world before, and such events will occur again. Today, developed nations primarily use fossil fuels to create affordable energy for comforts such as lighting, heating and air-conditioning, refrigeration, transportation, education, and entertainment, as well as for powering manufacturing, which creates jobs and a wealth of material goods. In addition to the risks of the existing energy infrastructure that have become obvious through these recent disasters, there is also the ongoing risk of climate change that comes from the vast emissions of greenhouse gases, primarily CO{sub 2}, from the burning of fossil fuels. The implementation of CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) will help mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel energy, but it also carries with it HSE risks. In my personal interactions with the public and with students, the main concern voiced is whether CO{sub 2} could leak out of the deep reservoirs into which it is injected and rise up out of the ground, smothering people and animals at the ground surface. Another concern expressed is that CO{sub 2} pipelines could fail and cause similar gaseous plumes of CO{sub 2}. The widespread concerns about CO{sub 2} leaking out over the ground surface may be inspired by events that have happened within natural systems in equatorial Africa, in Indonesia, and in Italy. Researchers have been investigating a wide variety of HSE risks of geologic CO{sub 2} storage for some time and have determined that wells are the main potential pathways for significant leakage from the deep subsurface. I discuss the acute HSE risks of CO{sub 2} leakage through wells and from pipelines, and compare the behavior of failures in CO{sub 2} wells and pipelines with oil and gas analogues from which most of our experien