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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

2

Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A. Rockettb , M. Edoffa , L. Stolta a A°ngstro¨m Solar Center, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Abstract The diffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers has been

Rockett, Angus

3

Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

6

Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

8

Catalytic and physicochemical properties of aluminoplatinum catalysts modified with indium and gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminoplatinum catalysts (APC) are widely used in transformations of hydrocarbons, particularly in reforming of gasoline fractions and dehydrogenation of higher normal paraffins. Promotion of APC with indium and gallium increases their activity and stability in the dehydrogenation of paraffins. Introduction of group III elements in APC inhibits coke formation during dehydrogenation and prevents blocking of the surface of the Pt. The change in the catalytic properties of APC modified with In is due to the partial transfer of the electron density from Pt to In. Both APC with In and Ga additives and monometallic catalysts were studied in the present article by the methods of IR spectroscopy and adsorption. In addition to traditional transmission IR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy in diffusely scattered light was used, which permits conducting both spectral and adsorption measurements on the same samples.

Zaitsev, A.V.; Tyupaev, A.P.; Borovkov, V.Yu.; Timofeeva, E.A.; Isatulyants, G.V.; Kazanskii, B.B.

1986-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

9

Reference Data for the Density and Viscosity of Liquid Cadmium, Cobalt, Gallium, Indium, Mercury, Silicon, Thallium, and Zinc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The available experimental data for the density and viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc have been critically examined with the intention of establishing both a density and a viscosity standard. All experimental data have been categorized into primary and secondary data according to the quality of measurement, the technique employed and the presentation of the data, as specified by a series of criteria. The proposed standard reference correlations for the density of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 0.6, 2.1, 0.4, 0.5, 2.2, 0.9, and 0.7, respectively. In the case of mercury, since density reference values already exist, no further work was carried out. The standard reference correlations for the viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 9.4, 14.0, 13.5, 2.1, 7.3, 15.7, 5.1, and 9.3, respectively.

Assael, Marc J.; Armyra, Ivi J.; Brillo, Juergen; Stankus, Sergei V.; Wu Jiangtao; Wakeham, William A. [Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 51170 Koeln (Germany); Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Brunch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev ave. 1, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Center of Thermal and Fluid Science, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Chemical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Evaluation of critical materials for five advanced design photovoltaic cells with an assessment of indium and gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. This report presents the results of the screening of the five following advanced PV cell designs: polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide frontwall, polycrystalline gallium arsenide MIS, and advanced concentrator-500X. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 GWe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online cpacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary basline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. Earlier DOE sponsored work on the assessment of critical materials in PV cells conclusively identtified indium and gallium as warranting further investigation as to their availability. Therefore, this report includes a discussion of the future availability of gallium and indium. (WHK)

Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Jamieson, W.M.; Long, L.W.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Smith, S.A.; Teeter, R.R.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium gallium indium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An advanced diffusion model to identify emergent research issues: the case of optoelectronic devices Summary: Aluminium arsenides Ge-Si alloys Avalanche photodiodes Indium...

12

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum gallium indium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4F84E-A98D-4D11-B923-779B4467077F Unexpected Discovery Could Yield Full Spectrum Solar Cell Summary: elements from group III of the periodic table, like aluminum, gallium, and...

13

Surface reactivity and oxygen migration in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide films annealed in humid atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An isotope tracer study, i.e., {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O exchange using {sup 18}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O, was performed to determine how post-deposition annealing (PDA) affected surface reactivity and oxygen diffusivity of amorphous indiumgalliumzinc oxide (a-IGZO) films. The oxygen tracer diffusivity was very high in the bulk even at low temperatures, e.g., 200?C, regardless of PDA and exchange conditions. In contrast, the isotope exchange rate, dominated by surface reactivity, was much lower for {sup 18}O{sub 2} than for H{sub 2}{sup 18}O. PDA in a humid atmosphere at 400?C further suppressed the reactivity of O{sub 2} at the a-IGZO film surface, which is attributable to OH-terminated surface formation.

Watanabe, Ken, E-mail: Watanabe.Ken@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)] [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Lee, Dong-Hee [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Isao; Haneda, Hajime [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)] [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Nomura, Kenji [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)] [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan) [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan) [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Ohashi, Naoki, E-mail: Ohashi.Naoki@nims.go.jp [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

14

Gallium diffusion into self-assembled InAs quantum dots grown on indium phosphide substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photoluminescence spectrum of small self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum dots grown on InP substrates is composed of distinct spectral lines. These lines correspond to monolayer variations in the dots smallest dimension: their heights. We use this phenomenon in order to study the diffusion of gallium atoms into the self-assembled quantum dots. We demonstrate that substantial amounts of gallium atoms diffuse from a strained GaInP layer underneath the quantum dots into the quantum dots.

Raz, T.; Shuall, N.; Bahir, G.; Ritter, D.; Gershoni, D.; Chu, S.N.G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Physics Department and The Solid State Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Multiplex, Inc., 5000 Hadley Rd., South Plainfield, New Jersey 07080 (United States)

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

Electrical Bias as an Alternate Method for Reproducible Measurement of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light-to-dark metastable changes in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can introduce uncertainty when measuring module performance on indoor flash testing equipment. This study describes a method to stabilize module performance through forward-bias current injection rather than light exposure. Measurements of five pairs of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) PV modules indicate that forward-bias exposure maintained the PV modules at a stable condition (within 1%) while the unbiased modules degraded in performance by up to 12%. It was additionally found that modules exposed to forward bias exhibited stable performance within about 3% of their long-term outdoor exposed performance. This carrier-injection method provides a way to reduce uncertainty arising from fast transients in thin-film module performance between the time a module is removed from light exposure and when it is measured indoors, effectively simulating continuous light exposure by injecting minority carriers that behave much as photocarriers do. This investigation also provides insight into the initial light-induced transients of thin-film modules upon outdoor deployment.

Deline, C.; Stokes, A.; Silverman, T. J.; Rummel, S.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Copper Indium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated chambers for depositing, processing, measuring, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. You can read more on the rationale for developing this cluster tool and its capabilities, and check out the National Solar Technology Roadmap for CIGS Photovoltaics. Contact Miguel Contreras for more details on these capabilities. The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide cluster tool, manufactured by DCA Instruments, will be operational in 2009. Techniques will include evaporation; radiofrequency, direct-current (DC), and pulsed DC sputtering;

17

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder...

18

Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thin Film Solar Technologies Place: South Africa Product: Producers of thin-film copper, indium, gallium, sulphur, selenium modules....

19

Solvothermal synthesis and characterisation of new one-dimensional indium and gallium sulphides: [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two new main group metal sulphides, [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] (1) and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}] (2) have been prepared solvothermally in the presence of 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isostructural and crystallise in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n (Z=4), with a=6.5628(5), b=11.2008(9), c=12.6611(9) A and {beta}=94.410(4){sup o} (wR=0.035) for compound (1) and a=6.1094(5), b=11.2469(9), c=12.7064(10) A and {beta}=94.313(4){sup o} (wR=0.021) for compound (2). The structure of [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[MS{sub 2}] (M=In,Ga) consists of one-dimensional [MS{sub 2}]{sup -} chains which run parallel to the crystallographic a axis and are separated by diprotonated amine molecules. These materials represent the first example of solvothermally prepared one-dimensional gallium and indium sulphides. -- Graphical abstract: [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}], prepared under solvothermal conditions, consist of one-dimensional [MS{sub 2}]{sup -} chains separated by diprotonated 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine molecules.

Vaqueiro, Paz [Department of Chemistry, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chepv@hw.ac.uk

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

(Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2007. Indium-containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were exported to Canada for processing. Two companies, one in New York and the other in Rhode Island for the recycling industry to handle because of large capital costs, environmental restrictions, and storage space gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells require approximately 50 metric tons of indium to produce 1 gigawatt

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended...

22

Sandia National Laboratories: copper-indium-gallium-[di]selenide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Regional Testing Center (PV RTC), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot HelioVolt, Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory,...

23

Gallium interactions with Zircaloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study focuses on the effects of gallium ion implantation into zircaloy cladding material to investigate the effects that gallium may have in a reactor. High fluence ion implantation of Ga ions was conducted on heated Zircaloy-4 in the range of 10{sup 16}--10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm2. Surface effects were studied using SEM and electron microprobe analysis. The depth profile of Ga in the Zircaloy was characterized with Rutherford backscattering and SIMS techniques. Results indicate that the Zirc-4 is little affected up to a fluence of 10{sup 17} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation of 10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}, sub-grain features on the order of 2 {micro}m were observed which may be due to intermetallic compound formation between Ga and Zr. For the highest fluence implant, Ga content in the Zirc-4 reached a saturation value of between 30 and 40 atomic %; significant enhanced diffusion was observed but gallium was not seen to concentrate at grain boundaries.

Woods, A.L. [ed.; West, M.K. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Doping of gallium nitride using disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Keywords: disilane, gallium nitride, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, silicon doping

A. E. Wickenden; L. B. Rowland; K. Doverspike; D. K. Gaskill; J. A. Freitas, Jr.; D. S. Simons; P. H. Chi

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

26

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

27

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

28

Cyclotron Resonance in Gallium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Azbel'-Kaner cyclotron resonance has been studied at 36 and 9 Gc/sec at 1.2K in the three principal symmetry planes of gallium with the microwave currents both parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The resonance signals were characterized by extreme complexity and high resolution (long relaxation times). Mass values are determined as a function of orientation of the magnetic field in the sample surfaces. No interpretation of the mass branches on a model Fermi surface is attempted, but some correlations with previous de Haas-van Alphen data are presented.

T. W. Moore

1968-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Gallium interactions with Zircaloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) in the United States is the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. MOX fuel fabricated in this way must be compatible with currently used nuclear fuel components. Since US WGPu contains... that gallium may have on zircaloy cladding during reactor operation. As a result of the reprocessing of spent fuel used in European nuclear programs, many studies have been conducted on the production and behavior of MOX fuel in traditional reactors [5...

West, Michael Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Johanna Solar Technology GmbH JST | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product: German manufacturer of copper-indium-gallium-sulphide-selenium (CIGSSe) thin-film solar modules. References: Johanna Solar Technology GmbH (JST)1 This article is a...

31

It's Elemental - The Element Indium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cadmium Cadmium Previous Element (Cadmium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Tin) Tin The Element Indium [Click for Isotope Data] 49 In Indium 114.818 Atomic Number: 49 Atomic Weight: 114.818 Melting Point: 429.75 K (156.60°C or 313.88°F) Boiling Point: 2345 K (2072°C or 3762°F) Density: 7.31 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 13 Group Name: none What's in a name? Named after the bright indigo line in its spectrum. Say what? Indium is pronounced as IN-dee-em. History and Uses: Indium was discovered by the German chemists Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymus Theodor Richter in 1863. Reich and Richter had been looking for traces of the element thallium in samples of zinc ores. A brilliant indigo line in

32

P-type gallium nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72.

Phillips, D.R.

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

34

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium...

35

Chemical factors influencing selenium atomization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomization. (August 1980) Mary Sue Buren, B, S. , Angelo State University Chairman of Advisory Comm1ttee: Dr. Thomas M. Vickrey Selenium in an acid1c matrix was analyzed using graphite furnace atom1c absorption with Zeeman-effect background correct1on.... Nickel(II} and lanthanum( III) were introduced as matrix modifiers to determine their effect on interferences 1n selenium atom1zation. In add1tion to matr1x mod1ficat1on, surface coating the graphite furnace with z1rconium and tantalum salts was also...

Buren, Mary Sue

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

37

Indium Fluor Sauerstoff Kulturleistung Chemie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In F O 49 9 8 Indium Fluor Sauerstoff Kulturleistung Chemie Tag der Chemie Samstag, 18. Juni 2011;Liebe Besucherin, lieber Besucher Hiermit möchten wir Sie herzlich zu unserem «Tag der Chemie» auf dem Experimental- vorführung spannender und verblüffender Phänomene aus der Chemie. Für die Kinder, die gern einmal

Zürich, Universität

38

On the solar abundance of indium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The generally adopted value for the solar abundance of indium is over six times higher than the meteoritic value. We address this discrepancy through numerical synthesis of the 451.13 nm line on which all indium abundance studies are based, both for the quiet-sun and the sunspot umbra spectrum, employing standard atmosphere models and accounting for hyperfine structure and Zeeman splitting in detail. The results, as well as a re-appraisal of indium nucleosynthesis, suggest that the solar indium abundance is close to the meteoritic value, and that some unidentified ion line causes the 451.13 nm feature in the quiet-sun spectrum.

N. Vitas; I. Vince; M. Lugaro; O. Andriyenko; M. Gosic; R. J. Rutten

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

39

Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by Laser Back Ablation. Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by...

40

On the solar abundance of indium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......we suggest that the solar indium abundance is close...line at high excitation energy from a species with low-first ionization energy. 1 http://nuclear-astrophysics...our attention to the solar indium abundance, and...Fig. 8. This research project has been supported by......

N. Vitas; I. Vince; M. Lugaro; O. Andriyenko; M. Gosic; R. J. Rutten

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Cryogenic gallium phosphide acousto-optic deflectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present measurements of the acoustic intensity in a gallium phosphide acousto-optic deflector for the 0.61.3-GHz frequency range and the 8295-K temperature range. The data show a...

Fuss, Ian; Smart, Darryn

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Quantum wells on indium gallium arsenic compositionally graded buffers realized by molecular beam epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a long time, there has been a desire to extend the emission wavelength of GaAs-based quantum well lasers, with the aim of eventually replacing InP with GaAs as the substrate of choice for communication applications. ...

Choy, Henry Kwong Hin, 1974-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lighting research and development: Multi-year program plan) ( US DoE , Washington, DC ) Available from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/techroadmaps.html . 6 Karlicek RF Jr ( 2005 ) Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics...

Hoon-sik Kim; Eric Brueckner; Jizhou Song; Yuhang Li; Seok Kim; Chaofeng Lu; Joshua Sulkin; Kent Choquette; Yonggang Huang; Ralph G. Nuzzo; John A. Rogers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Liquid-Phase GalliumIndium Alloy Electronics with Microcontact Printing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The microcontact printer is composed of a print head mounted to a three-axis Cartesian robot. ... (9) Potential applications include soft and stretchable electronics for wearable technologies that monitor human motion(18-20) and electronic skin for biologically inspired soft robots. ... A paint brush is used to ink the stamps with a coat of liquid-phase GaIn alloy. ...

Arya Tabatabai; Andrew Fassler; Claire Usiak; Carmel Majidi

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Materials Science and Engineering...Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering...energy. Further advances in this technology...that extend our recent work in flexible electronics...of Materials Sciences under Award...funded by National Science Foundation...energy. Further advances in this technology...

Hoon-sik Kim; Eric Brueckner; Jizhou Song; Yuhang Li; Seok Kim; Chaofeng Lu; Joshua Sulkin; Kent Choquette; Yonggang Huang; Ralph G. Nuzzo; John A. Rogers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Professor Mathias Schubert explains his study of indium gallium nitride semiconductor systems, which  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation of multiple-junction solar energy conversion devices with improved ease of manufacture, cost within a sample. Conversely, the blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) intended for transferring from energy free charge carrier properties in contact- based electrical measurements, in the extreme case

Farritor, Shane

47

Die Bestimmung von Kupfer- und Nickelspuren in Gallium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nickel- und Kupferkontaminierungen in Gallium im ppm-Bereich und darunter stren empfindlich bei der Verwendung in der Halbleiterphysik. Der Chloridkomplex des Galliums in 6-n HC1 wird von einem stark basische...

H. Titze

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

GALLIUM--2000 30.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light-use application for gallium, with 63% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 32% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

49

GALLIUM--1998 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's) were the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light-use application for gallium, with 52% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 45% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

50

GALLIUM--1999 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (IC's) were the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes-use application for gallium, with 52% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 42% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

51

Chelated Indium Activable Tracers for Geothermal Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SGP-TR-99 Chelated Indium Activable Tracers for Geothermal Reservoirs Constantinos V. Chrysikopoulos Paul Kruger June 1986 Financial support was provided through the Stanford Geothermal Program under University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering and Earth Sciences STANFORD

Stanford University

52

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus are described for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short. 2 figures.

Phillips, D.R.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

53

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

54

Determination of Selenium in Nuts by Cathodic Stripping Potentiometry (CSP)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Determination of Selenium in Nuts by Cathodic Stripping Potentiometry (CSP) ... In this work, cathodic stripping potentiometry (CSP) (14) is used to determine the selenium content of nuts that were studied. ... CSP Analysis. ...

Giacomo Dugo Lara La Pera; Vincenzo Lo Turco; Ekaterini Mavrogeni; Maria Alfa

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

55

Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

56

Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thermal Stability of Chelated Indium Activable Tracers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal stability of indium tracer chelated with organic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was measured for reservoir temperatures of 150, 200, and 240 C. Measurements of the soluble indium concentration was made as a function of time by neutron activation analysis. From the data, approximate thermal decomposition rates were estimated. At 150 C, both chelated tracers were stable over the experimental period of 20 days. At 200 C, the InEDTA concentration remained constant for 16 days, after which the thermal decomposition occurred at a measured rate constant of k = 0.09 d{sup -1}. The thermal decomposition of InNTA at 200 C showed a first order reaction with a measured rate constant of k = 0.16 d{sup -1}. At 240 C, both indium chelated tracers showed rapid decomposition with rate constants greater than 1.8 d{sup -1}. The data indicate that for geothermal reservoir with temperatures up to about 200 C, indium chelated tracers can be used effectively for transit times of at least 20 days. These experiments were run without reservoir rock media, and do not account for concomitant loss of indium tracer by adsorption processes.

Chrysikopoulos, Costas; Kruger, Paul

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

59

Photo-electric Conduction in Selenium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variation with light intensity of the photo-current in selenium.A selenium cell is described which gives a photo-current of 10 ma. for a difference of potential of 100 volts and an illumination of 100 foot-candles. The sensitiveness ratio between the currents under light and dark conditions is 100. The characteristics of the cell are very constant. The experimental results establish the existence of a linear relation between the square of the photo-current and the light intensity. It is pointed out that this result substantiates the conclusion that the photo-conduction in selenium is due to a photo-electric liberation of electrons rather than to an allotropic change from an insulating to a conducting form of selenium.Effect of temperature on the photo-conductivity of selenium.Under dark conditions the current through a cell immersed in liquid air dropped in 15 sec. to 35 percent of its value at room temperature, and in 10 min. to 0.000046 percent. When the same cell was illuminated with 100 foot-candles and immersed in liquid air, the current increased for 8 min. to about 1.8 times its value at room temperature and then decreased until after 3 hours its value was 82 percent of its value at room temperature. It is concluded that the mechanism of the current conduction under dark conditions is entirely different from that of the photo-conduction.

R. J. Piersol

1927-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Gallium Nitride Synthesis Using Lithium Metal as a Nitrogen Fixant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This present work centers on the synthesis of white, microcrystalline gallium nitride from gallium and ammonia, using lithium to increase the solubility of nitrogen-containing species in the metal phase. ... After the acid was decanted and the product was rinsed repeatedly with water and then acetone, the resulting white powder was found to exhibit the powder X-ray diffractogram (PXRD) (Figure 2a) of crystalline gallium nitride (1). ...

Sen T. Barry; Stephen A. Ruoff; Arthur L. Ruoff

1998-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four phase program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in LWR. This graded, four phase experimental program will evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against: (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of an initial series of tests for phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and (3) corrosion mechanical. These tests are designed to determine the corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge} 300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (in parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. While continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound results in large stresses that can lead to distortion, this is also highly unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in a light-water reactor. The graded, four-phase experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of a series of tests for Phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests will determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge}300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Although continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound can result in large stresses that may lead to distortion, this was shown to be extremely unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; Strizak, J.P.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This project is producing high-efficiency semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates.

64

High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1...

66

Bacterial reduction of selenite to elemental selenium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toxic species of selenium are pollutants found in agricultural as well as oil refinery waste streams. Selenium contamination is particularly problematic in areas which have seleniferous subsurface geology, such as the central valley of California. We are developing a bacterial treatment system to address the selenium problem using Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, as model Gram (+) and (-) soil bacteria. We have found that, during growth, both organisms reduce selenite, a major soluble toxic species, to red elemental selenium--an insoluble product generally regarded as nontoxic. In both cases, reduction depended on the growth substrate and was effected by an inducible system that effectively removed selenite at concentrations typical of polluted sites--i.e. 50 to 300 ppb. The bacteria studied differed in one respect: when grown in media supplemented with nitrate or sulfate, the ability of P. fluorescens to remediate selenite was enhanced, whereas that of B. subtilis was unchanged. Current efforts are being directed toward understanding the biochemical mechanism(s) of detoxification, and determining whether bacteria occurring in polluted environments such as soils and sludge systems are capable of selenite remediation.

Leighton, T.; Buchanan, B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Formation of Hollow Gallium Nitride Spheres via Silica Sphere Templates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formation of Hollow Gallium Nitride Spheres via Silica Sphere Templates ... To form reasonably uniform gallium oxide shells, the amounts of urea and water added to the reaction mixture were varied. ... Due to the low solubility of urea in 2-propanol, addition of a larger amount of urea than that used in this study is not desirable. ...

Chun-Neng Lin; Michael H. Huang

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase by the Antitumor Agent Gallium Nitrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Gallium is known to bind to the iron transport protein transferrin...NSC 166828. gallium, tris(acetylacetonate). The gallium nitrate:transferrin...the binding of gallium to the iron transport protein transferrin...and incorporation into the iron storage protein ferritin...

Margareta M. Berggren; Leigh Ann Burns; Robert T. Abraham; and Garth Powis

1993-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Effect of Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5m layer experienced tensile strain. Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiles show that the 15m template layer device had an average indium...

70

Selenium Poisoning of Wildlife and Western Agriculture: Cause and Effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project examined the hypothesis that selenium contamination is not the principal cause of the decline of endemic fish species in the Upper Colorado Basin. Activities employed to test this hypothesis included a reconnaissance of locations altered by recent road construction, a re-interpretation of available literature regarding selenium toxicity, and the interpretation of unpublished data obtained from the Upper Colorado Basin Fish Recovery Program. The project demonstrates that most of the evidence implicating selenium is circumstantial.

Korte, N.E.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Atomic Heat of Indium below 20K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A calorimetric technique in which a carbon-composition resistor serves simultaneously as both heater and thermometer has been developed and is described briefly. Using this technique, the atomic heat of indium has been measured in the normal state from 1.7K to 21.3K and in the superconducting state from 1.8K to 3.396K, the transition temperature in zero magnetic field. Tables of smoothed values are given. A method of deducing the separate lattice and electronic contributions to the heat capacities, based on several empirically and/or theoretically tenable assumptions, has been developed and is described in some detail. This method of analysis, when applied to the indium data, led to the conclusion that a cubic analytic form for the critical magnetic field equation would allow conclusions consistent with all the assumptions but that the more commonly used parabolic form would not. Numerical values are given for the constants involved. The temperature dependence of the Debye characteristic temperature of the indium lattice over the entire range of measurement is shown to follow the theoretically expected behavior.

J. R. Clement and E. H. Quinnell

1953-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fuel, on cladding material performance. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium, and (2) various concentrations of G~03. Three types of tests were performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests were to determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Results have generally been favorable for the use of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fhel. The Zircaloy cladding does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at >3000 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium or liquid metal embrittlement was observed.

DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.; Wilson, D.F.

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary (crude, unrefined) gallium was recovered in 2013. Globally,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the gallium consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes of the remaining gallium consumption. Optoelectronic devices were used in aerospace applications, consumer goods

76

Role of gallium-67 in the clinical evaluation of cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review is based primarily on historic data, and it examines the indications for and limitations of gallium-67 scanning in the evaluation of patients with neoplasms. The use of gallium-67 scans is discussed according to tumor type, and data from the most representative and comprehensive studies are included. The results described, some of which were obtained primarily with older imaging techniques, should be regarded as representing the minimum that can be expected from application of this imaging procedure.

Bekerman, C.; Hoffer, P.B.; Bitran, J.D.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Self-aligned submicron gate length gallium arsenide MESFET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SELF-ALIGNED SUBMICRON GATE LENGTH GALLIUM ARSENIDE MESFET A Thesis by HSIEN-CHING HUANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ol' MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987... Major Subject: Electrical Engineering SELF-ALIGNED SUBMICRON GATE LENGTH GALLIUM ARSENIDE MESFET A Thesis by HSIEN-CHING HUANG Approved as to style and content by: Mark. H. Weichold (Chairman of Committee) Donald L. Parker (Member) dali L...

Huang, Hsien-Ching

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

78

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Gallium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zinc Zinc Previous Element (Zinc) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Germanium) Germanium Isotopes of the Element Gallium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 69 60.108% STABLE 71 39.892% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 56 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 57 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 58 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 59 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 60 70 milliseconds Electron Capture 98.40%

79

Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8??10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(?/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0??10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5??m and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2??30?kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488?MHz.

Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E., E-mail: pbarclay@ucalgary.ca [Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr. NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Hryciw, Aaron C. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr. NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Species richness and selenium accumulation of plants in soils with elevated concentration of selenium and salinity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field studies were conducted in soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity at Kesterson, California. Biomass distribution, species richness, and selenium accumulation of plants were examined for two sites where 15 cm of surface soil was removed and replaced with fill dirt in the fall of 1989, and two sites were native soil cover. The Se concentrations in the top 15 cm of fill dirt ranged from undetectable to 36 ng g-1. For the native soil sites, Se levels ranged from 75 to 550 ng g-1. Soil Se concentrations below 15 cm ranged from 300 to 700 ng g-1 and were comparable between the fill dirt and the native soil sites. At least 20 different plant species were brought into the two fill dirt sites with the top soil. Avena fatua L., Bassia hyssopifolia Kuntze Rev. Gen. Pl., Centaurea solstitialis L., Erysimum officianale L., Franseria acanthicarpa Cav. Icon., and Melilotus indica (L.) All. contributed over 60% of the total biomass. Only 5 species were found in the native soil sites, and salt grass (Distichlis spicata L.) was the predominant species and accounted for over 80% of the total biomass. Between 1989 and 1990, two years after the surface soil replacement, the two fill dirt sites had a 70% reduction in species richness. Plant tissue selenium concentrations were found to be quite variable between plant species and between sites of sampling. At the fill dirt sites, the plant species with deep root systems accumulated greater amounts of selenium than the shallow-rooted species. The soil selenium concentration of the field soil had no negative effect on pollen fertility, seed set, and seed germination for the plant species examined. However, seedling growth was impaired by the soil selenium concentrations. This suggests that a selection pressure of soil Se concentration may have been imposed on plant species such as M. indica in an early stage of its life cycle.

Huang, Z.Z.; Wu, L. (Department of Environmental Horticulture, University of California, Davis (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

How Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus Utilize Selenium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus How Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus Utilize Selenium How Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus Utilize Selenium Print Monday, 12 March 2012 13:50 Due to drought and limited freshwater supplies, the increased accumulation of naturally occurring salts, boron (B), and selenium (Se) has worsened in some agricultural areas, such as in the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Growing Se-biofortified crops is an emerging method for utilizing these "semiretired lands" because the nutraceutical benefits of enhancing organic Se, an essential micronutrient in crops, is concomitant with the phytoremediation of inorganic Se pollutants. Researchers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture used ALS Beamline 10.3.2 to study the chemical forms and distribution of Se in the attractive alternative crop Opuntia ficus-indica, an edible spineless prickly pear cactus that tolerates both drought and adverse saline- and B-impacted soil conditions while accumulating and volatilizing organic Se. Micro x-ray fluorescence (mXRF) mapping showed Se concentrated in the tips of the plant's cladodes (edible pads), cladode vasculature, and seed embryos. Se K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy demonstrated that >90% of total Se in cladodes, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seeds is in organic form (C-Se-C). Cladode tips contain both inorganic selenate (SeO42-) and C-Se-C. Enzymatic digestion confirmed that Se was mainly present in a "free," non-proteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, whereas in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids.

82

Novel methods of hydrogen production: aluminum-gallium-indium-tin systems and copper boron oxide as photocatalysts.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In recent years, hydrogen production and storage has attracted a lot of attention in both academia and industry due to its variety of applications in (more)

Lang, Yizhao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project?¢????s target of 50 ???µg/L during pilot testing, some trends observed in bench-scale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all ?¢????new?¢??? selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as migh

Searcy, K.; Richardson, M.; Blythe, G.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Chu, P.; Dene, C.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

84

Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

Hogan, S.J.

1983-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

85

Gallium based low-interaction anions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

King, Wayne A. (Santa Fe, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Santa Fe, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

The natural and industrial cycling of indium in the environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Indium is an important metal whose production is increasing dramatically due to new uses in the rapidly growing electronics, photovoltaic, and LED industries. Little is known, however, about the natural or industrial cycling ...

White, Sarah Jane O'Connell

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Simulation studies on the evolution of gallium nitride on a liquid gallium surface under plasma bombardmenta)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to study the formation of gallium-nitride (GaN) layer on liquid gallium (Ga) sputtering target immersed in nitrogen ( N 2 ) plasma. In the simulation model N ions were assumed to possess energy equal to the bias voltage applied to the sputtering target with respect to the plasma. The results showed the surface morphology of GaN changed from a relatively smooth GaN on Ga surface at 50 eV N ion energy to a rough surface with GaN dendrites on liquid Ga at 500 eV ion energy. Further increase in N ion energy up to 1 keV resulted in smaller density of GaN dendrites on surface. Increasing surface coverage of Ga by GaN substantially reduced the sputtering yield of Ga from the target. These simulation results were correlated with previously reported experimental observations on liquid Ga surface immersed in the nitrogen plasma of a plasma-sputter-type ion source.

M. R. Vasquez Jr.; R. E. Flauta; M. Wada

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Detailed sequential extraction study of selenium in coal and coal-associated strata from a coal mine in West Virginia.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study of the mode of occurrence and distribution of selenium in a rock core from southcentral West Virginia reveals that total selenium concentration varies (more)

Roy, Mimi.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Wednesday, 21 December 2005 00:00 Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

90

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

91

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

92

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

93

Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436?V, short-circuit current of 24.8?mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5?G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

Yoshimura, Masatoshi, E-mail: yoshimura@rciqe.hokudai.ac.jp; Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, and Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 0608628 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, and Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 0608628 (Japan); Tomioka, Katsuhiro [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, and Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 0608628 (Japan) [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, and Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 0608628 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Honcho Kawaguchi, 3320012 Saitama (Japan)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

94

Selenium induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissues of chick embryos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past three decades research has been carried out to elucidate the role of free radicals and reactive oxygen species play in various pathophysiological processes. Membranes of subcellular organelles contain relatively high concentrations of polyunsaturated lipids as well as hemoproteins which are strong catalysts of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxides (LPO) destroy membrane integrity and decrease membrane fluidity and elasticity. Selenium is known both as an important essential trace element and an environmental pollutant. Selenium has many uses in the industries. The main source of selenium for the mammalian organism is food (from the soil into the vegetables and grain) and to a lesser extent, drinking water. A number of syndromes of selenium toxicity in animals have been described. Selenium is regarded as the most important biological antioxidant. The antioxidant function of selenium is linked to the activity of seleno enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which catalyses the reduction of hydroperoxides. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduce superoxide radicals to H[sub 2]O[sub 2] which inturn is preferential oxidation of glutathione by peroxides is catalysed by GPx. The oxidized glutathione is then reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) and maintains the reduced glutathione levels in the system in a cyclic manner. Further, glutathione transferase (GST) catalyses the transformation of a wide variety of electrophilic compounds to less toxic compounds by conjugating them to GSH. The present study evaluated the biochemical basis of selenium induced lipid peroxidative damage to heart tissues in check embryos and the role of antioxidant enzymes like GPx, GST, GR, SOD and CAT. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Padmaja, K.; Somasekharaiah, B.V.; Prasad, A.R.K. (S.V. Univ., Tirupati (India))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide/indium phosphide (ITO/InP) solar cells have been achieved by using dc magnetron sputter deposited /ital n/-ITO onto an epitaxial /ital p///ital p//sup +/ structure grown on good quality commercial /ital p//sup +/ bulk substrates. The composition of the sputtering gas has been investigated and the highest efficiency cells resulted when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H/sub 2/ plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O/sub 2/ plasma. With H/sub 2/ processing, record efficiencies of 18.9% global, 1000 W m/sup /minus/2/, 25 /degree/C (17.0% air mass zero) were achieved. Without H/sub 2/ processing, the devices exhibited lower efficiencies and were unstable. Type conversion of the InP was shown to occur and was established as being associated with the ITO (possibly due to Sn donors) rather than sputter damage. These improvements in performance have resulted from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the /ital p/-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

1989-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

96

Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

97

Chemical Form and Distribution of Mercury and Selenium in Edible Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Distribution of Mercury and Selenium in Edible Seafood Chris J. Cappon J. Crispin Smith * Environmental...distribution of mercury and selenium in edible seafood. | The content, chemical form, and...Distribution of Mercury and Selenium in Edible Seafood Chris J. Cappon and J. Crispin Smith......

Chris J. Cappon; J. Crispin Smith

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

GALLIUM--1997 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As is manufactured into optoelectronic devices (LED's, laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells) and integrated consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 44% of domestic consumption, and the remaining 7% was used by imports, primarily high-purity gallium from France and low-purity material from Russia. Optoelectronic

99

Sputtering of tin and gallium-tin clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tin and gallium-tin clusters have been produced by 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline tin and the gallium-tin eutectic alloy and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sputtered neutral species were photoionized with 193 nm (6.4 eV) excimer laser light. Neutral tin clusters containing up to 10 atoms and mixed gallium-tin clusters Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} with n {<=} 4 for the neutrals and N {<=} 3 for the sputtered ionic species have been detected. Laser power density dependent intensity measurements, relative yields, and kinetic energy distributions have been measured. The abundance distributions of the mixed clusters have been found to be nonstatistical due to significant differences in the ionization efficiencies for clusters with equal nuclearity but different number of tin atoms. The results indicate that Ga{sub 2}Sn and Ga{sub 3}Sn like the all-gallium clusters have ionization potentials below 6.4 eV. In the case of Sn{sub 5}, Sn{sub 6}, GaSn and Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} clusters with n=2 to 4 and m>1, the authors detect species that have sufficient internal energy to be one photon ionized despite ionization potentials that are higher 6.4 eV. The tin atom signal that is detected can be attributed to photofragmentation of dimers for both sputtering from polycrystalline tin and from the gallium-tin eutectic alloy.

Lill, T.; Calaway, W.F.; Ma, Z.; Pellin, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak, (2001)]. Many of the findings which will be reported here were previously published in three journal articles. Hartmut Bracht was the lead author on two articles on self-diffusion studies in GaSb [Bracht, (2001), (2000)], while this report's author was the lead author on Zn diffusion results [Nicols, (2001)]. Much of the information contained herein can be found in those articles, but a more detailed treatment is presented here.

Nicols, Samuel Piers

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Wet Chemical Functionalization of IIIV Semiconductor Surfaces: Alkylation of Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride by a Grignard Reaction Sequence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wet Chemical Functionalization of IIIV Semiconductor Surfaces: Alkylation of Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride by a Grignard Reaction Sequence ... These observations are consistent with the known solubility of oxidized As species in water. ... Remote H plasma exposure was effective for removing halogens and hydrocarbons from the surfaces of both nitrides at 450 C, but was not efficient for oxide removal. ...

Sabrina L. Peczonczyk; Jhindan Mukherjee; Azhar I. Carim; Stephen Maldonado

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

JV Task - 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuing studies under these three funded projects - (JV Task 77 The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, JV Task 96 Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, and JV Task 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue) - were performed to determine the effects of different levels of dietary mercury and selenium on the growth and development of test animals, and related tissue analyses, to understand the protective benefits of dietary selenium in reference to low-level exposure to mercury. Maternal exposure to methylmercury from seafood has been found to cause neurodevelopmental harm in children. However, significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that intracellular Se itself is the physiologically important biomolecule and that the harm of mercury toxicity arises when Hg abundance becomes great enough to bind a significant portion of intracellular Se in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. Formation of HgSe limits bioavailability of Se for synthesis of Se-dependent enzymes, particularly in brain tissues. When production of these enzymes is impaired, the loss of their numerous essential functions results in the signs and symptoms of Hg toxicity. The finding that one mole of Se protects against many moles of Hg indicates that its beneficial effect is not due to sequestration of mercury as HgSe but rather due to the biological activity of the Se. Therefore, the selenium content of seafoods must be considered along with their methylmercury contents in evaluating the effect of dietary exposure to mercury.

Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenide- gallium instrument Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of gallium arsenide, a semiconductor, which is used in advanced optoelectronics, lasers, microwave circuits... , and solar cells. To determine material...

104

Amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide semiconductor thin film transistors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We reported on the performance and electrical properties of co-sputtering-processed amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (?-HfIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). Co-sputtering-processed ?-HfIZO thin films have shown an amorphous phase in nature. ...

Sheng-Po Chang; San-Syong Shih

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to ?-rays but poor sensitivity to ?-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after ?-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

Atsumi, Katsuhiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki, E-mail: ttnakan@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69 {+-} 10{sub {minus}7}{sup +5} SNU is to be compared with a standard solar model prediction of 132 SNU. The status of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source irradiation to test the overall operation of the experiment is also presented.

Elliott, S.R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abdurashitov, J.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Bowles, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

107

The Russian-American gallium solar neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69 {+-} 10{sub {minus}7}{sup +5} SNU is to be compared with a standard solar model prediction of 132 SNU. The status of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source irradiation to test the overall operation of the experiment is also presented.

Elliott, S.R.; Wilkerson, J.F. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abdurashitov, J.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Nuclear Research] [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to improve the understanding of the mercury issue, it is vital to study mercury's effects on selenium physiology. While mercury present in the environment or food sources may pose health risks, the protective effects of selenium have not been adequately considered in establishing regulatory policy. Numerous studies report that vulnerability to mercury toxicity is inversely proportional to selenium status or level. However, selenium status has not been considered in the development of the reference dosage levels for mercury exposure. Experimental animals fed low-selenium diets are far more vulnerable to mercury toxicity than animals fed normal selenium, and animals fed selenium-rich diets are even more resistant. Selenium-dependent enzymes in brain and endocrine tissues can be impaired by excessive mercury exposure, apparently because mercury has an extremely high binding affinity for selenium. When selenium becomes bound to mercury, it is unable to participate in the metabolic cycling of selenoprotein synthesis. Because of mercury-dependent impairments of selenoprotein synthesis, various antioxidant and regulatory functions in brain biochemistry are compromised. This report details a 2-year multiclient-funded research program designed to examine the interactions between mercury and selenium in animal models. The studies explored the effects of dietary intakes of toxic amounts of methylmercury and the protective effects of the normal dietary range of selenium in counteracting mercury toxicity. This study finds that the amounts of selenium present in ocean fish are sufficient to protect against far larger quantities of methylmercury than those present in typical seafoods. Toxic effects of methylmercury exposure were not directly proportional to mercury concentrations in blood, brain, or any other tissues. Instead, mercury toxicity was proportional to molar ratios of mercury relative to selenium. In order to accurately assess risk associated with methylmercury or mercury exposures, mercury-selenium ratios appear to be far more accurate and effective in identifying risk and protecting human and environmental health. This study also finds that methylmercury toxicity can be effectively treated by dietary selenium, preventing the death and progressive disabilities that otherwise occur in methylmercury-treated subjects. Remarkably, the positive response to selenium therapy was essentially equivalent regardless of whether or not toxic amounts of methylmercury were still administered. The findings of the Physiologically Oriented Integration of Nutrients and Toxins (POINT) models of the effects of mercury and selenium developed in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that mercury toxicity arises because of mercury-dependent inhibition of selenium availability in brain and endocrine tissues. This appears to occur through synergistic effects of mercury-dependent inhibition of selenium transport to these tissues and selective sequestration of the selenium present in the tissues. Compromised transport of selenium to the brain and endocrine tissues would be particularly hazardous to the developing fetus because the rapidly growing tissues of the child have no selenium reserves. Therefore, maternal consumption of foods with high mercury-selenium ratios is hazardous. In summation, methylmercury exposure is unlikely to cause harm in populations that eat selenium-rich diets but may cause harm among populations that consume certain foods that have methylmercury present in excess of selenium.

Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

110

The influence of framework-gallium in zeolites: Electronegativity and infrared spectroscopic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the influence of the composition (Si/Al and Si/Ga ratio) on the framework vibrations of zeolites with different structure types (FAU, LTL, BETA, MOR, MEL, MFI, TON, and MTW), an electronegativity value for gallium substituted into zeolite frameworks is proposed (Sanderson electronegativity scale). The present electronegativity value agrees with the known physicochemical properties of gallium substituted zeolites.

Dompas, D.H.; Mortier, W.J. (Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium)); Kenter, O.C.H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (The Netherlands)); Janssen, M.J.G.; Verduijn, J.P. (Exxon Chemical Holland, Rotterdam (The Netherlands))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jeff Chiles,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jichi Ma,1 Jeff Chiles,1 Yagya D. Sharma,2 214669); published September 4, 2014 The two-photon photovoltaic effect is demonstrated in gallium; (230.0250) Optoelectronics; (040.5350) Photovoltaic; (130.4310) Nonlinear. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL

Fathpour, Sasan

112

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption flat gallium arsenide solar cell, we show that it is possible to modify the flow of light and enhance above the solar cell. The incoupling element is lossless and, thus, has the advantage that no energy

Grandidier, Jonathan

113

Gallium/aluminum nanocomposite material for nonlinear optics and nonlinear plasmonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gallium/aluminum nanocomposite material for nonlinear optics and nonlinear plasmonics A. V penetration of gallium into an aluminum film. These composite films form mirrorlike interfaces with silica optics and active plasmonics. The material is a polycrystalline aluminum film on a silica sub- strate

Zheludev, Nikolay

114

NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Nitrides of Aluminum and Gallium," J. Electrochem.1) 24 (1962). G. Long and L. M. Foster, "Aluminum Nitride, aRefractory for Aluminum to 2000C," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. ,

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Potential for selenium migration at a lignite power plant solid waste disposal facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

may also adsorb selenite, although in relatively minor amounts. In general, clays serve as an inert substrate for media of higher sorbic potential. Selenium leached from lignite ash initially occurs as selenite or selenate. Redox and p...H measurements suggest selenite and elemental selenium are the only forms of inorganic selenium stable at the study site, Selenate is reduced to selenite or converted to selenide by biosynthesis. Selenite is either adsorbed by the soil or converted...

Hall, Steven Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

117

Enhanced superconducting pairing interaction in indium-doped tin telluride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ferroelectric degenerate semiconductor Sn{sub 1-{delta}}Te exhibits superconductivity with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, of up to 0.3 K for hole densities of order 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. When doped on the tin site with greater than x{sub c} = 1.7(3)% indium atoms, however, superconductivity is observed up to 2 K, though the carrier density does not change significantly. We present specific heat data showing that a stronger pairing interaction is present for x > x{sub c} than for x < x{sub c}. By examining the effect of In dopant atoms on both T{sub c} and the temperature of the ferroelectric structural phase transition, T{sub SPT}, we show that phonon modes related to this transition are not responsible for this T{sub c} enhancement, and discuss a plausible candidate based on the unique properties of the indium impurities.

Erickson, A.S.

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

118

Enhanced superconducting pairing interaction in indium-doped tin telluride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ferroelectric degenerate semiconductor Sn{sub 1-{delta}}Te exhibits superconductivity with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, of up to 0.3 K for hole densities of order 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. When doped on the tin site with greater than x{sub c} = 1.7(3)% indium atoms, however, superconductivity is observed up to 2 K, though the carrier density does not change significantly. We present specific heat data showing that a stronger pairing interaction is present for x > x{sub c} than for x < x{sub c}. By examining the effect of In dopant atoms on both T{sub c} and the temperature of the ferroelectric structural phase transition, T{sub SPT}, we show that phonon modes related to this transition are not responsible for this T{sub c} enhancement, and discuss a plausible candidate based on the unique properties of the indium impurities.

Erickson, A.S.; Chu, J.-H.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Toney, M.F.; Geballe, T.H.; Fisher, I.R.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous selenium digital Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 55 Structural Organization of Arsenic Selenide Liquids: New Results from Liquid State NMR Summary: of pure amorphous selenium and is...

120

Microsoft PowerPoint - Gallium Oxide_Ramana  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gallium Oxide Nanostructures Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors C.V. Ramana (PI) Evgeny Shafirovich (Co-PI) Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso Students: Ernesto Rubio (PhD); S.K. Samala (MS) A.K. Narayana Swamy (PhD); K. Abhilash (MS) Program Manager: Richard Dunst, NETL, DOE Project: DE-FE0007225 Project Period: 10/01/2011 to 09/31/2014 1 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 2  Introduction  Research Objectives  Experiments ► Synthesis ► Characterization  Results and Discussion ► Pure Ga 2 O 3 Thin Films ► W-doped Ga 2 O 3 Thin Films (Physical Methods)  Summary & Future Work 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 3 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 4 Energy Systems High-T High-T High-P High-P

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Selenium and Mercury in Pelagic Fish in the Central North Pacific Near Hawaii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between selenium and mercury and their molar ratios in seafood are essential factors in evaluating risks and mercury in seafood is proposed as a more comprehensive seafood safety criterion. Keywords Mercury. Methylmercury. Selenium . Fish . Seafood . Environmental risk assessment . Seafood safety Introduction

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

122

P-7 / D. R. Cairns P-7: Wear Resistance of Indium Tin Oxide Coatings on Polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P-7 / D. R. Cairns P-7: Wear Resistance of Indium Tin Oxide Coatings on Polyethylene Terephthalate The wear mechanisms of the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) topsheet). The bottom substrate is typically glass and the top sheet a polyester such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET

Cairns, Darran

123

Chemical Forms of Mercury And Selenium in Fish Following Digestion With Simulated Gastric Fluid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fish is a major dietary source of potentially neurotoxic methylmercury compounds for humans. It is also a rich source of essential selenium. We have used in situ mercury L{sub III}-edge and selenium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to chemically characterize the methylmercury and selenium in both fresh fish and fish digested with simulated gastric fluid. For the mercury, we confirm our earlier finding [Harris et al. (2003) Science301, 1203] that the methylmercury is coordinated by a single thiolate donor, which resembles cysteine, and for the selenium, we find a mixture of organic forms that resemble selenomethionine and an aliphatic selenenyl sulfide such as Cys-S-Se-Cys. We find that local chemical environments of mercury and selenium do not change upon digestion of the fish with simulated gastric fluid. We discuss the toxicological implications for humans consuming fish.

George, G.N.; Singh, S.P.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

124

All-optical Wavelength Conversion in Aluminum Gallium Arsenide at Telecommunications Wavelengths.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis aims at both developing highly nonlinear Aluminum Gallium Arsenide waveguides(AlGaAs) and demonstrating all-optical wavelength conversion via cross-phase modulation in AlGaAs waveguides at telecommunications (more)

Ng, Wing-Chau

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

GALLIUM--2002 29.1 References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic devices application for gallium, with 46% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 42% of domestic

126

Effect of the nitrogen ion energy on the MBE growth of thin gallium nitride films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of the energy of bombarding nitrogen ions on the growth of thin gallium nitride (GaN) films under molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) conditions has been simulated using the method of balance kinetic eq...

D. V. Kulikov; Yu. V. Trushin; V. S. Kharlamov

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Fabrication of optoelectronic microwave linear and ring resonators on a gallium arsenide substrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FABRICATION OF OPTOELECTRONIC MICROWAVE LINEAR AND RING RESONATORS ON A GALLIUM ARSENIDE SUBSTRATE A Thesis by CHUN-LIANG YEH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FABRICATION OF OPTOELECTRONIC MICROWAVE LINEAR AND RING RESONATORS ON A GALLIUM ARSENIDE SUBSTRATE A Thesis by CHUN-LIANG YEH Approved as to style and content by: Mark...

Yeh, Chun-Liang

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A transparent ultraviolet triggered amorphous selenium p-n junction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper will introduce a semitransparent amorphous selenium (a-Se) film exhibiting photovoltaic effects under ultraviolet light created through a simple and inexpensive method. We found that chlorine can be doped into a-Se through electrolysis of saturated salt water, and converts the weak p-type material into an n-type material. Furthermore, we found that a p-n diode fabricated through this process has shown an open circuit voltage of 0.35 V toward ultraviolet illumination. Our results suggest the possibility of doping control depending on the electric current during electrolysis and the possibility of developing a simple doping method for amorphous photoconductors.

Saito, Ichitaro; Soga, Kenichi; Overend, Mauro; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Miyazaki, Wataru; Onishi, Masanori; Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Okano, Ken [Department of Physics, International Christian University, 3-10-2 Osawa Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585 (Japan); Kudo, Yuki [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Yamada, Takatoshi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Koh, Angel; Chua, Daniel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Aono, Masami [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Defense Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

129

Electron-impact excitation for F-like selenium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron-impact excitation cross sections from the low-lying 1s22s22p5 state of F-like selenium to singly excited states have been calculated. Our relativistic distorted-wave Born procedures have been used for the present calculations. Instead of atomic structure code GRASP, the latest version GRASP2 code is used as multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock atomic structure calculations. The present results have been comprehensively compared with earlier calculations. One of the motivations for the present work is that there are some discrepancies between our results and those of others.

Chen Guo-xin and Qiu Yu-bo

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.

Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport

2004-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

131

Exploration of Novel Reaction Pathway for Formation of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-03-121  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The investigation will explore a potentially low-cost method of forming CIGS for use in solar cells. Investigators from HelioVolt will work in NREL laboratories to modify and apply our tools in fabrication of the CIGS layer. Investigators from NREL will assist in preparing substrates and in compleing solar cells composed of these CIGS layers to evaluate the effectiveness of the HelioVolt processes.

van Hest, M.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

AC electrokinetic manipulation of selenium nanoparticles for potential nanosensor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Se nanoparticles were synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process. ? AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. ? Dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. ? Dielectrophoresis electrode showed non-ohmic behavior. ? The device can potentially be used as a nanosensor. - Abstract: We report the AC electrokinetic behavior of selenium (Se) nanoparticles for electrical characterization and possible application as micro/nano devices. selenium Se nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process and investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Interdigitated castellated ITO and non-castellated platinum electrodes were employed for manipulation of suspended materials in the fluid. Using ITO electrodes at low frequency limits resulted in deposition of Se particles on electrode surface. When Se particles exposed to platinum electrodes in the 10 Hz1 kHz range and V {sub p?p}> 8, AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. However, in 10 kHz10 MHz range and V {sub p?p}> 5, dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. As the Se particle concentration increased, the trapped Se particles were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. The device was characterized and can potentially be useful in making micro/nano electronic devices.

Mahmoodi, Seyed Reza [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayati, Marzieh, E-mail: m-bayati@tums.ac.ir [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinirad, Somayeh [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Foroumadi, Alireza [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gilani, Kambiz [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

By Deborah A. Kramer No gallium production was reported in the McDonnell Douglas Corp. reportedly will world producers were Australia, Germany, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facility in optoelectronic devices [light-emitting diodes France from stockpiled crude gallium produced, and in 1994. Although the total quantity of gallium used in optoelectronic devices increased, its percentage

134

Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of ?-indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar{sup +} laser as the excitation source.

Sumi, R. [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore (India); Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

135

Selenium Concentrations in the Colorado Pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius): Relationship with Flows in the Upper Colorado River  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater study of the Uncompahgre Project area and the Grand Valley in western Colorado revealed high selenium concentrations in water, sediment ... samples. The...

B. C. Osmundson; T. W. May; D. B. Osmundson

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Field-Measured Oxidation Rates of Biologically Reduced Selenium in Sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced Selenium in Sludge Sally M. Benson, John Daggett andCalifornia 94720 U.S.A. Sludge generated during surface-Finding safe and economical sludge disposal methods requires

Benson, Sally M.; Daggett, John; Zawislansi, Peter

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Toenail Selenium Levels and the Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Toenail selenium analyses were carried out by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute at Delft...Neutron Activation Analysis. This method and...This moderate reliability may have resulted...By limiting our analysis to the follow-up...

Piet A. van den Brandt; Maurice P. A. Zeegers; Peter Bode; and R. Alexandra Goldbohm

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous selenium detectors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in an Insect Ecosystem: Effects of Insects on Phytoremediation D A N E... of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0V8, Canada Phytoremediation of selenium-contaminated...

139

StructureDiffusion Relationship of Magnetron-Sputtered WTi Barriers Used in Indium Interconnections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tungsten-titanium (WTi) thin films are known as potential adhesion ... and diffusion barriers. The barrier efficiency of WTi thin films against indium (In) diffusion...insitu...annealing. Specific multilayered s...

A. Le Priol; E. Le Bourhis; P.-O. Renault; P. Muller

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Structural and dielectrical studies on mechano-chemically synthesized indium doped CdS nanopowders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Incorporation of indium (dopant) into CdS crystals have been successfully achieved by a ... ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of milled In doped CdS compound showed that the major phase of ... good pathway to identi...

B. J. Babu; S. Velumani; A. Kassiba

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transparent electrodes made from metal oxides suffer from poor flexibility and durability. Highly transparent and electrically conductive thin films based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were assembled as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement...

Park, Yong Tae

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

142

Magnetoresistance and Microstructure of Magnetite Nanocrystals Dispersed in Indium?Tin Oxide Thin Films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indium?tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used TCO in the semiconductor and electronic device industries. ... NCs of inverse-spinel-type Fe3O4 grew epitaxially on the YSZ substrate, as shown in Figure 4. ...

Koichi Okada; Shigemi Kohiki; Masanori Mitome; Hidekazu Tanaka; Masao Arai; Masaki Mito; Hiroyuki Deguchi

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

143

Modeling the behavior of selenium in Pulverized-Coal Combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behavior of Se during coal combustion is different from other trace metals because of the high degree of vaporization and high vapor pressures of the oxide (SeO{sub 2}) in coal flue gas. In a coal-fired boiler, these gaseous oxides are absorbed on the fly ash surface in the convective section by a chemical reaction. The composition of the fly ash (and of the parent coal) as well as the time-temperature history in the boiler therefore influences the formation of selenium compounds on the surface of the fly ash. A model was created for interactions between selenium and fly ash post-combustion. The reaction mechanism assumed that iron reacts with selenium at temperatures above 1200 C and that calcium reacts with selenium at temperatures less than 800 C. The model also included competing reactions of SO{sub 2} with calcium and iron in the ash. Predicted selenium distributions in fly ash (concentration versus particle size) were compared against measurements from pilot-scale experiments for combustion of six coals, four bituminous and two low-rank coals. The model predicted the selenium distribution in the fly ash from the pilot-scale experiments reasonably well for six coals of different compositions. (author)

Senior, Constance; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost O.L.; Sarofim, Adel [Reaction Engineering International, 77 W. 200 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Pond 2 selenium volatilization study: A synthesis of five years of experimental results, 1990--1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial volatilization is a potential remedial measure to decrease the selenium inventory in Kesterson Reservoir soils. Past studies in both the field and the laboratory suggest that a significant percentage of the selenium inventory may be removed in this fashion. The objectives of this study include the quantification of selenium losses and a test of a pilot-scale design which in the future may be used in other parts of the Reservoir.

Zawislanski, P.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Jayaweera, G.R.; Biggar, J.W.; Wu, L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Frankenberger, W.T. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Soil and Environmental Sciences

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Deprotecting Thioacetyl-Terminated Terphenyldithiol for Assembly on Gallium Arsenide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We characterize the assembly of terphenyldithiol (TPDT) on gallium arsenide (GaAs) from ethanol (EtOH) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a function of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) concentration. NH4OH facilitates the conversion of thioacetyl end groups of the TPDT precursor to thiolates in the assembly solution. The final structure of TPDT assembled on GaAs is sensitive not only to the assembly solvent but also to NH4OH concentration. In the presence of low concentrations of NH4OH (1 mM), TPDT assemblies from EtOH are oriented upright. The same assemblies are less upright when adsorption is carried out at higher NH4OH concentrations. In THF, TPDT does not adsorb significantly on GaAs at low NH4OH concentrations. The surface coverage and structural organization of these assemblies improve with increasing NH4OH concentrations, although these assemblies are never as organized as those from EtOH. The difference in the final structure of TPDT assemblies is attributed to differences in the thiolate fraction in the assembly solution at the point of substrate immersion.

Krapchetov,D.; Ma, H.; Jen, A.; Fischer, D.; Loo, Y.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Analytic bond-order potential for the gallium arsenide system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytic, bond-order potential (BOP) is proposed and parametrized for the gallium arsenide system. The potential addresses primary (?) and secondary (?) bonding and the valence-dependent character of heteroatomic bonding, and it can be combined with an electron counting potential to address the distribution of electrons on the GaAs surface. The potential was derived from a tight-binding description of covalent bonding by retaining the first two levels of an expanded Greens function for the ? and ? bond-order terms. Predictions using the potential were compared with independent estimates for the structures and binding energy of small clusters (dimers, trimers, and tetramers) and for various bulk lattices with coordinations varying from 4 to 12. The structure and energies of simple point defects and melting transitions were also investigated. The relative stabilities of the (001) surface reconstructions of GaAs were well predicted, especially under high-arsenic-overpressure conditions. The structural and binding energy trends of this GaAs BOP generally match experimental observations and ab initio calculations.

D. A. Murdick; X. W. Zhou; H. N. G. Wadley; D. Nguyen-Manh; R. Drautz; D. G. Pettifor

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

147

Change in the current-carrier concentration upon doping PbTe with gallium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Upon doping PbTe with gallium, both high-resistivity samples with intrinsic conductivity and low-resistivity samples with electronic conductivity (n/sub e/ = 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/) are produced on the PbTe-GaTe section. A thorough investigation of the dependence of the thermo-emf of Pb/sub 1-x/Ga/sub x/Te on the excess Pb and Te side showed the presence of a wide region with intrinsic conductivity. The experimental data can be explained by the fact that impure gallium in PbTe has negative Hubbard energy and stabilizes the Fermi level almost at the center of the forbidden band. At high gallium concentrations, Ga/sub 2/Te/sub 3/ precipitates at first, and then GaTe precipitates as well. The lead forming in excess transforms Ga/sup 3 +/ to Ga/sup +/, which produces the electronic conductivity in the material.

Bushmarina, G.S.; Gruzinov, B.F.; Drabkin, I.A.; Lev, E.Ya.; Moizhes, B.Ya; Suprun, S.G.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

(Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2009. Indium-containing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Japan, and the Republic of Korea--the countries where ITO production and sputtering take place. An LCD tailings viable when the price of indium is high. Import Sources (2005-08):1 China, 40%; Japan, 19%; Canada where exports of flat panels rose significantly owing to China's household appliance subsidy program

149

Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ?-iron oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60?GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ?-iron oxides (?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz150 GHz. The ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

Chao, Liu, E-mail: liu.chao@tufts.edu; Afsar, Mohammed N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

150

Selenium, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc Concentrations in Sediments and Mullet (Mugil cephalus) from the Southern Basin of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selenium, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc Concentrations in Sediments and Mullet (Mugil cephalus) from. Selenium, cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured in sediments and the tissues of mullet­19; cadmium, 14­42; copper, 1.5­3.6; zinc, 0.77­2.2 times background). Selenium, cadmium, and copper in Lake

Canberra, University of

151

Hydrothermal synthesis of [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]: A new one-dimensional indium selenide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new organically templated indium selenide, [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})], has been prepared hydrothermally from the reaction of indium, selenium and trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane in water at 170 deg. C. This material was characterised by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, FT-IR and elemental analysis. The compound crystallises in the monoclinic space group C2/c (a=12.0221(16) A, b=11.2498(15) A, c=12.8470(17) A, {beta}=110.514(6){sup o}). The crystal structure of [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})] contains anionic chains of stoichiometry [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-}, which are aligned parallel to the [1 0 1] direction, and separated by diprotonated trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane cations. The [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-} chains, which consist of alternating four-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 2}] and five-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}] rings, contain perselenide (Se{sub 2}){sup 2-} units. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates that [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})] has a band gap of 2.23(1) eV. - Graphical abstract: [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})], prepared under hydrothermal conditions, contains one-dimensional chains of stoichiometry [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-}, in which four-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 2}] and five-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}] rings alternate. Highlights: > New one-dimensional indium selenide prepared under hydrothermal conditions. > The [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-} chains are a new structural motif for Group 13 chalcogenides. > Unusual presence of (Se{sub 2}){sup 2-} moieties. > Optical band gap of 2.23(1) eV.

Ewing, Sarah J.; Powell, Anthony V. [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Chemistry, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Vaqueiro, Paz, E-mail: chepv@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Chemistry, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Investigation of Gallium Partitioning Behavior in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Containing Polyethylene Glycol and Ammonium Sulfate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gallium is assumed to be an indispensable rare metal mainly because of its fast growing demand as gallium arsenide (GaAs) in integrated circuits. ... Traditional extraction methods for gallium usually are organic?water two-phase systems, which involve volatile, flammable, and explosive organic solvents, such as n-hexane, toluene, xylene, benzene, nitrobenzene and kerosene. ... (17) A temperature increase reduces the mutual solubility of the two phases and results in an increase of PEG concentration in the upper phase and of volume in the lower phase, which all make ?w1 increase. ...

Yuhuan Chen; Xiaoli Liu; Yan Lu; Xiuying Zhang

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

153

Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire, and will aid in the design and optimization of nanowire-based systems for solar energy-conversion applications, and the photoelectrochemical energy-conversion properties of GaAs nanowire arrays were evaluated in contact with one

Zhou, Chongwu

154

Molten Gallium as a Catalyst for the Large-Scale Growth of Highly Aligned Silica Nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten Gallium as a Catalyst for the Large-Scale Growth of Highly Aligned Silica Nanowires Zheng a small size (5-100 nm in diameter), high melting point metal (such as gold and iron) catalyst particle as an effective catalyst for the large-scale growth of highly aligned, closely packed silica nanowire bunches

Wang, Zhong L.

155

GALLIUM--2003 28.1 References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic devices (LEDs, laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells) and ICs. ICs and optoelectronic devices each accounted for 41) and optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light- emitting diodes (LEDs)]. Estimated crude gallium

156

Die Elemente der 13. Gruppe: die Borgruppe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Die 13. Gruppe enthlt die Elemente: Bor (B), Aluminium (Al), Gallium (Ga), Indium (In) und Thallium (Tl).

Prof. Dr. Waldemar Ternes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Chemical interactions at polymer interfaces: poly(p-xylylene-?-tetrahydrothiophene-bromide, chloride) on indiumtin-oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical interactions, at the interface between a precursor polymer for poly(p-phenylenevinylene), namely poly(p-xylylene-?-tetrahydrothiophene-chloride), and an indiumtin-oxide transparent electrode, are identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The \\{HCl\\} eliminated in the conversion process interacts with the surface of the indiumtin-oxide substrate leading to the formation of indium chloride which then diffuses into the polymer. It appears that indiumtin-oxide, or possibly the indium chloride generated at the interface, acts as a catalyst for the thermal elimination reaction. The results show unequivocally that interfacial interactions are of major importance in understanding, and ultimately improving, the performance of polymer-based electro-luminescent devices.

A Andersson; Th Kugler; M Lgdlund; A.B Holmes; X Li; W.R Salaneck

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

An investigation of the cadmium absorption of resonance neutrons in cadmium covered indium foils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Fcd was measured for indium foils in an isotropic epi-thermal neutron flux. In order to obtain an isotropic epi-thermal neutron flux, a test section was constructed utilizing three 2-curie Pu-Be neutron sources each located at an apex... of resonance neutrons absorbed by the cadmium, thus giving a larger Fcd for the thicker foils. Martin (7), however, measured F d for 29, 69, 88, and 94 mg/cm2 indium foils in graphite and found no such variation. He lists a value of 1. 09 for each foil...

Powell, James Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

Chromatographic speciation of anionic and neutral selenium compounds in Se-accumulating Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and in selenized yeast  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selenium-accumulating plants such as Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) concentrate the element in plant shoots and roots. Such behavior may provide a cost-effective technology to clean up contaminated soils and waters that pose major environmental and human health problems (phytoremediation). Such ability to transform selenium into bioactive compounds has important implications for human nutrition and health. Element selective characterization of B. juncea grown in the presence of inorganic selenium under hydroponic conditions provides valuable information to better understand selenium metabolism in plants. The present work determines both previously observed organoselenium species such as selenomethionine and Se-methylselenocysteine and for the first time detects the newly characterized S-(methylseleno)cysteine in plant shoots and roots when grown in the presence of selenate or selenite as the only selenium source. A key feature of this study is the complementary role of selenium and sulfur specific chromatographic detection by HPLC with interfaced inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection and by derivatization GC with interfaced atomic spectral emission. HPLCICP-MS limits of detection for such species were in the range 550ng Se mL?1 in the injected extracts. Speciation profiles are compared with those of selenium-enriched yeast by both HPLCICP-MS and GCAED.

Chethaka Kahakachchi; Harriet Totoe Boakye; Peter C. Uden; Julian F. Tyson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

GIS INTERNET MAP SERVICE FOR DISPLAYING SELENIUM CONTAMINATION DATA IN THE SOUTHEASTERN IDAHO PHOSPHATE MINING RESOURCE AREA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium is present in waste rock/overburden that is removed during phosphate mining in southeastern Idaho. Waste rock piles or rock used during reclamation can be a source of selenium (and other metals) to streams and vegetation. Some instances (in 1996) of selenium toxicity in grazing sheep and horses caused public health and environmental concerns, leading to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) involvement. The Selenium Information System Project is a collaboration among the DEQ, the United States Forest Service (USFS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Idaho Mining Association (IMA), Idaho State University (ISU), and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL)2. The Selenium Information System is a centralized data repository for southeastern Idaho selenium data. The data repository combines information that was previously in numerous agency, mining company, and consultants databases and web sites. These data include selenium concentrations in soil, water, sediment, vegetation and other environmental media, as well as comprehensive mine information. The Idaho DEQ spearheaded a selenium area-wide investigation through voluntary agreements with the mining companies and interagency participants. The Selenium Information System contains the results of that area-wide investigation, and many other background documents. As studies are conducted and remedial action decisions are made the resulting data and documentation will be stored within the information system. Potential users of the information system are agency officials, students, lawmakers, mining company personnel, teachers, researchers, and the general public. The system, available from a central website, consists of a database that contains the area-wide sampling information and an ESRI ArcIMS map server. The user can easily acquire information pertaining to the area-wide study as well as the final area-wide report. Future work on this project includes creating custom tools to increase the simplicity of the website and increasing the amount of information available from site-specific studies at 15 mines.

Roger Mayes; Sera White; Randy Lee

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 18, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2009 103 Indium Phosphide MEMS Cantilever Resonator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indium phosphide cantilever waveguide sensor platform. [2008-0134] Index Terms--Chemical sensors can- tilever waveguide resonator sensing platform utilizing a novel optical readout scheme the environment and detect var- ious chemicals is a critical task for industrial, military, and homeland defense

Rubloff, Gary W.

162

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon Mark H. Clarka Strain in B-implanted laser thermal processed LTP silicon is reduced by coimplantation of In. Strain in the codoped layer is calculated using lattice constants measured by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

Florida, University of

163

A study of degradation of indium tin oxide thin films on glass for display applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely used in liquid crystal displays (LCD). Contamination and moisture have proved to have the adverse effect of causing ITO corrosion/degradation. The purpose of this paper is to determine if scratching the surface ... Keywords: Accelerated degradation test, ITO corrosion, ITO degradation, Scratching

W. S. Leung; Y. C. Chan; S. M. Lui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Sensors and Actuators B 118 (2006) 135141 Low temperature indium oxide gas sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators B 118 (2006) 135­141 Low temperature indium oxide gas sensors M. Sucheaa rights reserved. Keywords: Metal oxide thin films; InOx; Gas sensors; Ozone 1. Introduction The interest's attractive for many areas such as transparent electrodes for solar cells and flat panel displays

165

Development of a 20x20cm2 'hot' indium-alloy hermetic seal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If long time in air before sealing ­ clean with Micro-90 and rinse with DI water 'Hot' Seal #12;8 Step 21 Development of a 20x20cm2 'hot' indium-alloy hermetic seal in an inert atmosphere for photo glass tile except for an aluminum photo-cathode top seal by compression on a viton o-ring active

166

High Electric Resistance Polymer/Lipid Composite Films on Indium?Tin?Oxide Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High Electric Resistance Polymer/Lipid Composite Films on Indium?Tin?Oxide Electrodes ... Impedance spectra were analyzed in terms of equivalent circuits with resistances, capacitances, and so-called constant phase elements. ... resists in directing the selective deposition of metal and ceramic thin films by MOCVD and sol-gel methods, resp. ...

Heiko Hillebrandt; Gerald Wiegand; Motomu Tanaka; Erich Sackmann

1999-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

167

Selenium and Sulfur in a Greenland Ice Sheet: Relation to Fossil Fuel Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...selenium content of these samples was determined by measurement of neutron induced 81Se. The samples were from the Camp Century area of the Greenland ice sheet (77 10'N and 61 07'W) and from a virgin area 80 km east southeast of this location...

Herbert V. Weiss; Minoru Koide; Edward D. Goldberg

1971-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

168

Chemical Form and Distribution of Mercury and Selenium in Edible Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......was not influenced by sample storage time or nature of the packing...predominant chem- ical form in seawater and lower marine food chain...the total seleniumcontent in seawater (49). In addi- tion,Sugimara...of the total selenium in seawater to be an organic form which......

Chris J. Cappon; J. Crispin Smith

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Preliminary results from the Russian-American gallium experiment Cr-neutrino source measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Russian-American Gallium Experiment has been collecting solar neutrino data since early 1990. The flux measurement of solar neutrinos is well below that expected from solar models. We discuss the initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93 + 0.15, {minus}0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Elliott, S.R. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Abdurashitov, J.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Bowles, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Fast neutron scattering on Gallium target at 14.8 MeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benchmarking of evaluated nuclear data libraries was performed for $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons on Gallium targets. The experiments were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). Solid samples of natural Gallium (3.2 cm and 6.4 cm thick) were bombarded by $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons and leakage neutron energy spectra were measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$. The measured spectra are rather well reproduced by MCNP-4C simulations with the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4.0 evaluated nuclear data libraries, except for the inelastic contributions around $E_{n} = 10-13$ MeV. All three libraries significantly underestimate the inelastic contributions. The inelastic contributions are further studied, using the Talys simulation code and the experimental spectra are reproduced reasonably well in the whole energy range by the Talys calculation, including the inelastic contributions.

Han, R; Chen, Z; Nie, Y; Liu, X; Zhang, S; Ren, P; Jia, B; Tian, G; Luo, F; Lin, W; Liu, J; Shi, F; Huang, M; Ruan, X; Ren, J; Zhou, Z; Huang, H; Bao, J; Zhang, K; Hu, B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Fast neutron scattering on Gallium target at 14.8 MeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benchmarking of evaluated nuclear data libraries was performed for $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons on Gallium targets. The experiments were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). Solid samples of natural Gallium (3.2 cm and 6.4 cm thick) were bombarded by $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons and leakage neutron energy spectra were measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$. The measured spectra are rather well reproduced by MCNP-4C simulations with the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4.0 evaluated nuclear data libraries, except for the inelastic contributions around $E_{n} = 10-13$ MeV. All three libraries significantly underestimate the inelastic contributions. The inelastic contributions are further studied, using the Talys simulation code and the experimental spectra are reproduced reasonably well in the whole energy range by the Talys calculation, including the inelastic contributions.

R. Han; R. Wada; Z. Chen; Y. Nie; X. Liu; S. Zhang; P. Ren; B. Jia; G. Tian; F. Luo; W. Lin; J. Liu; F. Shi; M. Huang; X. Ruan; J. Ren; Z. Zhou; H. Huang; J. Bao; K. Zhang; B. Hu

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

172

Thermodynamic property evaluation and magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis for gadolinium gallium garnet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on relevant material property data and previous model formulations, a magnetothermodynamic property map for gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was adapted for refrigeration cycle analysis in the temperature range 4-40 K and the magnetic field range 0-6 T. Employing methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges, assessments of limitations and relative performance were made for Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. It was found that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as the limitations for materials previously examined, considerable improvement in cooling capacity and temperature lift combinations can be achieved by using regenerative cycles if serious loss mechanisms are avoided.

Murphy, R.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Selenium nutrition of Morone hybrids including dietary requirements, bioavailability, toxicity and effects on immune responses and disease resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enhance immunocompetence and disease resistance of HSB. In the first experiment, purified and practical diets were supplemented with ?-glucan and selenium in a factorial arrangement and fed to juvenile HSB for 6 wk followed by a S. iniae challenge...

Jaramillo, Francisco , Jr

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

174

Assessment of selenium food chain transfer and critical exposure factors for avian wildlife species: Need for site-specific data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of selenium poisoning in Belews Lake, NC in the mid-1970s and Kesterson Reservoir, CA in the mid-1980s precipitated a large number of selenium studies. Numerous authors have evaluated the potential for selenium to cause ecologically significant effects via food chain transfer in aquatic ecosystems, especially wetlands. Additionally, bioaccumulation models have been proposed for estimating selenium concentrations in food chains and water that should not be exceeded in order to avoid reproductive effects in avian and aquatic species. The current national chronic ambient water quality criterion (WQC) for protection of aquatic life is 5 {micro}g/L. Scientists with the US Fish and Wildlife Service have recommended setting the ambient water quality criterion at 2 {micro}g/L for both aquatic and wildlife protection.

Adams, W.J. [Kennecott Utah Copper, Magna, UT (United States); Brix, K.V.; Cothern, K.A.; Tear, L.M.; Cardwell, R.D.; Toll, J.E. [Parametrix, Inc., Kirkland, WA (United States); Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Site preferences of indium impurity atoms in intermetallics having Al3Ti and Al3Zr crystal structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Site preferences of indium impurity atoms in intermetallics having Al3Ti and Al3Zr crystal-04843 (Metals Program) and Praveen Sinha Fund for Physics Research. L12 DO22 DO23 Cu3Au Al3Ti Al3Zr #12;Outline · Indium was doped in samples of Al3V and Al3Ti (Al3Ti structure) and Al3Zr (Al3Zr structure) by arc

Collins, Gary S.

176

Indium diffusion through high-k dielectrics in high-k/InP stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evidence of indium diffusion through high-k dielectric (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) films grown on InP (100) by atomic layer deposition is observed by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The analysis establishes that In-out diffusion occurs and results in the formation of a PO{sub x} rich interface.

Dong, H.; Cabrera, W.; Santosh KC,; Brennan, B.; Qin, X.; McDonnell, S.; Hinkle, C. L.; Cho, K.; Chabal, Y. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Galatage, R. V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

177

Synthesis of graphene nanoribbons from amyloid templates by gallium vapor-assisted solid-phase graphitization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single- and double-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with widths of around 10?nm were synthesized directly onto an insulating substrate by solid-phase graphitization using a gallium vapor catalyst and carbon templates made of amyloid fibrils. Subsequent investigation revealed that the crystallinity, conductivity, and carrier mobility were all improved by increasing the temperature of synthesis. The carrier mobility of the GNR synthesized at 1050?C was 0.83 cm{sup 2}/V?s, which is lower than that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. This is considered to be most likely due to electron scattering by the defects and edges of the GNRs.

Murakami, Katsuhisa, E-mail: k.murakami@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Dong, Tianchen; Kajiwara, Yuya; Takahashi, Teppei; Fujita, Jun-ichi [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hiyama, Takaki; Takai, Eisuke; Ohashi, Gai; Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

178

Polythiophene-based charge dissipation layer for electron beam lithography of zinc oxide and gallium nitride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability of thin polythiophene layers to dissipate accumulated charge in the electron beam lithography (EBL) of wide bandgap semiconductors such as zinc oxide and gallium nitride is demonstrated. A quick and inexpensive processing method is demonstrated for EBL exposure of dense and high-resolution patterns in a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) negative-tone resistdeposited on bulk ZnO samples and with GaN/AlN on sapphire substrates. For the former experimental results are given for three different cases: where no charge dissipation layer was used as well as cases where 40-nm-thick Al and 100-nm-thick conductive polymer layers were used on the top of the HSQ resist. For the latter material EBL exposure was investigated for pure HSQ and for HSQ with a thin conductive polymer layer on top. Based on the scanning electron microscope observations of the resulting photonic crystal(PhC) pattern conventional Al and the proposed polymer approach were compared. Good agreement between these results is reported while the new method considerably simplifies sample processing. Spin-coatable conducting polymer may be easily removed due to its solubility in water which makes it a perfect solution for the processing of amphoteric oxide samples i.e. zinc oxide. Gallium nitride processing also benefits from polymer dissipation layer usage due to extended exposure range and the avoidance of dense pattern overexposure in HSQ.

R. Dylewicz; S. Lis; R. M. De La Rue; F. Rahman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Characterization of gallium-doped CdS thin films grown by chemical bath Hani Khallaf a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of gallium-doped CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition Hani Khallaf In-situ doping with group III elements has been widely used to decrease the dark resistivity of CdS technique for aluminum in-situ doping of CdS. We have also shown that due to extremely low solubility

Chow, Lee

180

Synthesis of Gallium Oxide Hydroxide Crystals in Aqueous Solutions with or without Urea and Their Calcination Behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution of gallium(III) nitrate and stirring at 90°C for 10 h, followed by calcination of the recovered of solid electro- lytes of superior (as compared with Y-stabilized zirconia) ionic conductivity, i.e., La0-chemical synthesis of powders of doped LaGaO3 fuel cell ceramics.24,25 The first experimental study

Tas, A. Cuneyt

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

An assessment of the validity of cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide gallium removal studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods for purifying plutonium metal have long been established. These methods use acid solutions to dissolve and concentrate the metal. However, these methods can produce significant mixed waste, that is, waste containing both radioactive and chemical hazards. The volume of waste produced from the aqueous purification of thousands of weapons would be expensive to treat and dispose. Therefore, a dry method of purification is highly desirable. Recently, a dry gallium removal research program commenced. Based on initial calculations, it appeared that a particular form of gallium (gallium suboxide, Ga{sub 2}O) could be evaporated from plutonium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent, such as small amounts of hydrogen dry gas within an inert environment. Initial tests using ceria-based material (as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}) showed that thermally-induced gallium removal (TIGR) from small samples (on the order of one gram) was indeed viable. Because of the expense and difficulty of optimizing TIGR from plutonium dioxide, TIGR optimization tests using ceria have continued. This document details the relationship between the ceria surrogate tests and those conducted using plutonia.

Kolman, D.G.; Park, Y.; Stan, M.; Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Butt, D.P.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride to examine the effects of carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature on the morphology of carbon with increasing carbon tetrachloride concentration. Step bunching and pinning was observed at a IV/III ratio

Li, Lian

183

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2003. Two companies,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the curtailment of primary refining capacity have added an extra incentive to the recovery of secondary indium be compared with Japan where the decline in domestic zinc refining has stimulated an aggressive recycling in the world economy. The report of reduced production from mines that produce byproduct indium had a negative

184

Annealing behavior of the hydrogen-vacancy complex in bulk indium phosphide crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to explain the effects of hydrogen on the electrical properties of bulk indium phosphide crystals, they have performed a series of high temperature annealing studies with both undoped and iron-doped indium phosphide crystals. The samples were annealed at 900 C for 6, 36, and 72 hours, respectively, under a phosphorus overpressure of five atmospheres. Samples were characterized at 10 K by Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy which allowed us to measure the concentrations of both the Fe{sup 2+} and V{sub In}-H{sub 4} defects simultaneously. Undoped samples were further characterized by the Hall effect measurements. The authors find in the iron-doped samples that the [Fe{sup 2+}]/[Fe{sup 3+}] ratio decreases gradually with increasing annealing time, indicating a reduction in the number of donors in the samples. In the undoped samples, annealing leads to a reduction of the free electron concentration accompanied by an increase in the 77 K mobility. The increase of the sample`s mobility eliminates the possibility that the reduction of the free electron concentration is due to an increase in the concentration of the compensating acceptors. The explanation for the observed behavior in all samples is that hydrogen acts as a donor and it diffuses out of the crystal during the annealing process. Based on the experimental data, they propose a calibration equation of [V{sub In}-H{sub 4}] = 4.2 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}1} {times} Absorbance (cm{sup {minus}1}) which is used to correlate the hydrogen-vacancy complex concentrations with the changes of the V{sub In}-H{sub 4} absorption peak in both the iron-doped and the undoped samples. Their results confirm the donor nature of the hydrogen-vacancy complex and provide strong evidence regarding the reduction mechanism of free carrier concentrations in bulk indium phosphide crystals during high temperature annealing under a phosphorus atmosphere.

Ye, Q.; Wolk, J.A.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.; Bliss, D.F. [Air Force Rome Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30?V to 0.55?V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu, E-mail: xydeng@hitsz.edu.cn [Research Center for Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding ?/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ?517??m-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (?78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66?V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

Yang, Chan-Shan [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tang, Tsung-Ta [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ru-Pin [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Yu, Peichen [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ci-Ling, E-mail: clpan@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Science of Matters, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (?-Ge)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, metal-induced crystallization (MIC) phenomenon on ?-Ge by indium (In) and tin (Sn) are thoroughly investigated. In- and Sn-MIC process respectively started at 250C and 400C. Compared to the previously reported MIC samples including In-MIC, Sn-MIC process presented higher sheet resistance (similar to that of SPC) and bigger crystal grains above 50nm (slightly smaller than that of SPC). According to SIMS analysis, Sn atoms diffused more slowly into Ge than In at 400C, providing lower density of heterogeneous nuclei induced by metals and consequently larger crystal grains.

Dong-Ho Kang; Jin-Hong Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Methods for the speciation and determination of arsenic and selenium in coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods of sample preparation for the determination of total selenium, and selenite, selenate, arsenite, and arsenate in coal fly ash materials were evaluated. The measurement methods use atomic spectroscopy for the determination of total concentrations and ion chromatography (IC) for the determination of individual ionic species. Sample preparation procedures which minimize the loss or alteration of the species of interest was explored and defined. The utility of the sample preparation methods can be sample dependent, so caution is advised in their use. IC conditions were established for the determination in extract solutions of selenite, selenate, arsenite, and arsenate with minimal interference from common anions.

Schabron, J.F.; Hart, B.K.; Niss, N.D.; Brown, T.H.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Conditions for a carrier multiplication in amorphous-selenium based photodetector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous selenium is a promising candidate for high sensitivity photodetector due to its unique carrier multiplication phenomenon. More than 10 carriers can be generated per incident photon, which leads to high photo-conversion efficiency of 1000% that allows real-time imaging in dark ambient. However, application of this effect has been limited to specific devices due to the lack in material characterization. In this article, mechanism of carrier multiplication has been clarified using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A prototype photodetector achieved photo conversion efficiency of 4000%, which explains the signal enhancement mechanism in a-Se based photodetector.

Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Kuniyoshi, Shingo; Onishi, Masanori; Kato, Richika; Saito, Ichitaro; Okano, Ken [Department of Material Science, International Christian University, S102 Science Hall, ICU, 3-10-2 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Material Science, International Christian University, S102 Science Hall, ICU, 3-10-2 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585 (Japan); Yamada, Takatoshi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)] [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Koh, Angel T. T.; Chua, Daniel H. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Shimosawa, Tatsuo [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyoku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyoku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

190

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ordering of gallium(III) in a series of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [Mg1-xGax(OH)2(NO3)x yH2O], was determined using solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy. Depletion of Ga in these LDHs is demonstrated to be the result of soluble [Ga(OH)4]-complexes formed during synthesis.

Petersen, Line B.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Zorin, Vadim; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Glutathione peroxidase response in tissues of rats fed diets containing fish protein concentrate prepared from shark flesh of known mercury and selenium contents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies have been reported using experimental animals and synthetic diets containing selenium and mercury compounds to demonstrate detoxification of mercury by selenium. The mechanism of detoxification remains obscure. Most experiments have involved the use of high levels of both elements and relied on the observation of gross symptoms. The measurement of enzyme systems may be useful in detecting effects of mercury at a lower, subclinical level and in elucidating the biochemistry of mercury/selenium interactions. The activity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rats is dependent on dietary selenium and attempts have been made to use this enzyme as an indicator of mercury/selenium interactions. The research described in this paper was designed to investigate the effect of mercury, in the form and amounts which occur naturally in seafood, on the availability of selenium at levels approximating the nutritional requirement. In anticipation of mercury lowering the GSH-Px response a range of selenium concentrations was used, from nutritional deficiency to three times the nutritional requirement.

Thrower, S.J. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Hobart, Australia); Andrewartha, K.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ?}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ?}? effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ?} images.

Imtiaz, Atif [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel, E-mail: kabos@boulder.nist.gov [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Weber, Joel C. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Coakley, Kevin J. [Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Plasma Sputter-type Ion Source with Wire Electrodes for Low-energy Gallium Ion Extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-energy ions of gallium (Ga) and argon (Ar) were extracted from a plasma sputter-type ion source system that utilized a tungsten (W) wire extractor geometry. The 90% transparent W wire extractor configuration had shown that the system was capable of producing an ion beam with the energy as low as 10 eV in a dc filament discharge and 50 eV in a radio frequency (rf) excited system. In the present investigation, Ar plasma was sustained in an ion source chamber through an inductively coupled 13.56 MHz rf power source. Negatively biased liquid Ga target suspended on a W reservoir was sputtered and postionized prior to extraction. Mass spectral analyses revealed a strong dependence of the Ga{sup +} current on the induced target bias.

Vasquez, M. Jr.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Maeno, S. [Novelion Systems Co. Ltd., Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0332 (Japan); Miyamoto, N. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co. Ltd., Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

The status of the solar neutrino problem and the Russian-American gallium experiment (SAGE)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution.

Bowles, T.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Solvent-Dependent Assembly of Terphenyl- and Quaterphenyldithiol on Gold and Gallium Arsenide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solvent-Dependent Assembly of Terphenyl- and Quaterphenyldithiol on Gold and Gallium Arsenide ... This solvent pair was chosen because of an apparent solubility conflict:? while EtOH is the most common solvent for assembling alkylthiol and conjugated monothiol molecules,43-45 the longer n-phenyldithiols (n = 3, 4), in their thioacetyl forms (compounds 3 and 4 in Scheme 1), are poorly soluble in EtOH. ... The precipitate was filtered, washed with water, hexane, and methylene chloride, and dried overnight at 40 C under vacuum to afford a light-yellow solid (5.90 g, 92%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3) ? 7.65 (s, 4H), 7.55 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 4H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 4H), 2.55 (s, 6H). ...

Dmitry A. Krapchetov; Hong Ma; Alex K. Y. Jen; Daniel A. Fischer; Yueh-Lin Loo

2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

197

Femtosecond laser-ultrasonic investigation of plasmonic fields on the metal/gallium nitride interface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By using femtosecond laser-ultrasonic we demonstrate an approach to study the surface plasmon field optically excited in the interface between metal and a semiconductor thin film. By femtosecond impulsive excitation on galliumnitride (GaN) different optical probe signals were observed when the impulse-excited nanoacoustic pulse propagated through the metalfilm and metal nanoslits. By analyzing the shape and temporal response of thus induced acousto-optical signals our femtosecond laser-ultrasonic study not only reveals the plasmonic field distribution optically excited in the metal/substrate interface but also confirms that the penetration depth of surface plasmon field into the substrate agrees well with a simulation result.

Hung-Pin Chen; Yu-Chieh Wen; Yi-Hsin Chen; Cheng-Hua Tsai; Kuang-Li Lee; Pei-Kuen Wei; Jinn-Kong Sheu; Chi-Kuang Sun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Biodistribution of 111Indium-labeled Engineered Human Antibody CTMO1 in Ovarian Cancer Patients: Influence of Protein Dose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...caused partly by the type of chelator. The indium-chelating macro cycle 9N3 (18) was chosen because the distribution of ~@ ~Inis then likely to represent the distribution of the antibody hCTMO1. In the studies performed by Hagan et a!. (32) and Beatty...

Arjan C. van Hof; Carla F. M. Molthoff; Quentin Davies; Alan C. Perkins; Ren H. M. Verheijen; Peter Kenemans; Wim den Hollander; Abraham J. Wilhelm; Terry S. Baker; Mark Sopwith; Malcolm Frier; E. Malcolm Symonds; Jan C. Roos

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Conductive indium-tin oxide nanowire and nanotube arrays made by electrochemically assisted deposition in template membranes: switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conductive indium-tin oxide nanowire and nanotube arrays made by electrochemically assisted-step electrochemically assisted deposition (EAD) process inside Au-plugged anodic aluminium oxide and polycarbonate electrodes in dye-sensi- tized2,6­11 and polymer12 solar cells, fillers in transparent and conductive polymer

200

DFT studies of Indium Nanoclusters (Inn where n=3-10) and Nanotube and their interaction with molecular hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density functional theory calculations have been performed on Indium nanoclusters (Inn, n= 3 to 10) to explore the relative stability among their different isomers and interaction with H2. Geometry optimizations starting from initial candidate geometries were performed for each cluster size, so as to determine a few low energy isomers for each size. Clusters with planar configuration and high symmetry are found to be more stable. For n=8 there comes transition from 2D to 3D structures, which formed by stacking of planar rings are most stable. Energetically favorable isomers of indium nanoclusters for each size were considered to get H2 adsorbed. In general H2 interaction with these clusters is week but with odd index i.e. 5, 7 and 9 is significant. Indium nanotube also indicates H2 adsorption but Eads increases many folds on introduction of defect in the tube. On basis of these DFT studies we propose indium nanotubes and clusters of particular size appear to be good candidate for hydrogen storage materials.

Baig, Mirza Wasif; Ahmad, Idrees; Siddiq, Muhammad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Transmission electron microscopy study of the effect of selenium doping on the ordering of GalnP2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selenium doped Ga0.51In0.49P films have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition at 600, 670 and 740 C. The extent of ordering of the Group III sublattice has been monitored by transmission electron...

J. P. Goral; Sarah R. Kurtz; J. M. Olson; A. Kibbler

202

Quantification, Localization, and Speciation of Selenium in Seeds of Canola and Two Mustard Species Compared to Seed-Meals Produced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantification, Localization, and Speciation of Selenium in Seeds of Canola and Two Mustard Species with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard shoots of several Brassica species, canola (Brassica napus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and white

203

Selenium Bioaccumulation in Stocked Fish as an Indicator of Fishery Potential in Pit Lakes on Reclaimed Coal Mines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Reclaimed Coal Mines in Alberta, Canada L. L. Miller · J. B. Rasmussen · V. P. Palace · G. Sterling · A to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout

Hontela, Alice

205

Investigation of buried homojunctions in p -InP formed during sputter deposition of both indium tin oxide and indium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although it is apparent that direct current (dc) magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO) leads to the formation of a buried homojunction in single crystal {ital p}-type InP, the actual mechanism of type conversion of the InP surface is not clear, nor is it immediately obvious how further improvements may be achieved. Previously, we have suggested that type conversion is caused by indiffusion of Sn during the ITO deposition process and additionally demonstrated that this effect is strengthened by the presence of hydrogen in the sputtering gas. Recently, however, efficiencies of almost 17% (Global) have been achieved for cells fabricated by sputter depositing In{sub 2}O{sub 3}(IO) alone, strongly suggesting that the Sn may not be an essential part of type conversion. In this work, a variety of electrical and optical techniques has been used to assess the changes at the ITO/InP and IO/InP interfaces. From these, it is concluded that several mechanisms, including passivation of acceptors by hydrogen and sputter damage,'' occur simultaneously. This analysis suggests several directions for further improvement of these devices.

Gessert, T.A.; Li, X.; Wanlass, M.W.; Nelson, A.J.; Coutts, T.J. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contamination (Cieminski and Flake The absence of Se in brine ?brine ?y larvae Ephy- dra cinerea Jones. Archives of Environmental Contaminationbrine shrimp tis- sue Se levels in the same range as those observed here, selenium contamination

Herbst, David B

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Indium doped zinc oxide nanowire thin films for antireflection and solar absorber coating applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Indium doped ZnO nanowire thin films were prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn-In metal bilayer films at 500C. The ZnO:In nanowires are 20-100 nm in diameter and several tens of microns long. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of oxide and indicate that the films are polycrystalline, both in the as deposited and annealed states. The transmission which is <2% for the as deposited Zn-In films increases to >90% for the ZnO:In nanowire films. Significantly, the reflectance for the as deposited films is < 10% in the region between 200 to 1500 nm and < 2% for the nanowire films. Thus, the as deposited films can be used solar absorber coatings while the nanowire films are useful for antireflection applications. The growth of nanowires by this technique is attractive since it does not involve very high temperatures and the use of catalysts.

Shaik, Ummar Pasha [ACRHEM, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam, E-mail: mgksp@uohyd.ac.in [ACRHEM and School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

208

Spray coated indium-tin-oxide-free organic photodiodes with PEDOT:PSS anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we report on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-free spray coated organic photodiodes with an active layer consisting of a poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend and patterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. External quantum efficiency and current voltage characteristics under illuminated and dark conditions as well as cut-off frequencies for devices with varying active and hole conducting layer thicknesses were measured in order to characterize the fabricated devices. 60% quantum efficiency as well as nearly four orders of magnitude on-off ratios have been achieved. Those values are comparable with standard ITO devices.

Schmidt, Morten, E-mail: morten.schmidt@nano.ei.tum.de; Falco, Aniello; Loch, Marius; Lugli, Paolo; Scarpa, Giuseppe [Institute for Nanoelectronics, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Study of indium and solder bumps for the BTeV Pixel Detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pixel detector proposed for the BTeV experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron will use bump-bonding technology based on either Indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have studied the strength of the bumps by visual inspection of the bumps bonding silicon sensor modules to dummy chips made out of glass. The studies were done before and after thermal cycles, exposed to intense irradiation, and with the assemblies glued to a graphite substrate. We have also carried out studies on effects of temperature changes on both types of bump bonds by observing the responses of single-chip pixel detectors to an Sr{sup 90} source. We report the results from these studies and our plan to measure the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the bumps.

Simon W Kwan et al.

2003-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

210

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Annual report, October 1, 1995--December 31,1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selenium geochemistry in tidal wetlands is a topic of continuing study at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The program of studies described in this report was initiated in the fall of 1994 in response to concerns about elevated Se concentrations in waters, sediments, and biota in the Carquinez Strait. Processes by which selenium is introduced and potentially released from the sediment system have been the focus of research in 1996.

Zawislanski, P.T.; McGrath, A.E.; Benson, S.M. [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No indium was recovered from ores in the United States in 1997. Domestically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--United States: 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997e Production, refinery -- -- -- -- -- Imports for consumption 73.4 70 for the indium market remains promising. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery

212

GREEN:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......toxicity, poor solubility in solvents...germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well...Gallium arsenide is a compound...elements gallium and arsenic...gallons of water every day...release indium gallium arsenide, filling...byproduct is water. Ann Christy......

Green Impact of Hardware

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

IIl-nitride nanowires and heterostructures : growth and optical properties on nanoscale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) nanowires promise potential for further improving the electricity-to-light energy conversion efficiencies in light emitting diodes due to strain relaxation, reduced ...

Zhou, Xiang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Transient and steady-state dark current mechanisms in amorphous selenium avalanche radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical model for describing bias-dependent transient and steady-state behaviors of dark current in amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche detector structures has been developed. The analytical model considers bulk thermal generation current from mid-gap sates, transient carrier depletion, and carrier injection from the electrodes incorporating avalanche multiplication. The proposed physics-based dark current model is compared with the published experimental results on three potential a-Se avalanche detector structures. The steady-state dark current is the minimum for the structures that have effective blocking layers for both holes and electrons. The transient decay time to reach a plateau decreases considerably with increasing electric field.

Kabir, M. Z.; Imam, Safayat-Al [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Blvd. de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Blvd. de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Partitioning and chemical speciation of mercury, arsenic, and selenium during inert gas oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were retorted in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg bench-scale retort at 1 to 2C/min and at 10C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic aabsortion spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate the the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 23 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

217

More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the devices efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphis GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

None

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Electrodeposition of Crystalline GaAs on Liquid Gallium Electrodes in Aqueous Electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystalline gallium arsenide (c-GaAs) possesses many desirable optoelectronic properties suited for solar energy conversion,(1) light and radiation detection,(2) chemical sensing,(3) lighting,(4) and high speed electronics. ... In contrast to conflicting previous reports on the electrodeposition of GaAs,(17, 18) we posit that c-GaAs(s) can be synthesized predictably through the electrodeposition of As from dissolved As2O3 specifically on a Ga(l) electrode at modest temperatures in water. ... Specifically, for any binary system composed of a solid dissolving into a liquid, the rate of dissolution of the solid into the liquid phase is given by eq 5:(60)(5)where kdiss is the dissolution rate constant, s is the surface area of the solid in contact with the liquid, V is the volume of the liquid, Csat is the solubility of the solid in the liquid, and Cdiss is the concentration of the dissolved solid in the bulk of the liquid phase. ...

Eli Fahrenkrug; Junsi Gu; Stephen Maldonado

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

219

Stereocomplexes of A?B?A Triblock Copolymers Based on Poly(l-Lactide) and Poly(d-Lactide) A Blocks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analogous series of A?B?A triblock copolymers was prepared with DLA. ... The DSC curves were calibrated with n-heptane, mercury, gallium, indium, and zinc. ...

Hans R. Kricheldorf; Simon Rost; Christoph Wutz; Abraham Domb

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium hydroxides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 50 The aqueous geochemistry of gallium, germanium, indium and scandium Summary: Chemical Society 85, 3533-3539 sense,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium fluorides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Delhi Collection: Biotechnology ; Biology and Medicine 63 The aqueous geochemistry of gallium, germanium, indium and scandium Summary: , fluoride, sulfate and phosphate, and...

222

Solar Innovation Timeline | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cell Photo of two researchers analyzing a thin, circular shaped film under a small light. NREL researchers develop a gallium indium phosphidegallium arsenide solar cell...

223

History | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

cell Photo of two researchers analyzing a thin, circular shaped film under a small light. NREL researchers develop a gallium indium phosphidegallium arsenide solar cell...

224

Local indium segregation and band structure in high efficiencygreen light emitting InGaN/GaN diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) are commercialized for lighting applications because of the cost efficient way that they produce light of high brightness. Nevertheless, there is significant room for improving their external emission efficiency from typical values below 10 percent to more than 50 percent, which are obtainable by use of other materials systems that, however, do not cover the visible spectrum. In particular, green-light emitting diodes fall short in this respect, which is troublesome since the human eye is most sensitive in this spectral range. In this letter advanced electron microscopy is used to characterize indium segregation in InGaN quantum wells of high-brightness, green LEDs (with external quantum efficiency as high as 15 percent at 75 A/cm2). Our investigations reveal the presence of 1-3 nm wide indium rich clusters in these devices with indium concentrations as large as 0.30-0.40 that narrow the band gap locally to energies as small as 2.65 eV.

Jinschek, Joerg R.; Erni, Rolf; Gardner, Nathan F.; Kim, AndrewY.; Kisielowski, Christian

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

225

JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Neutron scattering from elemental indium, the optical model, and the bound-state potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium are measured from 4.5 to 10 MeV at incident-energy intervals of {approx}500 keV. Seventy or more differential values are obtained at each incident energy, distributed between {approx}18{degree} and 160{degree}. These experimental results are combined with lower-energy values previously obtained at this laboratory, and with 11 and 14 MeV results in the literature, to form a comprehensive elastic-scattering database extending from {approx}1.5 to 14 MeV. These data are interpreted in terms of a conventional spherical optical model. The resulting potential is extrapolated to the bound-state regime. It is shown that in the middle of the 50--82 neutron shell, the potential derived from the scattering results adequately describes the binding energies of article states, but does not do well for hole states. The latter shortcoming is attributed to the holes states having occupational probabilities sufficiently different from unity, so that the exclusion principle become a factor, and to the rearrangement of the neutron core. 68 refs.

Chiba, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Smith, A.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Studies on transparent spinel magnesium indium oxide thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ternary semiconducting oxide compound magnesium indium oxide films (MgIn2O4), manifesting high transparency were prepared by metal organic chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Precursors prepared for various cationic ratios of Mg/In=0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50 were thermally sprayed onto quartz substrates, decomposed at 450C and the spinel phase evolution was studied. X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been conducted to confirm the formation of single-phase MgIn2O4 films with Mg/In ratio 0.50. From optical transmission studies, the observed optical band gaps varied from 3.18 to 3.86eV (0.35

A. Moses Ezhil Raj; V. Senthilkumar; V. Swaminathan; Joachim Wollschlger; M. Suendorf; M. Neumann; M. Jayachandran; C. Sanjeeviraja

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Optimized deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline magnesium indium oxide thin films for opto-electronic applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transparent conducting magnesium indium oxide films (MgIn2O4) were deposited on to quartz substrates without a buffer layer at an optimized deposition temperature of 450C to achieve high transmittance in the visible spectral range and electrical conductivity in the low temperature region. Magnesium ions are distributed over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the inverted spinel structure with preferential orientation along (311) Miller plane. The possible mechanism that promotes conductivity in this system is the charge transfer between the resident divalent (Mg2+) and trivalent (In3+) cations in addition to the available oxygen vacancies in the lattice. A room temperature electrical conductivity of 1.5נ10?5Scm?1 and an average transmittance >75% have been achieved. Hall measurements showed n-type conductivity with electron mobility value 0.95נ10?2cm2V?1s?1 and carrier concentration 2.7נ1019cm?3. Smoothness of the film surface observed through atomic force microscope measurements favors this material for gas sensing and opto-electronic device development.

A. Moses Ezhil Raj; C. Ravidhas; R. Ravishankar; A. Rathish Kumar; G. Selvan; M. Jayachandran; C. Sanjeeviraja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Unusual crystallographic structure and its fluctuation of indium nanoparticles as-deposited and observed with HRTEM using the UHV-DC-TEM system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A UHV-DC-TEM system was developed for direct transportation of samples between an ultra-high vacuum deposition chamber (UHV-DC) and a UHV transmission electron microscope (UHV-TEM). Indium nanoparticles have been deposited onto Si(110) TEM samples at room temperature in UHV-DC and observed in UHV-TEM with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Freshly made indium nanoparticles were found to be single, twinned, pseudo-twinned crystals and decahedral multiply-twinned particles (MTPs) with their size in the range 815nm. The structure of single crystalline indium nanoparticles is body-centered tetragonal (bct), which is the same as that of bulk indium. In addition to the usual {011} type twins for bct structure, a pseudo-twin was observed to have an orientation relationship as [111]A//[100]B and (101?)A//(01?1?)B. The structure of MTP indium is complicated because of the co-existence of bct and fcc structures within one nanocrystal. The structure fluctuation process has been examined using a video recorder with time scale down to 1/60s. No complete liquid state was seen during this fluctuation.

Q. Chen; M. Tanaka; K. Furuya

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Lewis Base Adduct Stabilized Organogallium Azides:? Synthesis and Dynamic NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Novel Precursors to Gallium Nitride and Role of Ammonia as Reactive Carrier Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lewis Base Adduct Stabilized Organogallium Azides:? Synthesis and Dynamic NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Novel Precursors to Gallium Nitride and Role of Ammonia as Reactive Carrier Gas ... Solvents were dried under argon according to standard methods; n-pentane and toluene were stored over Na/K alloy, and diethyl ether and thf over potassium benzophenoate (residual water solubility in other solvents than thf. ...

Alexander Miehr; Mike R. Mattner; Roland A. Fischer

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

231

The reaction of carbon tetrachloride with gallium arsenide ,,001... L. Li., S, Gan, B.-K. Han, H. Qi, and R. F. Hicksa)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reaction of carbon tetrachloride with gallium arsenide ,,001... L. Li., S, Gan, B.-K. Han, H, California 90095 Received 26 June 1997; accepted for publication 30 December 1997 Carbon tetrachloride of steps during the vapor-phase epitaxial growth of III­V compound semiconductors.3,4 Carbon tetrachloride

Li, Lian

232

Distributions of selenium, iodine, lead, thorium and uranium in Japanese river waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long-lived radionuclides released from nuclear facilities, such as deep underground disposal facilities, could reach humans through several transfer paths in the environment. Uses of ground water and river water for agricultural field irrigation and for drinking water are important paths. In order to understand behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial water environment, we carried out a natural analogue study, that is, measurement of selenium (Se), iodine (I), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) concentrations in 45 Japanese rivers at 10 sampling points from the upper stream to the river mouth for each river. Geometric mean concentrations for Se, I, Pb, Th and U were 0.057, 1.4, 0.039, 0.0055, 0.0109 ng/mL, respectively. Distribution patterns from upper stream to river mouth were different by elements, for instance, the concentrations of I, Th and U increased when the sampling points were nearer the river mouth, while that of Se were almost constant. For Pb, the highest value was observed in the middle part of each river in many cases. (authors)

Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

C:\Documents and Settings\burris\My Documents\My Files\Eco-SSLs\Contaminant Specific Documents\Selenium\June 2007\Eco-SSL for S  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Selenium Selenium Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285.7-72 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 July 2007 This page intentionally left blank i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.0 SUMMARY OF ECO-SSLs FOR SELENIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3.0 ECO-SSL FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.0 ECO-SSL FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5.0 ECO-SSL FOR AVIAN WILDLIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Avian TRV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.2 Estimation of Dose and Calculation of the Eco-SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.0 ECO-SSL FOR MAMMALIAN WILDLIFE .

234

A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 (India)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, and Environmental Research Center (ERC)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ? Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ? Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ? CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage and impairs steroidogenesis. ? Nano-Se retained sperm quality against CIS-induced free radicals toxic stress.

Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, TUMS, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, TUMS, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Abbas [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad.abdollahi@utoronto.ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Distribution of aluminum and indium impurities in crystals of Ge-Si solid solutions grown from the melt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem regarding the distribution of aluminum and indium impurities in bulk crystals of solid solutions with a variable composition Ge{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.3) is solved in order to establish regularities of the changes in the segregation coefficients of impurities with variations in the composition of the host lattice in the germanium-silicon system. Aluminum-and indium-doped crystals of Ge{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.3) solid solutions with a silicon content decreasing along the crystallization axis are grown by a modified Bridgman method with the use of a silicon seed. The concentration distribution of impurities over the length of the crystals is determined from Hall measurements. It is demonstrated that the experimental data on the concentration distribution of impurities in the crystals are in good agreement with the results obtained from the theory according to which the equilibrium segregation coefficients of impurities vary linearly with a change in the composition of Ge-Si solid solution crystals.

Kyazimova, V. K. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)], E-mail: zangi@physics.ab.az; Zeynalov, Z. M. [Ganja State University (Azerbaijan); Zakhrabekova, Z. M.; Azhdarov, G. Kh. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

The influence of prestrained metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial gallium-nitride templates on hydride vapor phase epitaxial growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have varied the strain situation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown gallium-nitride (GaN) by exchanging the nucleation layer and by inserting a submono-Si x N y -interlayer in the first few hundred nanometers of growth on sapphire substrates. The influence on the MOVPE template and subsequent hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth could be shown by in-situ measurements of the sample curvature. Using the results of these investigations we have established a procedure to confine the curvature development in MOVPE and HVPE growth to a minimum. By increasing the layer thickness in HVPE we could create self-separated freestanding GaN layers with small remaining curvature.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

An experiment to test the viability of a gallium-arsenide cathode in a SRF electron gun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strained gallium arsenide cathodes are used in electron guns for the production of polarized electrons. In order to have a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode the vacuum in the gun must be 10{sup -11} Torr or better, so that the cathode is not destroyed by ion back bombardment or through contamination with residual gases. All successful polarized guns are DC guns, because such vacuum levels can not be obtained in normal conducting RF guns. A superconductive RF gun may provide a sufficient vacuum level due to cryo-pumping of the cavity walls. We report on the progress of our experiment to test such a gun with normal GaAs-Cs crystals.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Wu, Q.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

240

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Product Search  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Product Search Product Search Step 1 - Enter your search criteria below. Element Name Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copernicium Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununhexium Ununoctium Ununpentium Ununquadium Ununseptium Ununtrium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

41: Categorical Exclusion Determination 41: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS) Linear Source Thermal Deposition CX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1 Date: 05/19/2010 Location(s): St. Paul, Minnesota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The State of Minnesota plans to provide $800,000 in Recovery Act funds to Veeco Instrument, Inc. at 4900 Constellation Drive, St. Paul, Minnesota 55127 for the purchase of equipment and related activities in the manufacturing of thin film solar panels. Veeco Instruments, Inc. is a provider of process and metrology equipment used to manufacture data storage, semiconductor, wireless, lighting and solar equipment. Veeco's St.

242

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Request a New Product  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Request a New Product Request a New Product Step 1 - Enter the new product's criteria below. Element Name Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copernicium Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununhexium Ununoctium Ununpentium Ununquadium Ununseptium Ununtrium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

243

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

51 - 8160 of 31,917 results. 51 - 8160 of 31,917 results. Download CX-002564: Categorical Exclusion Determination FPE Renewables, LLC CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/26/2010 Location(s): Lynden, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002564-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002399: Categorical Exclusion Determination California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project (Fountain Valley, California) CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/25/2010 Location(s): Fountain Valley, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002399-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS)

244

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Product List  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

List List Please select an available isotope product from the lists below. If you would like an isotope product that is not listed, you can make a request by clicking here. Stable Isotope Products Radio-Isotope Products Antimony Argon (Alt) Barium Bromine Bromine (Alt) Cadmium Calcium Carbon (Alt) Cerium Chlorine Chlorine (Alt) Chromium Copper Dysprosium Erbium Europium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Hafnium Helium (Alt) Indium Iridium Iron Krypton (Alt) Lanthanum Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon (Alt) Nickel Nitrogen (Alt) Osmium Oxygen (Alt) Palladium Platinum Potassium Rhenium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Selenium Silicon Silver Strontium Sulfur Sulfur (Alt) Tantalum Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Xenon (Alt) Ytterbium Zinc Zirconium Actinium-225 Aluminum-26 Americium-241

245

Characteristics of trap-filled gallium arsenide photoconductive switches used in high gain pulsed power applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrical properties of semi-insulating (SI) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) have been investigated for some time, particularly for its application as a substrate in microelectronics. Of late this material has found a variety of applications other than as an isolation region between devices, or the substrate of an active device. High resistivity SI GaAs is increasingly being used in charged particle detectors and photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). PCSS made from these materials operating in both the linear and non-linear modes have applications such as firing sets, as drivers for lasers, and in high impedance, low current Q-switches or Pockels cells. In the non-linear mode, it has also been used in a system to generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) High Power Microwaves (HPM). The choice of GaAs over silicon offers the advantage that its material properties allow for fast, repetitive switching action. Furthermore photoconductive switches have advantages over conventional switches such as improved jitter, better impedance matching, compact size, and in some cases, lower laser energy requirement for switching action. The rise time of the PCSS is an important parameter that affects the maximum energy transferred to the load and it depends, in addition to other parameters, on the bias or the average field across the switch. High field operation has been an important goal in PCSS research. Due to surface flashover or premature material breakdown at higher voltages, most PCSS, especially those used in high power operation, need to operate well below the inherent breakdown voltage of the material. The lifetime or the total number of switching operations before breakdown, is another important switch parameter that needs to be considered for operation at high bias conditions. A lifetime of {approximately} 10{sup 4} shots has been reported for PCSS's used in UWB-HPM generation [5], while it has exceeded 10{sup 8} shots for electro-optic drivers. Much effort is currently being channeled in the study related to improvements of these two parameters high bias operation and lifetime improvement for switches used in pulsed power applications. The contact material and profiles are another important area of study. Although these problems are being pursued through the incorporation of different contact materials and introducing doping near contacts, it is important that the switch properties and the conduction mechanism in these switches be well understood such that the basic nature of the problems can be properly addressed. In this paper the authors report on these two basic issues related to the device operation, i.e., mechanisms for increasing the hold-off characteristics through neutron irradiation, and the analysis of transport processes at varying field conditions in trap dominated SI GaAs in order to identify the breakdown mechanism during device operation. It is expected that this study would result in a better understanding of photoconductive switches, specifically those used in high power operation.

ISLAM,N.E.; SCHAMILOGLU,E.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; JOSHI,R.P.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of a bench-scale, inert-gas, oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of heating rates and maximum temperatures on the redistribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium into the shale oil, retort water, and offgas of a 6-kg bench-scale retort. A Green River shale (western) from Colorado and a New Albany shale (eastern) from Kentucky were heated at 1-2{degree}C/min to a maximum temperature of 500{degree}C. The eastern and western shales were also heated at 2{degree}C/min to 750{degree}C and at 10{degree}C/min to 750{degree}C. Real-time monitoring of the offgas stream for mercury was accomplished with Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy or a microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy. Microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy was also used to monitor for arsenic in the offgas during retorting; little or no arsenic was observed in the offgas. Mass balance calculations for arsenic and selenium accounted for essentially 100% of those elements in the spent shale, shale oil, and retort water. The mass balance calculations suggest little offgas component for arsenic and selenium. This agrees with the results of the MPD monitoring of the offgas. These results indicate the potential pathway for mercury to enter the environment is from the offgas. Arsenic and selenium preferential redistribution into the shale oil may present problems during the upgrading process.

Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Fruchter, J.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

JOUKNAI, OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 98. NO. D7. PAGES 12.673-12.685, JULY 20. 1993 Aerosol Selenium at Bermuda and Barbados  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and methane sulfonate(MSA), but the intercept of the Se versusSb regression indicated that a marinebiogenic identification studies [Rahn and Lowenthal, 1984, 1985; Lowenthal et 01.. 1988; Lowenthal and Rahn, 1988). Coal for selenium is not well understood, C o o k andBruland [I9871suggest a similar mechanism where Se

Prospero, Joseph M.

248

Synthesis of Black Elemental Selenium Peroxidase Mimic and Its Application in Green Synthesis of Water-Soluble Polypyrrole as a Photothermal Agent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis of Black Elemental Selenium Peroxidase Mimic and Its Application in Green Synthesis of Water-Soluble Polypyrrole as a Photothermal Agent ... The black elemental Se catalyzed PPy can convert near-infrared (NIR) light energy to heat with a photothermal efficiency of 28.4%. ...

Leilei Li; Wei Wang; Kezheng Chen

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

250

Estimation of Loads of Mercury, Selenium, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, Dioxins, and1 Organochlorine Pesticides from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to San2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Estimation of Loads of Mercury, Selenium, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, Dioxins, and1 Organochlorine 1.6 and 6.1%, respectively. Also monitored were PAHs, PBDEs (two years of19 data), and dioxins) pesticides (DDT, chlordanes, and dieldrin), polybrominated32 diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dioxins are highly

251

Light output enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with contrasting indium tin-oxide nanopatterned structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various nanopatterns on the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layer are investigated to enhance the light extraction efficiency of the InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Triangular, square, and circular nanohole patterns with the square ...

Sang Hyun Jung; Keun Man Song; Young Su Choi; Hyeong-Ho Park; Hyun-Beom Shin; Ho Kwan Kang; Jaejin Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

FUNDAMENTAL MIXING AT 9.05 GHz USING INDIUM MICR0BRIDGES+ W.H. Howard, M.B. Stern and Y.H. Kao  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FUNDAMENTAL MIXING AT 9.05 GHz USING INDIUM MICR0BRIDGES+ W.H. Howard, M.B. Stern and Y.H. Kao made on single-bridge samples and on series arrays of microbridges. INTRODUCTION.- Josephson point by a micro- bridge array. The rod was then mounted in the wave- guide parallel to.the short dimension, so

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 384, 370375 (2008) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12708.x On the solar abundance of indium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the solar abundance of indium is over six times higher than the meteoritic value. We address meteoritic and solar abundance values. In this paper, we address this problem by considering the nucleosyntheMon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 384, 370­375 (2008) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12708.x On the solar

Rutten, Rob

254

Efficient Polymer Solar Cells Fabricated on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)-Etched Old Indium Tin Oxide Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In organic electronic devices, indium tin oxide (ITO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are the most common transparent electrode and anodic buffer layer materials, respectively. A widespread concern is that PEDOT:PSS is acidic and etches ITO. We show that this issue is not serious: only a few nanometers of ITO are etched in typical device processing conditions and storage thereafter; conductivity losses are affordable; and optical transmission gains further offset these losses. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices fabricated on old ITO (with PEDOT:PSS history) were similar or higher in efficiency than devices on fresh ITO. Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

Elshobaki, Moneim [Mansoura University; Anderegg, James [Ames Laboratory; Chaudhary, Sumit [Ames Laboratory

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

255

Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

256

Investigation of charge compensation in indium-doped tin dioxide by hydrogen insertion via annealing under humid conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behavior of hydrogen (H) as an impurity in indium (In)-doped tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) was investigated by mass spectrometry analyses, with the aim of understanding the charge compensation mechanism in SnO{sub 2}. The H-concentration of the In-doped SnO{sub 2} films increased to (12)??10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3} by annealing in a humid atmosphere (WET annealing). The electron concentration in the films also increased after WET annealing but was two orders of magnitude less than their H-concentrations. A self-compensation mechanism, based on the assumption that H sits at substitutional sites, is proposed to explain the mismatch between the electron- and H-concentrations.

Watanabe, Ken, E-mail: Watanabe.Ken@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ohsawa, Takeo; Ross, Emily M., E-mail: emross@hmc.edu; Adachi, Yutaka; Haneda, Hajime [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Isao; Takahashi, Ryosuke [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Bierwagen, Oliver, E-mail: bierwagen@pdi-berlin.de [Paul-Drude-Institute, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); White, Mark E.; Tsai, Min-Ying; Speck, James S., E-mail: speck@ucsb.edu [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ohashi, Naoki, E-mail: Ohashi.Naoki@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Magnesium indium oxide (MgIn2O4) spinel thin films: Chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) growth and materials characterizations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

MgIn2O4, which has an inverse spinel structure, has been adopted as the transparent material in optoelectronic device fabrication due to its high optical transparency and electrical conductivity. Such a technologically important material was prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique. Precursors prepared for the cationic ratio Mg/In=0.5 were thermally sprayed onto glass substrates at 400 and 450?C. We report herein the preparation and characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive absorption X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The XRD results showed the single phase formation of the material that revealed the presence of Mg2+ and In3+ in the inverse spinel-related structure. The FTIR and EDAX results further confirmed that the nanocrystalline films were mainly composed of magnesium, indium, and oxygen, in agreement with XRD analysis. We surmised from the AFM micrographs that the atoms have enough diffusion activation energy to occupy the correct site in the crystal lattice. For the 423-nm-thick magnesium indium oxide films grown at 400?C, the electrical conductivity was 5.63 10 ?6 S cm ?1 and the average optical transmittance was 63% in the visible range (400700 nm). Similar MgIn2O4 films deposited at 450?C have a conductivity value of 1.5 10 ?5 S cm ?1 and an average transmittance of 75%. Hall coefficient observations showed n-type electrical conductivity and high electron carrier concentration of 2.7 10 19 cm ?3 .

A. Moses Ezhil Raj; G. Selvan; C. Ravidhas; M. Jayachandran; C. Sanjeeviraja

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A final report for Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made FR-om gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the FR-ont surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed FR-om a layer of Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed FR-om the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 amps at -1 V o...

Vernon, S M

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Effect of substrate temperature on crystal orientation and residual stress in radio frequency sputtered galliumnitride films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal orientation and residual stress in gallium nitride(GaN)filmsdeposited on a single-crystal (0001) sapphire substrate using a sputtering system are examined through x-ray diffraction measurements as part of a study of low-temperaturesputtering techniques for GaN. The rf sputtering system has an isolated deposition chamber to prevent contamination with impurities and is expected to produce high-purity nitride films.GaNfilms are deposited at various substrate temperatures and constant gas pressure and input power. This system is found to produce GaNfilms with good crystal orientation with the c axes of GaN crystals oriented normal to the substrate surface. The crystal size of filmsdeposited at high temperature is larger than that deposited at low T s . All films except that deposited at 973 K exhibit compressive residual stress and this residual stress is found to decrease with increasing temperature. Finally the filmdeposited at 973 K was tinged with white and the surface contained numerous microcracks.

Kazuya Kusaka; Takao Hanabusa; Kikuo Tominaga; Noriyoshi Yamauchi

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

CO{sub 2} laser-based dispersion interferometer utilizing orientation-patterned gallium arsenide for plasma density measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dispersion interferometer based on the second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser in orientation-patterned gallium arsenide has been developed for measuring electron density in plasmas. The interferometer includes two nonlinear optical crystals placed on opposite sides of the plasma. This instrument has been used to measure electron line densities in a pulsed radio-frequency generated argon plasma. A simple phase-extraction technique based on combining measurements from two successive pulses of the plasma has been used. The noise-equivalent line density was measured to be 1.7 10{sup 17} m{sup ?2} in a detection bandwidth of 950 kHz. One of the orientation-patterned crystals produced 13 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 13 W of peak power. Two crystals arranged sequentially produced 58 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 37 W of peak power.

Bamford, D. J.; Cummings, E. A.; Panasenko, D. [Physical Sciences Inc., 6652 Owens Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States)] [Physical Sciences Inc., 6652 Owens Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States); Fenner, D. B.; Hensley, J. M. [Physical Sciences Inc., 20 New England Business Center, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States)] [Physical Sciences Inc., 20 New England Business Center, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Boivin, R. L.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Draft annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research aimed at gaining a better understanding of selenium cycling in marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait is being performed by scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and collaborators from the University of California at Davis. This work was initiated in the Fall of 1994 and is scheduled to continue through the Fall of 1996. This report summarizes the results of the effort to date.

Zawislanski, P.T.; McGrath, A.E.; Benson, S.M.; Mountford, H.S. [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning process and offers suggestions as to how the technical and institutional issues could have been resolved faster through early adoption of some of the core principles of sound EDSS design.

Quinn, N.W.T.

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Indium-tin-oxide-free tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al organic light-emitting diodes with 80% enhanced power efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs) with multilayered highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the anode are demonstrated. PEDOT:PSS/MoO{sub 3}/N,N'-diphenyl- N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPD)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq{sub 3})/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen)/LiF/Al SMOLEDs exhibited a peak power efficiency of 3.82 lm/W, 81% higher than that of similar ITO-based SMOLEDs (2.11 lm/W). The improved performance is believed to be due to the higher work function, lower refractive index, and decreased surface roughness of PEDOT:PSS vs ITO, and to Ohmic hole injection from PEDOT:PSS to the NPD layer via the MoO{sub 3} interlayer. The results demonstrate that PEDOT:PSS can substitute ITO in SMOLEDs with strongly improved device performance.

Cai, Min; Xiao, Teng; Liu, Rui; Chen, Ying; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

264

Effect of indium doping level on certain physical properties of CdS films deposited using an improved SILAR technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of indium (In) doping levels (0, 2, , 8at.%) on certain physical properties of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films deposited using an improved successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (ISILAR) method has been studied. In this improved SILAR technique, a fresh anionic solution was introduced after a particular number of dipping cycles in order to achieve good stoichiometry. All the deposited films exhibited cubic phase with (111) plane as preferential orientation. The calculated crystallite size values are found to be decreased from 54.80nm to 23.65nm with the increase in In doping level. The optical study confirmed the good transparency (80%) of the film. A most compact and pinhole free smooth surface was observed for the CdS films with 8at.% of In doping level. The perceived photoluminescence (PL) bands endorsed the lesser defect crystalline nature of the obtained CdS:In films. The chemical composition analysis (EDAX) showed the near stoichiometric nature of this ISILAR deposited CdS:In films.

K. Ravichandran; V. Senthamilselvi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Multilayer films of indium tin oxide/TiO2 codoped with vanadium and nitrogen for efficient photocatalytic water splitting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TiO22 films codoped with V cations and N anions were synthesised by RF-magnetron sputtering. The incorporation of V and N in TiO2 lattice produces isolated energy levels near the conduction and valence bands, respectively, causing an effective narrowing of the band gap to 2.5 eV. Recombination of photo-charges was reduced by depositing multilayer films of indium tin oxide (ITO)/V-N-codoped TiO2 with different numbers of bilayers. In multilayer structure, the generated photoelectrons, travelling into TiO2 film of limited thickness, rapidly enter the space charge interface of the ITO/TiO2 films from where they are instantaneously injected into the ITO layer and then removed towards the cathode. The synergic effects created by band narrowing and enhanced charge separation by using codoping and multilayer structure strategy in TiO2 generate higher photocurrent for water splitting under visible light which definitely exceeds that obtained by doping TiO2 with a single, V or N, element.

Z. El Koura; N. Patel; R. Edla; A. Miotello

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Electric Resistance Change Mechanism of Indium-Tin Oxide Film During Deposition of Dielectric Oxide Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric resistance change of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film was investigated when dielectric oxide films such as Sr(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 and Y2O3 for an electroluminescent device were deposited on the ITO by the rf magnetron sputtering method using oxide ceramic targets. In order to understand the mechanism of the resistance change, a dc voltage of -70~+70 V was biased to an ITO film during the sputtering of dielectric oxide films. The resistance of the ITO film became higher in the positive bias region. The cause of the increase in resistance of the ITO films was confirmed to be oxidation by the oxide targets and the sputtering gas. The amount of the resistance change could be qualitatively explained by the ratio of the oxygen introduced into the ITO film and the combined oxygen forming O2 gas at the ITO surface incident to the ITO film at the sputtering of the dielectric oxide films.

Tomizo Matsuoka; Jun Kuwata; Masahiro Nishikawa; Yosuke Fujita; Takao Tohda; Atsushi Abe

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hort-Range Wetting at Liquid Gallium-Bismuth Alloy Surfaces: X-ray Measurements and Square-Gradient Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an x-ray reflectivity study of wetting at the free surface of the binary liquid metal alloy gallium-bismuth (Ga-Bi) in the region where the bulk phase separates into Bi-rich and Ga-rich liquid phases. The measurements reveal the evolution of the microscopic structure of the wetting films of the Bi-rich, low-surface-tension phase along several paths in the bulk phase diagram. The wetting of the Ga-rich bulk's surface by a Bi-rich wetting film, the thickness of which is limited by gravity to only 50 Angstroms, creates a Ga-rich/Bi-rich liquid/liquid interface close enough to the free surface to allow its detailed study by x rays. The structure of the interface is determined with Angstromsngstrem resolution, which allows the application of a mean-field square gradient model extended by the inclusion of capillary waves as the dominant thermal fluctuations. The sole free parameter of the gradient model, the influence parameter K, that characterizes the influence of concentration gradients on the interfacial excess energy, is determined from our measurements. This, in turn, allows a calculation of the liquid/liquid interfacial tension, and a separation of the intrinsic and capillary wave contributions to the interfacial structure. In spite of expected deviations from MF behavior, based on the upper critical dimensionality (Du = 3 ) of the bulk, we find that the capillary wave excitations only marginally affect the short-range complete wetting behavior. A critical wetting transition that is sensitive to thermal fluctuations appears to be absent in this binary liquid-metal alloy.

Huber, P.; Shpyrko, O; Pershan, P; Ocko, B; DiMasi, E; Deutsch, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Ion exchange separation of plutonium and gallium (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent, and (3) facility size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report summarizes an effort intended to estimate within an order-of-magnitude the (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent amounts, and (3) facility size, for ion exchange (IX) separation of plutonium and gallium. This analysis is based upon processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr. The technical basis for this summary is detailed in a separate document, {open_quotes}Preconceptual Design for Separation of Plutonium and Gallium by Ion Exchange{close_quotes}. The material balances of this separate document are based strictly on stoichiometric amounts rather than details of actual operating experience, in order to avoid classification as Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. This approximation neglets the thermodynamics and kinetics which can significantly impact the amount of reagents required. Consequently, the material resource requirements and waste amounts presented here would normally be considered minimums for processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr; however, the author has compared the inventory estimates presented with that of an actual operating facility and found them similar. Additionally, the facility floor space presented here is based upon actual plutonium processing systems and can be considered a nominal estimate.

DeMuth, S.

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

270

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

Olsen, L. C.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Generalizing solubility parameter theory...of multicomponent solubility parameters for...N. , Role of solubility parameters in understanding...Bourlinos A. B. ., Aqueous-phase exfoliation...hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets . Journal...into indium and gallium selenides . Phys...

Valeria Nicolosi; Manish Chhowalla; Mercouri G. Kanatzidis; Michael S. Strano; Jonathan N. Coleman

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spectrum Poly-Si CdTe CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide) Organic and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 12;Cd... ;Light Concentration using Nanoparticle Plasmon Resonances 12;Dye...

275

Sorption behavior of Ga(III) and In(III) into a microcapsule containing long-chain alkylphosphonic acid monoester .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The sorption behavior of gallium and indium into a microcapsule containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester is investigated. The effects of pH and metal concentration on (more)

Kamio, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Spectroscopic Study of the Simultaneous Adsorption of PVP and Azelaic Acid on ?-Alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 180 backscattering geometry and an indium gallium arsenide detector were applied. ... The azelaic acid concentration was not equal in the two solvents, due to the limited solubility in water. ...

Ildik Szraz; Willis Forsling

2001-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

277

Nuvosun Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nuvosun Inc Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 94303-4601 Product: California-based copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) thin film PV maker. References: Nuvosun Inc1 This...

278

Association between oxygen vacancies and trivalent dopants in crystalline and amorphous ZnO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the structure and binding energies of clusters formed between oxygen vacancies and trivalent dopant atoms (indium, gallium and aluminium) substituted into zinc oxide. Our results show...

Muoz Ramo, D.; Chroneos, A.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Bristowe, P .D.

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

279

PTIP Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PTIP Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: PTIP Ltd Place: South Africa Sector: Solar Product: Thin-film Copper-indium-gallium-sulphur-selenide solar cell technology spinout from...

280

Distribution of arsenic, selenium, and other trace elements in high pyrite Appalachian coals: Evidence for multiple episodes of pyrite formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pennsylvanian coals in the Appalachian Basin host pyrite that is locally enriched in potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Hg, Pb, and Ni. A comparison of pyrite-rich coals from northwestern Alabama, eastern Kentucky, and West Virginia reveals differences in concentrations and mode of occurrence of trace elements in pyrite. Pyrite occurs as framboids, dendrites, or in massive crystalline form in cell lumens or crosscutting veins. Metal concentrations in pyrite vary over all scales, from microscopic to mine to regional, because trace elements are inhomogeneously distributed in the different morphological forms of pyrite, and in the multiple generations of sulfide mineral precipitates. Early diagenetic framboidal pyrite is usually depleted in As, Se, and Hg, and enriched in Pb and Ni, compared to other pyrite forms. In dendritic pyrite, maps of As distribution show a chemical gradient from As-rich centers to As-poor distal branches, whereas Se concentrations are highest at the distal edges of the branches. Massive crystalline pyrite that fills veins is composed of several generations of sulfide minerals. Pyrite in late-stage veins commonly exhibits As-rich growth zones, indicating a probable epigenetic hydrothermal origin. Selenium is concentrated at the distal edges of veins. A positive correlation of As and Se in pyrite veins from Kentucky coals, and of As and Hg in pyrite-filled veins from Alabama coals, suggests coprecipitation of these elements from the same fluid. In the Kentucky coal samples (n=18), As and Se contents in pyrite-filled veins average 4200ppm and 200ppm, respectively. In Alabama coal samples, As in pyrite-filled veins averages 2700ppm (n=34), whereas As in pyrite-filled cellular structures averages 6470ppm (n=35). In these same Alabama samples, Se averages 80ppm in pyrite-filled veins, but was below the detection limit in cell structures. In samples of West Virginia massive pyrite, As averages 1700ppm, and Se averages 270ppm (n=24). The highest concentration of Hg (?102ppm) is in Alabama pyrite veins. Improved detailed descriptions of sulfide morphology, sulfide mineral paragenesis, and trace-element concentration and distribution allow more informed predictions of: (1) the relative rate of release of trace elements during weathering of pyrite in coals, and (2) the relative effectiveness of various coal-cleaning procedures of removing pyrite. For example, trace element-rich pyrite has been shown to be more soluble than stoichiometric pyrite, and fragile fine-grained pyrite forms such as dendrites and framboids are more susceptible to dissolution and disaggregation but less amenable to removal during coal cleaning.

S.F. Diehl; M.B. Goldhaber; A.E. Koenig; H.A. Lowers; L.F. Ruppert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Synthesis of colloidal CuInSe2 nanoparticles by electrical spark discharge in liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents a low-cost, non-vacuum, and facile process for fabrication of CuInSe2 (CIS) nanoparticles using electrical discharge treatment of mixture of copper, indium, and selenium powders between two tu...

Mehdi Mardanian; Alena A. Nevar; Michael Nedelko

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Strong carrier localization and diminished quantum-confined Stark effect in ultra-thin high-indium-content InGaN quantum wells with violet light emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here, we report on the optical and structural characteristics of violet-light-emitting, ultra-thin, high-Indium-content (UTHI) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and of conventional low-In-content MQWs, which both emit at similar emission energies though having different well thicknesses and In compositions. The spatial inhomogeneity of In content, and the potential fluctuation in high-efficiency UTHI MQWs were compared to those in the conventional low-In-content MQWs. We conclude that the UTHI InGaN MQWs are a promising structure for achieving better quantum efficiency in the visible and near-ultraviolet spectral range, owing to their strong carrier localization and reduced quantum-confined Stark effect.

Ko, Suk-Min; Kwack, Ho-Sang; Park, Chunghyun; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Cho, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: yhc@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon-Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Kim, Hee; Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Si Dang, Le [Nanophysics and Semiconductors, CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Institut Nel, CNRS Grenoble, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Nanophysics and Semiconductors, CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Institut Nel, CNRS Grenoble, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

283

Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

Jung, Mi, E-mail: jmnano00@gmail.com, E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung [Korea Printed Electronics Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Jeollabuk-do, 561-844 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha, E-mail: jmnano00@gmail.com, E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Si-Hyung [School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

285

Zone Melting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...four-turn induction coils of water-cooled copper tubing...by introducing a bit of water vapor into the hydrogen...apparatus (6). The water vapor combines with the...indium antimo-nide, gallium arsenide, gallium phos-phide...

W. G. Pfann

1962-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

286

Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

InAs quantum wire induced composition modulation in an In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.37}Al{sub 0.10}As barrier layer grown on an InP substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composition modulations are observed by transmission electron microscopy in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.37}Al{sub 0.10}As barrier layers that overgrow both single- and multilayer InAs quantum wire structures grown on an InP substrate. Indium-rich (gallium-deficient) regions were observed in the region of the barrier layer lying directly above individual quantum wires, while indium-deficient (gallium-rich) regions were detected in the barrier above the gaps between adjacent underlying quantum wires. The magnitude of such modulation was typically 7% (atomic percent) for both indium and gallium as estimated from the energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The origin of such composition modulations was determined by modeling the chemical potential distribution for indium and gallium on the growth front of the barrier layer at the initial capping stage of the quantum wires with finite element simulations. It is found that the number and positions of the indium-rich regions are determined by the combined effects of strain and surface energy distributions on the barrier material capping the quantum wires. Moreover the estimated magnitudes of the composition modulation for both indium and gallium from the finite element models are in good agreement with the experimental observations. This method provides a simple way to understand the origin of, and to estimate the magnitude of the quantum wire-induced composition modulation in the barrier layer.

Cui, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Robinson, B. J. [Center for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Thompson, D. A. [Center for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Center for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Synthesis and Structure of Sr3GaN3 and Sr6GaN5:? Strontium Gallium Nitrides with Isolated Planar [GaN3]6- Anions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis and Structure of Sr3GaN3 and Sr6GaN5:? Strontium Gallium Nitrides with Isolated Planar [GaN3]6- Anions ... 9-19 In most cases, an alkaline earth metal is introduced into a Na melt to enhance the solubility of nitrogen, and is incorporated in the nitride product. ... The container was sealed by welding its open end in an argon atmosphere with active water-cooling so that NaN3 did not decompose due to heating during the welding. ...

Dong Gon Park; Zoltn A. Gl; Francis J. DiSalvo

2003-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

289

Enhancement of conduction noise absorption by hybrid absorbers composed of indium-tin-oxide thin film and magnetic composite sheet on a microstrip line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to develop wide-band noise absorbers with a focused design for low frequency performance, this study investigates hybrid absorbers that are composed of conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film and magnetic composite sheets. The ITO films prepared via reactive sputtering exhibit a typical value of electrical resistivity of ?10{sup ?4} ? m. Rubber composites with flaky Fe-Si-Al particles are used as the magnetic sheet with a high permeability and high permittivity. For the ITO film with a low surface resistance and covered by the magnetic sheet, approximately 90% power absorption can be obtained at 1?GHz, which is significantly higher than that of the original magnetic sheet or ITO film. The high power absorption of the hybrid absorber is attributed to the enhanced ohmic loss of the ITO film through increased electric field strength bounded by the upper magnetic composite sheet. However, for the reverse layering sequence of the ITO film, the electric field experienced by ITO film is very weak due to the electromagnetic shielding by the under layer of magnetic sheet, which does not result in enhanced power absorption.

Kim, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sung-Soo, E-mail: sskim@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

290

Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

It's Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements - Elements Listed by Atomic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Number Atomic Number 1 Hydrogen H 2 Helium He 3 Lithium Li 4 Beryllium Be 5 Boron B 6 Carbon C 7 Nitrogen N 8 Oxygen O 9 Fluorine F 10 Neon Ne 11 Sodium Na 12 Magnesium Mg 13 Aluminum Al 14 Silicon Si 15 Phosphorus P 16 Sulfur S 17 Chlorine Cl 18 Argon Ar 19 Potassium K 20 Calcium Ca 21 Scandium Sc 22 Titanium Ti 23 Vanadium V 24 Chromium Cr 25 Manganese Mn 26 Iron Fe 27 Cobalt Co 28 Nickel Ni 29 Copper Cu 30 Zinc Zn 31 Gallium Ga 32 Germanium Ge 33 Arsenic As 34 Selenium Se 35 Bromine Br 36 Krypton Kr 37 Rubidium Rb 38 Strontium Sr 39 Yttrium Y 40 Zirconium Zr 41 Niobium Nb 42 Molybdenum Mo 43 Technetium Tc 44 Ruthenium Ru 45 Rhodium Rh 46 Palladium Pd 47 Silver Ag 48 Cadmium Cd 49 Indium In 50 Tin Sn 51 Antimony Sb 52 Tellurium Te 53 Iodine I 54 Xenon Xe 55 Cesium Cs 56 Barium Ba 57 Lanthanum La 58 Cerium Ce

292

Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III: Results for the 2002--2007 data-taking period  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in Dec. 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. We give here the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in Dec. 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through Dec. 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4 (+3.1)(-3.0) (stat) (+2.6)(-2.8) (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 +/- 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced 37Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior 51Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87 +/- 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63-66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be (6.0 +/- 0.8) x 10^(10)/(cm^2 s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

SAGE Collaboration; J. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. V. Gorbachev; P. P. Gurkina; T. V. Ibragimova; A. V. Kalikhov; N. G. Khairnasov; T. V. Knodel; I. N. Mirmov; A. A. Shikhin; E. P. Veretenkin; V. E. Yants; G. T. Zatsepin; T. J. Bowles; S. R. Elliott; W. A. Teasdale; J. S. Nico; B. T. Cleveland; J. F. Wilkerson

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Crystal structure and chemistry of a complex indium phosphate framework material, (ethylenediammonium)In{sub 3}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry and structure of a novel indium phosphate material (RIPS-4), (H{sub 3}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3})In{sub 3}-P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 2}, are described. RIPS-4 was synthesized using ethylene diamine as a structure-directing organic agent. The X-ray crystal structure was determined from a 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 Multiplication-Sign 42 {mu}m{sup 3} crystal in space group C2/m with a=18.662(4) A, b=6.600(2) A, c=12.573(3) A and {beta}=120.92(1) Degree-Sign . The structure consists of a complex edge- and vertex-shared open framework of InO{sub 6} octahedra and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra enclosing cavities occupied by ethylenediamonium ions. One set of octahedra share opposing edges to form chains along the b-axis matching the structural unit in rutile (TiO{sub 2}). This rutile edge-shared chain has its projecting oxygen atoms shared with the vertexes of either a PO{sub 4} tetrahedron or a second type of InO{sub 6} octahedron. The O atoms are 2-connected, each to one In and one P, except for two protonated O atoms (hydroxyl groups) that connect to two and three In atoms, giving three- and four-coordinate O atoms, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The unique topology contains an unusual 4-connected oxygen atom (O{sub 1}) in a complex edge- and vertex-shared open framework of InO{sub 6} octahedra (blue) and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra (yellow) that encloses cavities occupied by ethylenediammonium ions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure has a unique open-framework topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The framework contains an unusual 4-connected oxygen atom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen bonds hold the ethylenediammonium ions in the cavities.

Broach, Robert W., E-mail: robert.broach@uop.com [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); Bedard, Robert L. [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States)] [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); King, Lisa M., E-mail: lisa.king@uop.com [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); Pluth, Joseph J., E-mail: pluth@cars.uchicago.edu [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); The University of Chicago, The Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Smith, Joseph V. [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)] [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kirchner, Richard M., E-mail: richard.kirchner@manhattan.edu [Manhattan College, Chemistry Department, Bronx, NY 10471 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have low Se levels. {yields} Smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status.

Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Liu, Kiang [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Steve Morris, J. [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States)] [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States); Guo, Zhongqin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China) [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China); Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); He, Ka, E-mail: kahe@unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Carrier localization in gallium nitride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In wide bandgap GaN, a large number of interesting and important scientific questions remain to be answered. For example, the large free electron concentration reaching 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup - 3} in nominally undoped material are ascribed to intrinsic defects because no chemical impurity has been found at such high concentrations. According to theoretical models, a nitrogen vacancy acts as a donor but its formation energy is very large in n-type materials, making this suggestion controversial. We have investigated the nature of this yet unidentified donor at large hydrostatic pressure. Results from infrared reflection and Raman scattering indicate strong evidence for localization of free carriers by large pressures. The carrier density is drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude between 20 and 30 GPa. Several techniques provide independent evidence for results in earlier reports and present the first quantitative analysis. A possible interpretation of this effect in terms of the resonant donor level is presented.

Wetzel, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Walukiewicz, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Realization of indium liquidus point  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Glass Rod, and Thermi. stor Reading vs Time (yZ) 43 ThRLN 2 PRT OUTPUT VS. HEhTlNG VOLThGR Voltage on hluainua PRT Output (aV) 22 g 28 g 28 N 29 N 32 M 34 N 13. 600 14. 391 14 ~ 395 14. 393 14. 414 3. Final Results The cell... FOR CONSTANT CURRENT SUPPLT TABLE B-I DATA fOR CONSTANT CURRENT WITHIN HOURS (4/28/83) Tias (hr ~ ( aiu ) Output Voltsgs (aV) 35. 02507 35. 02505 35. 02496 35. 02498 TABLE B-II DATA FOR CONSTANT CURRENT WITHIN HOURS (6/22/83) Tias (hr. : ain. ) Output...

Feng, En-Ling

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

High-efficiency solar cells fabricated from direct-current magnetron sputtered n-indium tin oxide onto p-InP grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar cells based on dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide onto epitaxially grown films of p-InP have been fabricated and analyzed. The best cells had a global efficiency of 18.4% and an air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 16.0%. The principal fabrication variable considered was the constituency of the sputtering gas and both argon/hydrogen and argon/oxygen mixtures have been used. The former cells have the higher efficiencies, are apparently stable, and exhibit almost ideal junction characteristics. The latter cells are relatively unstable and exhibit much higher ideality factors and reverse saturation current densities. The temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current indicates totally different charge transfer mechanisms in the two cases.

Li, X.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.; Emery, K.A.; Coutts, T.J.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

The Photoelectric Property of Selenium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN the letter which appeared in NATURE of December 26, Prof. Minchin does not state what kind of air-pump he used to exhaust ...

RICHARD J. MOSS

1908-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

299

Selenium Poisons Refuge, California Politics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...water project would have to include a drain to carry off minerals that were collecting in the root beds. Underlying the west valley is a thick zone ofclay that effectively creates a bathtub beneath the fields. A steady flow offresh water is needed...

ELIOT MARSHALL

1985-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

300

Selenium Poisons Refuge, California Politics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dissent and bury data. One retired 33-year FWS veteran, for-mer...Valley, called the San Luis Unit. As early as 1951, farmers...built the San Luis irrigation unit and began delivering water in...to the United States.-MARK CRAWFORD SCIENCE, VOL. 229146

ELIOT MARSHALL

1985-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150?C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100?C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi'an 710071 (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

302

This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. Download details  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S is found as a window layer for thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide based solar cells. The recent advances in CdTe/CdS thin film technology and fabrication Materials allowed CdTe/CdS solar cells to emerge as a leader in the growing market of thin film module production

Khare, Sanjay V.

303

Synthesis and use of (perfluoroaryl) fluoro-aluminate anion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A trityl perfluorophenyl alumninate such as tris(2,2',2"-nonafluorobiphenyl)-fluoroaluminate (PBA.sup..crclbar.) and its role as a cocatalyst in metallocene-mediated olefin polymerization is disclosed. Gallium and indium analogs are also disclosed, as are analogs with different anyl groups or different numbers of flourine atoms thereon.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Functional materials: electronics, information and sensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Functional materials are those that have properties enabling them to preform a specific functional purpose, e.g. electrical, magnetic or optical. The rapid development of the technology of transistors and intergrated circuits will continue into the future with design incorporating new materials, notably gallium arsenide. Silica glass is finding increasing application in photonics, light emitting diodes and optical fibres for telephone cables. Optical-fibre technology depends on reliable and durable lasers which now use compound semiconductors such as indium-gallium-arsenide phosphide. It is anticipated that new materials application (indium-gallium-arsenide phosphide) will contribute towards progress in photovoltaics. Interest in superconducting material has heightened during 1980s with the promise that high-temperature superconductivity offers for more-efficient power generation and transmission. In future advantage will come from developing economic and reliable ways of producing functional materials to meet increasing demand.

Merton C. Flemings

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Electronic properties of gallium nitride nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a systematic study of the electrical transport in GaN nanowires. Particularly, the effect of the surrounding dielectric on the conductivity of GaN nanowires is experimentally shown for the first time. ...

Yoon, Joonah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Interactions of gallium with zircaloy cladding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The accepted options for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) are immobilization or conversion to a mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. There are two benefits of conversion, one, the plutonium can't be converted back... into a viable weapon and two, the material could be used as an energy producing natural resource. Typical reactors use uranium dioxide enriched with about 3'le U-235. The proposed MOX fuel would consist of depleted uranium with WGPu. In order...

Mitchell, Lee Josey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

308

Spectroscopy of gallium selenide nanoparticle nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the presence of GaSe nanoparticle nuclei which are non-Superradiance in GaSe Nanoparticle Aggregates, Journal ofStrongly-Coupled GaSe Nanoparticle Aggregates, Journal of

Lair, Deborah L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Designing Asynchronous Circuits in Gallium Arsenide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3.2.2 Super Buffered Fet Logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 18 4 A New Logic Family 21 4.1 Input Stage : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 21 4.1.1 Inverter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 34 5.2.2 Output stage : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 36 5.2.3 Delay model and power

Martin, Alain

310

Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M. Ozkan, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 11 (M. Ozkan, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 10 (C. S. Ozkan, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 9 (

Penchev, Miroslav Valentinov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

response upon exposure to IPA vapor, followed by Ar gas. b)gas. c) Current response to IPA vapor exposure alternated bybefore and after exposure to IPA vapor.95 Figure 4.6 a)

Penchev, Miroslav Valentinov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics 3 (2008) 119-203. A.in electronics, optoelectronics, and sensing. Indiumelectronics and optoelectronics; it is a direct consequence

Penchev, Miroslav Valentinov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A role of selenium against methylmercury toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... at molar base was two or more times higher than that of Se estimated by flameless atomic absorption. Moreover, methylmercury from the benzene phase could be removed by cysteine solution ...

K. SUMINO; R. YAMAMOTO; S. KITAMURA

1977-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

314

Dual functional selenium-substituted hydroxyapatite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Kappler, J., Marrack, P. C. 1999 Reactive oxygen species...Perlot, R. L., Jr , Shapiro, I. M., Mansfield, K., Adams, C. S. 2002 Matrix regulation...Szymczyk, K. H., Shapiro, I. M., Adams, C. S. 2007 Matrix regulation...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Field and laboratory investigations of selenium transformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the preparation and results of a field investigation of a selected coal mine site in Oklahoma. The field investigation has been on-going since July 1990. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se mobility from a coal mine site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of reclaimed land. Also, included is the investigation and preliminary results of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption and desorption using different soil media, including coal mine spoils (overburden).

Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

Drinkard, Jr., William F. (Charlotte, NC); Long, Mark O. (Charlotte, NC); Goozner; Robert E. (Charlotte, NC)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

317

CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

86: Categorical Exclusion Determination 86: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) Manufacturing Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 01/05/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Loan Guarantee Program Office The Department of Energy's proposed action is to issue a loan guarantee to Stion Corporation to retrofit Stion's solar panel manufacturing plant at 6321 San Ignacio Avenue in San Jose, California and expand into an adjacent building at 6331 San Ignacio Avenue in order to establish a 135 megawatt nameplate capacity manufacturing plant. Stion produces monolithically integrated thin film photovoltaic modules using single-junction Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) absorbers. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

318

Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas July 3, 2013 - 2:04pm Addthis Kim Kisslinger, a researcher at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials seen here with a focused-ion beam instrument, reduced the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) samples to a thickness of just 20 nanometers to prepare them for electron microscopy. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Kim Kisslinger, a researcher at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials seen here with a focused-ion beam instrument, reduced the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) samples to a thickness of just 20 nanometers to prepare them for electron microscopy. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux

319

Modeling and simulation of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} based thin film solar cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide) based solar cell structure has been simulated. We have been calculated short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the cell. The thickness of the absorption layer is varied from 400 to 3000 nm, keeping the thickness of other layers unchanged. The effect of absorption layer thickness over cell performance has been analyzed and found that the efficiency increases upto 22% until the thickness of the absorption layer reaches around 2000 nm.

Kumari, S., E-mail: sarita.kumari132@gmail.com; Verma, A. S. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Rajasthan-304022 (India); Singh, P.; Gautam, R. [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engg. and Tech., Ghaziabad-201206 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

320

NREL Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many scientists once believed that high-quality gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) alloys could not be grown for use as semiconductors because the alloys would separate. However, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) thought differently, and they employed GaInP in a material combination that allowed the multijunction cell to flourish. The multijunction cell is now the workhorse that powers satellites and the catalyst for renewed interest in concentrator photovoltaic products.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Synthesis and Characterization of Anionic and Cationic Poly(ferrocenylsilane) Polyelectrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

5 Thin films of such block copolymers, e.g., poly(ferrocenyldimethylsilane-block-isoprene), can serve as self-assembling templates, enabling nanometer-sized patterns to be transferred directly into silicon or silicon nitride substrates by reactive ion etching. ... Transition temperatures were calibrated using cyclohexane, gallium, and indium standards. ... (29)?The solubility of 5 in water decreases above pH 7, while 8 becomes less soluble at pH < 6. ...

Mark A. Hempenius; Fabiane F. Brito; G. Julius Vancso

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Block Copolymer Templated Chemistry for the Formation of Metallic Nanoparticle Arrays on Semiconductor Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of key ingredients for many future applications is the ability to precisely pattern nanoscale features on technologically relevant semiconductor surfaces such as silicon and germanium, as well as compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide and indium phosphide. ... Deposition of these metals is possible presumably due to the water solubility of their oxides:? Ge oxide,14c As oxide,24 and P oxide25 are soluble in water. ...

Masato Aizawa; Jillian M. Buriak

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

323

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Kitt C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

325

Fabrication of a gated gallium arsenide heterostructure resonant tunneling diode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallization process ivas required because separate potentials must be apphed to the top and base ol' the defined mesas. A potent&al is apphed to the top of the mesas to inject carriers for tunneling through the douhle barrier heterostructures A. rectifying... was a demetal/degrease cleanup process which re- moved any contamination that may have been nn the wal'er. This process ivas followed by deposition of AuGe/Ni on the ivafer's backside which ivill provide an ohmic contact after annealing. The backside...

Kinard, William Brian

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Neutron irradiation effects on gallium nitride-based Schottky diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS), time-resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and current-voltage measurements together show that fast versus thermal neutrons differ strongly in their electronic and morphological effects on metal-GaN Schottky diodes. Fast and thermal neutrons introduce GaN displacement damage and native point defects, while thermal neutrons also drive metallurgical reactions at metal/GaN interfaces. Defect densities exhibit a threshold neutron fluence below which thermal neutrons preferentially heal versus create new native point defects. Scanning XPS and DRCLS reveal strong fluence- and metal-dependent electronic and chemical changes near the free surface and metal interfaces that impact diode properties.

Lin, Chung-Han; Katz, Evan J.; Zhang, Zhichun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States); Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mishra, Umesh K. [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Brillson, Leonard J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States) [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Center for Materials Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

327

Au-free Ohmic Contacts to Gallium Nitride and Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. ................................................................................................. 43 Figure 28 Specific contact resistivity of co-sputtered Ti-Ta contact calculated after RTA at different temperatures ......................................................... 43 Figure 29 PMMA transfer method for transferring CVD grown...

Ravikirthi, Pradhyumna

2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

Production of gallium-66, positron emitting nuclide for radioimmumotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Excitation functions for production of {sup 66}Ga via {alpha}-induced nuclear reactions on enriched {sup 66}Zn have been measured with E{sub {alpha}}{le}27.3 MeV and E{sub {alpha}}{le}43.7 MeV employing the stack-thin target technique. In addition, the induced activity of {sup 67}Ga in the same sets of targets allowed an evaluation of the excitation functions of the corresponding nuclear reactions. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Chu, Yung Yee (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To develop ESG into a viable bulk growth process for GaN that is more scalable to large-area wafer manufacturing and able to produce cost-effective, high-quality bulk GaN substrates.

330

Superconductivity in gallium-substituted Ba8Si46 clathrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

superconductor, with an onset at T-C approximate to 3.3 K. For x=10 and higher, no superconductivity was observed down to T=1.8 K. This represents a strong suppression of superconductivity with increasing Ga content, compared to Ba8Si46 with T-C approximate to 8...

Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ning; Luo, Z. P.; Ma, Xingqiao; Cao, Guohui; Feng, Z. S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Rutherford backscattering analysis of gallium implanted 316 stainless steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental Procedure Sample Analysis 3 3 . 9 . 11 HI THEORY. . IH. 1 Backscattering Principles HI. 2 The RBS Spectrum IH. 3 The Surface Energy Approximation . . . HI. 4 Stainless Steel 316. . IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . 13 . 13 15... for the disposition of weapons grade (WG) plutonium (Pu) in the United States: MOX fuel conversion and immobilization. The first option uses nuclear reactors to transmutate WG Pu and the second imbeds the WG Pu in glass logs for deep burial. Due to the large amount...

Ortensi, Javier

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Ohmic contact metallization on p-type indium phosphide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contact resistivities comparable to those of Au-based contacts, determined by the Cox and Strack structure, can be obtained for a pure Pd contact on p-InP (hole concentration -3xlOl' cm-'). The defects can be identified to be related with phosphorus...

Park, Moonho

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

zinc oxide (GZO) uniformly over a 12 diameter area at room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). During deposition, the system heats to about 60oC due to the...

334

Thermal neutron flux perturbation due to indium foils in water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

press) 13. Axford, R. A. , and Day, G. M. , personnel communication. 14. Ritchie, R. H. , Thermal Neutron Flux De ression, Health Physics Division Annual Prog. Rep. July, 1958, ORNL-2806, p. 133. 27 i 5, Walker, J. V. , "The Measurement of Absolute... Fluxes in Water and Graphite, " 'ORNL- 2842, 204 (f959). ...

Stinson, Ronald Calvin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Synthesis and characterization of single-crystal indium nitride nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in visible light range, and high-efficiency solar cells.2 Furthermore, InN has distinct advantages over Ga-solid (VLS) approach using a single-zone furnace at 500 °C,6 and a diameter distribution from 40 to 80 nm-zone furnace for InN nanowire synthe- sis. This technique allowed us to use a high-temperature zone (700 °C

Zhou, Chongwu

336

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

71 - 13980 of 28,560 results. 71 - 13980 of 28,560 results. Download CX-010894: Categorical Exclusion Determination Graphene-Based Composite Sensor for Energy Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010894-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010895-categorical-exclusion-determination

337

NREL: News - NREL Reports 31.1% Efficiency for III-V Solar Cell  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

913 913 NREL Reports 31.1% Efficiency for III-V Solar Cell Conversion-efficiency mark is a world record for a two-junction solar cell measured under one-sun illumination June 24, 2013 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Lab has announced a world record of 31.1% conversion efficiency for a two-junction solar cell under one sun of illumination. NREL Scientist Myles Steiner announced the new record June 19 at the 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference in Tampa, Fla. The previous record of 30.8% efficiency was held by Alta Devices. The tandem cell was made of a gallium indium phosphide cell atop a gallium arsenide cell, has an area of about 0.25 square centimeters and was measured under the AM1.5 global spectrum at 1,000 W/m2. It was grown inverted, similar to the NREL-developed inverted metamorphic multi-junction

338

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

31 - 9940 of 29,416 results. 31 - 9940 of 29,416 results. Download CX-010893: Categorical Exclusion Determination Modification to Demolish Building 900A and Reconstruct Building 900 Project CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B1.15 Date: 06/28/2013 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010893-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010894: Categorical Exclusion Determination Graphene-Based Composite Sensor for Energy Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010894-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride

339

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

71 - 13680 of 26,764 results. 71 - 13680 of 26,764 results. Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010895-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010896: Categorical Exclusion Determination California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative (SUMMARY Categorical Exclusion) CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010896-categorical-exclusion-determination

340

Definition: Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Photovoltaics Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Photovoltaics Pertaining to the direct conversion of light into electricity[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Due to the increased demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Engineering  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic Engineering Photovoltaic Engineering Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering at NREL supports commercial and emerging PV technology development. Our support covers the following three areas: Engineering Testing and Evaluation. We provide engineering testing and evaluation of PV products developed by companies during work sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). We determine if products meet performance criteria established by DOE for a company's contractual obligations. Standards Development. We support the development of national and international standards. Current work includes investigating methods of preconditioning cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium diselenide PV modules so that when they are tested for reporting conditions, the results are correlated with subsequent field measurements.

342

Improved method of preparing p-i-n junctions in amorphous silicon semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junctions for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes depositing amorphous silicon on a thin layer of trivalent material, such as aluminum, indium, or gallium at a temperature in the range of 200/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C. At this temperature, the layer of trivalent material diffuses into the amorphous silicon to form a graded p/sup +/-i junction. A layer of n-type doped material is then deposited onto the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer in a conventional manner to finish forming the p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junction.

Madan, A.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

Characterization of Irradiated Starches by Using FT-Raman and FTIR Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Degradation of starch polymers resulting in decreased viscosity and increased water solubility, and increased acidity with increasing radiation doses are potential changes observed in irradiated starches. ... FT-Raman spectra were obtained using a Nicolet 870 spectrometer with the Raman module 32B (Madison, WI) and Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with a maximum power of 2 W. The system was equipped with an InGaAs (Indium?Gallium Arsenide) detector, XT-KBr beam-splitter with 180 reflective optics, and a fully motorized sample position adjustment feature. ...

Ramazan Kizil; Joseph Irudayaraj; Koushik Seetharaman

2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

344

Crystal Engineering Approach To Forming Cocrystals of Amine Hydrochlorides with Organic Acids. Molecular Complexes of Fluoxetine Hydrochloride with Benzoic, Succinic, and Fumaric Acids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectroscopic analyses were carried out on a Thermo Nicolet 960 spectrometer equipped with an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) detector. ... Fluoxetine hydrochloride and cocrystals 2 and 4 were stable in water at 20 C such that the equilibrium solubility values could be obtained at this temperature (Table 7). ... Approximate solubilities in water are as follows:? benzoic acid, 0.34 g/100 g at 25 C;18 succinic acid, 7.5 g/100 g at 25 C;19 fumaric acid, 0.61 g/100 g at 25 C. ...

Scott L. Childs; Leonard J. Chyall; Jeanette T. Dunlap; Valeriya N. Smolenskaya; Barbara C. Stahly; G. Patrick Stahly

2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

345

Fabrication of Semiconductors by Wet Chemical Etch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arsenide. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1994. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK A selective wet etch process to re- move GaAs epitaxial cap layers from underlying InGaP layers has been de- veloped using a solution of H2SO4: H2O2:deionized water at a rate... the computing and electronics industries. Semiconducting materials, such as silicon, germanium, gallium ar- senide, and indium phosphide, are neither good insulators nor good con- ductors, but they have intrinsic electri- cal properties so that by controlled...

Francoviglia, Laura

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Effectiveness of a dopant in U-Zr metallic fuel to prevent lanthanide migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (about 50%) without requiring refueling by way of using metallic alloy fuel have gained interest. Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and its migration to cladding and reaction with cladding is a potential life-limiting phenomenon. As a means to solve this problem, adding an element that forms stable compounds with lanthanides to immobilize them has been proposed. The theoretical assessment shows that indium, thallium, gallium, and antimony are good candidates. Except for Sb, because these elements are low-melting temperature elements, liquid metal embrittlement of cladding is a concern if large sized agglomerates exist contacting the cladding. Alloy characterization of as-fabricated samples was performed to examine the effectiveness of the dopant addition method using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Although preliminary, the present results showed that indium is a better dopant to immobilize lanthanides.

Kim, Yeon Soo; Wieneck, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J. [Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Selenium accumulation in the cockle Anadara trapezia Dianne F. Jolleya,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion, fly- ash from coal-fired power stations, sewage effluent (Kirby et al., 2001a; Maher and Batley , Jennelle Kydc a GEOQUEST, Department of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia b

Canberra, University of

349

Metabolic and Functional Defects in Selenium Deficiency [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide. The interrelation...intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide, which affect...detriment to the cellular economy. In the field of human...intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide, which affect...detriment to the cellular economy. In the field of human...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Field and laboratory investigations of selenium transformation. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the preparation and results of a field investigation of a selected coal mine site in Oklahoma. The field investigation has been on-going since July 1990. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se mobility from a coal mine site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of reclaimed land. Also, included is the investigation and preliminary results of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption and desorption using different soil media, including coal mine spoils (overburden).

Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Determination of Selenium in Seleno Compounds and Marine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Journalof Analytical I Atomic I Spectrometry M. DEAKER AND W. MAHER determination; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry; seleno compounds; marine biological tissues; chemical modijcation Electrothermal (graphite furnace) atomic absorption spec- trometry (ETAAS

Canberra, University of

352

Prediagnostic Toenail Selenium and Risk of Bladder Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...growth, and reproduction (10 , 11) . Several animal, ecological, and epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that...smoking); occupational exposure to dye, rubber, leather, or vehicle fumes (ever/never); and first-degree family history...

Maurice P. A. Zeegers; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Peter Bode; and Piet. A. van den Brandt

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Development of a small selenium barrier layer photovoltaic cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anther in gsetsfs1 to the Qspartuent of Hgeiea of %s 4griea1tnrn1 ang gee~ CoLhegs ?f %arse for making it passive te esrry ?n the rsesareh in desaXstdng ths ana11 eslenbin barrier leper photesektals sally te Prafsaesr 5 g, Vase@ for esggaating...

Pruett, George Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

354

Recombination in Low-Bandgap InGaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review our investigation of recombination in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As with indium concentrations ranging between x=0.53 (i.e., lattice-matched to InP) and x=0.78. External radiative efficiency measurements were used to study how defect-related and Auger mechanisms compete with radiative recombination. The results indicated that deep mid-gap levels facilitate defect-related recombination in lattice-matched InGaAs while shallower levels play a more important role in the indium-rich alloys. Subsequent sub-bandgap photoluminescence measurements confirmed the presence of deep levels in the lattice-matched InGaAs. The superlinear excitation dependence of the sub-gap emission led to a defect-related deep-donor/shallow-acceptor pair model. Recent cathodoluminescence measurements of the subgap transitions show no spatial contrast, supporting the assignment of this mechanism to evenly distributed point defects. We hypothesize that the deep states observed in lattice-matched InGaAs are related to imperfections in the incorporation of indium or gallium, which become less likely as the indium concentration is increased.

Gfroerer, T. H.; Wanlass, M. W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1996. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used

356

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2006. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits. Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

357

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1998. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

358

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2000. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

359

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2003. One company in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

360

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2012. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace, consumer goods, industrial equipment, medical

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2008. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

362

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2001. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as consumer goods

363

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2005. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits. Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

364

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2007. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

365

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2009. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

366

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2010. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

367

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1999. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

368

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2011. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light% was used in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were

369

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1997. Two companies in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

370

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2004. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumed was used in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes% was used in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were

371

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

74 (19) 2821 (1999). F. H. Spedding, Rare-earth Elements, inby the use of rare- earth elements as color emitters inpowders activated with rare-earth elements Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ ,

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential lighting using incandescent lights [2], as shownenergy used for the incandescent lamp is wasted as infraredlight source to replace incandescent lighting [1]. Figure

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

(Data in metric tons, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: No indium was recovered from ores in the United States in 1995. Domestic indium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, refinery NA NA NA NA -- Imports for consumption 36.3 36.3 73.4 70.2 73.0 Exports NA NA NA NA NA marketed through a U.S. company. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery

374

Hydrogen Adsorption on the Indium-Rich Indium Phosphide (001) Surface: A Novel Way to Produce Bridging In-H-In  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bridging In-H-In Bonds K. Raghavachari,§ Q. Fu, G. Chen, L. Li, C. H. Li, D. C. Law, and R. F. Hicks, two types of bridging hydrides were identified, a (µ-H)In2 and a (µ-H)2In3 "butterfly-like" structure compounds with bridged hydrogen bonds have been unsuccess- ful, except in the case of the salts K[H{In(CH2

Li, Lian

375

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

376

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Bioforti?ed Foods Garyavonoids found in Opuntia fruit can enhance the function ofof total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is

Banuelos, Gary S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

BridgeLux | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BridgeLux BridgeLux Jump to: navigation, search Logo: BridgeLux Name BridgeLux Address 1170 Sonora Court Place Sunnyvale, California Zip 94086 Sector Efficiency Product Designs and makes high power indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes Website http://www.bridgelux.com/ Coordinates 37.371138°, -121.998365° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.371138,"lon":-121.998365,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

378

NREL: Awards and Honors - R&D 100 Awards  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R&D 100 Awards R&D 100 Awards Since its inception as the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in 1977, NREL/SERI has won 52 R&D 100 awards. 2013 Image Processing Occupancy Sensor (IPOS) Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs) Mono-crystalline Solar Cells 2012 Desiccant-enhanced Evaporative (DEVAP) Air-Conditioning Cycle SJ3 Solar Cells 2011 Innovalight Silicon Ink Process Flash Quantum Efficiency (Flash QE) System for Solar Cells Optical Cavity Furnace 2010 "Black Silicon" Nanocatalytic Wet-Chemical Etch Amonix 7700 Solar Power Generator 2009 Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) SkyTrough(tm) Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrating Collector PowerPlane UX Microbattery 2008 Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell Hybrid CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide)

379

Global Solar Energy Inc GSE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GSE GSE Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Solar Energy Inc (GSE) Place Tucson, Arizona Zip 85747 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells with factory in Tucson, Arizona. Coordinates 32.221553°, -110.969754° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.221553,"lon":-110.969754,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

380

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass April 22, 2010 - 4:20pm Addthis Delaware-based DuPont is working to develop ultra-thin moisture protective films for photovoltaic panels - so thin they're about 1,000 times thinner than a human hair. DuPont is working on new photovoltaic technology that will let manufacturers of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS, solar cells and organic light emitting diodes, or OLED, displays protect products with thin layers of ceramic and polymer material instead of glass. These ultra-thin protective films could help prevent deterioration from moisture. Because of their potential to reduce the cost of producing solar energy, "thin-film PV modules are projected to be the fastest-growing segment of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video. Text Alternative NREL has capabilities and experts in measurements, characterization, reliability, engineering, scientific computing, and theory to support photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) across a range of conversion technologies and scales. Conversion technologies include the primary areas of silicon, polycrystalline thin films (cadmium telluride [CdTe], copper indium gallium diselenide [CIGS]), III-V-based multijunctions, and organic PV. And scales of interest range from materials, to cells, modules, and systems. Measurements and Characterization Photo of a hand holding tweezers pinching a square wafer that is striped gold and black. We provide a huge range of techniques for measuring and characterizing PV

382

Definition: Semiconductor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Semiconductor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Semiconductor Any material that has a limited capacity for conducting an electric current. Certain semiconductors, including silicon, gallium arsenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride, are uniquely suited to the photovoltaic conversion process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity to a degree between that of a metal (such as copper) and that of an insulator (such as glass). Semiconductors are the foundation of modern solid state electronics, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), quantum dots and digital and analog integrated circuits. A semiconductor may have a number of unique properties, one of which is the

383

Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical Circuits Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical Circuits Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement Designed chemical interactions of liquid-metal-filled microcapsules target areas of microstructural damage and restore conductive pathways. Significance and Impact Selective self-healing mechanism extends the lifetime and reliability of electronic devices including battery electrodes. Research Details Liquid Indium-Gallium metal-filled microcapsules restore nearly 99% of the

384

California | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

January 10, 2011 January 10, 2011 Vintage DOE: What is Fusion This edition of vintage DOE pulls a discussion of nuclear fusion from the video archive. January 10, 2011 CX-004965: Categorical Exclusion Determination California-City-Walnut Creek CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 01/10/2011 Location(s): Walnut Creek, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy January 5, 2011 CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) Manufacturing Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 01/05/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Loan Guarantee Program Office December 17, 2010 EIS-0455: Notice of Adoption of an Environmental Impact Statement Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA December 17, 2010 EIS-0403: DOE and BLM Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic

385

HelioVolt Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

HelioVolt Corporation HelioVolt Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name HelioVolt Corporation Place Austin, Texas Zip TX 78744 Product Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV module manufacturer based in Austin, Texas. Website http://www.heliovolt.net/ Coordinates 30.267605°, -97.742984° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.267605,"lon":-97.742984,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

386

NREL Scientists Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet), Innovation: The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scientists Spurred the Success Scientists Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells Before 1984, many scientists believed that high-quality gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) alloys could not be grown for use as semiconductors because the alloys would separate. One researcher at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) thought differently. His name was Jerry Olson, and his innovative thinking changed solar history. Olson identified a material combination that allowed the multijunction cell to flourish. It is now the workhorse that powers satellites and the catalyst for renewed interest in concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) products. In the early 1980s, Olson was a scientist at SERI, the predecessor of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). At the time, solar researchers were looking for the ideal combina-

387

CX-005363: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5363: Categorical Exclusion Determination 5363: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005363: Categorical Exclusion Determination Solar Junction's 100 Megawatt Manufacturing Line CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 03/04/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Loan Guarantee Program Office The Department of Energy's proposed action is to issue a loan guarantee to Solar Junction to finance a 100 megawatt (MW) solar cell manufacturing line for multifunction photovoltaic solar cells to expand their existing 7 MW Demonstration Facility at 401 Charcot Avenue, San Jose, California 95131. The proposed project will commercialize an entirely new class of high-efficiency solar cells and concentrating photovoltaic components that incorporate high performance junctions formed with a tunable band gap semiconductor material, Gallium Indium Nitride Arsenide.

388

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed the United States to attain world leadership in this area of solar technology. Three national R&D teams focused on thin-film semiconductor materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and its alloys. The Module Reliability Team and Environmental Health and Safety Team were crosscutting. The teams comprised researchers from the solar industry, academia, and NREL who focused their efforts on improving materials, devices, and manufacturing processes-all

389

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass April 22, 2010 - 4:20pm Addthis Delaware-based DuPont is working to develop ultra-thin moisture protective films for photovoltaic panels - so thin they're about 1,000 times thinner than a human hair. DuPont is working on new photovoltaic technology that will let manufacturers of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS, solar cells and organic light emitting diodes, or OLED, displays protect products with thin layers of ceramic and polymer material instead of glass. These ultra-thin protective films could help prevent deterioration from moisture. Because of their potential to reduce the cost of producing solar energy, "thin-film PV modules are projected to be the fastest-growing segment of

390

BridgeLux Inc former eLite Optoelectronics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BridgeLux Inc former eLite Optoelectronics BridgeLux Inc former eLite Optoelectronics Jump to: navigation, search Name BridgeLux Inc (former eLite Optoelectronics) Place Sunnyvale, California Zip 94086 Product Developer and provider of indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (InGaN LEDs) for solid state lighting, mobile appliance, signage, and automotive applications. References BridgeLux Inc (former eLite Optoelectronics)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. BridgeLux Inc (former eLite Optoelectronics) is a company located in Sunnyvale, California . References ↑ "BridgeLux Inc (former eLite Optoelectronics)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=BridgeLux_Inc_former_eLite_Optoelectronics&oldid=34303

391

Reactions of 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5 ethers with metal acetylacetonate ions in the gas phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was carried out on the ion-molecule reactions of ions arising in the dissociation of ferric, cobaltic, chromic, manganous, neodymium(II), gallium(III), and indium(III) acetylacetonates upon electron impact with 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5. The ratio of the yields of (acac)x-1 /SUP M+L/ ions is determined by the case of reduction of M /SUP x+1+/ to M /SUP x+/ and for (acac)/sub 3/M complexes, this ratio decreases in the series Nd, In, GA > Cr > Fe, Co. The rate constant for the formation of acacCoL/sup +/ ions is greater than for acacFeL/sup +/ ions. The possibility of fixing transition metals in unstable oxidation states by crown ethers is demonstrated in the case of nickel.

Timofeev, O.S.; Bogatskii, A.V.; Gren, A.I.; Lobach, A.V.; Nekarsov, Y.S.; Zagorevskii, D.V.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

392

Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels.

Srivastava, S.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

NREL photovoltaic subcontract reports: Abstracts and document control information, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains document control information and abstracts for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontracted photovoltaic program publications. It also lists source information on additional publications that describe US Department of Energy (DOE) PV research activities. It is not totally exhaustive, so it lists NREL contacts for requesting further information on the DOE and NREL PV programs. This report covers the period from August 1, 1991, through July 31, 1992. The purpose of continuing this type of publication is to help people keep abreast of specific PV interests, while maintaining a balance on the costs to the PV program. The information in this report is organized under PV technology areas: Amorphous silicon research; polycrystalline thin films (including copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and thin-film silicon); crystalline materials and advanced concepts (including silicon, gallium arsenide, and other group III-V materials); and PV manufacturing technology development (which may include manufacturing information for various types of PV materials).

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

1999-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Sintered CdSexTe1x Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

solar cell; nanocrystal; CdTe; CdSexTe1?x; layer-by-layer; solution-processed; sintered ... For instance, devices fabricated using cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) based active layers have exhibited laboratory scale power conversion efficiencies up to 17.3%(1) and 20.3%,(2) respectively, at commercial production costs as low as US $0.75/Watt. ... (20) More recently, the graded device concept has been extended to solution-processed organic solar cells, through a series of complementary donor materials(21) and to PbS quantum dot devices, where bandgap grading was accomplished through variation of the QD diameter. ...

Brandon I. MacDonald; Alessandro Martucci; Sergey Rubanov; Scott E. Watkins; Paul Mulvaney; Jacek J. Jasieniak

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

396

I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell utilizing the structure CuInGaSe.sub.2 CdZnS/ZnO  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell having a first layer of copper indium gallium selenide, a second layer of cadmium zinc sulfide, a double layer of zinc oxide, and a metallization structure comprised of a layer of nickel covered by a layer of aluminum. An optional antireflective coating may be placed on said metallization structure. The cadmium zinc sulfide layer is deposited by means of an aqueous solution growth deposition process and may actually consist of two layers: a low zinc content layer and a high zinc content layer. Photovoltaic efficiencies of 12.5% at Air Mass 1.5 illumination conditions and 10.4% under AMO illumination can be achieved.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

FTIR and FT-PL Spectroscopic Analysis of TPV Materials and Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 102 micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Olson, M. R.; Wu, X.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M. W.; Jones, K. M.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

398

Adaptation of thin-film photovoltaic technology for use in space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anticipated deployment of large numbers of satellites in low earth orbit (LEO) for global telecommunications networks renews interest in producing solar power systems that are lightweight, robust, resistant to radiation damage, and relatively inexpensive. Promising near term thin-film candidates are amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). The authors discuss the modifications that are necessary to adapt terrestrial thin-film technology for use in space. The authors characterize expected module performance and present results of tests performed on sample cells. They consider the possibility of achieving aggressive cost, weight, and performance targets through the use of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology.

Fairbanks, E.S.; Gates, M.T. [Boeing Commercial Space Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Low-Cost Label-Free Electrical Detection of Artificial DNA Nanostructures Using Solution-Processed Oxide Thin-Film Transistors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As stabilizers, monoethanolamine (MEA) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were dropped to ameliorate the solubility of the precursors and make a homogeneous IGZO solution, respectively. ... Prepared DNA-covered mica sheet was attached onto the metal puck using instant glue and 5 ?L of DX solution, 30 ?L of 1 TAE/Mg2+ buffer was dropped onto the mica and 10 ?L of 1 TAE/Mg2+ buffer was mounted onto the AFM tip (A NP-S oxide-sharpened silicon nitride tip). ... The original influence of water on the back-channel of sol-gel derived amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors was studied in various relative humidity environments. ...

Si Joon Kim; Joohye Jung; Keun Woo Lee; Doo Hyun Yoon; Tae Soo Jung; Sreekantha Reddy Dugasani; Sung Ha Park; Hyun Jae Kim

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

400

Novel Porphyrin-Incorporated Hydrogels for Photoactive Intraocular Lens Biomaterials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is possible that the resulting high concentration of TPPS may have cross-linked the hydrogels to such an extent that it significantly reduced the solubility and/or diffusion rate of oxygen into the doped polymers. ... The 1O2 detection system was a liquid-nitrogen-cooled Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) detector (Judson Technologies Inc., Montgomeryville, PA, type J22D-M204-R01M-60-1.7) with a 1 mm2 active area. ... Overall, the data for TMPyP in MAA:HEMA suggest that loading water-soluble porphyrins into swellable acrylate-based gels leads to only minor perturbation in the photophysical and 1O2 generating properties of their excited states. ...

Clare Brady; Steven E. J. Bell; Carole Parsons; Sean P. Gorman; David S. Jones; Colin P. McCoy

2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Investigation of channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Letter investigates abnormal channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Unlike drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, the wider the channel, the larger the threshold voltage observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider channel devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast IV measurement is utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation.

Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan; Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bo-Liang [Advanced Display Technology Research Center, AU Optronics, No. 1, Li-Hsin Rd. 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory INEEL/CON-03-00078  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication in a This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication in a journal or proceedings. Since changes may be made before publication, this preprint should not be cited or reproduced without permission of the author. This document was prepared as a account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, or any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for any third party's use, or the results of such use, of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use by such third party would not infringe privately owned rights. The views expressed in this paper are

403

Dependence of carrier mobility on an electric field in gallium selenide crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of the mobility of charge carriers on voltage has been studied in undoped GaSe single crystals and crystals doped with gadolinium; the latter crystals have exhibited various values of dark resistivity ({rho}{sub d.r} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}-10{sup 8} {Omega} cm at 77 K) and of the doping level (N = 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4}, 10{sup -3}, 10{sup -2}, and 10{sup -1} at %). It is established that the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility on the electric field applied to the sample E {<=} 10{sup 2} V/cm is observed in undoped high-resistivity GaSe crystals ({rho}{sub d.r} {>=} 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm) and in lightly doped GaSe crystals (N {<=} 10{sup -2} at %) in the region of T {<=} 150 K. It is found that this dependence is not related to heating of the charge carriers by an electric field; rather, it is caused by elimination of drift barriers as a result of injection.

Abdinov, A. Sh., E-mail: abdinov_axmed@yahoo.com; Babaeva, R. F., E-mail: Babaeva-Rena@yandex.ru; Rzayev, R. M. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Structure and electronic properties of saturated and unsaturated gallium nitride nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic and electronic structures of saturated and unsaturated GaN nanotubes along the [001] direction with (100) lateral facets are studied using first-principles calculations. Atomic relaxation of nanotubes shows that appreciable distortion occurs in the unsaturated nanotubes. All the nanotubes considered, including saturated and unsaturated ones, exhibit semiconducting, with a direct band gap. Surface states arisen from the threefold-coordinated N and Ga atoms at the lateral facets exist inside the bulk-like band gap. When the nanotubes saturated with hydrogen, these dangling bond bands are removed from the band gap, but the band gap decreases with increasing the wall thickness of the nanotubes.

Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Shengjie; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

405

Growth Kinetics and Doping of Gallium Nitride Grown by rf-Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thomas H. Myers, Ph.D., Chair Larry E. Halliburton, Ph.D. Nancy C. Giles, Ph.D. Charter D. Stinespring Giles, Dr. Charter Stinespring, Dr. Larry Halliburton, and Dr. Mohindar Seehra. In addition, I would

Myers, Tom

406

Theoretical study of sequential oxidation of clusters of gallium oxide: Ga3On (n: 48)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as well as addition (and removal) of an electron leads to significant changes in the geometry oxide clusters, we found that the structural changes induced by addition and removal of an electron properties of neutral and ionized small GamOn (m,n = 1,2) clusters [2]. Addition of an electron introduced

Pandey, Ravi

407

The determination of titanium, germanium and gallium by charged particle activation analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V FWHM for the 1. 332 MeV y-ray of Co; Peak-to-Compton ratio: 20. 1; 60 Efficiency relative to a 3 x 3 inch NaI (Tl) detector for the 1. 332 MeV y-ray measured at 25 cm distance: 3 05%%d Data Ac uisition and Processin Data was acquired via a 4096... of the reaction had to be sufficiently high to make measurements of ppm level concentrations feasible. The thick target yields were calculated by correlating the activities of the particular Y-rays 16 back to the time at the end of the irradiation...

Novak, Leo Robert

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Luminescent Properties of CdS Crystals Doped with Gallium and Tellurium in Cadmium Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique is devised for vapor-phase doping CdS in the quaternary system CdGaTeS. CdS crystals are doped with Ga and Te via four-zone ... and Cd (the more volatile component of CdS). The luminescence spectra...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; M. E. Rubina

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Identification of the gallium vacancy-oxygen pair defect in GaN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cation vacancies like V{sub Ga}, V{sub Al} and their complexes with oxygen are predicted to be abundant in III-nitrides and to play an important role in nonradiative recombination. Appearing in triple or double negatively charged states, they are not paramagnetic and have not so far been detected by magnetic resonance even under illumination. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate an efficient way to make cation vacancy defects in GaN detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance and present our identification of the V{sub Ga}O{sub N} pair in GaN which is the model material for the III-nitrides and their alloys.

Son, N. T.; Hemmingsson, C. G.; Janzen, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Paskova, T.; Evans, K. R. [Kyma Technologies Inc., 8829 Midway West Road, Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Usui, A. [R and D Division, Furukawa Co., Ltd., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan); Morishita, N.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Isoya, J. [Graduate School of Library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550 (Japan); Monemar, B. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

4.2.3.4 Magnetic neutron scattering in terbium, holmium and dysprosium gallium garnets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This document is part of Subvolume E Garnets of Volume 27 Magnetic Properties of Non-Metallic Inorganic Compounds Based on Transition Elements of Landolt-Brnstein - Group III Condensed Matter.

Z. A. Kazei; N. P. Kolmakova; V. I. Sokolov

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Non-Destructive Spent Fuel Characterization with Semi-Conducting Gallium Arsinde Neutron Imaging Arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High resistivity bulk grown GaAs has been used to produce thermal neutron imaging devices for use in neutron radiography and characterizing burnup in spent fuel. The basic scheme utilizes a portable Sb/Be source for monoenergetic (24 keV) neutron radiation source coupled to an Fe filter with a radiation hard B-coated pixellated GaAs detector array as the primary neutron detector. The coated neutron detectors have been tested for efficiency and radiation hardness in order to determine their fitness for the harsh environments imposed by spent fuel. Theoretical and experimental results are presented, showing detector radiation hardness, expected detection efficiency and the spatial resolution from such a scheme. A variety of advanced neutron detector designs have been explored, with experimental results achieving 13% thermal neutron detection efficiency while projecting the possibility of over 30% thermal neutron detection efficiency.

Douglas S. McGregor; Holly K. Gersch; Jeffrey D. Sanders; John C. Lee; Mark D. Hammig; Michael R. Hartman; Yong Hong Yang; Raymond T. Klann; Brian Van Der Elzen; John T. Lindsay; Philip A. Simpson

2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

412

Radiation-Hardened Gallium Nitride Detector and Arrays for Fusion Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This poster reports testing to confirm that GaN devices exhibit the extreme radiation hardness needed for use at the NIF, functioning properly after 1x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2} proton irradiation in one year.

Sun, K. X., and MacNeil, L.

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

413

SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

SAGE Collaboration

414

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenide gallium nitride Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An advanced diffusion model to identify emergent research issues: the case of optoelectronic devices Summary: instrumentation Absorption coefficients Aluminium Nitrides Aluminium...

415

Identification of a physical metallurgy surrogate for the plutonium1 wt.?% gallium alloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Future plutonium research is expected to be limited due to the downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex and an industry focus on environmental remediation and decommissioning of former manufacturing and research facilities. However the need to further the understanding of the behavior of plutonium has not diminished. Disposition of high level residues long-term storage of wastes and certification of the nuclear stockpile through the Stockpile Stewardship Program are examples of the complex issues that must be addressed. Limited experimental facilities and the increasing cost of conducting plutonium research provide a strong argument for the development of surrogate materials. The purpose of this work was to identify a plutonium surrogate based on fundamental principles such as electronic structure and then to experimentally demonstrate its viability.

Frank E. Gibbs; David L. Olson; William Hutchinson

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman Spectroscopy and XPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the evolution of composition of oxide films in the presence of zirconia coatings on miniature HT-9 alloy specimens subjected to elevated temperature in air. The experiments expanded on previous efforts to develop a quick-screening technique for candidate alloys for cladding materials (HT-9) and actinide-based mixed oxide fuel mixtures (represented by the zirconia coating) by investigating the effect of both coating composition and alloy pretreatment conditions on the high temperature reactions. In particular, the presence of the element Ga (a potential impurity in mixed oxide fuel) in the initial zirconia coating was found to accelerate the rate of oxide growth relative to that of yttria-stabilized zirconia studied previously. In addition, HT-9 samples that were subjected to different thermal pretreatments gave different results. The results suggest that the presence of Ga in a mixed oxide fuel will enhance the corrosion of HT-9 cladding under the conditions of this study, although the extent of enhancement is influenced by thermal pretreatment of the cladding material. The results also demonstrate the need to combine Raman spectroscopy with other techniques, particularly photoelectron spectroscopy, for optimizing composition and/or fabrication conditions of both cladding and oxide fuels for advanced nuclear reactors.

Windisch, Charles F.; Henager, Charles H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bennett, Wendy D.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fabrication of an optically driven 10 GHz ring resonator on a gallium arsenide substrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/D converters, optical detectors, dc to rf converters, and millimeter-wave or microwave generators. Photoconductors can be easily integrated with microelectronic devices as well as microwave circuits. Recently, an optically excited photoconductive switch... is the barrier height and y, is the electron affinity for the semiconductor. Current flow at a metal-semiconductor barrier is due mainly to majority carriers. The four major current transport methods are thermionic emission over the barrier, quantum...

McGregor, Douglas Scott

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Gallium-68 Bioorthogonal Tetrazine Polymers for the Multistep Labeling of Cancer Biomarkers /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M, Fox JM (2008) Tetrazine ligation: fast bioconjugationR, Hilderbrand SA (2008) Tetrazine-Based Cycloadditions:of Cancer Cells through a Tetrazine/trans- Cyclooctene

Nichols, Brandon Edward

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Thermodynamic properties of gallium hydroxide oxide (alpha -GaOOH) at temperatures to 700 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...periodically removed from the reactor at the experimental temperature...titanium filter inserted in the reactor cover. Each sample was divided...and V. Pokrovskii greatly improved the presentation and clarity...doctorat, Universit Paul-Sabatier de Toulouse, 166 p. Diakonov...

Gleb S. Pokrovski; Igor I. Diakonov; Pascale Benezeth; Vyacheslav M. Gurevich; Konstantin S. Gavrichev; Vadim E. Gorbunov; Jean-Louis Dandurand; Jacques Schott; Igor L. Khodakovsky

420

Process development for the fabrication of monolithic optoelectronic resonators on gallium arsenide substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of greater solubility wash away. The wafers were immersed in a diluted MF312 developer snd slightly agitated. When development was completed, the wafers were rinsed with deionized (DI) water and blown dry. Hard baking in a low pressure chamber removes any... of greater solubility wash away. The wafers were immersed in a diluted MF312 developer snd slightly agitated. When development was completed, the wafers were rinsed with deionized (DI) water and blown dry. Hard baking in a low pressure chamber removes any...

Fairchild, Brock Wilson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Testing the Reactor and Gallium Anomalies with Intense (Anti)Neutrino Emitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several observed anomalies in neutrino oscillation data could be explained by a hypothetical fourth neutrino separated from the three standard neutrinos by a squared mass difference of a few 0.1 eV$^2$ or more. This hypothesis can be tested with MCi neutrino electron capture sources ($^{51}$Cr) or kCi antineutrino $\\beta$-source ($^{144}$Ce) deployed inside or next to a large low background neutrino detector. In particular, the compact size of this source coupled with the localization of the interaction vertex lead to an oscillating pattern in event spatial (and possibly energy) distributions that would unambiguously determine neutrino mass differences and mixing angles.

Th. Lasserre

2012-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

Heat treatment of bulk gallium arsenide using a phosphosilicate glass cap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

n-type bulk GaAs crystals, capped with chemically vapor-deposited phosphosilicate glass, were heat treated at temperatures in the range of 600 to 950 /sup 0/C. Measurements on Schottky diodes and solar cells fabricated on the heat-treated material, after removal of a damaged surface layer, show an increase in free-carrier concentration, in minority-carrier-diffusion length, and in solar-cell short-circuit current. The observed changes are attributed to a removal of lifetime-reducing acceptorlike impurities, defects, or their complexes.

Mathur, G.; Wheaton, M.L.; Borrego, J.M.; Ghandhi, S.K.

1985-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Hydrogen passivation of EL2 defects and H2*-like complex formation in gallium arsenide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A complex formed by one As antisite (AsGa), one As, and two H atoms is proposed, in GaAs, which is reminiscent of the H2* defect in crystalline Si and properly accounts for the hydrogen neutralization of the EL2 deep donor activity. It is noticeably stable, in agreement with experimental results. The geometry and electronic structure of this complex present interesting connections with those of the isolated As antisite which clarify the EL2 passivation mechanism.

A. Amore Bonapasta

1995-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Strong plasmon resonances have been observed in the terahertz transmission spectra (15 THz) of large-area slit-grating-gate AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistor(HEMT) structures at temperatures from 10 to 170 K. The resonance frequencies correspond to the excitation of plasmons with wave vectors equal to the reciprocal lattice vectors of the metal grating which serves both as a gate electrode for the HEMT and a coupler between plasmons and incident terahertz radiation. Wide tunability of the resonances by the applied gate voltage demonstrates potential of these devices for terahertz applications.

A. V. Muravjov; D. B. Veksler; V. V. Popov; O. V. Polischuk; N. Pala; X. Hu; R. Gaska; H. Saxena; R. E. Peale; M. S. Shur

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Picosecond response of gallium-nitride metalsemiconductormetal photodetectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metalsemiconductormetal ultraviolet photodiodes fabricated on GaN were tested in the picosecond regime with an electro-optic sampling system. A device with a feature size of 1 ?m showed a response with 1.4 ps rise time and 3.5 ps full width at half maximum. The derived electron velocity 1.4310 7 ? cm/s is in good agreement with independent photoexcitation measurements. A slower impulse response was observed in a device with smaller feature size of 0.5?? m .

Jianliang Li; Ying Xu; T. Y. Hsiang; W. R. Donaldson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Control of the emission wavelength of gallium nitride-based nanowire light-emitting diodes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Halbleiter-Nanosulen (auch -Nanodrhte) werden als Baustein fr Leuchtdioden (LEDs) untersucht. Herkmmliche LEDs aus Galliumnitrid (GaN) bestehen aus mehreren Kristallschichten auf einkristallinen Substraten. Ihr Leistungsvermgen wird (more)

Wlz, Martin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

The Hall mobility measurement of Liquid Phase Epitaxy grown aluminum gallium arsenide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

allows lasing action at or above room temperature. The utility of AI?Ga& ?As is based on the close latti&e match to GaAs over a range of Al mole fraction between zero and one(Fig. 1)IS). This is significant since heterojunctions between s...-type by occupying the site normally orc?pi& d by th& gro?p V element, ar?l acting as a donor. For the p-type of AI?Ga& ?As. %1g was used as an i&np?ri&y. Fig. 10 and Fig. 11 show I he r&'lal ionship bet wc?n th& in&p?r&I& & o???& r?t ?&n??&l t he alorr&i& weight...

Choi, Young-Shig

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

Gallium arsenide thermal conductivity and optical phonon relaxation times from first-principles calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, thermal conductivity of crystalline GaAs is calculated using first-principles lattice dynamics. The harmonic and cubic force constants are obtained by fitting them to the force-displacement data from density ...

Luo, Tengfei

429

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis gallium-67 lung Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ILD... , interstitial lung disease, texture analysis, co-occurrence matrix, computed tomography I. INTRODUCTION Computer... %. The aim of our work is to develop a novel texture ......

430

Gallium solar neutrino experiments: Absorption cross sections, neutrino spectra, and predicted event rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar neutrino sources with standard energy spectra, and for laboratory sources of 51 Cr and 37 Ar; the calculations include, where appropriate, the thermal energy of fusing solar ions and use improved nuclear the energy spectrum of solar neutrinos. Theoretical uncertainties are estimated for cross sections

Bahcall, John

431

Effects of simulated fission products on the mechnical properties of zircaloy-2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room temperature tensile tests were carried out on Zircaloy-2 specimens exposed to the simulated fission products tellurium, selenium, bromine, iodine, cadmium, indium, antimony, and molybdenum up to 3.6 Ms (1000 h) in the temperature range from 623 to 973 K. Exposure at 623 or 773 K did not significantly affect either strength or elongation values of Zircaloy-2, irrespective of the chemical environment. All specimens showed high reduction of area and ductile fracture morphology. Exposure to these elements at 973 K, on the other hand, results in a general reduction of the tensile properties at room temperature; in fact, iodine, bromine, and molybdenum cause nonductile fracture with little or no reduction of area. These results are significant, since molybdenum is an abundant fission product.

Kohli, R.; Holub, F.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The role of correlation entropy in nuclear fusion in liquid lithium, indium and mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear fusion cross-sections considerably higher than corresponding theoretical predictions are observed in low-energy experiments with metal matrix targets and accelerated deuteron beams. The cross-section increment is significantly higher for liquid than for solid targets. We propose that the same two-body correlation entropy used in evaluating the metal melting entropy explains the large liquid-solid difference of the effective screening potential that parameterizes the cross-section increment. This approach is applied to the specific case of the $^6$Li(d,$\\alpha$)$^4$He reaction, whose measured screening potential liquid-solid difference is $(235 \\pm 63)$ eV. Cross sections in the two metals with the highest two-body correlation entropy (In and Hg) have not yet been measured: increments of the cross sections in liquid relative to the ones in solid metals are estimated with the same procedure.

M. Coraddu; M. Lissia; P. Quarati; A. M. Scarfone

2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

433

Development of indium arsenide quantum dot solar cells for high conversion efficiency.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Sunlight is the largest energy source available on earth. Under clear conditions there is approximately 1,000 watts per directly incident square meter, which reaches the (more)

El-Emawy, Mohamed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

The role of correlation entropy in nuclear fusion in liquid lithium, indium and mercury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear fusion cross-sections considerably higher than corresponding theoretical predictions are observed in low-energy experiments with metal matrix targets and accelerated deuteron beams. The cross-section increment is significantly higher for liquid than for solid targets. We propose that the same two-body correlation entropy used in evaluating the metal melting entropy explains the large liquid-solid difference of the effective screening potential that parameterizes the cross-section increment. This approach is applied to the specific case of the $^6$Li(d,$\\alpha$)$^4$He reaction, whose measured screening potential liquid-solid difference is $(235 \\pm 63)$ eV. Cross sections in the two metals with the highest two-body correlation entropy (In and Hg) have not yet been measured: increments of the cross sections in liquid relative to the ones in solid metals are estimated with the same procedure.

Coraddu, M; Quarati, P; Scarfone, A M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The active dopant concentration in ion implanted indium tin oxide thin films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of oxygen ion implantation on the electrical and optical properties of Sn?doped In2O3 (ITO) thin films sputter deposited from a planar magnetron source on glass substrates is described. The films were characterized as a function of the implanted dose (3101311016 O+ cm?2) by Hall effect resistivity and optical transmission measurements. The dependencies observed are explained in terms of the deactivation of the Sn dopant and the removal of oxygen vacancies. In this way an estimate of the amount of electrically active Sn contributing to the carrier density in as?deposited films was obtained. Furthermore the accompanying changes in the band gap with decreasing free?carrier density could be explained quantitatively in terms of the BursteinMoss effect.

T. J. Vink; M. H. F. Overwijk; W. Walrave

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Highly transparent Nb-doped indium oxide electrodes for organic solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigated the characteristics of Nb-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (INbO) films prepared by co-sputtering of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} for use in transparent anodes for organic solar cells (OSCs). To optimize the Nb dopant composition in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix, the effect of the Nb doping power on the resistivity and transparency of the INbO films were examined. The electronic structure and microstructure of the INbO films were also investigated using synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction examinations in detail. At the optimized Nb co-sputtering power of 30?W, the INbO film exhibited a sheet resistance of 15??/sq, and an optical transmittance of 86.04% at 550?nm, which are highly acceptable for the use as transparent electrodes in the fabrication of OSCs. More importantly, the comparable power conversion efficiency (3.34%) of the OSC with an INbO anode with that (3.31%) of an OSC with a commercial ITO anode indicates that INbO films are promising as a transparent electrode for high performance OSCs.

Kim, Jun Ho; Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seok-In [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Jeongju-si, Jellabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kwun-Bum [Department of Physics, Dankook University, Mt. 29, Anseo-Dong, Chenan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Sulfur incorporation into copper indium diselenide single crystals through annealing in hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuInSe{sub 2} crystals were sulfurized in a H{sub 2}S-Ar gas mixture at 575 deg. C. The focus was on the resulting mass transport, in particular, on the interdiffusion of Se and S. Experiments were done for various sulfurization times, and the resulting S distribution was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling and analyzed with the Boltzmann-Matano method. A one-dimensional diffusion process had shaped the S distribution in these crystals. The respective diffusion coefficient was on the order of 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s, and it varied only slightly with the S content in CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}.

Titus, Jochen; Birkmire, Robert W.; Hack, Christina; Mueller, Georg; McKeown, Patrick [Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Crystal Growth Laboratory, Department of Materials Science, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Evans East, Princeton, New Jersey 08520 (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Indium and tellurium doping of CdS crystals in cadmium vapor and their luminescent properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique is devised for vapor-phase doping of CdS in the quaternary system Cd-In-Te-S. CdS crystals are doped with In and Te via four-zone ... InTe vapors. The luminescence spectra of the CdS?In,Te?[Cd] crysta...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; M. E. Rubina

439

Indium and tellurium doping of CdS crystals in cadmium vapor and their luminescent properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique is devised for vapor-phase doping of CdS in the quaternary system CdInTeS. CdS crystals are doped with In and Te via four-zone ... InTe vapors. The luminescence spectra of the CdS?In,Te?[Cd] cryst...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; M. E. Rubina

440

Undoped and indium-doped CdS films prepared by chemical vapour deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Undoped and In-doped films of CdS were deposited at different temperatures by the ... and good adherence to the substrate. The doped films have higher electron mobility values compared ... (Moss-Burstein effect) ...

G. Meyer; J. Saura

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effect of indium doping and annealing on photoconducting property of wurtzite type CdS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we observed the effect of doping and annealing on the dark current and anomalous photoconducting behavior of hexagonal wurtzite CdS, synthesized by solid state reaction method. Undoped CdS sample sh...

Vineet Kumar Singh; Pratima Chauhan; Sheo Kumar Mishra

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 ? BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80?000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Chen, Ying-Pin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Zhou, Hong-Cai, E-mail: zhou@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States)

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Indium in co-existing minerals from the Mount Pleasant tin deposit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...i E > i l q ' R E F 5 8 E"'i e 8t; * F N *., itsd; t r i i. t o. o q b r eErE.5o q o F tEa69 HiEE-!d# 6-?Ep t s = o * {ffd5d' x q o E:1 5 U Y'C'rEn 6 q ? I E'6EI d F...

R. S. Boorman; D. Abbott

444

PROCESSING ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIUM-ARSENIDE-BASE HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the forward plasma power was kept at $100 W with 5.0 sccm CF4 plus 10.0 sccm Ar gas flow. The dry etching rate

445

Indium phosphide based integrated photonic devices for telecommunications and sensing applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photonics is an exciting area of study that is situated at the cross-section of physics, material science, and electrical engineering. The integration of photonic devices serves to reduce the size, weight, power consumption, ...

Shih, Ta-Ming, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Indium-Vanadium Oxides Deposited by Radio Frequency Sputtering: New Thin Film Transparent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in order to determine their possible applications in electrochromic devices as optically passive ion-vis-NIR transmittance and reflectance modes, have demonstrated that films are electrochromic, but the presence in electrochromic devices (ECD) with variable light transmission ("smart windows").2,3 As has been demonstrated

Artuso, Florinda

447

High thermoelectric performance by resonant dopant indium in nanostructured SnTe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge...02467bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139...work is supported by the Solid-State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S...

Qian Zhang; Bolin Liao; Yucheng Lan; Kevin Lukas; Weishu Liu; Keivan Esfarjani; Cyril Opeil; David Broido; Gang Chen; Zhifeng Ren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for efficient photovoltaic cells. , Nature Nanotechnology,Part II Photovoltaic Cell I-V Characterization Theory andof the photovoltaic effect in the 19 th century, solar cells

Tu, Bor-An Clayton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

High thermoelectric performance by resonant dopant indium in nanostructured SnTe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From an environmental perspective, lead-free SnTe would be preferable for solid-state waste heat recovery if its thermoelectric figure-of-merit could be brought close to that of the lead-containing chalcogenides. In this ...

Liao, Bolin

450

Naval Research Laboratory`s programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Naval Research Laboratory has been involved in developing InP solar cell technology since 1988. The purpose of these programs was to produce advanced cells for use in very high radiation environments, either as a result of operating satellites in the Van Allen belts or for very long duration missions in other orbits. Richard Statler was technical representative on the first program, with Spire Corporation as the contractor, which eventually produced several hundred, high efficiency 2 x 2 sq cm single crystal InP cells. The shallow homojunction technology which was developed in this program enabled cells to be made with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 19%. Many of these cells have been flown on space experiments, including PASP Plus, which have confirmed the high radiation resistance of InP cells. NRL has also published widely on the radiation response of these cells and also on radiation-induced defect levels detected by DLTS, especially the work of Rob Walters and Scott Messenger. In 1990 NRL began another Navy-sponsored program with Tim Coutts and Mark Wanlass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to develop a one sun, two terminal space version of the InP-InGaAs tandem junction cell being investigated at NREL for terrestrial applications. These cells were grown on InP substrates. Several cells with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 22% were produced. Two 2 x 2 sq cm cells were incorporated on the STRV lA/B solar cell experiment. These were the only two junction, tandem cells on the STRV experiment. The high cost and relative brittleness of InP wafers meant that if InP cell technology were to become a viable space power source, the superior radiation resistance of InP would have to be combined with a cheaper and more robust substrate. The main technical challenge was to overcome the effect of the dislocations produced by the lattice mismatch at the interface of the two materials.

Summers, G.P.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Stimulated Raman scattering from free holes in p-type indium antimonide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stimulated Raman scattering from photoexcited holes at magnetic fields up to 68 kG in p-InSb is described. Experiments varying excitation wavelength, magnetic field, polarization, and sample orientation are discussed. A comparison of the experimental results with the latest valence-band calculations allows the identification of the energy levels involved in the scattering process. For sample orientation H???100?, the initial state is the valence-band Landau level ALH 101+31 and the final state is BHH 313-31. ALH, BLH are the "light hole" ladders (approximate spin M=+32 and M=-32, respectively). AHH, BHH are the "heavy hole" ladders (approximate spin M=-12 and M=+12, respectively). For the orientation H???111? initial state and final state are BLH 000+ and AHH 32O+, respectively. The holes involved in this Raman scattering process always have a nonzero momentum along the direction of the magnetic field (kH?0). The largest Raman shift we measured was about 2.7 cm-1.

R. Ebert, H. Pascher, and H. G. Hfele

1981-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Race To Replace Tin-Doped Indium Oxide: Which Material Will Win?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and solar cells.1,2 In the case of solar cells, these components work as anodes to extract separated charge vacuum filtration and a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)-assisted transfer technique and subsequently used

Zhou, Chongwu

453

E-Print Network 3.0 - adoptively transferred indium-111 Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 77 THE APPLICABILITY OF NETWORK EFFECT THEORY TO LOW-COST ADOPTION DECISIONS: AN INVESTIGATION OF Summary: THE APPLICABILITY OF...

454

Preparation and characterization of indium zinc oxide thin films by electron beam evaporation technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the preparation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates is reported. Optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated. The effect of dopant amount and annealing temperature on the optical and electrical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films was also studied. Different amount of ZnO was used as dopant and the films were annealed at different temperature. The results showed that the most crystalline, transparent and uniform films with lowest resistivity were obtained using 25 wt% of ZnO annealed at 500 {sup o}C.

Keshavarzi, Reza [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhani, Valiollah, E-mail: mirkhani@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Majid, E-mail: moghadamm@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, Hamid Reza; Dastjerdi, Mohammad Javad Vahid; Modayemzadeh, Hamed Reza [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

2008 Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conference, May, Versailles, France Technology Development & Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University of California San Diego #12;Specific Acknowledgements ( Device Team ) Uttam SingisettiDr. MarkGaAs growth on SiGa s g o t o S True MOSFET fabrication processes Designing small FETs which use big (low m off-state current (10 nA/m) for low static dissipationLow off-state current (10 nA/m) for low static

Rodwell, Mark J. W.

456

Physicochemical and catalytic properties of iron- and indium-containing zeolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of the preparation procedure of Fe- and In-containing zeolites on their physicochemical and catalytic properties in methanol conversion to hydrocarbons and the upgrading of the straight-run gasoline

L. M. Velichkina; L. L. Korobitsyna; B. Ulzii; A. V. Vosmerikov

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

renewable energy sources, solar energy is one of the mostthan 0.1% of energy comes from solar. Source: U.S. Energy

Tu, Bor-An Clayton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Rotational analysis of the 3?0(0+)?1?+(0+) system of indium iodide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 3??1?+ band systems of InI were observed in both emission and absorption. Twenty new bandheads were observed. Rotational parameters for the...

Davis, Sumner P; Pecyner, Rubn

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Effect of Dietary Selenium on the Interaction between 2-Acetylaminofluorene and Rat Liver DNA in Vivo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dation is in accord with the results obtained by other investi gators(2, 12,42). DISCUSSION The studies described in this report...and Hacker (1) and Floyd et al. (6 "8).These investi gators have shown that in the presence of either H2O2or lipid hydroperoxides...

Mitchell S. Wortzman; Howard J. Besbris; Arthur M. Cohen

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Linked Redox Precipitation of Sulfur and Selenium under Anaerobic Conditions by Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Biofilms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Influence of growth rate on susceptibility to antimicrobial...handbook of chemistry and physics, 83rd ed. CRC Press...Measurement of in situ rates of selenate removal by...Aquatic chemistry: chemical rates and equilibria in natural...was therefore shown to pass through the biofilm matrix...

Simon L. Hockin; Geoffrey M. Gadd

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Selenium Partitioning and Food-Chain Transfer at the Salton Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wetlands in the Imperial Valley (California). Ecologicalfreshwater lakes in the Imperial Valley. These lakes, FinneyTwo freshwater lakes in Imperial Valley were studied to gain

Tobin, Jennifer Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Distribution coefficient values describing iodine, neptunium, selenium, technetium, and uranium sorption to Hanford sediments. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burial of vitrified low-level waste (LLW) in the vadose zone of the Hanford Site is being considered as a long-term disposal option. Regulations dealing with LLW disposal require that performance assessment (PA) analyses be conducted. Preliminary modeling efforts for the Hanford Site LLW PA were conducted to evaluate the potential health risk of a number of radionuclides, including Ac, Am, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cs, Eu, 1, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pu, Ra, Ru, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, and Zr (Piepho et al. 1994). The radionuclides, {sup 129}I, {sup 237}Np, {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 234,235,238}U, were identified as posing the greatest potential health hazard. It was also determined that the outcome of these simulations were very sensitive to the parameter describing the extent to which radionuclides sorbed to the subsurface matrix, described as a distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). The distribution coefficient is a ratio of the radionuclide concentration associated with the solid phase to that in the liquid phase. The literature-derived K{sub d} values used in these simulations were conservative, i.e., lowest values within the range of reasonable values used to provide an estimate of the maximum health threat. Thus, these preliminary modeling results reflect a conservative estimate rather than a best estimate of what is likely to occur. The potential problem with providing only a conservative estimate is that it may mislead us into directing resources to resolve nonexisting problems.

Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Bioaccumulation of selenium from natural geologic sources in western states and its potential consequences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ecological impacts of water-quality problems have developed in the western United States resulting from the disposal of ... indicated at six more sites in Oregon, Colorado, the Colorado/Kansas border, and South D...

Theresa S. Presser; Marc A. Sylvester; Walton H. Low

464

Selenium Accumulation in Brassicaceae Plant Species and its Biotransfer to Insect Pollinators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States, power plant coal- fly ash receiving ponds createplants growing in fly ash from coal-burning electrical poweraster growing in fly ash from coal-burning electrical power

Hladun, Kristen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Arsenic and selenium toxicity and their interactive effects in humans Hong-Jie Sun a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046, China b Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States c Suzhou Health College, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215000, China d Soil and Water Science Department, University

Ma, Lena

466

Selenium Accumulation in Brassicaceae Plant Species and its Biotransfer to Insect Pollinators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gradient of heavy metal pollution. Special conservationalong gradients of heavy metal pollution. J of Appl Ecol 49:

Hladun, Kristen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Validity of batch sorption data to describe selenium transport through unsaturated tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of project for characterizing Yucca Mt. as a potential site for high-level nuclear waste respository, we used UFA {trademark} technology (centifuge-induced flow) to directly measure selenite retardation coefficients and hydraulic conductivity under unsaturated conditions on two tuff samples from Yucca Mt. Retardation factor for the selenite species was 2.5 in both Yucca Mt. vitric tuff at 62.6% saturation and zeolitic nonwelded tuff from G-tunnel at 52.8% saturation. For these column experiments, we prepared a solution, using J-13 well water from NTS, with a Se conc. of 1.31 mg/L(ppM). The retardation factor of 2.5 measured for both tuffs translates into a sorption distribution coefficient K{sub d} of 0.9 mL/g for the vitric tuff and 0.8 mL/g for the zeolitic tuff. For batch sorption experiments, using the same zeolitic tuff as for the column experiments and solutions of J-13 well water with a Se conc. of 1.1 mg/L(ppM), the average K{sub d} was determined to be 0.1{+-}0.2 mL/g. Given the small K{sub d} values for Se sorption, general agreement between batch and column measurements (obtained under unsaturated conditions) was observed. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities during the experiments were 2.5x10{sup -8} cm/s for the Yucca Mt. vitric tuff and 1.2x10{sup -8} cm/s for the zeolitic nonwelded tuff from G- tunnel.

Conca, J.L. [Tri-Cities Univ. Center, Richland, WA (United States); Triay, I.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Effects of selenium on arsenic uptake in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Mrittunjai Srivastava a,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and environmental concern in many countries (Smith et al., 2002). Remediation of As-contaminated soil and water Srivastava a,1 , Lena Q. Ma a,*, Bala Rathinasabapathi b , Pratibha Srivastava a,1 a Soil and Water Science is necessary for protecting both human life and agricultural produc- tion. Phytoremediation of As

Ma, Lena

469

Transfer of selenium from prey to predators in a simulated terrestrial food chain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ecotoxicology and Physiological Ecology Program, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801, USA b Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 of controls. Female gonad concentrations approached the highest of thresholds for reproductive toxicity

Hopkins, William A.

470

Isolating individual chains of selenium by incorporation into the channels of a zeolite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... elsewhere. The specimen was crushed in an agate mortar under acetone and collected on a microgrid for electron microscopic study. Samples were examined in an electron microscope (JEM-1000) ...

O. Terasaki; K. Yamazaki; J. M. Thomas; T. Ohsuna; D. Watanabe; J. V. Sanders; J. C. Barry

1987-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

471

Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores Colin F. Quinn1,#  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Parlier, CA 93648, USA 3 Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley potential applications in agriculture or horticulture, and implications for the management of Se-rich crops

472

Micro-spectroscopic investigation of selenium-bearing minerals from the Western US Phosphate Resource Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Rocks used for bulk-XAS were ground into fine powders. Shale used for micro-XAS was broken along into one that is much more dynamic with respect to water and biological activity.3,4 Increased weathering through the ecosystem. Thus, in order to manage risks and remediation of the soils derived from the Se

473

Selenoproteins act as a safeguard against selenium-induced cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2011; San Francisco, CA Abstract A26: Autophagy acts as a safeguard mechanism against G-quadruplex ligand-mediated telomere...response and provide the first evidence of autophagy as a safeguard mechanism activated by melanoma cells to counteract drug-mediated...

Rayudu Gopalakrishna; Jason Schiffman; Usha Gundimeda

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

New Insights into Traditional Health Risk Assessments of Mercury Exposure: Implications of Selenium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oken, E.; Osterdal, M. L.; Gillman, M. W.; Knudsen, V. K.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Strom, M.; Bellinger, D. C.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Michaelsen, K. F.; Olsen, S. F.Associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding duration with attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood: A study from the Danish National Birth Cohort Am. ... Oken, Emily; Osterdal, Marie Louise; Gillman, Matthew W.; Knudsen, Vibeke K.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Strom, Marin; Bellinger, David C.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Olsen, Sjurdur F. ...

Hua Zhang; Xinbin Feng; Hing Man Chan; Thorjrn Larssen

2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

475

Growing the Tool Box for Medical Imaging: The Selenium-72/Arsenic...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) News & Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26Germantown Building 1000 Independence...

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous selenium flat-panel Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

films with near-single-crystalline quality and high carrier mobility Summary: , such as solar cells and flat-panel displays, our ACSi technology promises to fundamentally...

477

Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Diffusion of small solutes in polymer-containing solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Arsinogallane and Chemical Conversion to Gallium Arsenide ERIN K. BYRNE, LASZLO PARKANYI...yield the rn-V semiconductor gallium arsenide as a finely divided amorphous...the reaction small dusters of gallium arsenide were apparently present in solution...

KL Yam; DK Anderson; RE Buxbaum

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman Spectroscopy and XPS. Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman...

480

Monday, December 13, 1999 Physics Today On The Web -Physics Update Page: 1 http://www.aip.org/pt/nov99/physup1199.htm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but with ratios of boron-10 to boron-11 and of gallium-69 to gallium-71 that exceeded the natural abundances

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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481

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenide-based ternary compounds Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gallium arsenide-based... separately claimed breakthroughs in solar cell production. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related compounds... of manufacturing compound semiconductors...

482

Structure, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Gallium Oxide Thin Films. Structure, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Gallium...

483

Biomass crops can be used for biological disinfestation and remediation of soils and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Irrigation of broccoli and canola with boron and selenium-of selenium in animals consuming canola grown for seleniumDis pared to 21 ppm in canola), which is too high to be used

Stapleton, James J; Banuelos, Gary

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Physics based analytical modelling of Gallium Nitride(GaN) MESFET considering different ion implantation energy with high temperature annealing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A physics based analytical model of ion implanted GaN MESFET has been presented considering high temperature annealing effects. Choosing appropriate activation energy of impurity atoms, (more)

Raghavan, Vinay

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

The radiation bio-effects of gallum-72 on leukemic cells via a gallium-transferrin complex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the beta is about 30'/o to 40'/o of the maximum energy. An anti-neutrino is emitted simultaneously, carrying the remainder of the energy. Values listed for beta energies are the maximum values unless otherwise stated (Cember 1996). Prominent beta...

Forbes, Christen Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

486

The design, construction, and testing of a nuclear fuel rod thermal simulation system to study gallium/Zircaloy interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

friends for their unending support and patience during this project. Thank you so much! NOMENCLATURE Abbreviations and Acronyms WGPu- weapons grade plutonium DOE- Department of Energy MOX- mixed oxide fuel WG MOX- weapons grade MOX fuel LWR- light... to be employed were immobilization and fissioning the WGPu as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial power reactors. Both approaches have many advantages and disadvantages and are currently being studied by scientists and engineers all over the world. The use...

Allison, Christopher Curtis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

487

Comparative band alignment of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on gallium nitride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, HfO{sub 2} films, and HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacked structures were deposited on n-type, Ga-face, GaN wafers using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The wafers were first treated with a wet-chemical clean to remove organics and an in-situ combined H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma at 650 Degree-Sign C to remove residual carbon contamination, resulting in a clean, oxygen-terminated surface. This cleaning process produced slightly upward band bending of 0.1 eV. Additional 650 Degree-Sign C annealing after plasma cleaning increased the upward band bending by 0.2 eV. After the initial clean, high-k oxide films were deposited using oxygen PEALD at 140 Degree-Sign C. The valence band and conduction band offsets (VBOs and CBOs) of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN and HfO{sub 2}/GaN structures were deduced from in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). The valence band offsets were determined to be 1.8 and 1.4 eV, while the deduced conduction band offsets were 1.3 and 1.0 eV, respectively. These values are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the electron affinity model and charge neutrality level model. Moreover, subsequent annealing had little effect on these offsets; however, the GaN band bending did change depending on the annealing and processing. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was investigated as an interfacial passivation layer (IPL), which, as results suggest, may lead to improved stability, performance, and reliability of HfO{sub 2}/IPL/GaN structures. The VBOs were {approx}0.1 and 1.3 eV, while the deduced CBOs were 0.6 and 1.1 eV for HfO{sub 2} with respect to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN, respectively.

Yang Jialing; Eller, Brianna S.; Zhu Chiyu; England, Chris; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, VoL 71, No..5, 1998 SIMULATION OF A GALLIUM ARSENIDE RUNNING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and investigating HHT devices containing active elements with distributed parameters. Nowadays an active search structure of one or another configuration and a cathode section in the form of a Schottky barrier whose of Materials of Electronic Technology, Warsaw; Institute of Physics and Technology, National Academy

Harilal, S. S.

489

Organometallic vapor-phase homoepitaxy of gallium arsenide assisted by a downstream hydrogen afterglow plasma in the growth region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the trimeth- ylgallium (TMGa) for homoepitaxial GaAs. They found in direct comparison of the pure thermal-insulating) substrate is loaded into the depo- sition reactor of Fig. 1 without any chemical degreasing or polishing

Collins, George J.

490

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

Not Available

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

491

A study of the interaction of gallium arsenide with wet chemical formulations using thermodynamic calculations and spectroscopic ellipsometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effectiveness of different wet chemical treatments and their ability to produce/regrow a thin, stable surface oxide layer on GaAs. Results from thermodynamic considerations indicate that a stable surface oxide layer, free of excess arsenic and arsenic oxides, can be achieved by properly choosing aqueous solutions targeted within the GaAs solubility range (pH11) followed by deionized (DI) water rinsing. This is further corroborated by spectroscopic ellipsometric data that can qualitatively, but correctly, identify the thickness of the surface oxide layer after different wet chemical treatments. Specifically, samples treated with acidic solutions based on HCl, HF, and H3PO4 and diluted ammonium hydroxide solution produce a more stable surface layer that is thinner than the native oxide layer on GaAs. The results and subsequent discussion are presented in the context of an attempt at achieving a well passivated GaAs surface, free of excessive surface state defects responsible for Fermi-level pinning.

J. Price; J. Barnett; S. Raghavan; M. Keswani; R. Govindarajan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Calpain-Mediated Integrin Deregulation as a Novel Mode of Action for the Anticancer Gallium Compound KP46  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processes, including the regulation of mRNA stability and translation, cellular proliferation...population as shown in Fig. 1A. A bubble plot can be used to depict both the abundance...in different cell populations. A, a bubble plot depicting the relative abundance...

Ute Jungwirth; Johannes Gojo; Theresa Tuder; Gernot Walko; Martin Holcmann; Thomas Schfl; Karin Nowikovsky; Nastasia Wilfinger; Sushilla Schoonhoven; Christian R. Kowol; Rosa Lemmens-Gruber; Petra Heffeter; Bernhard K. Keppler; and Walter Berger

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Temperature dependence of electrical properties of gallium-nitride bulk single crystals doped with Mg and their evolution with annealing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comprehensive studies of the electrical properties of Mg-doped bulk GaN crystals grown by high-pressure synthesis were performed as a function of temperature up to 750?C. Annealing of the samples in nitrogen ambient modifies qualitatively their resistivity values ? and the ?(T) variation. It was found that our material is characterized by a high concentration of oxygen-related donors and that the charge transport in the studied samples is determined by two types of states one of shallow character (Mg-related state E A ?0.15? eV ) and the second one much more deep E 2 ?0.95? eV (above the valence band). Depending on the effective concentration of either states different resistivities ? can be observed: lower resistivity (?10 6 ??? cm at ambient temperature) in samples with dominant E 2 states. For the first type of samples annealing at T ann <500? C leads to a decrease of their resistivity and is associated with an increase of the effective concentration of the shallow Mg acceptors. Annealing of both types of samples at temperatures between 600 and 750?C leads to an increase of the deep state concentration. The presence of hydrogen ambient during annealing of the low-resistivity samples strongly influences their properties. The increase of the sample resistivity and an appearance of a local vibrational mode of hydrogen at 3125 cm?1 were observed. These effects can be removed by annealing in hydrogen-free ambient.

E. Litwin-Staszewska; T. Suski; R. Piotrzkowski; I. Grzegory; M. Bockowski; J. L. Robert; L. Ko?czewicz; D. Wasik; E. Kami?ska; D. Cote; B. Clerjaud

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

An experimental study of the solubility of Gallium(III) oxide in HCl-bearing water vapour  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at 200 °C at a pH of $4. The values are very similar to those estimated from data for geothermal wells

Devernal, Anne

495

GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz-10%) of transition metals such as copper, silver, and chromium (Feinstein et al 1997 and Pyke 1993). High temperature. Introduction Gas sensing and analysis based on gas adsorption on a catalytic metal surface has been extensively

496

Sputtered Molybdenum Bilayer Back Contact for Copper Indium Diselenide-Based Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

grown CdS layer followed by an ion- beam-sputtered, lightly doped (50 nm) then heavily doped (300 nm), n with the CIS at 600°C.13 glass Mo CIGS Al-Ni grid n+ ZnO i ZnO CdS sunlight MgF 2 FIG. 1. Cross-sectional view

Scofield, John H.

497

Electroreflectance study of effects of indium segregation in molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown InGaAs/GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) experiments were performed on In 0.22 Ga 0.78 As/GaAs single quantum wells grown by the conventional molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) shutter operation and also by modified MBE shutter operation intended to form more compositionally abrupt normal and inverted interfaces. The latter included controlled thermal desorption of the surface segregated In at the InGaAs layer surface (flash off) and the deposition of In at the InGaAs/GaAs interface to eliminate compositional broadening (predeposition). The fundamental energy gap and subband transitions were determined experimentally and compared with an accurate calculation of the potential well problem including strain. These results confirmed the segregation of In atoms near the interface. The segregation was maximum in the conventional (normal) MBE sample and least with the modified growth incorporating predeposition and flash off as expected. The segregated atoms are observed to act as dopants and form junctions near the InGaAs/GaAs interface. This study shows that EER can be used as an effective tool for studying the segregation process in MBE growth.

K. Chattopadhyay; J. Aubel; S. Sundaram; J. E. Ehret; R. Kaspi; Keith R. Evans

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Chromium-Catalyzed Homoaldol Equivalent Reaction, Indium-Mediated Cycloisomerization, and Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2. Stoichiometric Homoaldol Equivalent Reaction Me O Me BrMg O O Et2O, rt 74% 1 2 3 n=2 p-MeC6H4 HO Me O O+ TiCl4 (1 equiv) TiCl3 O OEt p-NO2C6H4 CO2Et OH 88% 4 5 6 7 EtO OTMS CHOO2N CH2Cl2, ?78 ?C to 0 ?C SiMe3 OSiEt3 TiCl4 (1.1 equiv... to aldehyde 17a, activated by a co-catalyst of trimethylsilyl triflate 21 forming intermediate 22 and affording the homoaldol equivalent adducts 18 in the catalytic cycle (Scheme 1.4). EtO OTMS O Ph 4 18 O O Ti OiPr OTf 17a CO2EtPh OTMS19...

Kang, Jun

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

499

The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence devices q  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure including a trans- parent anode, an organic active layer, and a metallic cathode. It has recently zinc oxide films have been actively investigated as alternate materials to ITO because zinc oxide consisted of Al as a cathode, Al2O3 as an electro transport layer, Alq3 as a luminously layer, TPD as a hole

Boo, Jin-Hyo

500

Nanoscale Electrical Conductivity and Surface Spectroscopic Studies of Indium-Tin Oxide Yish-Hann Liau and Norbert F. Scherer*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enabled the Electronic and optoelectronic devices impact many areas of society, from simple household and optoelectronic devices OCTOBER 2006 | VOLUME 9 | NUMBER 1018 #12;creation of a host of structures with modulated

Scherer, Norbert F.