National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for individual coal seams

  1. Coal Mining on Pitching Seams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, George MacMillan

    1915-01-01

    compressed air post punchers are used. Where the coal is undercut permissible explosives are used. On all solid shooting black powder is used. It might be said right here that black powder has caused more fires, explosions and deaths than any other one... thing in Oklahoma mines, with the exception probably of falls of rock. However, under ruling of the United States Bureau of Mines black powder will probably eventually be excluded from all mines on Indian lands. On the lower entries, owing...

  2. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  3. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  4. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  5. Solution for Coal Seam Deaasi ication Wel s =ducing Under Two-Phase Flow Conditkms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    tested extensively using a wide range of coal properties including desorption charac- teristics, and were. `E 22673 7ype-Curve ., Solution for Coal Seam Deaasi ication Wel s =ducing Under Two-Phase Flow the presenceof water in the coal seam and its co- production with gas. The developed type curves are capable

  6. Scaling control during membrane distillation of coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaling control during membrane distillation of coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine Hung C. Duong during membrane distillation (MD) of brine from reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of coal seam gas (CSG. During CSG production, both gas and water are extracted to the surface. Gas is commonly separated from

  7. Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

    2009-07-01

    In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

  8. Data base for analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, November-January 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A; Suhr, N H; Spackman, W; Painter, P C; Walker, P L; Given, P H

    1981-04-01

    The basic objectives of this program are, first, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals, and, second, to determine the nature of the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam. Multivariate statistical analyses applied to the Coal Data Base confirm a number of known trends for coal properties. In addition, nitrogen and some components of the ash analysis bear interesting relationships to rank. The macroscopic petrography of column samples of the Lower Kittanning seam reveals a significant difference between the sample from a marine-influenced environment and those from toward the margins of the basin where conditions were non-marine. The various methods of determining the amount and mineralogy of the inorganic fraction of coals are reviewed. General trends in seam thickness, ash, sulfur, volatile matter yield, and vitrinite reflectance of the Lower Kittanning seam of western Pennsylvania are presented. Controls of sedimentation are discussed in relation to the areal variability which has been observed. Differential subsidence and paleotopography appear to have played a major role during the deposition of the coal. The same controls may have maintained some influence upon the coalification process after deposition, especially along the eastern margin of the Lower Kittanning basin.

  9. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, May-July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-10-01

    The basic objectives of this new program are, firstly, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals and macerals, and, secondly, to determine the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam imposed by varying environmental conditions at the time of coal formation. Thirty-four coal samples were collected during the quarter from Pennsylvania and Illinois. To date, 54 vitrinite concentrates have been hand picked and will be studied by a range of physical and chemical techniques. One hundred and forty coal samples and 53 printouts of coal data were provided on request to the coal research community. The Lower Kittanning seam has been selected for the study of the variability in chemical, petrographic, mineralogic, fluid, and conversion properties of a single seam. A description of the structural and stratigraphic settings of the important coal seam as they relate to this investigation is given. Bivariate plots of data from the Lower Kittanning seam are presented. The fluid temperature range as measured with the Gieseler plastometer reaches a maximum at a reflectance of 1.10 to 1.15% and carbon content of 87 to 88% dmmf. Liquefaction conversion in a tubing-bomb reactor with tetralin shows a linear decrease with rank (reflectance). The problems associated with the application Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the characterization of coal structure are critically discussed. The micropore surface areas and micropore volumes of three selected coals and a vitrinite concentrate, as measured from uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C, increased with decreasing particle size. Work on measurements of apparent densities and uptake of methanol and water is in progress.

  10. JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarda Solc

    2008-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells at the site. (6) Laboratory testing of the coal samples conducted from August to October 2007. (7) Vacuum-enhanced pilot tests at three locations: Cenex corner, Tesoro corner, and cavity area, conducted July 17-24, 2007. (8) Verification of plume delineation for a full-scale design and installation of six monitoring wells September 10-13, 2007. (9) Groundwater sampling and monitoring conducted September 11-12, September 26, and October 3, 2007. (10) Feasibility evaluation of alternative technologies/strategies for the subject site.

  11. Detecting voids in a 0.6 m coal seam, 7 m deep, using seismic reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard D.; Steeples, Don W.

    1991-01-01

    Surface collapse over abandoned subsurface coal mines is a problem in many parts of the world. High-resolution P-wave reflection seismology was successfully used to evaluate the risk of an active sinkhole to a main north-south ...

  12. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  13. Development of hydraulic-fracturing models for application to coal-seam methane drainage. Final report, January 17, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, M.E.; Mavko, B.B.; Thorson, L.D.

    1985-03-29

    The objective of this project is to develop two- and three-dimensional models the industry can use to design and understand hydraulic fracture treatments for stimulating methane production from coal seams. Initially, two-dimensional models were used to study pressure-driven fractures near a stress barrier. The results illustrated that barriers can arrest fracture propagation, cause the wetted length to approach the fracture tip, and change the aperture shape. It became clear that 3-dimensional calculations were necessary for analysis of the coal-seam problem. Work was begun on the circular model, the simplest of the 3-D models. It was determined that the fluid-flow equations using the common uniform-aperture approximation do not properly conserve mass when the flow slot varies with position and time. The problem was corrected by carefully combining the equations for radial flow and the elasticity equations for governing aperture. The model was successfully applied to show the effects of changes in rates, viscosities, and elastic modulus.

  14. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1,100 ft above the basal sandstone and is 100-200 ft thick. The storage capacity estimates for a 20-mile radius from the injection well ranged from 39-78 million tons (Mt) for each formation. Several other oil and gas plays have hydraulic properties conducive for injection, but the formations are generally only 5-50 ft thick in the study area. Overlying the injection reservoirs are thick sequences of dense, impermeable dolomite, limestone, and shale. These layers provide containment above the potential injection reservoirs. In general, it appears that the containment layers are much thicker and extensive than the injection intervals. Other physical parameters for the study area appear to be typical for the region. Anticipated pressures at maximum depths are approximately 4,100 psi based on a 0.45 psi/ft pressure gradient. Temperatures are likely to be 150 F. Groundwater flow is slow and complex in deep formations. Regional flow directions appear to be toward the west-northwest at less than 1 ft per year within the basal sandstone. Vertical gradients are downward in the study area. A review of brine geochemistry indicates that formation fluids have high salinity and dissolved solids. Total dissolved solids ranges from 200,000-325,000 mg/L in the deep reservoirs. Brine chemistry is similar throughout the different formations, suggesting extensive mixing in a mature basin. Unconsolidated sediments in the Ohio River Valley are the primary source of drinking water in the study area.

  15. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  16. Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salmon, Elodie; Lorant, François; Hatcher, Patrick G; Marquaire, Paul-Marie; 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.01.004

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we develop a theoretical approach to evaluate maturation process of kerogen-like material, involving molecular dynamic reactive modeling with a reactive force field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal evolution of terrestrial organic matter. To achieve this, a structural model is first constructed based on models from the literature and analytical characterization of our samples by modern 1-and 2-D NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis. Then, artificial maturation of the Morwell coal is performed at low conversions in order to obtain, quantitative and qualitative, detailed evidences of structural evolution of the kerogen upon maturation. The observed chemical changes are a defunctionalization of the carboxyl, carbonyl and methoxy functional groups coupling with an increase of cross linking in the residual mature kerogen. Gaseous and liquids hydrocarbons, essentially CH4, C4H8 and C14+ liquid hydrocarbons, are generated in low amount, merely by clea...

  17. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennucci, J.

    2014-01-01

    TABLE l PITTSBURG SEAM COAL PROPERTIES Proximate Analysiscoal boiler. The coal, whose properties are given in Table

  18. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  19. A New Coal-Permeability Model: Internal Swelling Stress and Fracture–Matrix Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2010-01-01

    processes in coal seams involving coupled liquid ?ow andfor coupled liquid ?ow A New Coal-Permeability Model and

  20. COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    1. Pittsburgh seam coal properties, Grosshandler (1976)a 35 mesh sieve (417 Properties of this coal are reported inthe reported properties of the pulverized coal. The pressed

  1. PHYSICAL CHANGES IN THE PORE STRUCTURE OF COAL WITH CHEMICAL PROCESSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris Jr, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    of Raw Ro 1and Seam Coal . A. B. C. D. Introduction . . . .iv IV. Physical Properties of Extracted Coals A. B.Extracted Coal Samples . . . . . . . . . . . • . .

  2. A New Coal-Permeability Model: Internal Swelling Stress and Fracture–Matrix Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2010-01-01

    L. : Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress:acid gas sequestration into coal seams. J Geophys. Res. (fracturing on permeability of coal. Min. Sci. Technol. 3,

  3. A new coal-permeability model: Internal swelling stress and fracture-matrix interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    of carbon dioxide in coal with enhanced coalbed methaneL. Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress: Implicationsand acid gas sequestration into coal seams. J Geophys Res. (

  4. 1 | P a g e 2012 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    1 | P a g e 2012 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA, USA October 15 - 18, 2012-mineable Coal Seam Qin He, Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Vida Gholami Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV26505, U.S.A. Abstract Studies have shown that, coal seam

  5. Analysis of model equations for stress-enhanced diffusion in coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segatti, Antonio

    Analysis of model equations for stress-enhanced diffusion in coal layers Andro Mikeli´c Andro coal seams. A typical procedure is the injection of carbon dioxide via deviated wells drilled inside the coal seams. Carbon dioxide displaces the methane adsorbed on the internal surface of the coal

  6. Reprint -Proceedings 2009 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 1 GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MARSHALL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    Reprint - Proceedings 2009 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 1 GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION, Director National Research Center for Coal and Energy Richard A. Winschel, Director Research Services coal seam in the Northern Appalachian Basin. Researchers from CONSOL Energy Inc., West Virginia

  7. PHYSICAL CHANGES IN THE PORE STRUCTURE OF COAL WITH CHEMICAL PROCESSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris Jr, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    approaches to converting coal to liquid products. These are:the production of liquid products from coal at sub-pyrolysisin the reflux liquid extraction of Roland Seam coal. Yields

  8. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  9. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V

    2012-10-23

    The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as ?3? cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

  10. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  11. Beam/seam alignment control for electron beam welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkhardt, Jr., James H. (Knoxville, TN); Henry, J. James (Oak Ridge, TN); Davenport, Clyde M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a dynamic beam/seam alignment control system for electron beam welds utilizing video apparatus. The system includes automatic control of workpiece illumination, near infrared illumination of the workpiece to limit the range of illumination and camera sensitivity adjustment, curve fitting of seam position data to obtain an accurate measure of beam/seam alignment, and automatic beam detection and calculation of the threshold beam level from the peak beam level of the preceding video line to locate the beam or seam edges.

  12. Optical Inspection of Welding Seams Fabian Timm1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical Inspection of Welding Seams Fabian Timm1,2 , Thomas Martinetz1 , and Erhardt Barth1,2 1 present a framework for automatic inspection of welding seams based on specular reflections. To this end by using welding techniques. Soldering and welding techniques are common in diverse areas such as printed

  13. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Seams--1974 (Late $1973). Capita 1 Cost Operating Cost ($/ng ($1969) Component Capita 1 Cost 6,04xl0 6 $75.11xl0 6Exclusive of Fue 1) Capita 1 Cost $/KW Scale Factor Coal-

  14. Effects of CO2 adsorption upon coal deformation during geological sequestration Kan Yang1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    ], which affect the coal seam structure, adsorption, and transport properties, such as density, surface1 Effects of CO2 adsorption upon coal deformation during geological sequestration Kan Yang1. Neimark: aneimark@rutgers.edu Yangzheng Lin: sealin2008@hotmail.com TITLE RUNNING HEAD: Effects of coal

  15. Coal laboratory characterisation for CO2 geological storage E.C. Gaucher1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Coal laboratory characterisation for CO2 geological storage E.C. Gaucher1 *, P.D.C. Défossez1 storage of CO2 in unmineable coal seams could be a very interesting option in the sustainable management of coal basins. However, the various chemical and physical parameters that determine the success

  16. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  17. P-wave re ections in 3-D model of coal basin with boulders (has been accepted for poster presentation at EAGE conference, Leipzig 1998)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    P-wave re ections in 3-D model of coal basin with boulders (has been accepted for poster to the computation of re ections in 3-D model of coal basin with four boulders located in the upper bed of the coal. Tselentis, pers. comm.). The model is composed of a low velocity layer, upper bed, four boulders, coal seam

  18. Modeling binary CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} flow through coal media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumrah, F.; Balan, H.O.; Atay, M.U. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    CO{sub 2} can be sequestered in coal seams considering the environmental issues. By means of injecting CO{sub 2} into the coal seams, both sequestration of CO{sub 2} and the enhanced recovery of methane inside the coal seam can be realized. One-dimensional simulation regarding the binary CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} flow in a coal seam core was studied by using an analytical solution method. The simulation results were compared with experimental data by matching the effluent concentrations of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. The transport parameters such as longitudinal dispersion coefficient, retardation factor, and distribution coefficient were determined. It was seen that the amount of CO{sub 2} captured inside the coal sample during binary displacement was much lower than the maximum adsorption capacity of the coal at the same pressure. Then the transport behavior of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} inside the coal seam was simulated. The results of analytical solution were in good agreement with the measured ones within the acceptable error range.

  19. Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2 Morwell Brown Coal seam3 4 Elodie Salmon a, c , Françoise Behar a , François Lorant force21 field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal22

  20. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN 1999em

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    Type IIP Supernovae as Cosmological Probes: A SEAM Distanceintrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmologicalstars: atmospheres — supernovae: 1999em Distances from

  1. Characterization of a potential underground coal gasification site in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, in-seam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

  2. Air-channel testing landf ill geomembrane seams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Air-channel testing landf ill geomembrane seams Results from a recent workshop help minimize fusion, hot wedge or hot air welding. The hot wedge and hot air welding can be performed USing a singleDC ~ 30 20 "":;c Lf) o o N .c: Figure 1. Relationship between the air-channelu ;;; pressure required

  3. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  4. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?˘ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?˘ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?˘ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?˘ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  5. Results of the characterization of an in situ coal gasification site in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, inseam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

  6. Apparatus and process for ultrasonic seam welding stainless steel foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leigh, Richard W. (New York, NY)

    1992-01-01

    An ultrasonic seam welding apparatus having a head which is rotated to form contact, preferably rolling contact, between a metallurgically inert coated surface of the head and an outside foil of a plurality of layered foils or work materials. The head is vibrated at an ultrasonic frequency, preferably along a longitudinal axis of the head. The head is constructed to transmit vibration through a contacting surface of the head into each of the layered foils. The contacting surface of the head is preferably coated with aluminum oxide to prevent the head from becoming welded to layered stainless steel foils.

  7. Coal resource estimation in the Bayir field, Yatagan-Mugla, SW Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inaner, H.; Nakoman, E.; Karayigit, A.I. [Dokuz Eylul University, Buca Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on some coal properties and calculation of coal resources with two classical (isopach and polygon) methods in the Bayir field, Yatagan-Mugla, which is located in southwestern Anatolia. This field has not been mined because it is still in the exploration stage. A productive coal seam of Early (?)-Middle Miocene age has a mineable coal thickness of 1.25 m to 18.01 m. Proximate analysis results indicated that this coal seam contains high moisture, ash, volatile matter, total sulphur content, and net calorific values. The weighted average mineable coal thickness calculated from the isopachs is 7.52 m and 7.82 m from polygonal methods. The in situ tonnages with isopach and polygonal methods were calculated to be 122.8 Mt and 130 Mt, respectively. The average value of the two methods shows 126.4 Mt in situ coal tonnages. Total amount of the in situ mineable coal resources is 77.7 Mt, which indicates an important coal potential in the Bayir field. The overburden thickness ranges from 72 m to 493 m in the Bayir field, averaging 257 m, indicating a deep coal mine. The overburden ratio averages 37 m{sup 3}/ton, indicating an underground coal mine to feed a power plant in near future.

  8. DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalThe Department ofFederalLEDWhileTheEP942512

  9. Coal Technology '80. Volume 5. Synthetic fuels from coal. Volume 6. Industrial/utility applications for coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The 3rd international coal utilization exhibition and conference Coal Technology '80 was held at the Astrohall, Houston, Texas, November 18-20, 1980. Volume 5 deals with coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Volume 6 deals with fluidized-bed combustion of coal, cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants, coal-fuel oil mixtures (COM), chemical feedstocks via coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thirty-six papers have been entered individually into EDB and seven also into ERA; three had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  10. DOE-Sponsored Field Test Finds Potential for Permanent Storage of CO2 in Lignite Seams

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy has demonstrated that opportunities to permanently store carbon in unmineable seams of lignite may be more widespread than previously documented.

  11. Resolution independent curved seams in clothing animation using a regular particle grid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foshee, Jacob Wesley

    2004-11-15

    We present a method for representing seams in clothing animation, and its application in simulation level of detail. Specifically we consider cloth represented as a regular grid of particles connected by spring-dampers, ...

  12. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: • Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. • Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. • CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  13. CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1992-10-01

    The combustion and emissions properties of (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder is being investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from these fuels are compared with similar parameters from a reference coal burnt in the same fluidized bed combustor. In the last quarter, the CFBC was brought on line and tests were performed on standard coal No. 3 from the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP). During this quarter, it was decided, that a more meaningful comparison could be obtained if, instead of using the IBCSP No. 3 coal as a standard, the run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Kerr-McGee Galatia plant could be used as the reference coal for purposes of comparing the combustion and emissions performance, since the slurry and pellet fuels mentioned in (a) and (b) above were processed from fines recovered form this same Illinois No. 5 seam coal. Accordingly, run-of-the mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Galatia plant were obtained, riffled and sieved to {minus}14+18 size for the combustion tests. Preliminary combustion tests have been made in the CFBC with this new coal. In preparation for the slurry tests, the moisture content of the beneficiated slurry samples was determined. Proximate and ultimate analyses of all the coal samples were performed. Using a Leeds and Northrup Model 7995-10 Microtrek particle size analyzer, the size distributions of the coal in the three slurry samples were determined. The mineral matter content of the coal in the three slurry samples and the Illinois No. 5 seam coal were investigated using energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

  14. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  15. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  16. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  17. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  18. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  19. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  20. Improvements in Measuring Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2008-10-01

    Total worldwide CBM in-place reserves estimates are between 3500 Tcf and 9500 Tcf. Unminable coal beds have been recommended as good CO2 sequestration sites as the world prepares to sequester large amounts of greenhouse gases. In the U.S., these coal seams have the capacity to adsorb and sequester roughly 50 years of CO2 emissions from all the U.S. coal-fired power plants at today’s output rates. The amount and type of gas ad-sorbed in coal has a strong impact on the permeability of the coal seam. An improved mixed gas adsorption iso-therm model based on the extended-Langmuir theory is discussed and is applied to mixed gas sorption-induced strain based on pure gas strain data and a parameter accounting for gas-gas interactions that is independent of the coal substrate. Advantages and disadvantages of using freestanding versus constrained samples for sorption-induced strain measurements are also discussed. A permeability equation used to model laboratory was found to be very accurate when sorption-induced strain was small, but less accurate with higher strain gases.

  1. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony AprilCOAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony Wrathalla promising agent in coal-liquid desulfurization, assuming

  2. Coal combustion by wet oxidation. Wet oxidation of coal for energy production: test plan and partial results. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.

    1980-07-10

    A test plan has been developed which will provide the data necessary to carry out design and economic studies of a steam generating facility, employing the wet oxidation of coal as a heat source. It is obvious, from the literature search and preliminary testing, that the higher the reaction temperature, the more complete the combustion of coal. However, operation at elevated temperatures and pressures present difficult design problems, and the necessary equipment is costly. Operation under these conditions can only be justified by the higher economic value of high pressure and temperature steam. With a reduction in temperature from 550/sup 0/F (228/sup 0/C) to 450/sup 0/F (232/sup 0/C), the operating pressure is reduced by more than half, thus holding down the overall cost of the system. For this reason, our plan is to study both the enhancement of low temperature wet oxidation of coal, and the higher operating regions. The coal selected for the first portion of this test is an Eastern Appalachian high-volatile-A Bituminous type, from the Upper Clarion seam in Pennsylvania. This coal was selected as being a typical high sulfur, eastern coal. The wet oxidation of coal to produce low pressure steam is a process suited for a high sulfur, low grade, coal. It is not intended that wet oxidation be used in all applications with all types of coals, as it does not appear to be competitive, economically, with conventional combustion, therefore the testing will focus on using high sulfur, low grade coals. In the later portion of testing all the available coals will be tested. In addition, a sample of Minnesota peat will be tested to determine if it also can be used in the process.

  3. The El Tremedal underground coal gasification field test in Spain. First trial at great depth and high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, R. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Mostade, M. [Institution pour le Developpement de la Gazeification, Liege (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    The El Tremedal Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) trial sponsored by Belgian, Spanish and United Kingdom government organizations and the European Community has conducted two gasification phases during the summer-autumn of 1997, of nine and five days duration respectively. A gas of good quality has been obtained on both occasions. During the active gasification phases, which lasted in total 12.1 days, an estimated 237.2 tonnes of coal moisture-ash-free were affected and an average power of 2.64 MW based on the lower calorific value of the product gas was developed underground. The test utilized oxygen and nitrogen as the injection reactants (no steam injection). Access to the 2--3 meters sub-bituminous coal seam situated at an average depth of 560 meters was provided by an in-seam deviated well drilled close to the bottom of the 29 degrees dipping seam. A vertical well was used for the exhaust of the gasification products and the production counter-pressure was maintained in near equilibrium with the underground hydrostatic head (50--54 bars). Three Controlled Retraction Ignition Point (CRIP) maneuvers were achieved. Analysis of the raw process data was conducted to calculate mass and energy balances, and to determine influences of process conditions on gas composition, shift and methanation equilibrium, water influx and oxygen/coal conversion efficiencies.

  4. Sample preparation method for glass welding by ultrashort laser pulses yields higher seam strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvecek, K.; Miyamoto, I.; Strauss, J.; Wolf, M.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M.

    2011-05-01

    Glass welding by ultrashort laser pulses allows joining without the need of an absorber or a preheating and postheating process. However, cracks generated during the welding process substantially impair the joining strength of the welding seams. In this paper a sample preparation method is described that prevents the formation of cracks. The measured joining strength of samples prepared by this method is substantially higher than previously reported values.

  5. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN1999em

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-06-01

    Because of their intrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmological probes. We describe the spectral-fitting expanding atmosphere method (SEAM) for obtaining distances to Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) and present a distance to SN 1999em for which a Cepheid distance exists. Our models give results consistent with the Cepheid distance, even though we have not attempted to tune the underlying hydrodynamical model but have simply chosen the best fits. This is in contradistinction to the expanding photosphere method (EPM), which yields a distance to SN 1999em that is 50 percent smaller than the Cepheid distance. We emphasize the differences between the SEAM and the EPM. We show that the dilution factors used in the EPM analysis were systematically too small at later epochs. We also show that the EPM blackbody assumption is suspect. Since SNe IIP are visible to redshifts as high as z {approx}< 6, with the James Webb Space Telescope, the SEAM may be a valuable probe of the early universe.

  6. Capillary pressure and wettability behavior of CO{sub 2} sequestration in coal at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plug, W.J.; Mazumder, S.; Bruining, J. [Horizon Energy Partners BV, Hague (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    Enhanced coalbed-methane (ECBM) recovery combines recovery of methane (CH{sub 4}) from coal seams with storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The efficiency of ECBM recovery depends on the CO{sub 2} transfer rate between the macrocleats, via the microcleats to the coal matrix. Diffusive transport of CO{sub 2} in the small cleats is enhanced when the coal is CO{sub 2}-wet. Indeed, for water-wet conditions, the small fracture system is filled with water and the rate of CO{sub 2} sorption and CH{sub 4} desorption is affected by slow diffusion of CO{sub 2}. This work investigates the wetting behavior of coal using capillary pressures between CO{sub 2} and water, measured continuously as a function of water saturation at in-situ conditions. To facilitate the interpretation of the coal measurements, we also obtain capillary pressure curves for unconsolidated-sand samples. For medium- and high-rank coal, the primary drainage capillary pressure curves show a water-wet behavior. Secondary forced-imbibition experiments show that the medium-rank coal becomes CO{sub 2}-wet as the CO{sub 2} pressure increases. High-rank coal is CO{sub 2}-wet during primary imbibition. The imbibition behavior is in agreement with contact-angle measurements. Hence, we conclude that imbibition tests provide the practically relevant data to evaluate the wetting properties of coal.

  7. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, J.W. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Honaker, R.Q. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out in conjunction with a selected hydrophobic binder as the dewatering reagent and an uniaxial hydraulic press. The influence of compaction pressure and binder concentration (2 to 5%) on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water and wear resistance. A laboratory scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting extruder that can be operated continuously for coal pellets fabrication, has been designed and built, and will be available for testing in the next quarter.

  8. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  9. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    that own the scores of coal power plants whose coal ismillion tons in 2006. Coal power plants currently accountan electric generating coal power plant that would be built

  10. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  11. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: methane from coal seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethridge, L.J.; Cowan, C.E.; Riedel, E.F.

    1980-07-01

    Potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from the recovery of gas from coalbeds are identified and examined. The technology of methane recovery is described and economic and legal barriers to production are discussed. (ACR)

  12. JV Task-130 Technological Synergies for Recovery of Organic Pollutants from a Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroslav Solc

    2009-03-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiated remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater associated with gasoline release at the Farmers Union Oil station in Garrison, North Dakota. The remedial strategy implemented is based on application of two innovative concepts: (1) simultaneous operation of soil vapor and multiphase extraction systems allowing for water table control in challenging geotechnical conditions and (2) controlled hot-air circulation between injection and extraction wells to accelerated in situ volatilization and stripping of contaminants of concern (COC) alternatively using the same wells as either extraction or injection points. A proactive remedial approach is required to reduce high COC levels in the source and impacted areas and to eliminate long-term health risks associated with contaminant migration to water-bearing zones used as a regional water supply source. This report compiles results of Phase I focused on design, construction, and start-up of remediation systems.

  13. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  14. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  15. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  16. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  17. Technique development for field inspection of cracking in seam welded ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shell, Eric B.; Benson, Craig [Wyle Laboratories, Inc., Dayton, OH 45440 (United States); Liljestrom, Greg C.; Shanahan, Stephen [Wyle Laboratories, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK 73110 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The resistance seam weld interfaces between alloyed and pure titanium are an in service concern due to precipitation of titanium hydride and resulting embrittlement and cracking. Several inspection techniques were developed and evaluated for field use to characterize the damage in the fleet. Electromagnetic, ultrasonic, florescent penetrant, thermographic, and radiographic techniques were considered. The ultrasonic and electromagnetic approaches were both found suitable. However, the electromagnetic approach is more desirable for field inspections, due to consistency and ease of use. The electromagnetic inspection procedure is able to discriminate between precursor damage and through cracking with sufficient sensitivity to small cracks.

  18. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western US, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. During this quarter pure concentrates of resinite from Herrin No. 6 Seam were produced by the density gradient centrifugation technique. This material is also now being characterized by petrographic and chemical methods. Another accomplishment this quarter was the completion of a series of microbubble column flotation tests under eight different conditions. The tests were successful in producing concentrates that are now being evaluated. The significance of the work done during this quarter is the confirmation that the resinite in an Illinois coal can be successfully separated in quantities useful for testing and analysis.

  20. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  1. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  2. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  3. Finite element simulation of magnetic detection of creep damage at seam welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sablik, M.J.; Rubin, S.W.; Jiles, D.C.; Kaminski, D.; Bi, Y.

    1996-09-01

    Using appropriately modified magnetization curves for each element of creep-damaged material, a finite element calculation has been carried out to simulate magnetic detection of non-uniform creep damage around a seam weld in a 2.25 Cr 1 Mo steam pipe. The magnetization curves for the creep-damaged elements were obtained from an earlier model for the magnetic effect of a uniformly creep-damaged material as given by Chen, et al. In the finite element calculation, a magnetic C-core with primary and secondary coils was placed with its pole pieces flush against the specimen in the vicinity of the weld. The secondary emf was shown to be reduced when creep damage was present inside the pipe wall at the cusp of weld and in the vicinity of the cusp. The C-core detected the creep damage best if it completely spanned the weld seam width. Also, the current in the primary needed to be such that the C-core was not magnetically saturated.

  4. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  5. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture CS Seminars Calendar HomeNETLCareersCoal

  6. Method and apparatus for monitoring the thickness of a coal rib during rib formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowrey, Gary L. (Jefferson Boro, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Monaghan, William D. (Dravosburg, PA)

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for monitoring the position of a mining machine cutting a new entry in a coal seam relative to an adjacent, previously cut entry to determine the distance between a near face of the adjacent previously cut entry and a new face adjacent thereto of a new entry being cut by the mining machine which together define the thickness of a coal rib being formed between the new entry and the adjacent previously cut entry during the new entry-cutting operation. The monitoring apparatus; includes a transmit antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly from the new face of the coal rib for transmitting radio energy towards the coal rib so that one portion of the radio energy is reflected by the new face which is defined at an air-coal interface between the new entry and the coal rib and another portion of the radio energy is reflected by the near face of the coal rib which is defined at an air-coal interface between the coal rib and the adjacent previously cut entry. A receive antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly of the new face of the coal rib receives the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face and also receives the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face. A processor determines a first elapsed time period equal to the time required for the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and also determines a second elapsed time period equal to the time required for the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and thereafter calculates the thickness of the coal rib being formed as a function of the difference between the first and second elapsed time periods.

  7. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

  9. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  10. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberTable 15: Coal Supply, Disposition, and Prices”, http://

  11. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    increase in rail coal transportation costs in the future? (Ythus, the cost of coal transportation via unit trains ischance of the cost of coal transportation increasing are

  12. Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U-based technology. (a) Based on equal quantities of coal used to produce hydrogen and electricity 4 #12;Why Hydrogen From Coal? Huge U.S. coal reserves Hydrogen can be produced cleanly from coal Coal can provide

  13. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  14. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  15. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It is ubiquitous in North American coals. It makes up one to four percent by volume of most Illinois coals. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western United States, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. The unique aspects are that: (1) it is the first examination of the resinite recovery potential of Illinois coal, (2) it integrates the latest characterization techniques such as density Gradient centrifugation, microspectrofluorometry, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, and (3) it uses microbubble column flotation to determine the resinite recovery potential. During this quarter samples were obtained, information from both the databases of both the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was obtained and evaluated, and EBCSP samples from the Herrin No. 6, the Springfield No. 5 and the Colchester No. 2 seams were analyzed petrographically and the resinites in these samples were characterized by fluorescence spectral analysis.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It is ubiquitous in North American coals. It makes up one to four percent by volume of most Illinois coals. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western United States, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. This project is relevant to priority 1.4A identified in ICCI/RFP93-1. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. The unique aspects are that: (1) it is the first examination of the resinite recovery potential of Illinois coal, (2) it integrates the latest characterization techniques such as density gradient centrifugation, microspectrofluorometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and (3) it uses microbubble column flotation to determine the resinite recovery potential. During this quarter samples were obtained, information from both the databases of both the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was obtained and evaluated, and IBCSP samples from the Herrin No. 6, the Springfield No. 5 and the Colchester No. 2 seams were analyzed petrographically and the resinites in these samples were characterized by fluorescence spectral analysis.

  17. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  18. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    Railroads”, Conference on the Future of Coal, U.S. SenateFuture Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Costone at that! -ii- Future Impacts of Coal Distribution

  19. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  20. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  1. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  3. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  4. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  5. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  6. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  7. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L. (Skokie, IL); Scott, Robert G. (Westmont, IL); Studier, Martin H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  8. Coal recovery from mine wastes of the historic longwall mining district of north-central illinois. Illinois mineral notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, L.A.; Berggren, D.J.; Camp, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    Recovery of coal from mine wastes produced by historic longwall mines in northeastern Illinois was studied as part of a project undertaken in 1982 for the Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council. About 100 of these mines operated in the Wilmington and La Salle Districts of the Illinois Coal Field between about 1870 and 1940; all worked the Colchester (No. 2) Coal Seam, using a manual high-extraction mining method. Large samples of the three major kinds of mine waste - gray mining gob, preparation gob, and preparation slurry - were collected from deposits at nine of the larger mine sites and analyzed to determine their general ranges of sulfur, ash, and heating values. Preparation gob and slurry from six of the sites had significant combustible contents, and were evaluated by a simple procedure in which ash analyses and wet-screening tests were used to determine the washability and yield of combustibles to recovery processes.

  9. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  10. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  11. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  12. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. A comparison of various models in predicting ignition delay in single-particle coal combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A comparison of various models in predicting ignition delay in single-particle coal combustion November 2013 Accepted 7 January 2014 Available online xxxx Keywords: Coal Devolatilization Ignition delay a b s t r a c t In this paper, individual coal particle combustion under laminar conditions

  14. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  15. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    coal type mining. Production by coal type Since 1980, China maximizedthe production shares of coal types, the shares of different

  16. A new coal-permeability model: Internal swelling stress and fracture-matrix interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a new coal-permeability model for uniaxial strain and constant confining stress conditions. The model is unique in that it explicitly considers fracture-matrix interaction during coal deformation processes and is based on a newly proposed internal-swelling stress concept. This concept is used to account for the impact of matrix swelling (or shrinkage) on fracture-aperture changes resulting from partial separation of matrix blocks by fractures that do not completely cut through the whole matrix. The proposed permeability model is evaluated with data from three Valencia Canyon coalbed wells in the San Juan Basin, where increased permeability has been observed during CH{sub 4} gas production, as well as with published data from laboratory tests. Model results are generally in good agreement with observed permeability changes. The importance of fracture-matrix interaction in determining coal permeability, demonstrated in this work using relatively simple stress conditions, underscores the need for a dual-continuum (fracture and matrix) mechanical approach to rigorously capture coal-deformation processes under complex stress conditions, as well as the coupled flow and transport processes in coal seams.

  17. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    power plant pulverized coal power plant v Advanced Coal WindMW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equippedMW coal gasification, combined cycle power plant equipped

  18. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  19. Evaluation of an enhanced gravity-based fine-coal circuit for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, M.K.; Samal, A.R.; Palit, A.

    2008-02-15

    One of the main objectives of this study was to evaluate a fine-coal cleaning circuit using an enhanced gravity separator specifically for a high sulfur coal application. The evaluation not only included testing of individual unit operations used for fine-coal classification, cleaning and dewatering, but also included testing of the complete circuit simultaneously. At a scale of nearly 2 t/h, two alternative circuits were evaluated to clean a minus 0.6-mm coal stream utilizing a 150-mm-diameter classifying cyclone, a linear screen having a projected surface area of 0.5 m{sup 2}, an enhanced gravity separator having a bowl diameter of 250 mm and a screen-bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 500 mm. The cleaning and dewatering components of both circuits were the same; however, one circuit used a classifying cyclone whereas the other used a linear screen as the classification device. An industrial size coal spiral was used to clean the 2- x 0.6-mm coal size fraction for each circuit to estimate the performance of a complete fine-coal circuit cleaning a minus 2-mm particle size coal stream. The 'linear screen + enhanced gravity separator + screen-bowl circuit' provided superior sulfur and ash-cleaning performance to the alternative circuit that used a classifying cyclone in place of the linear screen. Based on these test data, it was estimated that the use of the recommended circuit to treat 50 t/h of minus 2-mm size coal having feed ash and sulfur contents of 33.9% and 3.28%, respectively, may produce nearly 28.3 t/h of clean coal with product ash and sulfur contents of 9.15% and 1.61 %, respectively.

  20. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  1. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

  2. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    Council (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, VolumeCan Coal Deliver? America’s Coal Potential & Limits”, Studycoal generating units currently in operation throughout North America (

  3. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    5 Figure 1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating units (GED, 2006a)of an electric generating coal power plant that would be

  4. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    than those of other coal types, depending on the location oftrue that different coal types (in terms of heating values,= installed capacity of i-type coal plants [GW]; HR i = heat

  5. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  6. Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

  7. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  8. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international...

  9. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  10. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  11. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, J.R.; Tsay, F.

    1989-11-19

    Sampling Procedure: This project requires a carefully coordinated sample preparation procedure that will ensure that specimens of the proper size and physical characteristics are available for the various measurement methods used. Coherent blocks of coal will be collected in the field, with subsamples being removed in the lab by 1 inch-diameter core drill. At least 5 separate cores will be drilled from each block. Coal blocks sampled in the field will be approximately 10 inches (times) 10 inches {times} 6 inches. Distinctive compositional lithologies should be selected for sampling. For example, a section of the seam containing particularly thick vitrain or durain bands might be selected; or the block might include a mineral matter rich layer. If necessary, several blocks should be selected to represent a range in compositions. Sampling procedure must include a method for retaining moisture. The sample must not be allowed to dry out. Exposure to atmospheric oxygen should be limited as much as possible. The samples must carefully packed for shipment so as to preserve their integrity.

  12. Fine particle coal as a source of energy in small-user applications: Final report, January 1--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, S.

    1989-03-01

    With the aim of developing an advanced design pulse combustor for small scale applications suitable for burning micronized coal and CWM fuels, a 150,000 Btu/hr pulsating combustion test rig has been fabricated and instrumented. The pulse combustor has been operated on beneficiated micronized coal without any auxiliary fuel. The effect of equivalence ratio on pulse combustor efficiency and emissions has been investigated and combustion efficiencies on the order of 94% have been measured. The influence of coal composition on the efficiency and emissions properties during pulsating combustion has been investigated. Results show that coal composition influences conversion efficiency. Sulfur dioxide emissions are strongly influenced by fuel-sulfur content, while NO/sub x/ emissions are influenced by both fuel nitrogen and coal combustion history under pulsating conditions. The 150,000 Btu/hr pulse combustor has also been operated with two different resonance tube lengths on two samples of beneficiated coal from the same Illinois seam, having identical elemental and proximate analyses. Results show that frequency controls mixing and residence time, which in turn influences combustor temperature profiles and perhaps combustion efficiency. However, the tests show that better mixing, lower temperatures, and shorter residence times at higher frequencies are conducive to producing lower oxides of nitrogen emissions. 10 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

  14. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline FuelMetallic ores and concentrates Coal Crude Petroleum Gasoline and aviation turbine fuel

  15. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

  16. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  17. Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

  18. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    10%. These two properties can be used to classify coals forsulfur in the coal to be burned. Other properties, such as

  19. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  20. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  1. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  2. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  3. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  4. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  5. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  7. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01

    coal are least expensive when produced from the Powder River Basin region, where cheaper surface mining

  8. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  9. Consensus Coal Production Forecast for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks References 27 #12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2009 iii List of Tables 1. W.Va. Coal Production

  10. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  11. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  12. MTCI advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, M.N.; Chandran, R.R. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    MTCI is pursuing the development and commercialization of several advanced combustion and gasification systems based on pulse combustion technology. The systems include indirectly heated thermochemical reactor, atmospheric pressure pulse combustor, pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, direct coal-fired gas turbine pulse combustor island, and advanced concept second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustor island. Although the systems in toto are capable of processing lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coals in an efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable manner, each system is considered ideal for certain coal types. Brief descriptions of the systems, applications, selected test results and technology status are presented.

  13. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  14. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  15. Recent advances in coal geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chyi, L.L. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (US)); Chou, C.-L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 E. Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL (US))

    1990-01-01

    Chapters in this collection reflect the recent emphasis both on basic research in coal geochemistry and on applied aspects related to coal utilization. Geochemical research on peat and coal generates compositional data that are required for the following reasons. First, many studies in coal geology require chemical data to aid in interpretation for better understanding of the origin and evolution of peat and coal. Second, coal quality assessment is based largely on composition data, and these data generate useful insights into the geologic factors that control the quality of coal. Third, compositional data are needed for effective utilization of coal resources and to reflect the recent emphasis on both basic research in coal geochemistry and environmental aspects related to coal utilization.

  16. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  17. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

  18. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  19. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  20. Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

  1. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  2. The Mining Machine as a Seismic Source for In-seam Reflection Mapping Neil Taylor*, Jim Merriam and Don Gendzwill, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; Arnfinn Prugger, Potash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merriam, James

    The Mining Machine as a Seismic Source for In-seam Reflection Mapping Neil Taylor*, Jim Merriam, Canada Summary Mapping the geology around mine zones is a key economic and safety concern at Saskatchewan potash mines. Experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of using a mining machine

  3. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  4. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  5. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

  6. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    mines in China lowers the coal recovery rate and increasesthat China’s average coal recovery rate is 30% nationallyimproved aggregate coal recovery rates and local- scale

  7. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

  8. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

  9. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Archived Editions: Coal...

  10. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

  11. Individual Event

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientific andIndividualEvent Sign In About |

  12. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  13. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

  14. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  16. Hydrocracking catalysts from coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farcasiu, M.; Petrosius, S.C.; Pladner, E. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Derbyshire, F.; Jagtoyen, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1994-12-31

    In previous work at PETC it was shown that carbon blacks and carbonized polymers could be active and selective catalysts in hydrocracking reactions of interest for fossil fuels processing. Work at CAER for the production of various activated carbons from coals have shown that the properties of the materials could be varied if they are produced under different conditions. The authors will report work to optimize the catalytic properties of some coal based carbon materials prepared at CAER. One of the most promising materials for this purpose is obtained from an Illinois bituminous coal. The procedure hydroxide solution with coal and reacting in two stages; (1) heat treatment of the solution at 75 C under nitrogen for one hour followed by drying and (2) heat treatment at 400--1,100 C followed by leaching to remove KOH. The product was extensively characterized and its catalytic activity was measured. The catalytic activity of some of the materials is comparable with other, more expensive carbon materials. The catalysts have potential use in upgrading petroleum heavy ends and coal liquefaction.

  17. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

  18. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    pollution. With coal and liquid transport fuel deficits in26 3.6. Coal-to-liquids and coal-to-70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60

  19. Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal? a. Coal Washing- Crushing coal then mixing it with a liquid to allow the impurities to settle. b burning coal altogether. With integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, steam and hot

  20. Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

    2008-10-15

    Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

  1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

  2. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Natural Gas Coal 233 billion tonnes coal equivalent 97% total fossil fuel reserve base Reserves by location, quality,

  3. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoal Markets

  4. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  5. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  6. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C. (Upper Montclair, NJ); Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  7. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  8. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  9. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  10. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  11. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  12. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  13. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  14. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  15. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  16. Coal Research FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode Cluster CompatibilityCoal Markets ReleaseCoal

  17. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    1 CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Request for Proposals Date of Issue: February 16, 2015 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of 2009. The mission of the CCCU is to enable environmentally benign and sustainable use of coal, both

  18. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  19. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  20. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  2. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  3. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  4. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  5. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  7. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  8. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Papers in the quarterly technical progress report for the period April-June, 1984, of the Low-Rank Coal Research project have been entered individually into EDB and ERA (17 items). (LTN)

  10. Clean coal preparation using the Liquids From Coal (LFC) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klugh, D.M.; Marquardt, M.M.; Hoften, S.A. van [SGI International, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    With an abundance of coal located in the Pacific Rim region, many economies offer excellent opportunities for the application of clean coal technologies. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) Mild Gasification Process is a clean coal technology that can greatly enhance both the economical and environmental use of coal in this area. Indonesia, with its large population and emerging industrial infrastructure, has exhibited one of the fastest growth rates of electrical power consumption in Asia. This paper demonstrates the economic and environmental advantages of the LFC Process as it applies to coals in the Pacific Rim. These advantages are assessed from the results of a technical feasibility study of coal from the Tanjung Enim Region of Indonesia. While Tanjung Enim provides an example of added value and increased lifetime of an existing resource with some environmental benefits, other examples illustrate the excellent opportunity for upgrading coals for export into the Pacific Rim Steaming Coal Trade. These upgraded coals are expected to be very competitive in cost and are expected to be environmentally attractive.

  11. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the surface moisture of the feed coal exceeds the maximum limit. However, the content of -6mm in the feed to the FGX separator should be maintained between 10% and 20% to ensure an adequate fluidized bed. A parametric evaluation was conducted using a 3-level experimental design at each test site to identify the optimum separation performance and parameter values. The test data was used to develop empirical expressions that describe the response variables (i.e., mass yield and product ash content) as a function of the operating parameter values. From this process, it was established that table frequency and longitudinal slope are the most critical factors in controlling both mass yield and clean coal ash while the cross table slope was the least significant. Fan blower frequency is a critical parameter that controls mass yield. Although the splitter positions between product and middling streams and the middling and tailing streams were held constant during the tests, a separate evaluation indicated that performance is sensitive to splitter position within certain lengths of the table and insensitive in others. For a Utah bituminous coal, the FGX separator provided clean coal ash contents that ranged from a low of 8.57% to a high of 12.48% from a feed coal containing around 17% ash. From the 29 tests involved in the statistically designed test program, the average clean coal ash content was 10.76% while the tailings ash content averaged around 72%. One of the best separation performances achieved an ash reduction from 17.36% to 10.67% while recovering 85.9% of the total feed mass, which equated to an ash rejection value of around 47%. The total sulfur content was typically decreased from 1.61% to 1.49%. These performances were quantified by blending the middlings stream with the clean coal product. At a second Utah site, coal sources from three different bituminous coal seams were treated by the FGX deshaling unit. Three parameter values were varied based on the results obtained from Site No. 1 to obtain the optimum results shown in Table E-1. Approximately 9 tests w

  12. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  13. Summary of coal export project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Through the international coal project and related activities, SSEB has called attention to the problems and potential of the US coal industry. The program has provided an excellent format for frank discussions on the problems facing US coal exports. Every effort must be made to promote coal and its role in the southern economy. Coal is enjoying its best years in the domestic market. While the export market is holding its own, there is increased competition in the world market from Australia, Columbia, China and, to a lesser extent, Russia. This is coming at a time when the US has enacted legislation and plans are underway to deepen ports. In addition there is concern that increased US coal and electricity imports are having a negative impact on coal production. These limiting factors suggest the US will remain the swing supplier of coal on the world market in the near future. This presents a challenge to the US coal and related industry to maintain the present market and seek new markets as well as devote research to new ways to use coal more cleanly and efficiently.

  14. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  15. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

  16. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  17. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  18. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  19. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  20. Environmental development plan: coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development plan (EDP) examines environmental concerns that are being evaluated for the technologies in DOE's Coal Liquefaction Program. It identifies the actions that are planned or underway to resolve these concerns while the technologies are being developed. Research is scheduled on the evaluation and mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This EDP updates the FY 1977 Coal Liquefaction Program EDP. Chapter II describes the DOE Coal Liquefaction Program and focuses on the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), H-Coal, and Exxon donor solvent (EDS) processes because of their relatively advanced R and D stages. The major unresolved environmental concerns associated with the coal liquefaction subactivities and projects are summarized. The concerns were identified in the 1977 EDP's and research was scheduled to lead to the resolution of the concerns. Much of this research is currently underway. The status of ongoing and planned research is shown in Table 4-1.

  1. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  2. Assessment of effective parameters on dilution using approximate reasoning methods in longwall mining method, Iran coal mines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owladeghaffari, H; Saeedi, G H R

    2008-01-01

    Approximately more than 90% of all coal production in Iranian underground mines is derived directly longwall mining method. Out of seam dilution is one of the essential problems in these mines. Therefore the dilution can impose the additional cost of mining and milling. As a result, recognition of the effective parameters on the dilution has a remarkable role in industry. In this way, this paper has analyzed the influence of 13 parameters (attributed variables) versus the decision attribute (dilution value), so that using two approximate reasoning methods, namely Rough Set Theory (RST) and Self Organizing Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System (SONFIS) the best rules on our collected data sets has been extracted. The other benefit of later methods is to predict new unknown cases. So, the reduced sets (reducts) by RST have been obtained. Therefore the emerged results by utilizing mentioned methods shows that the high sensitive variables are thickness of layer, length of stope, rate of advance, number of miners, type of...

  3. Supplemental report to Congress on Emerging Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    On May 1, 1985, the Secretary of Energy submitted a Report to Congress on Emerging Clean Coal Technologies which in part assessed the usefulness of the emerging coal technologies under development by DOE. On May 8, 1985 in testimony before the House Committee on Science and Technology Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications, the Department of Energy committed to a follow-on report aimed at further characterizing these emerging clean coal technologies. This report has been prepared in response to that commitment. The characterizations consist of an evaluation of the technologies against four measures including environmental performance, technical maturity, applicability, and cost effectiveness. The technology categories addressed in this report are those encompassed by the previous Report to Congress. In some technology categories, more than one individual technology is assessed. In turn, each technology may encompass several different processes. In addition, most of the technologies are, in fact, subsystems in various large energy systems. Generally, the clean coal technologies can be divided into three broad groups according to primary function: fuel production, energy production, and environmental emissions reduction. Fuel production technologies convert coal into a more useful form such as fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or coal-water mixtures. Energy production technologies convert coal into electric power and/or steam for industrial process use. Environmental emission-reducing technologies mitigate the emissions of SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, and particulate emissions caused by, for example, coal burning in a boiler. The descriptions and ratings of technologies in this report against various appropriate measures will allow the reader to gain a sense for the relative performance of each technology for each evaluation measure.

  4. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  5. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  6. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01

    THE FUEL IS FED FROM THE HOPPER INTO THE TOP OF THE GASIFIER RETORT THROUGH AN AUTOMATIC COAL FEEDER SYSTEM. COAL FROM THE (100 TON) TOP BUNKERS FLOWS THROUGH A STEEL INLET COMPARTMENT INTO A CAST IRON ROTARY DRUM FEEDER. THE 21" I.D. DRUM HAS A 60...? OPENING THROUGH WHICH IT RECEIVES APPROXIMATELY 6 CU. FT. (300 LBS) OF COAL FROM THE BUNKER. LIP SEALS ARE LOCATED AT THE EDGE OF THE OPENINGS TO CUTOFF THE COAL COLUMN AS THE DRUM ROTATES. A KNIFE GATE VALVE IS LOCATED BENEATH THE DRUM TO SEAL...

  7. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycleconsists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification, combined cycleless expensive in a coal gasification, combined cycle power

  8. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    We use the AEO 2007 forecast of coal prices. This analysisforecast is available only until 2030; we project coal priceslevelized price of coal is based on EIA AEO 2007 forecast

  9. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  10. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    of a three-body type, involving coal particles (sizes of hin dry coal feeders wi11 be predominantly type involvingabrasion of a two-body type. Coal crushing and mi 11ing

  11. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  12. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationin electricity demand. Coal-fired power generation accounted12, the absolute amount of coal-fired capacity grew at an

  13. Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2004-12-15

    Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

  14. Climate-and eustasy-driven cyclicity in Pennsylvanian fusulinid assemblages, Donets Basin (Ukraine)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montańez, Isabel Patricia

    to the formation of economically productive coal seams in the Donets Basin, western Europe, North America

  15. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. [Quarterly] report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Koropchak, J.A.; Kim, Jong Won

    1992-10-01

    In the last report, it was shown that when lignin is added to coal, the rate of coal depolymerization is enhanced. The results,-reported were based upon a number of experiments conducted for the following three reasons: (i) to generate enough quantities of liquid products so that their stability in various environments can be ascertained, (ii) to closely characterize the reaction products, so that individual atomic mass balances can be performed, and (iii) to determine the reproducibility of the experiments conducted. The stability of liquid products was characterized by determining their solubility in pentane and benzene. Exposure of the coal- and coal+lignin-derived liquids to air at 40 and 80{degrees}C led to a decrease in the pentane-soluble and asphaltene fractions with a concomitant enhancement in the benzene insoluble fraction. However, relatively no degradation was observed for the liquid samples exposed to an inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. Preliminary data show that the coal+lignin-derived liquids are more stable than that obtained by coal liquefaction. In this quarterly report, individual atomic mass balances on various experiments conducted with coal, lignin and coal+lignin mixtures are also reported. Although the overall mass recoveries of 95--98% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained, the atomic mass balance data are somewhat difficult to interpret due to the possible incorporation of tetralin (solvent) in the reaction products.

  16. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking,MichiganThousand47,959.15 KeroseneCoal Glossary

  17. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan FebCubicFracking,MichiganThousand47,959.15 KeroseneCoal

  18. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73 Table

  19. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73

  20. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc. Real73and Foreign

  1. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual

  2. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual0

  3. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual00

  4. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual000

  5. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfileDecadeJulyAnnual0000

  6. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear

  7. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information

  8. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information1 U.S.

  9. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information1

  10. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy Information12

  11. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy

  12. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy

  13. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy0

  14. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy00

  15. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy000

  16. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy0001

  17. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S. Energy00011

  18. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.

  19. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.1 U.S.

  20. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear1 U.S. Energy0 U.S.1 U.S.2 U.S.

  1. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December 2008

  2. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December 2008

  3. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December

  4. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q 2009

  5. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q 20093Q

  6. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q

  7. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet) Gas Wells (Million7 December3Q4Q 2009

  8. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic Feet)698 1.873 -Coal

  9. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of Energyof the CleanClient education istheCoalFocuses

  10. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/SPipelineNatural Gas Energy MarketsCoal

  11. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets160Product:7a. Space Heatingreports Coal

  12. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

  13. Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the state's support and incentives for the development of new energy production and generating facilities implementing advanced clean coal technology, such as coal...

  14. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    s ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. Ifgrowth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustiondependence. 4.4.1. Carbon dioxide emissions Coal is China’s

  15. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic21 Figure 6. Comparison of ACWH and CCGT-Wind

  16. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    materials (6%), delivered heating (district heating) (6%),coal growth. As district heating expands with urbanizationzone, coal use for district heating will depend on the

  17. DOE's Advanced Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DOE's) advanced coal research, development, and demonstration program to develop low-carbon emission coal technologies. Introduction Fossil fuel resources represent a tremendous...

  18. SciTech Connect: "clean coal"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clean coal" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "clean coal" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  19. Innovation Beyond Individualism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagata, Jason M

    2009-01-01

    Innovation beyond individualism Jason Nagata,United States of America INNOVATION BEYOND INDIVIDUALISMcontexts. Biomedical innovations often target individual

  20. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  1. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  2. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  3. Coal Age buyers guide 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-15

    The buyers guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  4. Coal Age buyers guide 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-15

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  5. Coal Age buyers guide 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  6. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  7. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  8. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  9. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  10. The International Coal Statistics Data Base operations guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data base (ICSD) is a micro- computer based system which contains informations related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven, and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Operations Manual explains how to install the programs, how to obtain reports on coal trade, what systems requirements apply, and how to update the major data files. It also explains file naming conventions, what each file does, and the programming procedures used to make the system work. The Operations Manual explains how to make the system respond to customized queries. It is organized around the ICSD menu structure and describes what each selection will do. Sample reports and graphs generated from individual menu selection are provided to acquaint the user with the various types of output. 17 figs.

  11. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  12. 2011 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Sequestration in Unmineable Coal with Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: The Marshall County Project James E conducted in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, to evaluate enhanced coal bed methane recovery2011 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Pittsburgh, PA September 12 ­ 15, 2011 CO2

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  14. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macalady, Jenn

    Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane Dariusz Strapo´c,1, Maria Mastalerz,2 Katherine, biodegradation Abstract Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal- bearing basins low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older

  15. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  16. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    China Primary Energy Consumption, 1980-2007 Primary Energy Consumption (mtce) hydro & nuclear coal natural gas

  17. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  18. Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic, chromium, lead, and zinc. Define a treatment procedure using coal ash that will result in the maximum

  19. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  20. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Their in combination with fly-ash aromatics such as benzo-(are also poorly known. Fly ash containing benzo-(a)-pyrenesand coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfur in the

  1. Interest in coal chemistry intensifies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggin, J.

    1982-08-09

    Research on coal structure has increased greatly in recent years as the future role of coal as a source of gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as chemicals, becomes more apparent. This paper reviews in some detail work being carried out in the US, particularly in the laboratories of Mobil and Exxon, and in the universities. New ideas on the chemical and physical structure of coal are put forward, and a proposal for a new classification system based on the fundamental properties of the vitrinite macerals is introduced.

  2. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  3. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.A. [National Coal Council (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

  5. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    74. Any coal application (coal gasification, coal combustionFixed-Bed Low-Btu Coal Gasification Systems for RetrofittingPower Plants Employing Coal Gasification," Bergman, P. D. ,

  6. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  7. Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    In coal conversion processes, generally, liquefaction is done at high pressure and relatively low tempera tures, while gasification involves high temperature conditions. In order to protect the gasifier shell from overheating, a complex refractory...

  8. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  9. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  10. An Overview of Coal based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Overview of Coal based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology September 2005. LFEE 2005-002 WP #12;#12;Table of Contents 1 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC.......................................................................... 17 2.1 Gasification

  11. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuworth, Martin B. (Chevy Chase, MD)

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  12. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  13. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  14. Coal-fired power materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Advances in materials technologies over the last decade that is allowing coal-fired power plants to be built with higher efficiencies than the current generation are described. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  16. Upgrading coal plant damper drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, N.R.; Simmons, K. [Alamaba Power (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The replacement of damper drives on two coal-fired units at the James H. Miller Jr. electric generating plant by Intelligent Contrac electric rotary actuators is discussed. 2 figs.

  17. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  18. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  19. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  20. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  1. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  2. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  3. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01

    ix Introduction. A. Coal Liquefaction Overview B.L ZnCl 2-catalyzed Coal Liquefaction . . . . . . . . . • ,Results. . . • . ZnC1 2/MeOH Coal liquefaction Process

  4. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  5. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

  6. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?˘ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?˘ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?˘ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?˘ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?˘ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?˘ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  7. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  8. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  9. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  10. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. First quarterly report, August 16, 1989--November 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, J.R.; Tsay, F.

    1989-11-19

    Sampling Procedure: This project requires a carefully coordinated sample preparation procedure that will ensure that specimens of the proper size and physical characteristics are available for the various measurement methods used. Coherent blocks of coal will be collected in the field, with subsamples being removed in the lab by 1 inch-diameter core drill. At least 5 separate cores will be drilled from each block. Coal blocks sampled in the field will be approximately 10 inches (times) 10 inches {times} 6 inches. Distinctive compositional lithologies should be selected for sampling. For example, a section of the seam containing particularly thick vitrain or durain bands might be selected; or the block might include a mineral matter rich layer. If necessary, several blocks should be selected to represent a range in compositions. Sampling procedure must include a method for retaining moisture. The sample must not be allowed to dry out. Exposure to atmospheric oxygen should be limited as much as possible. The samples must carefully packed for shipment so as to preserve their integrity.

  11. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  12. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  13. Numerical study on convection diffusion for gasification agent in underground coal gasification. Part I: establishment of mathematical models and solving method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Ding, Y.M. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geoscience

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the distribution law of the gasification agent concentration in a deep-going way during underground coal gasification and the new method of solving the problem for the convection diffusion of the gas. In this paper, the basic features of convection diffusion for the gas produced in underground coal gasification are studied. On the basis of the model experiment, through the analysis of the distribution and patterns of variation for the fluid concentration field in the process of the combustion and gasification of the coal seams within the gasifier, the 3-D non-linear unstable mathematical models on the convection diffusion for oxygen are established. In order to curb such pseudo-physical effects as numerical oscillation and surfeit which frequently occurred in the solution of the complex mathematical models, the novel finite unit algorithm, the upstream weighted multi-cell balance method is advanced in this article, and its main derivation process is introduced.

  14. Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

  15. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  16. Graphic values for some organic constitutents of beneficiated coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Graphic techniques exist which can accurately predict values for calorific value, organic sulfur, and possibly other constituents of the organic portion of beneficiated coal sample fractions. These techniques also permit a determination of coal rank to be made without the use of the approximations required in the standard procedure. Fractions of IBC-101 with varying ash contents were produced by froth flotation. The various fractions were analyzed by the coal analysis laboratory and the particular data type was plotted in each case vs. the individual ash content of each fraction, using Lotus 123 and Freelace software packages. Such plots for calorific value and organic sulfur have, so far, been made. These curves and the information they contain are discussed in this report. A comparison of the graphic mineral matter value with the usual one calculated from the Parr approximation has been made. Eventually, the data may lead to an effective way to estimate inorganic carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and other organic constitents of coal. All data will be made available to researchers.

  17. COAL LIQUEFACTION ALLOY TEST PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FY 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, A.

    2014-01-01

    by weight of ground coal of the type used in the Wilsonvilleless coal particle degradation than centrifugal type pumps

  18. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

    2001-06-30

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

  19. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    ??????? ??????????????"); IEA, WEO 2007; IEA Greenhouse Gastonnes exceeded the IEA’s WEO 2000 forecast for 2020 coalCoal Consumption, 1980-2025 WEO 2008 IEO 2008 IEO 2000 NDRC

  20. Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clean Coal Incentive Tax Credit provides for a property tax credit for new clean coal facilities constructed at a cost exceeding $150 million and used for the purposes of generating electricity....

  1. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  2. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. In the late 1980s and...

  3. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  4. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  5. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  6. February 21 -22, 2014 Coast Coal Harbour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    February 21 - 22, 2014 Coast Coal Harbour 1180 W Hastings St Vancouver, BC Healthy Mothers contact by phone: +1 604-822- 7708 or by e-mail: melissa.ipce@ubc.ca. Location The Coast Coal Harbour

  7. ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PA ASHLAND COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  8. EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    1 EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH for Laboratory StudyFouling Mechanism / Need for Laboratory Study Mechanical Properties of Coal DustMechanical Properties of Coal Dust Grain Size AnalysisGrain Size Analysis AtterbergAtterberg LimitsLimits Specific

  9. Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas

    Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank Background Overview T The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply researchers with highly uniform, well-protected coal samples unexposed to oxygen. Researchers investigating coal structure, properties, and behavior can benefit greatly from these samples

  10. Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

  11. DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PD DECKER COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN, MONTANA: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

  12. SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  13. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  14. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA); Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  15. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  16. National Coal celebrates its fifth anniversary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-06-15

    The growth and activities of the National Coal Corp since its formation in 2003 are described. 5 photos.

  17. Canada's coal industry: full swing ahead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, K. [Natural Resources Canada (Canada). Minerals and Metals Sector

    2007-03-15

    The article presents facts and figures about Canada's coal industry in 2006 including production, exports, imports, mines in operation, the Genesee 3 coal-fired generation unit, the Dodds-Roundhill Gasification Project, and new coal mine development plans. The outlook for 2007 is positive, with coal production expected to increase from 67 Mt in 2006 to 70 Mt in 2007 and exports expected to increase from 28 Mt in 2006 to 30 Mt in 2007.

  18. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support

  19. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  1. Chlorine in coal and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Liu, L. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ho, K.K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Corrosion of superheaters in the United Kingdom has been attributed to the high level of chlorine (Cl) in British coals. On the other hand, similar high-Cl Illinois coals have not caused boiler corrosion. This suggests that the extent of boiler corrosion due to Cl may not be directly related to the amount of Cl in the coal but to how the Cl occurs in the coal or to other factors. In this study, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the thermal evolution characteristics and the forms of Cl in four Illinois and four British coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidizing conditions, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. Maximum evolution of HCl gas from Illinois coals occurs near 425 C, whereas, the temperature of maximum HCl release from British coals occurs between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that Cl in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The HCl evolution profiles of the Illinois and British coals suggests that the way in which Cl ions are associated in Illinois coals is of different from the way they are associated in British coals.

  2. Energy Systems Engineering 1 Clean Coal Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    Energy Systems Engineering 1 Clean Coal Technologies Presentation at BARC 4th December 2007 #12/kWh) 0.14 0.03 0.6 #12;Energy Systems Engineering 9 Status of Advanced Coal Technologies Types of advanced coal technologies Supercritical Pulverised Combustion Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC

  3. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1988-05-31

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Kenneth J. (Floreffe, PA); Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA)

    1989-01-01

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

  5. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  6. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  7. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  8. Oil and coal: reserves and production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canada Japan F.R I United Germany Kingdom France Italy Fig. 2. Oil's share of the increase in energy useOil and coal: reserves and production Anton Ziolkowski* The 1984-85 strike by British coal miners has focused attention on the difficulties of the coal industry at a time when demand for energy

  9. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  10. Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast For West Virginia: 2011 Update Prepared for the West December 2011 © Copyright 2011 WVU Research Corporation #12;#12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2011 i Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 Recent Developments 3 Consensus Coal Production And Price Forecast

  11. Photothermal method for in situ microanalysis of the chemical composition of coal samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amer, N.M.

    1983-10-25

    Successive minute regions along a scan path on a coal sample are individually analyzed, at a series of different depths if desired, to determine chemical composition including the locations, sizes and distributions of different maceral inclusions. A sequence of infrared light pulses of progressively changing wavelengths is directed into each minute region and a probe light beam is directed along the sample surface adjacent the region. Infrared wavelengths at which strong absorption occurs in the region are identified by detecting the resulting deflections of the probe beam caused by thermally induced index of refraction changes in the air or other medium adjacent the region. The detected peak absorption wavelengths are correlated with known characteristic peak absorption wavelengths of specific coal constituents to identify the composition of each such minute region of the sample. The method enables rapid, convenient and non-destructive analyses of coal specimens to facilitate mining, processing and utilization of coals. 2 figures.

  12. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  13. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  14. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  15. COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    18 Effect of React Run No. Coal Type on Cat. /Coal Ratios of300°C P = 2000 ps Run No. Coal Type Wyodak Imp reg- Sol. , %Wyodak Coal, and Illinois #6 Coal Type of Coal Carbon Wyodak

  16. Effect of microwave radiation on coal flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozbayoglu, G.; Depci, T.; Ataman, N. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-01

    Most low-rank coals are high in moisture and acid functional groups, therefore showing poor floatability. Drying, which removes the water molecules trapped in the pores and adsorbed at the surface of coal, decreases the hydrophilic character and improves the floatability. Microwave heating, whose simplest application is drying, was applied at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time in the experiments to decrease the moisture content of coal in order to enhance the hydrophobicity. The flotation tests of microwave-treated coal by using heptanol and octanol lead to a higher flotation yield and ash removal than original coal.

  17. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, Charles S. (Knoxville, TN); Lackey, Mack E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sy, Ronald L. (Clinton, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  18. Process for selective grinding of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  19. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  20. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Lle-Lfe (Nigeria))

    1991-01-01

    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria; (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.

  1. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  2. Materials challenges in advanced coal conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powem, C.A.; Morreale, B.D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Albany, OR (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Coal is a critical component in the international energy portfolio, used extensively for electricity generation. Coal is also readily converted to liquid fuels and/or hydrogen for the transportation industry. However, energy extracted from coal comes at a large environmental price: coal combustion can produce large quantities of ash and CO{sub 2}, as well as other pollutants. Advanced technologies can increase the efficiencies and decrease the emissions associated with burning coal and provide an opportunity for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. However, these advanced technologies increase the severity of plant operating conditions and thus require improved materials that can stand up to the harsh operating environments. The materials challenges offered by advanced coal conversion technologies must be solved in order to make burning coal an economically and environmentally sound choice for producing energy.

  3. CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Bruce Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chapter 1. A. B. C. D. E. Coal Processingand Coal Char iThe Energy Crisis Coal Processing . Corrosion .

  4. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENT WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsey, D.

    2011-01-01

    ~. ~. ~. ~. Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . Coal and Solventon Subbiturninous Coal Below Pyrolysis Temperatures, LBL-Treatment of Extract Solution Coal Residue Treatment. Yield

  5. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthestrapidly. While coal gasification may reach commercializa-5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,

  6. Proceedings, twenty-five annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The conference theme was 'coal - energy, environment and sustainable development'. The topics covered energy and environmental issues, and technologies related to coal and its byproducts. These included: gasification, hydrogen from coal, combustion technologies, coal production and preparation, synthesis of liquid fuels, gas turbines and fuel cells for synthesis gas and hydrogen applications, coal chemistry and geosciences, global climate change, underground coal gasification, environmental control technologies, and coal utilization byproducts.

  7. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    July 22, 1974. Project Western Coal: Conversion of Coal Intoand Gasification of Western Coals", in proceedings of ERDA/Investigators' Conference - Coal Research, Colorado School

  8. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Coal: Conversion of Coal Into Liquids - Final Report,for Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels, 'Stanford ResearchConversion of Coal to Liquids--Research Opportunities", in

  9. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorighi, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    conversion of western coals into liquid products. A largeconsist of the coal derived organic liquid, unreacted coal,action of coal with an organic liquid solvent represents a

  10. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Pipeline Transport Coal Transportation Costs References . .acid, cost of raw coal, and transportation costs have aadditional cost. COAL TRANSPORTATION COSTS The cost of coal

  11. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  12. Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxfield, D.A. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The 2nd symposium on valves for coal conversion and utilization was held October 15 to 17, 1980. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, in cooperation with the Valve Manufacturers Association. Seventeen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. First conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Van Besien, A.

    1980-06-01

    The first conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin was held at the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois, August 22-24, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB; one had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  14. HINDERED DIFFUSION OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore T. Tsotsis; Muhammad Sahimi; Ian A. Webster

    1996-01-01

    It was the purpose of the project described here to carry out careful and detailed investigations of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model porous systems under a broad range of temperature conditions. The experimental studies were to be coupled with detailed, in-depth statistical and molecular dynamics models intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the overall transport mechanisms and a more accurate concept of the asphaltene structure. The following discussion describes some of our accomplishments.

  15. PNNL Coal Gasifier Transportation Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.

    2011-04-13

    This report provides Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL) craftspeople with the necessary information and suggested configurations to transport PNNL’s coal gasifier from its current location at the InEnTec facility in Richland, Washington, to PNNL’s Laboratory Support Warehouse (LSW) for short-term storage. A method of securing the gasifier equipment is provided that complies with the tie-down requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Cargo Securement Rules.

  16. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Kang, Chia-Chen C. (Princeton, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  17. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J.; Helble, J.J.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Ames, M.R.; Finkelman, R.; Mamani-Paco, M.; Sterling, R.; Mroczkowsky, S.J.; Panagiotou, T.; Seames, W.

    1999-05-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environ-mental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 January 1999 to 31 March 1999. During this period, a full Program Review Meeting was held at the University of Arizona. At this meeting, the progress of each group was reviewed, plans for the following 9 month period were discussed, and action items (principally associated with the transfer of samples and reports among the various investigators) were identified.

  18. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  19. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, David R. (Lexington, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  20. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  1. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quigley, David R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  2. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  3. Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal M. Vandamme1 , L. Brochard2 , B. Lecampion3.07.014 #12;Abstract Enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) consists in injecting carbon dioxide in coal gets adsorbed at the surface of the coal pores, which causes the coal to swell. This swelling

  4. A perspective on the status of coal research from shipments of samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorres, K.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Nater, K.A. [deGrote Vos, Zeeweg 37, 1753 BB St. Martenzee, NL (Netherlands); Glick, D.C.; Davis, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Coal and Organic Petrology Labs.

    1993-12-31

    Research on all aspects of coal research, at least for more small scale work, involves the use of samples at the beginning of experimental work. Most research workers for smaller scale work do not collect their own coal samples, but rather order them from a group of sample suppliers. The number of suppliers meeting the major needs in the US, as well as for the world, is not very large. An examination of the shipments of samples from each of these suppliers will give an interesting insight into the general trends in volume of work in the field. The suppliers involved in this study include the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program, the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program, the SBN and the several groups of samples from the Pennsylvania State University Coal Sample Bank. Each of these supplies a different number of samples in varying quantities. The quantities and variety of samples is important to the individual worker in selecting a supplier. The type of work to be done frequently affects the quantities and choice of sample, which in turn affects the choice of supplier. In general these data indicate that researchers realize the advantages of acquiring samples from centralized sample banks. These advantages include a lower cost than would be incurred from individual sampling and preparation; availability of analyzed samples; preservation of samples and the possibility of comparing results with others who have worked on the same samples.

  5. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  6. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-21

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. Clean coal technology programs: program update 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2006 is to provide an updated status of the DOE commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCTs). These demonstrations are performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2006 provides 1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation's energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation's most abundant energy resource - coal; 2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and 3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, with fact sheets for demonstration projects that are active, recently completed, withdrawn or ended, including status as of June 30 2006. 4 apps.

  8. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  9. A Guide for Individuals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Dan

    Individuals&Families 1) To plan for a pandemic: Store a two-week supply of fresh water * and food, in clean plastic, including pain relievers, stomach remedies, cough and cold medicines, fluids with electrolytes and vitamins

  10. Railroads and shippers clash over coal dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-11-15

    In an effort to reduce coal spillage from railcars, mines in the Powder River Basin (PRB) now load coal with a loaf profile but, reportedly, beginning in 2008, Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) will announce guidelines requiring all PRB coal loads to be sprayed with a chemical surfactant. If this does not fix the problem, greater measures will be taken. At the time of going to press, the details of how this would be implemented and regulated were unresolved. 1 photo.

  11. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Burl E. (New Kensington, PA); Henry, Raymond M. (Gibsonia, PA); Trivett, Gordon S. (South Surrey, CA); Albaugh, Edgar W. (Birmingham, AL)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  12. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  13. Statistical review of coal in Canada, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an annual review of the coal industry, including production, exports and imports, and consumption. An overview is given, followed by more detailed statistical data for the current year and preceding decade (supply and demand, value and volume of supply by province, coal production by class or province, exports by destination, coal consumed in power generation by province, electrical energy production by fuel type, domestic demand for primary energy by type).

  14. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA); McDermott, Wayne T. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  15. Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Creek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    1 Reintroduction of Native FishReintroduction of Native Fish Species to Coal CreekSpecies to Coal Control and Reclamation ActSurface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977of 1977 Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000)Coal Creek Watershed Foundation (2000) BackgroundBackground Fish populations in Coal Creek

  16. CO2 Sequestration in Unminable Coal with ECBMR -2010 Reprint -Proceedings 2010 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Istanbul, Turkey 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    CO2 Sequestration in Unminable Coal with ECBMR - 2010 Reprint - Proceedings 2010 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Istanbul, Turkey 1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN UNMINABLE COAL WITH ENHANCED COAL BED conducted in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, to evaluate enhanced coal bed methane recovery

  17. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  18. National Coal Council Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    carbon technologies Infrastructure - to build and secure (generation, transmission, refineries) But let me return specifically to the issue of coal, where I think it is important...

  19. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    Source: Velocity Suite, Global Energy Data Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis 6.3.2 Comparison with Non-hybrid Competing

  20. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. Integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved two-stage process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal.

  2. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  3. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    and Reserves Circular. Beijing: MLR, cited in IEA. 2009.Cleaner Coal in China. Paris: IEA. Ghee Peh, Wei Ouyang. (London: WEC Press. IEA. (2007) World Energy Outlook 2007.

  4. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    delivered heating (district heating) (6%), and chemicalscoal growth. As district heating expands with urbanizationzone, coal use for district heating will depend on the

  5. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  6. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    cycle gas turbine power plant carbon capture and storagewind hybrid combined cycle power plant natural gas combinedPower Plants study, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas

  8. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 8, 2010 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning Erik Shuster 2 Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants This report is intended to...

  9. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01

    IGCC PC advanced coal-wind hybrid combined cycle power plantnatural gas combined cycle gas turbine power plant carboncrude gasification combined cycle power plant with carbon

  10. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  11. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the...

  12. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 The research was...

  13. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 You are accessing a...

  14. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 In this Quarter, the...

  16. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two...

  17. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  18. Continuing consolidation in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaalaas, T.

    2006-08-15

    Extensive consolidation has occurred in the coal industry over the past decade. The greatest degree of consolidation has occurred in Northern Appalachia, the Illinois Basin, and the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin (PRB), which are the coal supply regions where most observers expect the greatest growth in coal production over the next decade. In addition to reducing the number of alternative suppliers, high level of concentration also tend to result in higher prices, more volatile spot markets, and lower levels of reliability. Therefore, coal-fired generators purchasing in these regions need to respond proactively and strategically to these market trends. 2 figs.

  19. A study of the interfacial chemistry of pyrite and coal in fine coal cleaning using flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C.

    1993-12-31

    Surface oxidation, surface charge, and flotation properties have been systematically studied for coal, coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. Electrochemical studies show that coal-pyrite exhibits much higher and more complex surface oxidation than ore-pyrite and its oxidation rate depends strongly on the carbon/coal content. Flotation studies indicate that pyrites have no self-induced floatability. Fuel oil significantly improves the floatability of coal and induces considerable flotation for coal-pyrite due to the hydrophobic interaction of fuel oil with the carbon/coal inclusions on the pyrite surface. Xanthate is a good collector for ore-pyrite but a poor collector for coal and coal-pyrite. The results from thermodynamic calculations, flotation and zeta potential measurements show that iron ions greatly affect the flotation of pyrite with xanthate and fuel oil. Various organic and inorganic chemicals have been examined for depressing coal-pyrite. It was found, for the first time, that sodium pyrophosphate is an effective depressant for coal-pyrite. Solution chemistry shows that pyrophosphate reacts with iron ions to form stable iron pyrophosphate complexes. Using pyrophosphate, the complete separation of pyrite from coal can be realized over a wide pH range at relatively low dosage.

  20. Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Frailey; Thomas Parris; James Damico; Roland Okwen; Ray McKaskle; Charles Monson; Jonathan Goodwin; E. Beck; Peter Berger; Robert Butsch; Damon Garner; John Grube; Keith Hackley; Jessica Hinton; Abbas Iranmanesh; Christopher Korose; Edward Mehnert; Charles Monson; William Roy; Steven Sargent; Bracken Wimmer

    2012-05-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well designâ?? an injection well and three monitoring wellsâ??was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A â??continuousâ?ť injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6â??0.7 tonne/day (0.66â??0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at wellheads, and changes in several shallow groundwater characteristics (e.g., alkalinity, pH, oxygen content, dissolved solids, mineral saturation indices, and isotopic distribution). Results showed that there was no CO{sub 2} leakage into groundwater or CO{sub 2} escape at the surface. Post-injection cased hole well log analyses supported this conclusion. Numerical and analytical modeling achieved a relatively good match with observed field data. Based on the model results the plume was estimated to extend 152 m (500 ft) in the face cleat direction and 54.9 m (180 ft) in the butt cleat direction. Using the calibrated model, additional injection scenariosâ??injection and production with an inverted five-spot pattern and a line drive patternâ??could yield CH{sub 4} recovery of up to 70%.

  1. Three-dimensional hydraulic fracture model development for application to and understanding of coal-bed methane-stimulation treatments. Final report, July 1, 1984-December 16, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, B.B.; Nielsen, P.E.; Hanson, M.E.

    1989-03-01

    A preliminary three-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate hydraulically driven fracturing for application to coal seam methane drainage. The initial focus was development of a circular fracture model which served, in part, as a test bed for concepts and formulations applicable to the more general three-dimensional model. Findings from circular model studies were used to design a multiseam fracture treatment. The three-dimensional model involved development of exact influence coefficients for the elastic calculations, inclusion of the aperture time derivative, implementation of an equilibrium tip condition, incorporation of modulus and stress layering, dynamic grid rezoning, incorporation of a two-dimensional fluid flow solution, implementation of the applicable fluid flow boundary conditions, development of a physically realistic fracture front propagation scheme, and proper coupling and control of the various fracture, flow, and calculational model components. Model simulations illustrate important physical effects of fracturing in coal. Preliminary simulations are discussed which show the effects of different viscosity fluids, and effects of stress and modulus variations on vertical fracture containment.

  2. Coal: world energy security. The Clearwater clean coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakkestad, B. (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    Topics covered include: oxy-fuel (overview, demonstrations, experimental studies, burner developments, emissions, fundamental and advanced concepts); post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture; coal conversion to chemicals and fuels; advanced materials; hydrogen production from opportunity fuels; mercury abatement options for power plants; and carbon capture and storage in volume 1. Subjects covered in volume 2 include: advanced modelling; advanced concepts for emission control; gasification technology; biomass; low NOx technology; computer simulations; multi emissions control; chemical looping; and options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions.

  3. Catalytic Unmixed Combustion of Coal with Zero Pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Raul Subia; Wei Wei

    2005-12-01

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy-based technology for coal combustion with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Combustion of coal (UMC-Coal) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into two separate streams of high pressure CO{sub 2}-rich gas for sequestration, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air for producing electricity in gas turbine expanders. The UMC process utilizes an oxygen transfer material (OTM) and eliminates the need for an air separation unit (ASU) and a CO{sub 2} separation unit as compared to conventional gasification based processes. This is the final report for the two-year DOE-funded program (DE-FC26-03NT41842) on this technology that ended in September 30, 2005. The UMC technology development program encompassed lab- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UMC concept. The chemical feasibility of the individual UMC steps was established via lab-scale testing. A pilot plant, designed in a related DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974), was reconstructed and operated to demonstrate the chemistry of UMC process in a pilot-scale system. The risks associated with this promising technology including cost, lifetime and durability OTM and the impact of contaminants on turbine performance are currently being addressed in detail in a related ongoing DOE funded program (DE-FC26-00FT40974, Phase II). Results obtained to date suggest that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  4. Health and environmental effects document for direct coal liquefaction - 1981.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Sever, L.E.; Olsen, A.R.

    1982-09-01

    This document presents initial estimates of potential human health effects from inhalation of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) that may be released from a future hypothetical industry producing about 600,000 bb1/day of synthetic fuel by direct liquefaction of coal. The assessment approach starts wth general assumptions that are then refined in a tiered sequence that considers available epidemiological, environmental and chemical data. The uncertainties involved in such an evaluation have been quantified where possible at this early stage of health risk analysis. Many surrogate data bases were considered for application to coal liquefaction including coke oven, British gas retort, roofing tar and asphalts, and cigarette smoke. The coke oven data base was selected for this assessment because the chemical and physical nature of coke oven emissions are judged to more closely approximate potential coal liquefaction emissions. Utilizing the extensive epidemiological data base for coke oven workers as a surrogate model, health effects from release of coal liquefaction NMHC may be quantified. This method results in estimates of about 1 x 10/sup -3/ excess cancer deaths/yr to an industrial work force of 7800 persons and 5 x 10/sup -2/ excess cancer deaths/yr in the U.S. population as a whole from NMHC that boil above 600/sup 0/F. Sources of uncertainty in the estimates are listed. Using these uncertainties, it is estimated that from 2 x 10/sup -4/ to 5 x 10/sup -3/ lung cancer deaths/yr may occur in the industrial work force and from 1 x 10/sup -2/ to 2.5 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancer deaths/yr in the U.S. population as a whole. On an individual basis, the excess lifetime risk to occupationally exposed workers is estimated to be 500 times greater than to members of the U.S. public.

  5. COAL LIQUEFACTION ALLOY TEST PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FY 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, A.

    2014-01-01

    lBl-8754 UC-90d · COAL LIQUEFACTION ALLOY TEST PROGRAMViscosity vs. Tempeature of Coal Slurries in Creosote OiLthe experiments are: Particles (coal. SiC, SiO )' Z liquid (

  6. CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, K.I.

    2010-01-01

    I. Solvent Refined Coal II. Catalysts III. Purpose andSondreal, E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect ofAnthraxylon - Kinetics of Coal Hydrogenation," Ind. and Eng.

  7. COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    November 1976. Wilson, P.J. and Wells, J.H. , Coal, Cokeand Coal Chemicals, 108, (1950). This report was done withliThe F1uidised Combustion of Coal," Sixteenth S m osium {

  8. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01

    labeled for hydrogen, coal, and liquid and gas phase water.is employed to deliver coal- derived liquids to the domesticMultiphase Flow of Gas-Liquid and Gas-Coal Slurry Mixtures

  9. CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, K.I.

    2010-01-01

    E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect of CharacterOF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS Kylan I. Tanner*for Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels: Basic and Ex-

  10. ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart.........................................................................................8 Coal and Metabolite Enrichment Studies ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16

  11. Coal liquefaction: investigation of reactor performance, role of catalysts, and PCT properties. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brainard, A.; Shah, Y.; Tierney, J.; Wender, I.; Albal, R.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Joseph, S.; Seshadri, K.

    1984-10-01

    This report presents the findings of a research effort directed to three tasks summarized below: Task 1: To develop a computer simulator for a direct coal liquefaction reactor. Task 2: To conduct a comprehensive review of indirect liquefaction for the production of fuels and, to a lesser extent, of chemicals. Task 3: To conduct a literature review and analysis of the physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties (PCT) of the products from direct coal liquefaction processes. Appendix I-D has been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  12. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  13. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  14. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  15. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  16. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  17. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  18. The Coal Transportation Rate Database

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (Million CubicThe Coal

  19. U.S. Coal Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1Marcellus RegionProduct:Coal

  20. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear JanSalesa.E.DRAFT0, 19977,

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hoe Creek Underground Coal...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site - 045 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site (045) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location:...

  2. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China Fletcher, Jerald 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT The project currently is composed of six specific tasks - three...

  3. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Y.; Ji, Q.

    1995-12-31

    Coal liquefaction is highly dependent upon the type of coal liquefaction solvent used. The solvent must readily solubilize the coal and must act as an effective hydrogen donor or shuttler. Oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires has recently been used as a coal solvent with good conversion of coal to liquids in a hydrogen atmosphere. All experiments were completed in shaken tubing reactors at 450{degrees}C utilizing a bituminous coal. Results show the effectiveness of the pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal liquefaction solvent depends upon hydrogen pressure. Electron probe microanalysis data reveal good dispersion of the molybdenum catalyst in coal particles taken from liquefaction experiments.

  4. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  5. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  6. Treasury, Energy Departments Release New Advanced Coal Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Treasury, Energy Departments Release New Advanced Coal Project Tax Credit Applications for 2007-2008 Treasury, Energy Departments Release New Advanced Coal Project Tax Credit...

  7. Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 This...

  8. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

  9. Six University Coal Research Projects Selected to Boost Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    coal conversion and utilization and to support the technological development of advanced coal-powered energy systems. The six projects selected support two of the UCR Program...

  10. Secretary of Energy and Rep. Chabot Highlight Clean Coal and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy and Rep. Chabot Highlight Clean Coal and Hydrogen Research and Tout America's Economic Growth in Ohio Secretary of Energy and Rep. Chabot Highlight Clean Coal and...

  11. Obama Administration Announces Clean Coal Research Awards for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Obama Administration Announces Clean Coal Research Awards for Universities Across the Country Obama Administration Announces Clean Coal Research Awards for Universities Across the...

  12. Optimized Pump Systems Save Coal Preparation Plant Money and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    case study describes how Peabody Holding Company was able to improve the performance of a coal slurry pumping system at its Randolph Coal Preparation plant. Using a systematic...

  13. Obama Administration Announces Clean Coal Research Awards for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Coal Research Awards for Universities Across the Country Obama Administration Announces Clean Coal Research Awards for Universities Across the Country June 6, 2012 - 12:18pm...

  14. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion This research, which is relevant to the...

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion You are accessing a document from...

  16. Annual Coal Consumption by Country - Datasets - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Annual Coal Consumption by Country Total annual coal consumption by country from 1980 to 2012 (available as Quadrillion Btu). Downloaded from the Energy Information Administration...

  17. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    This document describes activities of the U.S. Clean Coal Technology Program for the time of 1985-1995. Various clean coal technologies are described.

  18. Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A report detailling the Clean Coal Power initiative funded under the American Recovery and Renewal Act of 2009. Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative More Documents &...

  19. Horizon Sensor™

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Future mining will be from deeper and thinner seams; profiles of deep coal seams reveal multiple levels of coal and sediment strata or layers. Some of these layers contain greater levels of...

  20. Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorbaty, Martin L. (Sanwood, NJ); Taunton, John W. (Seabrook, TX)

    1980-01-01

    A process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate deposits, e.g., vaterite, which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. A solution of a compound or salt characterized by the formula MX, where M is a Group IA metal of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X is an anion which is capable of forming water-insoluble, thermally stable calcium compounds, is maintained in contact with a particulate coal feed sufficient to impregnate said salt or compound into the pores of the coal. On separation of the impregnated particulate coal from the solution, the coal can be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of vaterite or other forms of calcium carbonate on reactor surfaces, auxiliary equipment and the like; and the Group IA metal which remains within the liquefaction bottoms catalyzes the reaction when the liquefaction bottoms are subjected to a gasification reaction.

  1. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-12-31

    During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

  2. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  3. Coal contracting strategies for a deregulated market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, T.

    1998-07-01

    Coal-fired power plants provide the most competitive source of electricity in most power markets. This presentation will identify changes that have been occurring in regional coal markets during the 1980s and the 1990s, the evolution of purchasing practices and strategies resulting from these and the impact that utility deregulation will have on future purchasing.

  4. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  6. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  7. Testing of FMI's Coal Upgrading Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijay Sethi

    2009-03-21

    WRI and FMI have collaborated to develop and test a novel coal upgrading technology. Proprietary coal upgrading technology is a fluidized bed-based continuous process which allows high through-puts, reducing the coal processing costs. Processing is carried out under controlled oxidizing conditions at mild enough conditions that compared to other coal upgrading technologies; the produced water is not as difficult to treat. All the energy required for coal drying and upgrading is derived from the coal itself. Under the auspices of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40323, a nominal 400 lbs/hour PDU was constructed and operated. Over the course of this project, several low-rank coals were successfully tested in the PDU. In all cases, a higher Btu, low moisture content, stable product was produced and subsequently analyzed. Stack emissions were monitored and produced water samples were analyzed. Product stability was established by performing moisture readsorption testing. Product pyrophobicity was demonstrated by instrumenting a coal pile.

  8. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  9. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  10. Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

  11. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  12. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

    2007-01-01

    International Energy Agency’s Clean Coal Centre CoalPower5Press; 2002. [25] IEA Clean Coal Centre. CoalPower5 (CD-from fossil fuels. In: IEA clean coal conference, Sardinia,

  13. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    coal = 0.783 ton coal by froth flotation/ton clean coal =0.17 lb/ton coal treated by froth flotation Flocculant 3.6coal, thermal dryers Baum jigs, piston jig for fines Screens, Flotation

  14. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  15. Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

  16. Coal cars - the first three hundred years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin Robert Karig III

    2007-12-15

    This is the comprehensive study of the freight cars that conveyed coal across broad swaths of land that had been impassible before the invention of the steam engine. This volume traces the history and evolution of coal cars from their earliest use in England to the construction of major railways for the purpose of coal hauling and the end of the steam era on American railroads. In addition to contextualizing coal cars in the annals of industrial history, the book features extensive design specifications and drawings as well as a complete history of the various safety and mechanical innovations employed on these freight cars. It concludes with a photographic essay illustrating the development of the coal car over its first 300 years of use. 608 photos.

  17. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    1998-01-01

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  18. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  19. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  20. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.