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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

2

Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by Laser Back Ablation. Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by...

3

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1...

4

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Wednesday, 21 December 2005 00:00 Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

5

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

6

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

7

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the University of Washington has demonstrated a new way of creating one-dimensional nanoscale structures (nanowires) in the compound gallium selenide. In short, ordered lines of structural vacancies in the material stimulate the growth of "one-dimensional" structures less than 1 nanometer in width.

8

Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

9

Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

10

Sandia National Laboratories: copper-indium-gallium-[di]selenide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional Testing Center (PV RTC), Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot HelioVolt, Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory,...

11

Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A. Rockettb , M. Edoffa , L. Stolta a A°ngstro¨m Solar Center, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Abstract The diffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers has been

Rockett, Angus

12

Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors  

SciTech Connect

In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

15

Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

16

Catalytic and physicochemical properties of aluminoplatinum catalysts modified with indium and gallium  

SciTech Connect

Aluminoplatinum catalysts (APC) are widely used in transformations of hydrocarbons, particularly in reforming of gasoline fractions and dehydrogenation of higher normal paraffins. Promotion of APC with indium and gallium increases their activity and stability in the dehydrogenation of paraffins. Introduction of group III elements in APC inhibits coke formation during dehydrogenation and prevents blocking of the surface of the Pt. The change in the catalytic properties of APC modified with In is due to the partial transfer of the electron density from Pt to In. Both APC with In and Ga additives and monometallic catalysts were studied in the present article by the methods of IR spectroscopy and adsorption. In addition to traditional transmission IR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy in diffusely scattered light was used, which permits conducting both spectral and adsorption measurements on the same samples.

Zaitsev, A.V.; Tyupaev, A.P.; Borovkov, V.Yu.; Timofeeva, E.A.; Isatulyants, G.V.; Kazanskii, B.B.

1986-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

17

Reference Data for the Density and Viscosity of Liquid Cadmium, Cobalt, Gallium, Indium, Mercury, Silicon, Thallium, and Zinc  

SciTech Connect

The available experimental data for the density and viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc have been critically examined with the intention of establishing both a density and a viscosity standard. All experimental data have been categorized into primary and secondary data according to the quality of measurement, the technique employed and the presentation of the data, as specified by a series of criteria. The proposed standard reference correlations for the density of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 0.6, 2.1, 0.4, 0.5, 2.2, 0.9, and 0.7, respectively. In the case of mercury, since density reference values already exist, no further work was carried out. The standard reference correlations for the viscosity of liquid cadmium, cobalt, gallium, indium, mercury, silicon, thallium, and zinc are characterized by percent deviations at the 95% confidence level of 9.4, 14.0, 13.5, 2.1, 7.3, 15.7, 5.1, and 9.3, respectively.

Assael, Marc J.; Armyra, Ivi J.; Brillo, Juergen; Stankus, Sergei V.; Wu Jiangtao; Wakeham, William A. [Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, 51170 Koeln (Germany); Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Brunch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev ave. 1, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Center of Thermal and Fluid Science, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Chemical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Evaluation of critical materials for five advanced design photovoltaic cells with an assessment of indium and gallium  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. This report presents the results of the screening of the five following advanced PV cell designs: polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide frontwall, polycrystalline gallium arsenide MIS, and advanced concentrator-500X. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 GWe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online cpacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary basline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. Earlier DOE sponsored work on the assessment of critical materials in PV cells conclusively identtified indium and gallium as warranting further investigation as to their availability. Therefore, this report includes a discussion of the future availability of gallium and indium. (WHK)

Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Jamieson, W.M.; Long, L.W.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Smith, S.A.; Teeter, R.R.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium gallium indium Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An advanced diffusion model to identify emergent research issues: the case of optoelectronic devices Summary: Aluminium arsenides Ge-Si alloys Avalanche photodiodes Indium...

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum gallium indium Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4F84E-A98D-4D11-B923-779B4467077F Unexpected Discovery Could Yield Full Spectrum Solar Cell Summary: elements from group III of the periodic table, like aluminum, gallium, and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Surface reactivity and oxygen migration in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide films annealed in humid atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

An isotope tracer study, i.e., {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O exchange using {sup 18}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O, was performed to determine how post-deposition annealing (PDA) affected surface reactivity and oxygen diffusivity of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films. The oxygen tracer diffusivity was very high in the bulk even at low temperatures, e.g., 200?°C, regardless of PDA and exchange conditions. In contrast, the isotope exchange rate, dominated by surface reactivity, was much lower for {sup 18}O{sub 2} than for H{sub 2}{sup 18}O. PDA in a humid atmosphere at 400?°C further suppressed the reactivity of O{sub 2} at the a-IGZO film surface, which is attributable to –OH-terminated surface formation.

Watanabe, Ken, E-mail: Watanabe.Ken@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)] [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Lee, Dong-Hee [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Isao; Haneda, Hajime [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)] [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Nomura, Kenji [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)] [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan) [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan) [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Ohashi, Naoki, E-mail: Ohashi.Naoki@nims.go.jp [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

22

Gallium diffusion into self-assembled InAs quantum dots grown on indium phosphide substrates  

SciTech Connect

The photoluminescence spectrum of small self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum dots grown on InP substrates is composed of distinct spectral lines. These lines correspond to monolayer variations in the dots smallest dimension: their heights. We use this phenomenon in order to study the diffusion of gallium atoms into the self-assembled quantum dots. We demonstrate that substantial amounts of gallium atoms diffuse from a strained GaInP layer underneath the quantum dots into the quantum dots.

Raz, T.; Shuall, N.; Bahir, G.; Ritter, D.; Gershoni, D.; Chu, S.N.G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Physics Department and The Solid State Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Multiplex, Inc., 5000 Hadley Rd., South Plainfield, New Jersey 07080 (United States)

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

23

Synthesis and optical properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots for white light-emitting diode application  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Stable CdSe QDs were synthesized by the one-step and two-level process respectively. ? The fabricated white LEDs show good white balance. ? CdSe QDs present well green to yellow band luminescence. ? CdSe QDs displayed a broad excitation band. - Abstract: Yellow light-emitting cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized using one-step and two-step methods in an aqueous medium. The structural luminescent properties of these quantum dots were investigated. The obtained cadmium selenide quantum dots displayed a broad excitation band suitable for blue or near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode applications. White light-emitting diodes were fabricated by coating the cadmium selenide samples onto a 460 nm-emitting indium gallium nitrite chip. Both samples exhibited good white balance. Under a 20 mA working current, the white light-emitting diode fabricated via the one-step and two-step methods showed Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage coordinates at (0.27, 0.23) and (0.27, 0.33), respectively, and a color rendering index equal to 41 and 37, respectively. The one-step approach was simpler, greener, and more effective than the two-step approach. The one-step approach can be enhanced by combining cadmium selenide quantum dots with proper phosphors.

Xu, Xianmei; Wang, Yilin; Gule, Teri; Luo, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Zhou, Liya, E-mail: zhouliyatf@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Gong, Fuzhong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Electrical Bias as an Alternate Method for Reproducible Measurement of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Light-to-dark metastable changes in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can introduce uncertainty when measuring module performance on indoor flash testing equipment. This study describes a method to stabilize module performance through forward-bias current injection rather than light exposure. Measurements of five pairs of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) PV modules indicate that forward-bias exposure maintained the PV modules at a stable condition (within 1%) while the unbiased modules degraded in performance by up to 12%. It was additionally found that modules exposed to forward bias exhibited stable performance within about 3% of their long-term outdoor exposed performance. This carrier-injection method provides a way to reduce uncertainty arising from fast transients in thin-film module performance between the time a module is removed from light exposure and when it is measured indoors, effectively simulating continuous light exposure by injecting minority carriers that behave much as photocarriers do. This investigation also provides insight into the initial light-induced transients of thin-film modules upon outdoor deployment.

Deline, C.; Stokes, A.; Silverman, T. J.; Rummel, S.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Hydrothermal synthesis of [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]: A new one-dimensional indium selenide  

SciTech Connect

A new organically templated indium selenide, [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})], has been prepared hydrothermally from the reaction of indium, selenium and trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane in water at 170 deg. C. This material was characterised by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, FT-IR and elemental analysis. The compound crystallises in the monoclinic space group C2/c (a=12.0221(16) A, b=11.2498(15) A, c=12.8470(17) A, {beta}=110.514(6){sup o}). The crystal structure of [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})] contains anionic chains of stoichiometry [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-}, which are aligned parallel to the [1 0 1] direction, and separated by diprotonated trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane cations. The [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-} chains, which consist of alternating four-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 2}] and five-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}] rings, contain perselenide (Se{sub 2}){sup 2-} units. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates that [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})] has a band gap of 2.23(1) eV. - Graphical abstract: [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})], prepared under hydrothermal conditions, contains one-dimensional chains of stoichiometry [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-}, in which four-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 2}] and five-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}] rings alternate. Highlights: > New one-dimensional indium selenide prepared under hydrothermal conditions. > The [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-} chains are a new structural motif for Group 13 chalcogenides. > Unusual presence of (Se{sub 2}){sup 2-} moieties. > Optical band gap of 2.23(1) eV.

Ewing, Sarah J.; Powell, Anthony V. [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Chemistry, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Vaqueiro, Paz, E-mail: chepv@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Chemistry, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Copper Indium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated chambers for depositing, processing, measuring, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. You can read more on the rationale for developing this cluster tool and its capabilities, and check out the National Solar Technology Roadmap for CIGS Photovoltaics. Contact Miguel Contreras for more details on these capabilities. The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide cluster tool, manufactured by DCA Instruments, will be operational in 2009. Techniques will include evaporation; radiofrequency, direct-current (DC), and pulsed DC sputtering;

27

Spectroscopy of gallium selenide nanoparticle nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the presence of GaSe nanoparticle nuclei which are non-Superradiance in GaSe Nanoparticle Aggregates”, Journal ofStrongly-Coupled GaSe Nanoparticle Aggregates”, Journal of

Lair, Deborah L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder...

30

Solvothermal synthesis and characterisation of new one-dimensional indium and gallium sulphides: [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Two new main group metal sulphides, [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] (1) and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}] (2) have been prepared solvothermally in the presence of 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isostructural and crystallise in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n (Z=4), with a=6.5628(5), b=11.2008(9), c=12.6611(9) A and {beta}=94.410(4){sup o} (wR=0.035) for compound (1) and a=6.1094(5), b=11.2469(9), c=12.7064(10) A and {beta}=94.313(4){sup o} (wR=0.021) for compound (2). The structure of [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[MS{sub 2}] (M=In,Ga) consists of one-dimensional [MS{sub 2}]{sup -} chains which run parallel to the crystallographic a axis and are separated by diprotonated amine molecules. These materials represent the first example of solvothermally prepared one-dimensional gallium and indium sulphides. -- Graphical abstract: [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}], prepared under solvothermal conditions, consist of one-dimensional [MS{sub 2}]{sup -} chains separated by diprotonated 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine molecules.

Vaqueiro, Paz [Department of Chemistry, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chepv@hw.ac.uk

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Investigations on Cuprous Selenide and Copper Tellurides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The activity of copper in cuprous selenide and various phases of the system copper?tellurium as a function of the metal?to?nonmetal ratio has been determined with the help of coulometric titrations. At 400°C the homogeneity range of cuprous selenide extends from a Cu/Se ratio of 1.9975±0.001 to a value lower than 1.86. Homogeneous phases of the system Cu–Te have been found between Cu/Te ratios equal to about 2 to 1.92 1.43 to 1.39 and 1.32 to 1.30.

Gert Lorenz; Carl Wagner

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

(Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2007. Indium-containing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were exported to Canada for processing. Two companies, one in New York and the other in Rhode Island for the recycling industry to handle because of large capital costs, environmental restrictions, and storage space gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells require approximately 50 metric tons of indium to produce 1 gigawatt

33

Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Generalizing solubility parameter theory...of multicomponent solubility parameters for...N. , Role of solubility parameters in understanding...Bourlinos A. B. ., Aqueous-phase exfoliation...hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets . Journal...into indium and gallium selenides . Phys...

Valeria Nicolosi; Manish Chhowalla; Mercouri G. Kanatzidis; Michael S. Strano; Jonathan N. Coleman

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

spectrum Poly-Si CdTe CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide) Organic and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 12;Cd... ;Light Concentration using Nanoparticle Plasmon Resonances 12;Dye...

35

Nuvosun Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nuvosun Inc Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 94303-4601 Product: California-based copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) thin film PV maker. References: Nuvosun Inc1 This...

36

PTIP Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PTIP Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: PTIP Ltd Place: South Africa Sector: Solar Product: Thin-film Copper-indium-gallium-sulphur-selenide solar cell technology spinout from...

37

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended...

38

The electrochemical oxidation of organic selenides and selenoxides  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical oxidation of alkyl and aryl selenides was investigated in acetonitrile. The oxidation of diphenyl selenide and di(4-methylphenyl) selenide led primarily to the formation of their respective selenoxides, which were identified by exhaustive coulometric oxidation and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C analysis of the products. The selenoxide itself was not observed in the cyclic voltammetry of the selenide for two reasons: first, the protonation of the selenoxide by the acid formed from the reaction of water with the cation radical and second, the formation of a selenoxide hydrate. The formation of the hydrate with diphenyl selenoxide was verified by isolation of the dimethoxy derivative. In addition to the selenoxide, selenonium compounds, formed by the coupling of the oxidized material, were also observed. The alkyl selenides were generally oxidized at a lower potential than the aryl selenides. This trend is different from the sulfur analogues, where the aryl sulfides are easier to oxidize than their alkyl counterparts. As a result, the difference in their redox potentials is relatively small. These differences may occur because the oxidation of aryl sulfides is more likely to take place on the aromatic ring, which leads to a greater yield of the coupled products (about 100%) when compared to the selenide analogue.

Ryan, M.D.; Yau, J.; Hack, M. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Dependence of carrier mobility on an electric field in gallium selenide crystals  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the mobility of charge carriers on voltage has been studied in undoped GaSe single crystals and crystals doped with gadolinium; the latter crystals have exhibited various values of dark resistivity ({rho}{sub d.r} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}-10{sup 8} {Omega} cm at 77 K) and of the doping level (N = 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4}, 10{sup -3}, 10{sup -2}, and 10{sup -1} at %). It is established that the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility on the electric field applied to the sample E {<=} 10{sup 2} V/cm is observed in undoped high-resistivity GaSe crystals ({rho}{sub d.r} {>=} 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm) and in lightly doped GaSe crystals (N {<=} 10{sup -2} at %) in the region of T {<=} 150 K. It is found that this dependence is not related to heating of the charge carriers by an electric field; rather, it is caused by elimination of drift barriers as a result of injection.

Abdinov, A. Sh., E-mail: abdinov_axmed@yahoo.com; Babaeva, R. F., E-mail: Babaeva-Rena@yandex.ru; Rzayev, R. M. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Gallium interactions with Zircaloy  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the effects of gallium ion implantation into zircaloy cladding material to investigate the effects that gallium may have in a reactor. High fluence ion implantation of Ga ions was conducted on heated Zircaloy-4 in the range of 10{sup 16}--10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm2. Surface effects were studied using SEM and electron microprobe analysis. The depth profile of Ga in the Zircaloy was characterized with Rutherford backscattering and SIMS techniques. Results indicate that the Zirc-4 is little affected up to a fluence of 10{sup 17} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation of 10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}, sub-grain features on the order of 2 {micro}m were observed which may be due to intermetallic compound formation between Ga and Zr. For the highest fluence implant, Ga content in the Zirc-4 reached a saturation value of between 30 and 40 atomic %; significant enhanced diffusion was observed but gallium was not seen to concentrate at grain boundaries.

Woods, A.L. [ed.; West, M.K. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Doping of gallium nitride using disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Keywords: disilane, gallium nitride, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, silicon doping

A. E. Wickenden; L. B. Rowland; K. Doverspike; D. K. Gaskill; J. A. Freitas, Jr.; D. S. Simons; P. H. Chi

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Efficient solution-processed small molecule: Cadmium selenide quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells  

SciTech Connect

We report bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of solution-processed small molecule [7,7?-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(6-fluoro-4-(5?-hexyl-[2,2?-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c] [1,2,5] thiadiazole)] p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) (70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) in the device configuration: Indium Tin Oxide /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: CdSe/Ca/Al. The optimized ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe::60:40 leads to a short circuit current density (J{sub sc})?=?5.45?mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc})?=?0.727?V, and fill factor (FF)?=?51%, and a power conversion efficiency?=?2.02% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5G illumination. The J{sub sc} and FF are sensitive to the ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe, which is a crucial factor for the device performance.

Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drvinaygupta@netscape.net [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India) [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Upreti, Tanvi; Chand, Suresh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)] [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

43

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

44

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

45

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of Waterloo, California Institute of Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collaborated with a team at ALS Beamline 12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical of a well-annealed metal, containing very few initial dislocations and showing close-to-theoretical strength.

46

Cyclotron Resonance in Gallium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Azbel'-Kaner cyclotron resonance has been studied at 36 and 9 Gc/sec at 1.2°K in the three principal symmetry planes of gallium with the microwave currents both parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The resonance signals were characterized by extreme complexity and high resolution (long relaxation times). Mass values are determined as a function of orientation of the magnetic field in the sample surfaces. No interpretation of the mass branches on a model Fermi surface is attempted, but some correlations with previous de Haas-van Alphen data are presented.

T. W. Moore

1968-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Gallium interactions with Zircaloy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) in the United States is the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. MOX fuel fabricated in this way must be compatible with currently used nuclear fuel components. Since US WGPu contains... that gallium may have on zircaloy cladding during reactor operation. As a result of the reprocessing of spent fuel used in European nuclear programs, many studies have been conducted on the production and behavior of MOX fuel in traditional reactors [5...

West, Michael Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

G. J. Snyder Page 1 THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF SELENIDE SPINELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of merit, ZT, for thermoelectric materials. The figure of merit is defined as ZT = 2 T/, where conductivity. Thus, one method for finding new, advanced thermoelectric materials is to searchG. J. Snyder Page 1 THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF SELENIDE SPINELS G. Jeffrey Snyder*, T. Caillat

49

It's Elemental - The Element Indium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cadmium Cadmium Previous Element (Cadmium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Tin) Tin The Element Indium [Click for Isotope Data] 49 In Indium 114.818 Atomic Number: 49 Atomic Weight: 114.818 Melting Point: 429.75 K (156.60°C or 313.88°F) Boiling Point: 2345 K (2072°C or 3762°F) Density: 7.31 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 13 Group Name: none What's in a name? Named after the bright indigo line in its spectrum. Say what? Indium is pronounced as IN-dee-em. History and Uses: Indium was discovered by the German chemists Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymus Theodor Richter in 1863. Reich and Richter had been looking for traces of the element thallium in samples of zinc ores. A brilliant indigo line in

50

P-type gallium nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

51

Chemical deposition of thin films of lead selenide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formed after a period of three minutes. When concentrated ammonium hydroxide wss added to such a reaction mixture, gross precipitation of lead selenide took place immediately. A thin and spotty mirror also formed on the glass wall of the test tube.... Attempts were made to obtain a more even and ccsnplete mirroring by varying the concentration of the ammonium hydroxide in the solution, but all such attempts met with little success. The addition of four drops of 3N assaonium hydroxide resulted in a...

Skovlin, Dean Oliver

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium...

53

A study of the reactions of arsinic and arsonic acids with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen selenide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ARSINIC AND ARSONIC ACIDS WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND HYDROGEN SELENIDE by CYNTHIA ANNETTE APPLEGATE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Chemistry A STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ARSINIC AND ARSONIC ACIDS WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND HYDROGEN SELENIDE A Thesis by CYNTHIA ANNETTE APPLEGATE Approved as to style and content by: Ralph A. ngaro...

Applegate, Cynthia Annette

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

A microwave spectroscopic study of the reaction of cyanogen bromide and hydrogen selenide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spectroscopy, the effect of the diluting gases (reactants and/or products) must be known. Other- wige, the amountof a given gas cannot be determined. To determine this effect, mixtures of cyanogen bromide and hydrogen selenide were put into the wave guide...UBRARy A 4 At COLLEGE OF TEXAS A MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE REACTION OF CYANOGEN BROMIDE AND HYDROGEN SELENIDE A Thesis By Johnny Berten Gardner Submitted to the Graduate School of The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas...

Gardner, John Berten

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

55

Indium Fluor Sauerstoff Kulturleistung Chemie  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In F O 49 9 8 Indium Fluor Sauerstoff Kulturleistung Chemie Tag der Chemie Samstag, 18. Juni 2011;Liebe Besucherin, lieber Besucher Hiermit möchten wir Sie herzlich zu unserem «Tag der Chemie» auf dem Experimental- vorführung spannender und verblüffender Phänomene aus der Chemie. Für die Kinder, die gern einmal

Zürich, Universität

56

On the solar abundance of indium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The generally adopted value for the solar abundance of indium is over six times higher than the meteoritic value. We address this discrepancy through numerical synthesis of the 451.13 nm line on which all indium abundance studies are based, both for the quiet-sun and the sunspot umbra spectrum, employing standard atmosphere models and accounting for hyperfine structure and Zeeman splitting in detail. The results, as well as a re-appraisal of indium nucleosynthesis, suggest that the solar indium abundance is close to the meteoritic value, and that some unidentified ion line causes the 451.13 nm feature in the quiet-sun spectrum.

N. Vitas; I. Vince; M. Lugaro; O. Andriyenko; M. Gosic; R. J. Rutten

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

57

This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. Download details  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S is found as a window layer for thin film cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide based solar cells. The recent advances in CdTe/CdS thin film technology and fabrication Materials allowed CdTe/CdS solar cells to emerge as a leader in the growing market of thin film module production

Khare, Sanjay V.

58

On the solar abundance of indium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......we suggest that the solar indium abundance is close...line at high excitation energy from a species with low-first ionization energy. 1 http://nuclear-astrophysics...our attention to the solar indium abundance, and...Fig. 8. This research project has been supported by......

N. Vitas; I. Vince; M. Lugaro; O. Andriyenko; M. Gosic; R. J. Rutten

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

59

Cryogenic gallium phosphide acousto-optic deflectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present measurements of the acoustic intensity in a gallium phosphide acousto-optic deflector for the 0.6–1.3-GHz frequency range and the 8–295-K temperature range. The data show a...

Fuss, Ian; Smart, Darryn

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Quantum wells on indium gallium arsenic compositionally graded buffers realized by molecular beam epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a long time, there has been a desire to extend the emission wavelength of GaAs-based quantum well lasers, with the aim of eventually replacing InP with GaAs as the substrate of choice for communication applications. ...

Choy, Henry Kwong Hin, 1974-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lighting research and development: Multi-year program plan) ( US DoE , Washington, DC ) Available from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/techroadmaps.html . 6 Karlicek RF Jr ( 2005 ) Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics...

Hoon-sik Kim; Eric Brueckner; Jizhou Song; Yuhang Li; Seok Kim; Chaofeng Lu; Joshua Sulkin; Kent Choquette; Yonggang Huang; Ralph G. Nuzzo; John A. Rogers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Liquid-Phase Gallium–Indium Alloy Electronics with Microcontact Printing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The microcontact printer is composed of a print head mounted to a three-axis Cartesian robot. ... (9) Potential applications include soft and stretchable electronics for wearable technologies that monitor human motion(18-20) and electronic skin for biologically inspired soft robots. ... A paint brush is used to ink the stamps with a coat of liquid-phase GaIn alloy. ...

Arya Tabatabai; Andrew Fassler; Claire Usiak; Carmel Majidi

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Materials Science and Engineering...Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering...energy. Further advances in this technology...that extend our recent work in flexible electronics...of Materials Sciences under Award...funded by National Science Foundation...energy. Further advances in this technology...

Hoon-sik Kim; Eric Brueckner; Jizhou Song; Yuhang Li; Seok Kim; Chaofeng Lu; Joshua Sulkin; Kent Choquette; Yonggang Huang; Ralph G. Nuzzo; John A. Rogers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Professor Mathias Schubert explains his study of indium gallium nitride semiconductor systems, which  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation of multiple-junction solar energy conversion devices with improved ease of manufacture, cost within a sample. Conversely, the blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) intended for transferring from energy free charge carrier properties in contact- based electrical measurements, in the extreme case

Farritor, Shane

65

Die Bestimmung von Kupfer- und Nickelspuren in Gallium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nickel- und Kupferkontaminierungen in Gallium im ppm-Bereich und darunter stören empfindlich bei der Verwendung in der Halbleiterphysik. Der Chloridkomplex des Galliums in 6-n HC1 wird von einem stark basische...

H. Titze

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

GALLIUM--2000 30.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light-use application for gallium, with 63% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 32% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

67

GALLIUM--1998 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's) were the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light-use application for gallium, with 52% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 45% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

68

GALLIUM--1999 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuits (IC's) were the largest application for gallium, with optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes-use application for gallium, with 52% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 42% of domestic% of the gallium consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic

69

Chelated Indium Activable Tracers for Geothermal Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-99 Chelated Indium Activable Tracers for Geothermal Reservoirs Constantinos V. Chrysikopoulos Paul Kruger June 1986 Financial support was provided through the Stanford Geothermal Program under University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering and Earth Sciences STANFORD

Stanford University

70

Enhancement of thermoelectric figure-of-merit by resonant states of aluminium doping in lead selenide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By adding aluminium (Al) into lead selenide (PbSe), we successfully prepared n-type PbSe thermoelectric materials with a figure-of-merit (ZT) of 1.3 at 850 K. Such a high ZT is achieved by a combination of high Seebeck ...

Zhang, Qinyong

71

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

72

Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

73

Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

75

Thermal Stability of Chelated Indium Activable Tracers  

SciTech Connect

The thermal stability of indium tracer chelated with organic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was measured for reservoir temperatures of 150, 200, and 240 C. Measurements of the soluble indium concentration was made as a function of time by neutron activation analysis. From the data, approximate thermal decomposition rates were estimated. At 150 C, both chelated tracers were stable over the experimental period of 20 days. At 200 C, the InEDTA concentration remained constant for 16 days, after which the thermal decomposition occurred at a measured rate constant of k = 0.09 d{sup -1}. The thermal decomposition of InNTA at 200 C showed a first order reaction with a measured rate constant of k = 0.16 d{sup -1}. At 240 C, both indium chelated tracers showed rapid decomposition with rate constants greater than 1.8 d{sup -1}. The data indicate that for geothermal reservoir with temperatures up to about 200 C, indium chelated tracers can be used effectively for transit times of at least 20 days. These experiments were run without reservoir rock media, and do not account for concomitant loss of indium tracer by adsorption processes.

Chrysikopoulos, Costas; Kruger, Paul

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

76

Gallium Nitride Synthesis Using Lithium Metal as a Nitrogen Fixant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This present work centers on the synthesis of white, microcrystalline gallium nitride from gallium and ammonia, using lithium to increase the solubility of nitrogen-containing species in the metal phase. ... After the acid was decanted and the product was rinsed repeatedly with water and then acetone, the resulting white powder was found to exhibit the powder X-ray diffractogram (PXRD) (Figure 2a) of crystalline gallium nitride (1). ...

Seán T. Barry; Stephen A. Ruoff; Arthur L. Ruoff

1998-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

77

Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status  

SciTech Connect

A four phase program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in LWR. This graded, four phase experimental program will evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against: (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of an initial series of tests for phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and (3) corrosion mechanical. These tests are designed to determine the corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge} 300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (in parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. While continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound results in large stresses that can lead to distortion, this is also highly unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status  

SciTech Connect

A program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in a light-water reactor. The graded, four-phase experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of a series of tests for Phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests will determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge}300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Although continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound can result in large stresses that may lead to distortion, this was shown to be extremely unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; Strizak, J.P.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This project is producing high-efficiency semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates.

80

High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Formation of Hollow Gallium Nitride Spheres via Silica Sphere Templates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formation of Hollow Gallium Nitride Spheres via Silica Sphere Templates ... To form reasonably uniform gallium oxide shells, the amounts of urea and water added to the reaction mixture were varied. ... Due to the low solubility of urea in 2-propanol, addition of a larger amount of urea than that used in this study is not desirable. ...

Chun-Neng Lin; Michael H. Huang

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase by the Antitumor Agent Gallium Nitrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Gallium is known to bind to the iron transport protein transferrin...NSC 166828. gallium, tris(acetylacetonate). The gallium nitrate:transferrin...the binding of gallium to the iron transport protein transferrin...and incorporation into the iron storage protein ferritin...

Margareta M. Berggren; Leigh Ann Burns; Robert T. Abraham; and Garth Powis

1993-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Effect of Gallium Nitride Template Layer Strain on the Growth...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5µm layer experienced tensile strain. Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiles show that the 15µm template layer device had an average indium...

84

CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

86: Categorical Exclusion Determination 86: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) Manufacturing Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 01/05/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Loan Guarantee Program Office The Department of Energy's proposed action is to issue a loan guarantee to Stion Corporation to retrofit Stion's solar panel manufacturing plant at 6321 San Ignacio Avenue in San Jose, California and expand into an adjacent building at 6331 San Ignacio Avenue in order to establish a 135 megawatt nameplate capacity manufacturing plant. Stion produces monolithically integrated thin film photovoltaic modules using single-junction Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) absorbers. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

85

Atomic Heat of Indium below 20°K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A calorimetric technique in which a carbon-composition resistor serves simultaneously as both heater and thermometer has been developed and is described briefly. Using this technique, the atomic heat of indium has been measured in the normal state from 1.7°K to 21.3°K and in the superconducting state from 1.8°K to 3.396°K, the transition temperature in zero magnetic field. Tables of smoothed values are given. A method of deducing the separate lattice and electronic contributions to the heat capacities, based on several empirically and/or theoretically tenable assumptions, has been developed and is described in some detail. This method of analysis, when applied to the indium data, led to the conclusion that a cubic analytic form for the critical magnetic field equation would allow conclusions consistent with all the assumptions but that the more commonly used parabolic form would not. Numerical values are given for the constants involved. The temperature dependence of the Debye characteristic temperature of the indium lattice over the entire range of measurement is shown to follow the theoretically expected behavior.

J. R. Clement and E. H. Quinnell

1953-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fuel, on cladding material performance. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium, and (2) various concentrations of G~03. Three types of tests were performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests were to determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Results have generally been favorable for the use of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fhel. The Zircaloy cladding does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at >3000 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium or liquid metal embrittlement was observed.

DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.; Wilson, D.F.

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

88

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary (crude, unrefined) gallium was recovered in 2013. Globally,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% of the gallium consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes of the remaining gallium consumption. Optoelectronic devices were used in aerospace applications, consumer goods

89

Role of gallium-67 in the clinical evaluation of cancer  

SciTech Connect

This review is based primarily on historic data, and it examines the indications for and limitations of gallium-67 scanning in the evaluation of patients with neoplasms. The use of gallium-67 scans is discussed according to tumor type, and data from the most representative and comprehensive studies are included. The results described, some of which were obtained primarily with older imaging techniques, should be regarded as representing the minimum that can be expected from application of this imaging procedure.

Bekerman, C.; Hoffer, P.B.; Bitran, J.D.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Self-aligned submicron gate length gallium arsenide MESFET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SELF-ALIGNED SUBMICRON GATE LENGTH GALLIUM ARSENIDE MESFET A Thesis by HSIEN-CHING HUANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ol' MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987... Major Subject: Electrical Engineering SELF-ALIGNED SUBMICRON GATE LENGTH GALLIUM ARSENIDE MESFET A Thesis by HSIEN-CHING HUANG Approved as to style and content by: Mark. H. Weichold (Chairman of Committee) Donald L. Parker (Member) dali L...

Huang, Hsien-Ching

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

91

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Gallium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zinc Zinc Previous Element (Zinc) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Germanium) Germanium Isotopes of the Element Gallium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 69 60.108% STABLE 71 39.892% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 56 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 57 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 58 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 59 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 60 70 milliseconds Electron Capture 98.40%

92

Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8?×?10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(?/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0?×?10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5??m and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2??30?kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488?MHz.

Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E., E-mail: pbarclay@ucalgary.ca [Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr. NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Hryciw, Aaron C. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr. NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Novel methods of hydrogen production: aluminum-gallium-indium-tin systems and copper boron oxide as photocatalysts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In recent years, hydrogen production and storage has attracted a lot of attention in both academia and industry due to its variety of applications in… (more)

Lang, Yizhao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Palladium selenides as active methanol tolerant cathode materials for direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Palladium selenides, PdSe, Pd3Se and PdSe2 have been prepared by the hydrothermal method and investigated for their structural and electrocatalytic properties toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) using SEM/TEM, XRD, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetries. The crystallites of PdSe and PdSe2 are found to follow tetragonal and orthorhombic crystal structures, respectively. The PdSe electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 exhibits significantly higher electrocatalytic activity than the Pd3Se or PdSe2 electrode under similar experimental conditions. Further, a change in the palladium/selenium ratio from unity in the catalyst results in low ORR activity.

Madhu; R.N. Singh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

Hogan, S.J.

1983-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

96

Gallium based low-interaction anions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

King, Wayne A. (Santa Fe, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Santa Fe, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The natural and industrial cycling of indium in the environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium is an important metal whose production is increasing dramatically due to new uses in the rapidly growing electronics, photovoltaic, and LED industries. Little is known, however, about the natural or industrial cycling ...

White, Sarah Jane O'Connell

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Simulation studies on the evolution of gallium nitride on a liquid gallium surface under plasma bombardmenta)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to study the formation of gallium-nitride (GaN) layer on liquid gallium (Ga) sputtering target immersed in nitrogen ( N 2 ) plasma. In the simulation model N ions were assumed to possess energy equal to the bias voltage applied to the sputtering target with respect to the plasma. The results showed the surface morphology of GaN changed from a relatively smooth GaN on Ga surface at 50 eV N ion energy to a rough surface with GaN dendrites on liquid Ga at 500 eV ion energy. Further increase in N ion energy up to 1 keV resulted in smaller density of GaN dendrites on surface. Increasing surface coverage of Ga by GaN substantially reduced the sputtering yield of Ga from the target. These simulation results were correlated with previously reported experimental observations on liquid Ga surface immersed in the nitrogen plasma of a plasma-sputter-type ion source.

M. R. Vasquez Jr.; R. E. Flauta; M. Wada

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436?V, short-circuit current of 24.8?mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5?G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

Yoshimura, Masatoshi, E-mail: yoshimura@rciqe.hokudai.ac.jp; Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, and Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060–8628 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, and Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060–8628 (Japan); Tomioka, Katsuhiro [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, and Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060–8628 (Japan) [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, and Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060–8628 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Honcho Kawaguchi, 332–0012 Saitama (Japan)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

100

High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide/indium phosphide (ITO/InP) solar cells have been achieved by using dc magnetron sputter deposited /ital n/-ITO onto an epitaxial /ital p///ital p//sup +/ structure grown on good quality commercial /ital p//sup +/ bulk substrates. The composition of the sputtering gas has been investigated and the highest efficiency cells resulted when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H/sub 2/ plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O/sub 2/ plasma. With H/sub 2/ processing, record efficiencies of 18.9% global, 1000 W m/sup /minus/2/, 25 /degree/C (17.0% air mass zero) were achieved. Without H/sub 2/ processing, the devices exhibited lower efficiencies and were unstable. Type conversion of the InP was shown to occur and was established as being associated with the ITO (possibly due to Sn donors) rather than sputter damage. These improvements in performance have resulted from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the /ital p/-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

1989-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

102

GALLIUM--1997 29.1 By Deborah A. Kramer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As is manufactured into optoelectronic devices (LED's, laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells) and integrated consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 44% of domestic consumption, and the remaining 7% was used by imports, primarily high-purity gallium from France and low-purity material from Russia. Optoelectronic

103

Memory functions of nanocrystalline cadmium selenide embedded ZrHfO high-k dielectric stack  

SciTech Connect

Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors made of the nanocrystalline cadmium selenide nc-CdSe embedded Zr-doped HfO{sub 2} high-k stack on the p-type silicon wafer have been fabricated and studied for their charge trapping, detrapping, and retention characteristics. Both holes and electrons can be trapped to the nanocrystal-embedded dielectric stack depending on the polarity of the applied gate voltage. With the same magnitude of applied gate voltage, the sample can trap more holes than electrons. A small amount of holes are loosely trapped at the nc-CdSe/high-k interface and the remaining holes are strongly trapped to the bulk nanocrystalline CdSe site. Charges trapped to the nanocrystals caused the Coulomb blockade effect in the leakage current vs. voltage curve, which is not observed in the control sample. The addition of the nanocrystals to the dielectric film changed the defect density and the physical thickness, which are reflected on the leakage current and the breakdown voltage. More than half of the originally trapped holes can be retained in the embedded nanocrystals for more than 10 yr. The nanocrystalline CdSe embedded high-k stack is a useful gate dielectric for this nonvolatile memory device.

Lin, Chi-Chou; Kuo, Yue [Thin Film Nano and Microelectronics Research Laboratory, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3122 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

104

Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr{sup 2+}-doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 {micro}m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d{sup 4} and d{sup 6} electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers. 18 figs.

Krupke, W.F.; Page, R.H.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

1996-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

Sputtering of tin and gallium-tin clusters  

SciTech Connect

Tin and gallium-tin clusters have been produced by 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline tin and the gallium-tin eutectic alloy and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sputtered neutral species were photoionized with 193 nm (6.4 eV) excimer laser light. Neutral tin clusters containing up to 10 atoms and mixed gallium-tin clusters Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} with n {<=} 4 for the neutrals and N {<=} 3 for the sputtered ionic species have been detected. Laser power density dependent intensity measurements, relative yields, and kinetic energy distributions have been measured. The abundance distributions of the mixed clusters have been found to be nonstatistical due to significant differences in the ionization efficiencies for clusters with equal nuclearity but different number of tin atoms. The results indicate that Ga{sub 2}Sn and Ga{sub 3}Sn like the all-gallium clusters have ionization potentials below 6.4 eV. In the case of Sn{sub 5}, Sn{sub 6}, GaSn and Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} clusters with n=2 to 4 and m>1, the authors detect species that have sufficient internal energy to be one photon ionized despite ionization potentials that are higher 6.4 eV. The tin atom signal that is detected can be attributed to photofragmentation of dimers for both sputtering from polycrystalline tin and from the gallium-tin eutectic alloy.

Lill, T.; Calaway, W.F.; Ma, Z.; Pellin, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide  

SciTech Connect

The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak, (2001)]. Many of the findings which will be reported here were previously published in three journal articles. Hartmut Bracht was the lead author on two articles on self-diffusion studies in GaSb [Bracht, (2001), (2000)], while this report's author was the lead author on Zn diffusion results [Nicols, (2001)]. Much of the information contained herein can be found in those articles, but a more detailed treatment is presented here.

Nicols, Samuel Piers

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

107

Wet Chemical Functionalization of III–V Semiconductor Surfaces: Alkylation of Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride by a Grignard Reaction Sequence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wet Chemical Functionalization of III–V Semiconductor Surfaces: Alkylation of Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride by a Grignard Reaction Sequence ... These observations are consistent with the known solubility of oxidized As species in water. ... Remote H plasma exposure was effective for removing halogens and hydrocarbons from the surfaces of both nitrides at 450 °C, but was not efficient for oxide removal. ...

Sabrina L. Peczonczyk; Jhindan Mukherjee; Azhar I. Carim; Stephen Maldonado

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

108

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenide- gallium instrument Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: of gallium arsenide, a semiconductor, which is used in advanced optoelectronics, lasers, microwave circuits... , and solar cells. To determine material...

109

Amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide semiconductor thin film transistors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We reported on the performance and electrical properties of co-sputtering-processed amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (?-HfIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). Co-sputtering-processed ?-HfIZO thin films have shown an amorphous phase in nature. ...

Sheng-Po Chang; San-Syong Shih

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to ?-rays but poor sensitivity to ?-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after ?-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

Atsumi, Katsuhiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki, E-mail: ttnakan@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69 {+-} 10{sub {minus}7}{sup +5} SNU is to be compared with a standard solar model prediction of 132 SNU. The status of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source irradiation to test the overall operation of the experiment is also presented.

Elliott, S.R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abdurashitov, J.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Bowles, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

The Russian-American gallium solar neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69 {+-} 10{sub {minus}7}{sup +5} SNU is to be compared with a standard solar model prediction of 132 SNU. The status of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source irradiation to test the overall operation of the experiment is also presented.

Elliott, S.R.; Wilkerson, J.F. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abdurashitov, J.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Nuclear Research] [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

The influence of framework-gallium in zeolites: Electronegativity and infrared spectroscopic study  

SciTech Connect

Based on the influence of the composition (Si/Al and Si/Ga ratio) on the framework vibrations of zeolites with different structure types (FAU, LTL, BETA, MOR, MEL, MFI, TON, and MTW), an electronegativity value for gallium substituted into zeolite frameworks is proposed (Sanderson electronegativity scale). The present electronegativity value agrees with the known physicochemical properties of gallium substituted zeolites.

Dompas, D.H.; Mortier, W.J. (Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium)); Kenter, O.C.H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (The Netherlands)); Janssen, M.J.G.; Verduijn, J.P. (Exxon Chemical Holland, Rotterdam (The Netherlands))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jeff Chiles,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jichi Ma,1 Jeff Chiles,1 Yagya D. Sharma,2 214669); published September 4, 2014 The two-photon photovoltaic effect is demonstrated in gallium; (230.0250) Optoelectronics; (040.5350) Photovoltaic; (130.4310) Nonlinear. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL

Fathpour, Sasan

116

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption flat gallium arsenide solar cell, we show that it is possible to modify the flow of light and enhance above the solar cell. The incoupling element is lossless and, thus, has the advantage that no energy

Grandidier, Jonathan

117

Gallium/aluminum nanocomposite material for nonlinear optics and nonlinear plasmonics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gallium/aluminum nanocomposite material for nonlinear optics and nonlinear plasmonics A. V penetration of gallium into an aluminum film. These composite films form mirrorlike interfaces with silica optics and active plasmonics. The material is a polycrystalline aluminum film on a silica sub- strate

Zheludev, Nikolay

118

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Nitrides of Aluminum and Gallium," J. Electrochem.1) 24 (1962). G. Long and L. M. Foster, "Aluminum Nitride, aRefractory for Aluminum to 2000°C," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. ,

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Enhanced superconducting pairing interaction in indium-doped tin telluride  

SciTech Connect

The ferroelectric degenerate semiconductor Sn{sub 1-{delta}}Te exhibits superconductivity with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, of up to 0.3 K for hole densities of order 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. When doped on the tin site with greater than x{sub c} = 1.7(3)% indium atoms, however, superconductivity is observed up to 2 K, though the carrier density does not change significantly. We present specific heat data showing that a stronger pairing interaction is present for x > x{sub c} than for x < x{sub c}. By examining the effect of In dopant atoms on both T{sub c} and the temperature of the ferroelectric structural phase transition, T{sub SPT}, we show that phonon modes related to this transition are not responsible for this T{sub c} enhancement, and discuss a plausible candidate based on the unique properties of the indium impurities.

Erickson, A.S.

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

120

Enhanced superconducting pairing interaction in indium-doped tin telluride  

SciTech Connect

The ferroelectric degenerate semiconductor Sn{sub 1-{delta}}Te exhibits superconductivity with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, of up to 0.3 K for hole densities of order 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. When doped on the tin site with greater than x{sub c} = 1.7(3)% indium atoms, however, superconductivity is observed up to 2 K, though the carrier density does not change significantly. We present specific heat data showing that a stronger pairing interaction is present for x > x{sub c} than for x < x{sub c}. By examining the effect of In dopant atoms on both T{sub c} and the temperature of the ferroelectric structural phase transition, T{sub SPT}, we show that phonon modes related to this transition are not responsible for this T{sub c} enhancement, and discuss a plausible candidate based on the unique properties of the indium impurities.

Erickson, A.S.; Chu, J.-H.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Toney, M.F.; Geballe, T.H.; Fisher, I.R.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Synthesis and characterization of the layered iron-selenide Na0.8Fe1.6Se2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An iron-selenide Na0.8Fe1.6Se2 single crystal has been successfully synthesized using a self-flux method. The electrical resistivity measurement shows that this material exhibits semiconducting behavior in the whole temperature range, with an anomalous increment of resistivity at Ts?595 K. By varying the concentrations of Na and Fe, a small volume of superconducting phase could be achieved with a critical temperature of Tc?34 K. Structural characterization shows that, similarly to K0.8Fe1.6Se2, the Na0.8Fe1.6Se2 phase exhibits clear superstructure with a modulation wave vector of q=(3/5,1/5,0) caused by the Fe-vacancy order within the a-b plane.

Y. J. Long; D. M. Wang; Z. Wang; H. X. Yang; J. B. He; L. X. Zhao; P. P. Wang; M. Q. Xue; J. Q. Li; Z. A. Ren; G. F. Chen

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

Definition: Photovoltaics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Photovoltaics Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Photovoltaics Pertaining to the direct conversion of light into electricity[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Due to the increased demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced

123

Microsoft PowerPoint - Gallium Oxide_Ramana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gallium Oxide Nanostructures Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors C.V. Ramana (PI) Evgeny Shafirovich (Co-PI) Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso Students: Ernesto Rubio (PhD); S.K. Samala (MS) A.K. Narayana Swamy (PhD); K. Abhilash (MS) Program Manager: Richard Dunst, NETL, DOE Project: DE-FE0007225 Project Period: 10/01/2011 to 09/31/2014 1 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 2 ï‚· Introduction ï‚· Research Objectives ï‚· Experiments â–º Synthesis â–º Characterization ï‚· Results and Discussion â–º Pure Ga 2 O 3 Thin Films â–º W-doped Ga 2 O 3 Thin Films (Physical Methods) ï‚· Summary & Future Work 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 3 06/12/2013 DOE UCR/HBCU Conference, June 11-13, 2013 4 Energy Systems High-T High-T High-P High-P

124

P-7 / D. R. Cairns P-7: Wear Resistance of Indium Tin Oxide Coatings on Polyethylene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P-7 / D. R. Cairns P-7: Wear Resistance of Indium Tin Oxide Coatings on Polyethylene Terephthalate The wear mechanisms of the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) topsheet). The bottom substrate is typically glass and the top sheet a polyester such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET

Cairns, Darran

125

All-optical Wavelength Conversion in Aluminum Gallium Arsenide at Telecommunications Wavelengths.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis aims at both developing highly nonlinear Aluminum Gallium Arsenide waveguides(AlGaAs) and demonstrating all-optical wavelength conversion via cross-phase modulation in AlGaAs waveguides at telecommunications… (more)

Ng, Wing-Chau

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

GALLIUM--2002 29.1 References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumed in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic devices application for gallium, with 46% of total consumption. Optoelectronic devices accounted for 42% of domestic

127

Effect of the nitrogen ion energy on the MBE growth of thin gallium nitride films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of the energy of bombarding nitrogen ions on the growth of thin gallium nitride (GaN) films under molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) conditions has been simulated using the method of balance kinetic eq...

D. V. Kulikov; Yu. V. Trushin; V. S. Kharlamov

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Fabrication of optoelectronic microwave linear and ring resonators on a gallium arsenide substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FABRICATION OF OPTOELECTRONIC MICROWAVE LINEAR AND RING RESONATORS ON A GALLIUM ARSENIDE SUBSTRATE A Thesis by CHUN-LIANG YEH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FABRICATION OF OPTOELECTRONIC MICROWAVE LINEAR AND RING RESONATORS ON A GALLIUM ARSENIDE SUBSTRATE A Thesis by CHUN-LIANG YEH Approved as to style and content by: Mark...

Yeh, Chun-Liang

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium  

SciTech Connect

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.

Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport

2004-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

130

Exploration of Novel Reaction Pathway for Formation of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-03-121  

SciTech Connect

The investigation will explore a potentially low-cost method of forming CIGS for use in solar cells. Investigators from HelioVolt will work in NREL laboratories to modify and apply our tools in fabrication of the CIGS layer. Investigators from NREL will assist in preparing substrates and in compleing solar cells composed of these CIGS layers to evaluate the effectiveness of the HelioVolt processes.

van Hest, M.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

By Deborah A. Kramer No gallium production was reported in the McDonnell Douglas Corp. reportedly will world producers were Australia, Germany, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

facility in optoelectronic devices [light-emitting diodes France from stockpiled crude gallium produced, and in 1994. Although the total quantity of gallium used in optoelectronic devices increased, its percentage

132

Synthesis of indium sulphide quantum dots in perfluoronated ionomer membrane  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for synthesis of ?-indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) nanoparticles embedded in an ionomer matrix (nafion membrane). The influence of reaction temperature on structural, compositional and optical properties of these films were analysed using X-Ray Diffraction, EDAX, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Average particle diameter was estimated using modified effective mass approximation method. Absorption spectra of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles show blue shift compared to bulk In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, indicating strong quantum size confinement effects. PL emission in the wavelength range 530–600 nm was recorded using a 488 nm line from an Ar{sup +} laser as the excitation source.

Sumi, R. [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore (India); Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

133

Structure–Diffusion Relationship of Magnetron-Sputtered WTi Barriers Used in Indium Interconnections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tungsten-titanium (WTi) thin films are known as potential adhesion ... and diffusion barriers. The barrier efficiency of WTi thin films against indium (In) diffusion...in situ...annealing. Specific multilayered s...

A. Le Priol; E. Le Bourhis; P.-O. Renault; P. Muller…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Structural and dielectrical studies on mechano-chemically synthesized indium doped CdS nanopowders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Incorporation of indium (dopant) into CdS crystals have been successfully achieved by a ... ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of milled In doped CdS compound showed that the major phase of ... good pathway to identi...

B. J. Babu; S. Velumani; A. Kassiba

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparent electrodes made from metal oxides suffer from poor flexibility and durability. Highly transparent and electrically conductive thin films based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were assembled as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement...

Park, Yong Tae

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

136

Magnetoresistance and Microstructure of Magnetite Nanocrystals Dispersed in Indium?Tin Oxide Thin Films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indium?tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used TCO in the semiconductor and electronic device industries. ... NCs of inverse-spinel-type Fe3O4 grew epitaxially on the YSZ substrate, as shown in Figure 4. ...

Koichi Okada; Shigemi Kohiki; Masanori Mitome; Hidekazu Tanaka; Masao Arai; Masaki Mito; Hiroyuki Deguchi

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

137

Deprotecting Thioacetyl-Terminated Terphenyldithiol for Assembly on Gallium Arsenide  

SciTech Connect

We characterize the assembly of terphenyldithiol (TPDT) on gallium arsenide (GaAs) from ethanol (EtOH) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a function of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) concentration. NH4OH facilitates the conversion of thioacetyl end groups of the TPDT precursor to thiolates in the assembly solution. The final structure of TPDT assembled on GaAs is sensitive not only to the assembly solvent but also to NH4OH concentration. In the presence of low concentrations of NH4OH (1 mM), TPDT assemblies from EtOH are oriented upright. The same assemblies are less upright when adsorption is carried out at higher NH4OH concentrations. In THF, TPDT does not adsorb significantly on GaAs at low NH4OH concentrations. The surface coverage and structural organization of these assemblies improve with increasing NH4OH concentrations, although these assemblies are never as organized as those from EtOH. The difference in the final structure of TPDT assemblies is attributed to differences in the thiolate fraction in the assembly solution at the point of substrate immersion.

Krapchetov,D.; Ma, H.; Jen, A.; Fischer, D.; Loo, Y.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Analytic bond-order potential for the gallium arsenide system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytic, bond-order potential (BOP) is proposed and parametrized for the gallium arsenide system. The potential addresses primary (?) and secondary (?) bonding and the valence-dependent character of heteroatomic bonding, and it can be combined with an electron counting potential to address the distribution of electrons on the GaAs surface. The potential was derived from a tight-binding description of covalent bonding by retaining the first two levels of an expanded Green’s function for the ? and ? bond-order terms. Predictions using the potential were compared with independent estimates for the structures and binding energy of small clusters (dimers, trimers, and tetramers) and for various bulk lattices with coordinations varying from 4 to 12. The structure and energies of simple point defects and melting transitions were also investigated. The relative stabilities of the (001) surface reconstructions of GaAs were well predicted, especially under high-arsenic-overpressure conditions. The structural and binding energy trends of this GaAs BOP generally match experimental observations and ab initio calculations.

D. A. Murdick; X. W. Zhou; H. N. G. Wadley; D. Nguyen-Manh; R. Drautz; D. G. Pettifor

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

139

Change in the current-carrier concentration upon doping PbTe with gallium  

SciTech Connect

Upon doping PbTe with gallium, both high-resistivity samples with intrinsic conductivity and low-resistivity samples with electronic conductivity (n/sub e/ = 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/) are produced on the PbTe-GaTe section. A thorough investigation of the dependence of the thermo-emf of Pb/sub 1-x/Ga/sub x/Te on the excess Pb and Te side showed the presence of a wide region with intrinsic conductivity. The experimental data can be explained by the fact that impure gallium in PbTe has negative Hubbard energy and stabilizes the Fermi level almost at the center of the forbidden band. At high gallium concentrations, Ga/sub 2/Te/sub 3/ precipitates at first, and then GaTe precipitates as well. The lead forming in excess transforms Ga/sup 3 +/ to Ga/sup +/, which produces the electronic conductivity in the material.

Bushmarina, G.S.; Gruzinov, B.F.; Drabkin, I.A.; Lev, E.Ya.; Moizhes, B.Ya; Suprun, S.G.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

(Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2009. Indium-containing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Japan, and the Republic of Korea--the countries where ITO production and sputtering take place. An LCD tailings viable when the price of indium is high. Import Sources (2005-08):1 China, 40%; Japan, 19%; Canada where exports of flat panels rose significantly owing to China's household appliance subsidy program

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ?-iron oxide  

SciTech Connect

In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60?GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ?-iron oxides (?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz–150 GHz. The ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

Chao, Liu, E-mail: liu.chao@tufts.edu; Afsar, Mohammed N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

142

Investigation of Gallium Partitioning Behavior in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Containing Polyethylene Glycol and Ammonium Sulfate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gallium is assumed to be an indispensable rare metal mainly because of its fast growing demand as gallium arsenide (GaAs) in integrated circuits. ... Traditional extraction methods for gallium usually are organic?water two-phase systems, which involve volatile, flammable, and explosive organic solvents, such as n-hexane, toluene, xylene, benzene, nitrobenzene and kerosene. ... (17) A temperature increase reduces the mutual solubility of the two phases and results in an increase of PEG concentration in the upper phase and of volume in the lower phase, which all make ?w1 increase. ...

Yuhuan Chen; Xiaoli Liu; Yan Lu; Xiuying Zhang

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

143

Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire-array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical, electrical, and solar energy-conversion properties of gallium arsenide nanowire, and will aid in the design and optimization of nanowire-based systems for solar energy-conversion applications, and the photoelectrochemical energy-conversion properties of GaAs nanowire arrays were evaluated in contact with one

Zhou, Chongwu

144

Molten Gallium as a Catalyst for the Large-Scale Growth of Highly Aligned Silica Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten Gallium as a Catalyst for the Large-Scale Growth of Highly Aligned Silica Nanowires Zheng a small size (5-100 nm in diameter), high melting point metal (such as gold and iron) catalyst particle as an effective catalyst for the large-scale growth of highly aligned, closely packed silica nanowire bunches

Wang, Zhong L.

145

GALLIUM--2003 28.1 References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the United States was in the form of GaAs. GaAs was manufactured into optoelectronic devices (LEDs, laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells) and ICs. ICs and optoelectronic devices each accounted for 41) and optoelectronic devices [mostly laser diodes and light- emitting diodes (LEDs)]. Estimated crude gallium

146

Die Elemente der 13. Gruppe: die Borgruppe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Die 13. Gruppe enthält die Elemente: Bor (B), Aluminium (Al), Gallium (Ga), Indium (In) und Thallium (Tl).

Prof. Dr. Waldemar Ternes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Chemical interactions at polymer interfaces: poly(p-xylylene-?-tetrahydrothiophene-bromide, chloride) on indium–tin-oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical interactions, at the interface between a precursor polymer for poly(p-phenylenevinylene), namely poly(p-xylylene-?-tetrahydrothiophene-chloride), and an indium–tin-oxide transparent electrode, are identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The \\{HCl\\} eliminated in the conversion process interacts with the surface of the indium–tin-oxide substrate leading to the formation of indium chloride which then diffuses into the polymer. It appears that indium–tin-oxide, or possibly the indium chloride generated at the interface, acts as a catalyst for the thermal elimination reaction. The results show unequivocally that interfacial interactions are of major importance in understanding, and ultimately improving, the performance of polymer-based electro-luminescent devices.

A Andersson; Th Kugler; M Lögdlund; A.B Holmes; X Li; W.R Salaneck

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

An investigation of the cadmium absorption of resonance neutrons in cadmium covered indium foils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Fcd was measured for indium foils in an isotropic epi-thermal neutron flux. In order to obtain an isotropic epi-thermal neutron flux, a test section was constructed utilizing three 2-curie Pu-Be neutron sources each located at an apex... of resonance neutrons absorbed by the cadmium, thus giving a larger Fcd for the thicker foils. Martin (7), however, measured F d for 29, 69, 88, and 94 mg/cm2 indium foils in graphite and found no such variation. He lists a value of 1. 09 for each foil...

Powell, James Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

149

JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 18, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2009 103 Indium Phosphide MEMS Cantilever Resonator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

indium phosphide cantilever waveguide sensor platform. [2008-0134] Index Terms--Chemical sensors can- tilever waveguide resonator sensing platform utilizing a novel optical readout scheme the environment and detect var- ious chemicals is a critical task for industrial, military, and homeland defense

Rubloff, Gary W.

150

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon Mark H. Clarka Strain in B-implanted laser thermal processed LTP silicon is reduced by coimplantation of In. Strain in the codoped layer is calculated using lattice constants measured by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

Florida, University of

151

A study of degradation of indium tin oxide thin films on glass for display applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely used in liquid crystal displays (LCD). Contamination and moisture have proved to have the adverse effect of causing ITO corrosion/degradation. The purpose of this paper is to determine if scratching the surface ... Keywords: Accelerated degradation test, ITO corrosion, ITO degradation, Scratching

W. S. Leung; Y. C. Chan; S. M. Lui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Sensors and Actuators B 118 (2006) 135141 Low temperature indium oxide gas sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sensors and Actuators B 118 (2006) 135­141 Low temperature indium oxide gas sensors M. Sucheaa rights reserved. Keywords: Metal oxide thin films; InOx; Gas sensors; Ozone 1. Introduction The interest's attractive for many areas such as transparent electrodes for solar cells and flat panel displays

153

Development of a 20x20cm2 'hot' indium-alloy hermetic seal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If long time in air before sealing ­ clean with Micro-90 and rinse with DI water 'Hot' Seal #12;8 Step 21 Development of a 20x20cm2 'hot' indium-alloy hermetic seal in an inert atmosphere for photo glass tile except for an aluminum photo-cathode top seal by compression on a viton o-ring active

154

High Electric Resistance Polymer/Lipid Composite Films on Indium?Tin?Oxide Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High Electric Resistance Polymer/Lipid Composite Films on Indium?Tin?Oxide Electrodes ... Impedance spectra were analyzed in terms of equivalent circuits with resistances, capacitances, and so-called “constant phase elements”. ... resists in directing the selective deposition of metal and ceramic thin films by MOCVD and sol-gel methods, resp. ...

Heiko Hillebrandt; Gerald Wiegand; Motomu Tanaka; Erich Sackmann

1999-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

155

Preliminary results from the Russian-American gallium experiment Cr-neutrino source measurement  

SciTech Connect

The Russian-American Gallium Experiment has been collecting solar neutrino data since early 1990. The flux measurement of solar neutrinos is well below that expected from solar models. We discuss the initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93 + 0.15, {minus}0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Elliott, S.R. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Abdurashitov, J.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Bowles, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fast neutron scattering on Gallium target at 14.8 MeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmarking of evaluated nuclear data libraries was performed for $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons on Gallium targets. The experiments were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). Solid samples of natural Gallium (3.2 cm and 6.4 cm thick) were bombarded by $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons and leakage neutron energy spectra were measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$. The measured spectra are rather well reproduced by MCNP-4C simulations with the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4.0 evaluated nuclear data libraries, except for the inelastic contributions around $E_{n} = 10-13$ MeV. All three libraries significantly underestimate the inelastic contributions. The inelastic contributions are further studied, using the Talys simulation code and the experimental spectra are reproduced reasonably well in the whole energy range by the Talys calculation, including the inelastic contributions.

Han, R; Chen, Z; Nie, Y; Liu, X; Zhang, S; Ren, P; Jia, B; Tian, G; Luo, F; Lin, W; Liu, J; Shi, F; Huang, M; Ruan, X; Ren, J; Zhou, Z; Huang, H; Bao, J; Zhang, K; Hu, B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Fast neutron scattering on Gallium target at 14.8 MeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmarking of evaluated nuclear data libraries was performed for $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons on Gallium targets. The experiments were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). Solid samples of natural Gallium (3.2 cm and 6.4 cm thick) were bombarded by $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons and leakage neutron energy spectra were measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$. The measured spectra are rather well reproduced by MCNP-4C simulations with the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4.0 evaluated nuclear data libraries, except for the inelastic contributions around $E_{n} = 10-13$ MeV. All three libraries significantly underestimate the inelastic contributions. The inelastic contributions are further studied, using the Talys simulation code and the experimental spectra are reproduced reasonably well in the whole energy range by the Talys calculation, including the inelastic contributions.

R. Han; R. Wada; Z. Chen; Y. Nie; X. Liu; S. Zhang; P. Ren; B. Jia; G. Tian; F. Luo; W. Lin; J. Liu; F. Shi; M. Huang; X. Ruan; J. Ren; Z. Zhou; H. Huang; J. Bao; K. Zhang; B. Hu

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

158

Thermodynamic property evaluation and magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis for gadolinium gallium garnet  

SciTech Connect

Based on relevant material property data and previous model formulations, a magnetothermodynamic property map for gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was adapted for refrigeration cycle analysis in the temperature range 4-40 K and the magnetic field range 0-6 T. Employing methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges, assessments of limitations and relative performance were made for Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. It was found that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as the limitations for materials previously examined, considerable improvement in cooling capacity and temperature lift combinations can be achieved by using regenerative cycles if serious loss mechanisms are avoided.

Murphy, R.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Site preferences of indium impurity atoms in intermetallics having Al3Ti and Al3Zr crystal structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Site preferences of indium impurity atoms in intermetallics having Al3Ti and Al3Zr crystal-04843 (Metals Program) and Praveen Sinha Fund for Physics Research. L12 DO22 DO23 Cu3Au Al3Ti Al3Zr #12;Outline · Indium was doped in samples of Al3V and Al3Ti (Al3Ti structure) and Al3Zr (Al3Zr structure) by arc

Collins, Gary S.

160

Indium diffusion through high-k dielectrics in high-k/InP stacks  

SciTech Connect

Evidence of indium diffusion through high-k dielectric (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) films grown on InP (100) by atomic layer deposition is observed by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The analysis establishes that In-out diffusion occurs and results in the formation of a PO{sub x} rich interface.

Dong, H.; Cabrera, W.; Santosh KC,; Brennan, B.; Qin, X.; McDonnell, S.; Hinkle, C. L.; Cho, K.; Chabal, Y. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Galatage, R. V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Synthesis of graphene nanoribbons from amyloid templates by gallium vapor-assisted solid-phase graphitization  

SciTech Connect

Single- and double-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with widths of around 10?nm were synthesized directly onto an insulating substrate by solid-phase graphitization using a gallium vapor catalyst and carbon templates made of amyloid fibrils. Subsequent investigation revealed that the crystallinity, conductivity, and carrier mobility were all improved by increasing the temperature of synthesis. The carrier mobility of the GNR synthesized at 1050?°C was 0.83 cm{sup 2}/V?s, which is lower than that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. This is considered to be most likely due to electron scattering by the defects and edges of the GNRs.

Murakami, Katsuhisa, E-mail: k.murakami@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Dong, Tianchen; Kajiwara, Yuya; Takahashi, Teppei; Fujita, Jun-ichi [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hiyama, Takaki; Takai, Eisuke; Ohashi, Gai; Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

162

Polythiophene-based charge dissipation layer for electron beam lithography of zinc oxide and gallium nitride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability of thin polythiophene layers to dissipate accumulated charge in the electron beam lithography (EBL) of wide bandgap semiconductors such as zinc oxide and gallium nitride is demonstrated. A quick and inexpensive processing method is demonstrated for EBL exposure of dense and high-resolution patterns in a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) negative-tone resistdeposited on bulk ZnO samples and with GaN/AlN on sapphire substrates. For the former experimental results are given for three different cases: where no charge dissipation layer was used as well as cases where 40-nm-thick Al and 100-nm-thick conductive polymer layers were used on the top of the HSQ resist. For the latter material EBL exposure was investigated for pure HSQ and for HSQ with a thin conductive polymer layer on top. Based on the scanning electron microscope observations of the resulting photonic crystal(PhC) pattern conventional Al and the proposed polymer approach were compared. Good agreement between these results is reported while the new method considerably simplifies sample processing. Spin-coatable conducting polymer may be easily removed due to its solubility in water which makes it a perfect solution for the processing of amphoteric oxide samples i.e. zinc oxide. Gallium nitride processing also benefits from polymer dissipation layer usage due to extended exposure range and the avoidance of dense pattern overexposure in HSQ.

R. Dylewicz; S. Lis; R. M. De La Rue; F. Rahman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Characterization of gallium-doped CdS thin films grown by chemical bath Hani Khallaf a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of gallium-doped CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition Hani Khallaf In-situ doping with group III elements has been widely used to decrease the dark resistivity of CdS technique for aluminum in-situ doping of CdS. We have also shown that due to extremely low solubility

Chow, Lee

164

Synthesis of Gallium Oxide Hydroxide Crystals in Aqueous Solutions with or without Urea and Their Calcination Behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solution of gallium(III) nitrate and stirring at 90°C for 10 h, followed by calcination of the recovered of solid electro- lytes of superior (as compared with Y-stabilized zirconia) ionic conductivity, i.e., La0-chemical synthesis of powders of doped LaGaO3 fuel cell ceramics.24,25 The first experimental study

Tas, A. Cuneyt

165

An assessment of the validity of cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide gallium removal studies  

SciTech Connect

Methods for purifying plutonium metal have long been established. These methods use acid solutions to dissolve and concentrate the metal. However, these methods can produce significant mixed waste, that is, waste containing both radioactive and chemical hazards. The volume of waste produced from the aqueous purification of thousands of weapons would be expensive to treat and dispose. Therefore, a dry method of purification is highly desirable. Recently, a dry gallium removal research program commenced. Based on initial calculations, it appeared that a particular form of gallium (gallium suboxide, Ga{sub 2}O) could be evaporated from plutonium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent, such as small amounts of hydrogen dry gas within an inert environment. Initial tests using ceria-based material (as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}) showed that thermally-induced gallium removal (TIGR) from small samples (on the order of one gram) was indeed viable. Because of the expense and difficulty of optimizing TIGR from plutonium dioxide, TIGR optimization tests using ceria have continued. This document details the relationship between the ceria surrogate tests and those conducted using plutonia.

Kolman, D.G.; Park, Y.; Stan, M.; Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Butt, D.P.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride to examine the effects of carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature on the morphology of carbon with increasing carbon tetrachloride concentration. Step bunching and pinning was observed at a IV/III ratio

Li, Lian

167

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass April 22, 2010 - 4:20pm Addthis Delaware-based DuPont is working to develop ultra-thin moisture protective films for photovoltaic panels - so thin they're about 1,000 times thinner than a human hair. DuPont is working on new photovoltaic technology that will let manufacturers of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS, solar cells and organic light emitting diodes, or OLED, displays protect products with thin layers of ceramic and polymer material instead of glass. These ultra-thin protective films could help prevent deterioration from moisture. Because of their potential to reduce the cost of producing solar energy, "thin-film PV modules are projected to be the fastest-growing segment of

168

California | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

January 10, 2011 January 10, 2011 Vintage DOE: What is Fusion This edition of vintage DOE pulls a discussion of nuclear fusion from the video archive. January 10, 2011 CX-004965: Categorical Exclusion Determination California-City-Walnut Creek CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 01/10/2011 Location(s): Walnut Creek, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy January 5, 2011 CX-004886: Categorical Exclusion Determination Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-Selenide (CIGSS) Manufacturing Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 01/05/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Loan Guarantee Program Office December 17, 2010 EIS-0455: Notice of Adoption of an Environmental Impact Statement Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA December 17, 2010 EIS-0403: DOE and BLM Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic

169

HelioVolt Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

HelioVolt Corporation HelioVolt Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name HelioVolt Corporation Place Austin, Texas Zip TX 78744 Product Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV module manufacturer based in Austin, Texas. Website http://www.heliovolt.net/ Coordinates 30.267605°, -97.742984° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.267605,"lon":-97.742984,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

170

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass April 22, 2010 - 4:20pm Addthis Delaware-based DuPont is working to develop ultra-thin moisture protective films for photovoltaic panels - so thin they're about 1,000 times thinner than a human hair. DuPont is working on new photovoltaic technology that will let manufacturers of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS, solar cells and organic light emitting diodes, or OLED, displays protect products with thin layers of ceramic and polymer material instead of glass. These ultra-thin protective films could help prevent deterioration from moisture. Because of their potential to reduce the cost of producing solar energy, "thin-film PV modules are projected to be the fastest-growing segment of

171

Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Sintered CdSexTe1–x Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

solar cell; nanocrystal; CdTe; CdSexTe1?x; layer-by-layer; solution-processed; sintered ... For instance, devices fabricated using cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) based active layers have exhibited laboratory scale power conversion efficiencies up to 17.3%(1) and 20.3%,(2) respectively, at commercial production costs as low as US $0.75/Watt. ... (20) More recently, the graded device concept has been extended to solution-processed organic solar cells, through a series of complementary donor materials(21) and to PbS quantum dot devices, where bandgap grading was accomplished through variation of the QD diameter. ...

Brandon I. MacDonald; Alessandro Martucci; Sergey Rubanov; Scott E. Watkins; Paul Mulvaney; Jacek J. Jasieniak

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

172

I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell utilizing the structure CuInGaSe.sub.2 CdZnS/ZnO  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell having a first layer of copper indium gallium selenide, a second layer of cadmium zinc sulfide, a double layer of zinc oxide, and a metallization structure comprised of a layer of nickel covered by a layer of aluminum. An optional antireflective coating may be placed on said metallization structure. The cadmium zinc sulfide layer is deposited by means of an aqueous solution growth deposition process and may actually consist of two layers: a low zinc content layer and a high zinc content layer. Photovoltaic efficiencies of 12.5% at Air Mass 1.5 illumination conditions and 10.4% under AMO illumination can be achieved.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2003. Two companies,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the curtailment of primary refining capacity have added an extra incentive to the recovery of secondary indium be compared with Japan where the decline in domestic zinc refining has stimulated an aggressive recycling in the world economy. The report of reduced production from mines that produce byproduct indium had a negative

174

Annealing behavior of the hydrogen-vacancy complex in bulk indium phosphide crystals  

SciTech Connect

In order to explain the effects of hydrogen on the electrical properties of bulk indium phosphide crystals, they have performed a series of high temperature annealing studies with both undoped and iron-doped indium phosphide crystals. The samples were annealed at 900 C for 6, 36, and 72 hours, respectively, under a phosphorus overpressure of five atmospheres. Samples were characterized at 10 K by Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy which allowed us to measure the concentrations of both the Fe{sup 2+} and V{sub In}-H{sub 4} defects simultaneously. Undoped samples were further characterized by the Hall effect measurements. The authors find in the iron-doped samples that the [Fe{sup 2+}]/[Fe{sup 3+}] ratio decreases gradually with increasing annealing time, indicating a reduction in the number of donors in the samples. In the undoped samples, annealing leads to a reduction of the free electron concentration accompanied by an increase in the 77 K mobility. The increase of the sample`s mobility eliminates the possibility that the reduction of the free electron concentration is due to an increase in the concentration of the compensating acceptors. The explanation for the observed behavior in all samples is that hydrogen acts as a donor and it diffuses out of the crystal during the annealing process. Based on the experimental data, they propose a calibration equation of [V{sub In}-H{sub 4}] = 4.2 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}1} {times} Absorbance (cm{sup {minus}1}) which is used to correlate the hydrogen-vacancy complex concentrations with the changes of the V{sub In}-H{sub 4} absorption peak in both the iron-doped and the undoped samples. Their results confirm the donor nature of the hydrogen-vacancy complex and provide strong evidence regarding the reduction mechanism of free carrier concentrations in bulk indium phosphide crystals during high temperature annealing under a phosphorus atmosphere.

Ye, Q.; Wolk, J.A.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.; Bliss, D.F. [Air Force Rome Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30?V to 0.55?V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu, E-mail: xydeng@hitsz.edu.cn [Research Center for Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

176

Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment  

SciTech Connect

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding ?/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ?517??m-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (?78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66?V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

Yang, Chan-Shan [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tang, Tsung-Ta [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ru-Pin [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Yu, Peichen [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ci-Ling, E-mail: clpan@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Science of Matters, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (?-Ge)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, metal-induced crystallization (MIC) phenomenon on ?-Ge by indium (In) and tin (Sn) are thoroughly investigated. In- and Sn-MIC process respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. Compared to the previously reported MIC samples including In-MIC, Sn-MIC process presented higher sheet resistance (similar to that of SPC) and bigger crystal grains above 50 nm (slightly smaller than that of SPC). According to SIMS analysis, Sn atoms diffused more slowly into Ge than In at 400 °C, providing lower density of heterogeneous nuclei induced by metals and consequently larger crystal grains.

Dong-Ho Kang; Jin-Hong Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Local environment and composition of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides determined from solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Ordering of gallium(III) in a series of magnesium gallium layered double hydroxides (LDH’s), [Mg1-xGax(OH)2(NO3)x yH2O], was determined using solid-state 1H and 71Ga NMR spectroscopy. Depletion of Ga in these LDH’s is demonstrated to be the result of soluble [Ga(OH)4]-complexes formed during synthesis.

Petersen, Line B.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Zorin, Vadim; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect

We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ?}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ?}? effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ?} images.

Imtiaz, Atif [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel, E-mail: kabos@boulder.nist.gov [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Weber, Joel C. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Coakley, Kevin J. [Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

180

Plasma Sputter-type Ion Source with Wire Electrodes for Low-energy Gallium Ion Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Low-energy ions of gallium (Ga) and argon (Ar) were extracted from a plasma sputter-type ion source system that utilized a tungsten (W) wire extractor geometry. The 90% transparent W wire extractor configuration had shown that the system was capable of producing an ion beam with the energy as low as 10 eV in a dc filament discharge and 50 eV in a radio frequency (rf) excited system. In the present investigation, Ar plasma was sustained in an ion source chamber through an inductively coupled 13.56 MHz rf power source. Negatively biased liquid Ga target suspended on a W reservoir was sputtered and postionized prior to extraction. Mass spectral analyses revealed a strong dependence of the Ga{sup +} current on the induced target bias.

Vasquez, M. Jr.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Maeno, S. [Novelion Systems Co. Ltd., Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0332 (Japan); Miyamoto, N. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co. Ltd., Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The status of the solar neutrino problem and the Russian-American gallium experiment (SAGE)  

SciTech Connect

Perhaps the most outstanding discrepancy between prediction and measurements in current particle physics comes from the solar neutrino problem, in which a large deficit of high-energy solar neutrinos is observed. Many Nonstandard Solar Models have been invoked to try to reduce the predicted flux, but all have run into problems in trying to reproduce other measured parameters (e.g., the luminosity) of the Sun. Other explanations involving new physics such as neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations, etc. have also been proffered. Again, most of these explanations have been ruled out by either laboratory or astrophysical measurements. It appears that perhaps the most likely particle physics solution is that of matter enhanced neutrino oscillation, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations. Two new radiochemical gallium experiments, which have a low enough threshold to be sensitive to the dominant flux of low-energy p-p neutrinos, now also report a deficit and also favor a particle physics solution.

Bowles, T.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module  

SciTech Connect

We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Solvent-Dependent Assembly of Terphenyl- and Quaterphenyldithiol on Gold and Gallium Arsenide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solvent-Dependent Assembly of Terphenyl- and Quaterphenyldithiol on Gold and Gallium Arsenide ... This solvent pair was chosen because of an apparent solubility conflict:? while EtOH is the most common solvent for assembling alkylthiol and conjugated monothiol molecules,43-45 the longer n-phenyldithiols (n = 3, 4), in their thioacetyl forms (compounds 3 and 4 in Scheme 1), are poorly soluble in EtOH. ... The precipitate was filtered, washed with water, hexane, and methylene chloride, and dried overnight at 40 °C under vacuum to afford a light-yellow solid (5.90 g, 92%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3) ? 7.65 (s, 4H), 7.55 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 4H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 4H), 2.55 (s, 6H). ...

Dmitry A. Krapchetov; Hong Ma; Alex K. Y. Jen; Daniel A. Fischer; Yueh-Lin Loo

2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

184

Femtosecond laser-ultrasonic investigation of plasmonic fields on the metal/gallium nitride interface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By using femtosecond laser-ultrasonic we demonstrate an approach to study the surface plasmon field optically excited in the interface between metal and a semiconductor thin film. By femtosecond impulsive excitation on gallium–nitride (GaN) different optical probe signals were observed when the impulse-excited nanoacoustic pulse propagated through the metalfilm and metal nanoslits. By analyzing the shape and temporal response of thus induced acousto-optical signals our femtosecond laser-ultrasonic study not only reveals the plasmonic field distribution optically excited in the metal/substrate interface but also confirms that the penetration depth of surface plasmon field into the substrate agrees well with a simulation result.

Hung-Pin Chen; Yu-Chieh Wen; Yi-Hsin Chen; Cheng-Hua Tsai; Kuang-Li Lee; Pei-Kuen Wei; Jinn-Kong Sheu; Chi-Kuang Sun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Biodistribution of 111Indium-labeled Engineered Human Antibody CTMO1 in Ovarian Cancer Patients: Influence of Protein Dose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...caused partly by the type of chelator. The indium-chelating macro cycle 9N3 (18) was chosen because the distribution of ~@ ~Inis then likely to represent the distribution of the antibody hCTMO1. In the studies performed by Hagan et a!. (32) and Beatty...

Arjan C. van Hof; Carla F. M. Molthoff; Quentin Davies; Alan C. Perkins; René H. M. Verheijen; Peter Kenemans; Wim den Hollander; Abraham J. Wilhelm; Terry S. Baker; Mark Sopwith; Malcolm Frier; E. Malcolm Symonds; Jan C. Roos

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Conductive indium-tin oxide nanowire and nanotube arrays made by electrochemically assisted deposition in template membranes: switching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conductive indium-tin oxide nanowire and nanotube arrays made by electrochemically assisted-step electrochemically assisted deposition (EAD) process inside Au-plugged anodic aluminium oxide and polycarbonate electrodes in dye-sensi- tized2,6­11 and polymer12 solar cells, fillers in transparent and conductive polymer

187

DFT studies of Indium Nanoclusters (Inn where n=3-10) and Nanotube and their interaction with molecular hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density functional theory calculations have been performed on Indium nanoclusters (Inn, n= 3 to 10) to explore the relative stability among their different isomers and interaction with H2. Geometry optimizations starting from initial candidate geometries were performed for each cluster size, so as to determine a few low energy isomers for each size. Clusters with planar configuration and high symmetry are found to be more stable. For n=8 there comes transition from 2D to 3D structures, which formed by stacking of planar rings are most stable. Energetically favorable isomers of indium nanoclusters for each size were considered to get H2 adsorbed. In general H2 interaction with these clusters is week but with odd index i.e. 5, 7 and 9 is significant. Indium nanotube also indicates H2 adsorption but Eads increases many folds on introduction of defect in the tube. On basis of these DFT studies we propose indium nanotubes and clusters of particular size appear to be good candidate for hydrogen storage materials.

Baig, Mirza Wasif; Ahmad, Idrees; Siddiq, Muhammad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Investigation of buried homojunctions in p -InP formed during sputter deposition of both indium tin oxide and indium oxide  

SciTech Connect

Although it is apparent that direct current (dc) magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO) leads to the formation of a buried homojunction in single crystal {ital p}-type InP, the actual mechanism of type conversion of the InP surface is not clear, nor is it immediately obvious how further improvements may be achieved. Previously, we have suggested that type conversion is caused by indiffusion of Sn during the ITO deposition process and additionally demonstrated that this effect is strengthened by the presence of hydrogen in the sputtering gas. Recently, however, efficiencies of almost 17% (Global) have been achieved for cells fabricated by sputter depositing In{sub 2}O{sub 3}(IO) alone, strongly suggesting that the Sn may not be an essential part of type conversion. In this work, a variety of electrical and optical techniques has been used to assess the changes at the ITO/InP and IO/InP interfaces. From these, it is concluded that several mechanisms, including passivation of acceptors by hydrogen and sputter damage,'' occur simultaneously. This analysis suggests several directions for further improvement of these devices.

Gessert, T.A.; Li, X.; Wanlass, M.W.; Nelson, A.J.; Coutts, T.J. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Indium doped zinc oxide nanowire thin films for antireflection and solar absorber coating applications  

SciTech Connect

Indium doped ZnO nanowire thin films were prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn-In metal bilayer films at 500°C. The ZnO:In nanowires are 20-100 nm in diameter and several tens of microns long. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of oxide and indicate that the films are polycrystalline, both in the as deposited and annealed states. The transmission which is <2% for the as deposited Zn-In films increases to >90% for the ZnO:In nanowire films. Significantly, the reflectance for the as deposited films is < 10% in the region between 200 to 1500 nm and < 2% for the nanowire films. Thus, the as deposited films can be used solar absorber coatings while the nanowire films are useful for antireflection applications. The growth of nanowires by this technique is attractive since it does not involve very high temperatures and the use of catalysts.

Shaik, Ummar Pasha [ACRHEM, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam, E-mail: mgksp@uohyd.ac.in [ACRHEM and School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

190

Spray coated indium-tin-oxide-free organic photodiodes with PEDOT:PSS anodes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-free spray coated organic photodiodes with an active layer consisting of a poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend and patterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. External quantum efficiency and current voltage characteristics under illuminated and dark conditions as well as cut-off frequencies for devices with varying active and hole conducting layer thicknesses were measured in order to characterize the fabricated devices. 60% quantum efficiency as well as nearly four orders of magnitude on-off ratios have been achieved. Those values are comparable with standard ITO devices.

Schmidt, Morten, E-mail: morten.schmidt@nano.ei.tum.de; Falco, Aniello; Loch, Marius; Lugli, Paolo; Scarpa, Giuseppe [Institute for Nanoelectronics, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 Munich (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Study of indium and solder bumps for the BTeV Pixel Detector  

SciTech Connect

The pixel detector proposed for the BTeV experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron will use bump-bonding technology based on either Indium or Pb/Sn solder to connect the front-end readout chips to the silicon pixel sensors. We have studied the strength of the bumps by visual inspection of the bumps bonding silicon sensor modules to dummy chips made out of glass. The studies were done before and after thermal cycles, exposed to intense irradiation, and with the assemblies glued to a graphite substrate. We have also carried out studies on effects of temperature changes on both types of bump bonds by observing the responses of single-chip pixel detectors to an Sr{sup 90} source. We report the results from these studies and our plan to measure the effect of cryogenic temperatures on the bumps.

Simon W Kwan et al.

2003-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

192

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No indium was recovered from ores in the United States in 1997. Domestically  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

--United States: 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997e Production, refinery -- -- -- -- -- Imports for consumption 73.4 70 for the indium market remains promising. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery

193

GREEN:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......toxicity, poor solubility in solvents...germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well...Gallium arsenide is a compound...elements gallium and arsenic...gallons of water every day...release indium gallium arsenide, filling...byproduct is water. Ann Christy......

Green Impact of Hardware

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

IIl-nitride nanowires and heterostructures : growth and optical properties on nanoscale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) nanowires promise potential for further improving the electricity-to-light energy conversion efficiencies in light emitting diodes due to strain relaxation, reduced ...

Zhou, Xiang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

None

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Electrodeposition of Crystalline GaAs on Liquid Gallium Electrodes in Aqueous Electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystalline gallium arsenide (c-GaAs) possesses many desirable optoelectronic properties suited for solar energy conversion,(1) light and radiation detection,(2) chemical sensing,(3) lighting,(4) and high speed electronics. ... In contrast to conflicting previous reports on the electrodeposition of GaAs,(17, 18) we posit that c-GaAs(s) can be synthesized predictably through the electrodeposition of As from dissolved As2O3 specifically on a Ga(l) electrode at modest temperatures in water. ... Specifically, for any binary system composed of a solid dissolving into a liquid, the rate of dissolution of the solid into the liquid phase is given by eq 5:(60)(5)where kdiss is the dissolution rate constant, s is the surface area of the solid in contact with the liquid, V is the volume of the liquid, Csat is the solubility of the solid in the liquid, and Cdiss is the concentration of the dissolved solid in the bulk of the liquid phase. ...

Eli Fahrenkrug; Junsi Gu; Stephen Maldonado

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

197

Stereocomplexes of A?B?A Triblock Copolymers Based on Poly(l-Lactide) and Poly(d-Lactide) A Blocks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analogous series of A?B?A triblock copolymers was prepared with DLA. ... The DSC curves were calibrated with n-heptane, mercury, gallium, indium, and zinc. ...

Hans R. Kricheldorf; Simon Rost; Christoph Wutz; Abraham Domb

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium hydroxides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 50 The aqueous geochemistry of gallium, germanium, indium and scandium Summary: Chemical Society 85, 3533-3539 sense,...

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium fluorides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Delhi Collection: Biotechnology ; Biology and Medicine 63 The aqueous geochemistry of gallium, germanium, indium and scandium Summary: , fluoride, sulfate and phosphate, and...

200

Solar Innovation Timeline | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cell Photo of two researchers analyzing a thin, circular shaped film under a small light. NREL researchers develop a gallium indium phosphidegallium arsenide solar cell...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

History | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

cell Photo of two researchers analyzing a thin, circular shaped film under a small light. NREL researchers develop a gallium indium phosphidegallium arsenide solar cell...

202

Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thin Film Solar Technologies Place: South Africa Product: Producers of thin-film copper, indium, gallium, sulphur, selenium modules....

203

Local indium segregation and band structure in high efficiencygreen light emitting InGaN/GaN diodes  

SciTech Connect

GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) are commercialized for lighting applications because of the cost efficient way that they produce light of high brightness. Nevertheless, there is significant room for improving their external emission efficiency from typical values below 10 percent to more than 50 percent, which are obtainable by use of other materials systems that, however, do not cover the visible spectrum. In particular, green-light emitting diodes fall short in this respect, which is troublesome since the human eye is most sensitive in this spectral range. In this letter advanced electron microscopy is used to characterize indium segregation in InGaN quantum wells of high-brightness, green LEDs (with external quantum efficiency as high as 15 percent at 75 A/cm2). Our investigations reveal the presence of 1-3 nm wide indium rich clusters in these devices with indium concentrations as large as 0.30-0.40 that narrow the band gap locally to energies as small as 2.65 eV.

Jinschek, Joerg R.; Erni, Rolf; Gardner, Nathan F.; Kim, AndrewY.; Kisielowski, Christian

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

204

Neutron scattering from elemental indium, the optical model, and the bound-state potential  

SciTech Connect

Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium are measured from 4.5 to 10 MeV at incident-energy intervals of {approx}500 keV. Seventy or more differential values are obtained at each incident energy, distributed between {approx}18{degree} and 160{degree}. These experimental results are combined with lower-energy values previously obtained at this laboratory, and with 11 and 14 MeV results in the literature, to form a comprehensive elastic-scattering database extending from {approx}1.5 to 14 MeV. These data are interpreted in terms of a conventional spherical optical model. The resulting potential is extrapolated to the bound-state regime. It is shown that in the middle of the 50--82 neutron shell, the potential derived from the scattering results adequately describes the binding energies of article states, but does not do well for hole states. The latter shortcoming is attributed to the holes states having occupational probabilities sufficiently different from unity, so that the exclusion principle become a factor, and to the rearrangement of the neutron core. 68 refs.

Chiba, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Smith, A.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Studies on transparent spinel magnesium indium oxide thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ternary semiconducting oxide compound magnesium indium oxide films (MgIn2O4), manifesting high transparency were prepared by metal organic chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Precursors prepared for various cationic ratios of Mg/In = 0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 0.50 were thermally sprayed onto quartz substrates, decomposed at 450 °C and the spinel phase evolution was studied. X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been conducted to confirm the formation of single-phase MgIn2O4 films with Mg/In ratio 0.50. From optical transmission studies, the observed optical band gaps varied from 3.18 to 3.86 eV (0.35 < Mg/In < 0.5). The electrical conductivity variations of these films were measured in the temperature range between 30 and 150 °C by four-probe technique (34.07–1.44 × 10? 5 S cm? 1) and the Hall coefficient showed n-type electrical conduction and high carrier concentration (0.16 × 1020–0.89 × 17 cm? 3).

A. Moses Ezhil Raj; V. Senthilkumar; V. Swaminathan; Joachim Wollschläger; M. Suendorf; M. Neumann; M. Jayachandran; C. Sanjeeviraja

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Optimized deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline magnesium indium oxide thin films for opto-electronic applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transparent conducting magnesium indium oxide films (MgIn2O4) were deposited on to quartz substrates without a buffer layer at an optimized deposition temperature of 450 °C to achieve high transmittance in the visible spectral range and electrical conductivity in the low temperature region. Magnesium ions are distributed over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the inverted spinel structure with preferential orientation along (3 1 1) Miller plane. The possible mechanism that promotes conductivity in this system is the charge transfer between the resident divalent (Mg2+) and trivalent (In3+) cations in addition to the available oxygen vacancies in the lattice. A room temperature electrical conductivity of 1.5 × 10?5 S cm?1 and an average transmittance >75% have been achieved. Hall measurements showed n-type conductivity with electron mobility value 0.95 × 10?2 cm2 V?1 s?1 and carrier concentration 2.7 × 1019 cm?3. Smoothness of the film surface observed through atomic force microscope measurements favors this material for gas sensing and opto-electronic device development.

A. Moses Ezhil Raj; C. Ravidhas; R. Ravishankar; A. Rathish Kumar; G. Selvan; M. Jayachandran; C. Sanjeeviraja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Unusual crystallographic structure and its fluctuation of indium nanoparticles as-deposited and observed with HRTEM using the UHV-DC-TEM system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A UHV-DC-TEM system was developed for direct transportation of samples between an ultra-high vacuum deposition chamber (UHV-DC) and a UHV transmission electron microscope (UHV-TEM). Indium nanoparticles have been deposited onto Si(110) TEM samples at room temperature in UHV-DC and observed in UHV-TEM with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Freshly made indium nanoparticles were found to be single, twinned, pseudo-twinned crystals and decahedral multiply-twinned particles (MTPs) with their size in the range 8–15 nm. The structure of single crystalline indium nanoparticles is body-centered tetragonal (bct), which is the same as that of bulk indium. In addition to the usual {011} type twins for bct structure, a pseudo-twin was observed to have an orientation relationship as [111]A//[100]B and (101?)A//(01?1?)B. The structure of MTP indium is complicated because of the co-existence of bct and fcc structures within one nanocrystal. The structure fluctuation process has been examined using a video recorder with time scale down to 1/60 s. No complete liquid state was seen during this fluctuation.

Q. Chen; M. Tanaka; K. Furuya

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Lewis Base Adduct Stabilized Organogallium Azides:? Synthesis and Dynamic NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Novel Precursors to Gallium Nitride and Role of Ammonia as Reactive Carrier Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lewis Base Adduct Stabilized Organogallium Azides:? Synthesis and Dynamic NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Novel Precursors to Gallium Nitride and Role of Ammonia as Reactive Carrier Gas ... Solvents were dried under argon according to standard methods; n-pentane and toluene were stored over Na/K alloy, and diethyl ether and thf over potassium benzophenoate (residual water solubility in other solvents than thf. ...

Alexander Miehr; Mike R. Mattner; Roland A. Fischer

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

209

The reaction of carbon tetrachloride with gallium arsenide ,,001... L. Li., S, Gan, B.-K. Han, H. Qi, and R. F. Hicksa)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reaction of carbon tetrachloride with gallium arsenide ,,001... L. Li., S, Gan, B.-K. Han, H, California 90095 Received 26 June 1997; accepted for publication 30 December 1997 Carbon tetrachloride of steps during the vapor-phase epitaxial growth of III­V compound semiconductors.3,4 Carbon tetrachloride

Li, Lian

210

A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions  

SciTech Connect

ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 (India)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Distribution of aluminum and indium impurities in crystals of Ge-Si solid solutions grown from the melt  

SciTech Connect

The problem regarding the distribution of aluminum and indium impurities in bulk crystals of solid solutions with a variable composition Ge{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.3) is solved in order to establish regularities of the changes in the segregation coefficients of impurities with variations in the composition of the host lattice in the germanium-silicon system. Aluminum-and indium-doped crystals of Ge{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.3) solid solutions with a silicon content decreasing along the crystallization axis are grown by a modified Bridgman method with the use of a silicon seed. The concentration distribution of impurities over the length of the crystals is determined from Hall measurements. It is demonstrated that the experimental data on the concentration distribution of impurities in the crystals are in good agreement with the results obtained from the theory according to which the equilibrium segregation coefficients of impurities vary linearly with a change in the composition of Ge-Si solid solution crystals.

Kyazimova, V. K. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)], E-mail: zangi@physics.ab.az; Zeynalov, Z. M. [Ganja State University (Azerbaijan); Zakhrabekova, Z. M.; Azhdarov, G. Kh. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

The influence of prestrained metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial gallium-nitride templates on hydride vapor phase epitaxial growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have varied the strain situation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown gallium-nitride (GaN) by exchanging the nucleation layer and by inserting a submono-Si x N y -interlayer in the first few hundred nanometers of growth on sapphire substrates. The influence on the MOVPE template and subsequent hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth could be shown by in-situ measurements of the sample curvature. Using the results of these investigations we have established a procedure to confine the curvature development in MOVPE and HVPE growth to a minimum. By increasing the layer thickness in HVPE we could create self-separated freestanding GaN layers with small remaining curvature.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

An experiment to test the viability of a gallium-arsenide cathode in a SRF electron gun  

SciTech Connect

Strained gallium arsenide cathodes are used in electron guns for the production of polarized electrons. In order to have a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode the vacuum in the gun must be 10{sup -11} Torr or better, so that the cathode is not destroyed by ion back bombardment or through contamination with residual gases. All successful polarized guns are DC guns, because such vacuum levels can not be obtained in normal conducting RF guns. A superconductive RF gun may provide a sufficient vacuum level due to cryo-pumping of the cavity walls. We report on the progress of our experiment to test such a gun with normal GaAs-Cs crystals.

Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Wu, Q.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

214

Characteristics of trap-filled gallium arsenide photoconductive switches used in high gain pulsed power applications  

SciTech Connect

The electrical properties of semi-insulating (SI) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) have been investigated for some time, particularly for its application as a substrate in microelectronics. Of late this material has found a variety of applications other than as an isolation region between devices, or the substrate of an active device. High resistivity SI GaAs is increasingly being used in charged particle detectors and photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). PCSS made from these materials operating in both the linear and non-linear modes have applications such as firing sets, as drivers for lasers, and in high impedance, low current Q-switches or Pockels cells. In the non-linear mode, it has also been used in a system to generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) High Power Microwaves (HPM). The choice of GaAs over silicon offers the advantage that its material properties allow for fast, repetitive switching action. Furthermore photoconductive switches have advantages over conventional switches such as improved jitter, better impedance matching, compact size, and in some cases, lower laser energy requirement for switching action. The rise time of the PCSS is an important parameter that affects the maximum energy transferred to the load and it depends, in addition to other parameters, on the bias or the average field across the switch. High field operation has been an important goal in PCSS research. Due to surface flashover or premature material breakdown at higher voltages, most PCSS, especially those used in high power operation, need to operate well below the inherent breakdown voltage of the material. The lifetime or the total number of switching operations before breakdown, is another important switch parameter that needs to be considered for operation at high bias conditions. A lifetime of {approximately} 10{sup 4} shots has been reported for PCSS's used in UWB-HPM generation [5], while it has exceeded 10{sup 8} shots for electro-optic drivers. Much effort is currently being channeled in the study related to improvements of these two parameters high bias operation and lifetime improvement for switches used in pulsed power applications. The contact material and profiles are another important area of study. Although these problems are being pursued through the incorporation of different contact materials and introducing doping near contacts, it is important that the switch properties and the conduction mechanism in these switches be well understood such that the basic nature of the problems can be properly addressed. In this paper the authors report on these two basic issues related to the device operation, i.e., mechanisms for increasing the hold-off characteristics through neutron irradiation, and the analysis of transport processes at varying field conditions in trap dominated SI GaAs in order to identify the breakdown mechanism during device operation. It is expected that this study would result in a better understanding of photoconductive switches, specifically those used in high power operation.

ISLAM,N.E.; SCHAMILOGLU,E.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; JOSHI,R.P.

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

Light output enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with contrasting indium tin-oxide nanopatterned structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various nanopatterns on the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layer are investigated to enhance the light extraction efficiency of the InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Triangular, square, and circular nanohole patterns with the square ...

Sang Hyun Jung; Keun Man Song; Young Su Choi; Hyeong-Ho Park; Hyun-Beom Shin; Ho Kwan Kang; Jaejin Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

FUNDAMENTAL MIXING AT 9.05 GHz USING INDIUM MICR0BRIDGES+ W.H. Howard, M.B. Stern and Y.H. Kao  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FUNDAMENTAL MIXING AT 9.05 GHz USING INDIUM MICR0BRIDGES+ W.H. Howard, M.B. Stern and Y.H. Kao made on single-bridge samples and on series arrays of microbridges. INTRODUCTION.- Josephson point by a micro- bridge array. The rod was then mounted in the wave- guide parallel to.the short dimension, so

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 384, 370375 (2008) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12708.x On the solar abundance of indium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the solar abundance of indium is over six times higher than the meteoritic value. We address meteoritic and solar abundance values. In this paper, we address this problem by considering the nucleosyntheMon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 384, 370­375 (2008) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12708.x On the solar

Rutten, Rob

218

Efficient Polymer Solar Cells Fabricated on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)-Etched Old Indium Tin Oxide Substrates  

SciTech Connect

In organic electronic devices, indium tin oxide (ITO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are the most common transparent electrode and anodic buffer layer materials, respectively. A widespread concern is that PEDOT:PSS is acidic and etches ITO. We show that this issue is not serious: only a few nanometers of ITO are etched in typical device processing conditions and storage thereafter; conductivity losses are affordable; and optical transmission gains further offset these losses. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices fabricated on old ITO (with PEDOT:PSS history) were similar or higher in efficiency than devices on fresh ITO. Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

Elshobaki, Moneim [Mansoura University; Anderegg, James [Ames Laboratory; Chaudhary, Sumit [Ames Laboratory

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

219

Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

220

Investigation of charge compensation in indium-doped tin dioxide by hydrogen insertion via annealing under humid conditions  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of hydrogen (H) as an impurity in indium (In)-doped tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) was investigated by mass spectrometry analyses, with the aim of understanding the charge compensation mechanism in SnO{sub 2}. The H-concentration of the In-doped SnO{sub 2} films increased to (1–2)?×?10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3} by annealing in a humid atmosphere (WET annealing). The electron concentration in the films also increased after WET annealing but was two orders of magnitude less than their H-concentrations. A self-compensation mechanism, based on the assumption that H sits at substitutional sites, is proposed to explain the mismatch between the electron- and H-concentrations.

Watanabe, Ken, E-mail: Watanabe.Ken@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ohsawa, Takeo; Ross, Emily M., E-mail: emross@hmc.edu; Adachi, Yutaka; Haneda, Hajime [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Isao; Takahashi, Ryosuke [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Bierwagen, Oliver, E-mail: bierwagen@pdi-berlin.de [Paul-Drude-Institute, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); White, Mark E.; Tsai, Min-Ying; Speck, James S., E-mail: speck@ucsb.edu [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ohashi, Naoki, E-mail: Ohashi.Naoki@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Magnesium indium oxide (MgIn2O4) spinel thin films: Chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) growth and materials characterizations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

MgIn2O4, which has an inverse spinel structure, has been adopted as the transparent material in optoelectronic device fabrication due to its high optical transparency and electrical conductivity. Such a technologically important material was prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique. Precursors prepared for the cationic ratio Mg/In = 0.5 were thermally sprayed onto glass substrates at 400 and 450?°C. We report herein the preparation and characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive absorption X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The XRD results showed the single phase formation of the material that revealed the presence of Mg2+ and In3+ in the inverse spinel-related structure. The FTIR and EDAX results further confirmed that the nanocrystalline films were mainly composed of magnesium, indium, and oxygen, in agreement with XRD analysis. We surmised from the AFM micrographs that the atoms have enough diffusion activation energy to occupy the correct site in the crystal lattice. For the 423-nm-thick magnesium indium oxide films grown at 400?°C, the electrical conductivity was 5.63 × 10 ?6   S cm ?1 and the average optical transmittance was 63% in the visible range (400–700 nm). Similar MgIn2O4 films deposited at 450?°C have a conductivity value of 1.5 × 10 ?5   S cm ?1 and an average transmittance of 75%. Hall coefficient observations showed n-type electrical conductivity and high electron carrier concentration of 2.7 × 10 19   cm ?3 .

A. Moses Ezhil Raj; G. Selvan; C. Ravidhas; M. Jayachandran; C. Sanjeeviraja

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A final report for Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made FR-om gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the FR-ont surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed FR-om a layer of Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed FR-om the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 amps at -1 V o...

Vernon, S M

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Effect of substrate temperature on crystal orientation and residual stress in radio frequency sputtered gallium–nitride films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal orientation and residual stress in gallium nitride(GaN)filmsdeposited on a single-crystal (0001) sapphire substrate using a sputtering system are examined through x-ray diffraction measurements as part of a study of low-temperaturesputtering techniques for GaN. The rf sputtering system has an isolated deposition chamber to prevent contamination with impurities and is expected to produce high-purity nitride films.GaNfilms are deposited at various substrate temperatures and constant gas pressure and input power. This system is found to produce GaNfilms with good crystal orientation with the c axes of GaN crystals oriented normal to the substrate surface. The crystal size of filmsdeposited at high temperature is larger than that deposited at low T s . All films except that deposited at 973 K exhibit compressive residual stress and this residual stress is found to decrease with increasing temperature. Finally the filmdeposited at 973 K was tinged with white and the surface contained numerous microcracks.

Kazuya Kusaka; Takao Hanabusa; Kikuo Tominaga; Noriyoshi Yamauchi

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

CO{sub 2} laser-based dispersion interferometer utilizing orientation-patterned gallium arsenide for plasma density measurements  

SciTech Connect

A dispersion interferometer based on the second-harmonic generation of a carbon dioxide laser in orientation-patterned gallium arsenide has been developed for measuring electron density in plasmas. The interferometer includes two nonlinear optical crystals placed on opposite sides of the plasma. This instrument has been used to measure electron line densities in a pulsed radio-frequency generated argon plasma. A simple phase-extraction technique based on combining measurements from two successive pulses of the plasma has been used. The noise-equivalent line density was measured to be 1.7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup ?2} in a detection bandwidth of 950 kHz. One of the orientation-patterned crystals produced 13 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 13 W of peak power. Two crystals arranged sequentially produced 58 mW of peak power at the second-harmonic wavelength from a carbon dioxide laser with 37 W of peak power.

Bamford, D. J.; Cummings, E. A.; Panasenko, D. [Physical Sciences Inc., 6652 Owens Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States)] [Physical Sciences Inc., 6652 Owens Drive, Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States); Fenner, D. B.; Hensley, J. M. [Physical Sciences Inc., 20 New England Business Center, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States)] [Physical Sciences Inc., 20 New England Business Center, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Boivin, R. L.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Indium-tin-oxide-free tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al organic light-emitting diodes with 80% enhanced power efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs) with multilayered highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the anode are demonstrated. PEDOT:PSS/MoO{sub 3}/N,N'-diphenyl- N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPD)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq{sub 3})/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen)/LiF/Al SMOLEDs exhibited a peak power efficiency of 3.82 lm/W, 81% higher than that of similar ITO-based SMOLEDs (2.11 lm/W). The improved performance is believed to be due to the higher work function, lower refractive index, and decreased surface roughness of PEDOT:PSS vs ITO, and to Ohmic hole injection from PEDOT:PSS to the NPD layer via the MoO{sub 3} interlayer. The results demonstrate that PEDOT:PSS can substitute ITO in SMOLEDs with strongly improved device performance.

Cai, Min; Xiao, Teng; Liu, Rui; Chen, Ying; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effect of indium doping level on certain physical properties of CdS films deposited using an improved SILAR technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of indium (In) doping levels (0, 2, …, 8 at.%) on certain physical properties of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films deposited using an improved successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (ISILAR) method has been studied. In this improved SILAR technique, a fresh anionic solution was introduced after a particular number of dipping cycles in order to achieve good stoichiometry. All the deposited films exhibited cubic phase with (1 1 1) plane as preferential orientation. The calculated crystallite size values are found to be decreased from 54.80 nm to 23.65 nm with the increase in In doping level. The optical study confirmed the good transparency (80%) of the film. A most compact and pinhole free smooth surface was observed for the CdS films with 8 at.% of In doping level. The perceived photoluminescence (PL) bands endorsed the lesser defect crystalline nature of the obtained CdS:In films. The chemical composition analysis (EDAX) showed the near stoichiometric nature of this ISILAR deposited CdS:In films.

K. Ravichandran; V. Senthamilselvi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Multilayer films of indium tin oxide/TiO2 codoped with vanadium and nitrogen for efficient photocatalytic water splitting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TiO22 films codoped with V cations and N anions were synthesised by RF-magnetron sputtering. The incorporation of V and N in TiO2 lattice produces isolated energy levels near the conduction and valence bands, respectively, causing an effective narrowing of the band gap to 2.5 eV. Recombination of photo-charges was reduced by depositing multilayer films of indium tin oxide (ITO)/V-N-codoped TiO2 with different numbers of bilayers. In multilayer structure, the generated photoelectrons, travelling into TiO2 film of limited thickness, rapidly enter the space charge interface of the ITO/TiO2 films from where they are instantaneously injected into the ITO layer and then removed towards the cathode. The synergic effects created by band narrowing and enhanced charge separation by using codoping and multilayer structure strategy in TiO2 generate higher photocurrent for water splitting under visible light which definitely exceeds that obtained by doping TiO2 with a single, V or N, element.

Z. El Koura; N. Patel; R. Edla; A. Miotello

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Electric Resistance Change Mechanism of Indium-Tin Oxide Film During Deposition of Dielectric Oxide Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric resistance change of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film was investigated when dielectric oxide films such as Sr(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 and Y2O3 for an electroluminescent device were deposited on the ITO by the rf magnetron sputtering method using oxide ceramic targets. In order to understand the mechanism of the resistance change, a dc voltage of -70~+70 V was biased to an ITO film during the sputtering of dielectric oxide films. The resistance of the ITO film became higher in the positive bias region. The cause of the increase in resistance of the ITO films was confirmed to be oxidation by the oxide targets and the sputtering gas. The amount of the resistance change could be qualitatively explained by the ratio of the oxygen introduced into the ITO film and the combined oxygen forming O2 gas at the ITO surface incident to the ITO film at the sputtering of the dielectric oxide films.

Tomizo Matsuoka; Jun Kuwata; Masahiro Nishikawa; Yosuke Fujita; Takao Tohda; Atsushi Abe

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Hort-Range Wetting at Liquid Gallium-Bismuth Alloy Surfaces: X-ray Measurements and Square-Gradient Theory  

SciTech Connect

We present an x-ray reflectivity study of wetting at the free surface of the binary liquid metal alloy gallium-bismuth (Ga-Bi) in the region where the bulk phase separates into Bi-rich and Ga-rich liquid phases. The measurements reveal the evolution of the microscopic structure of the wetting films of the Bi-rich, low-surface-tension phase along several paths in the bulk phase diagram. The wetting of the Ga-rich bulk's surface by a Bi-rich wetting film, the thickness of which is limited by gravity to only 50 Angstroms, creates a Ga-rich/Bi-rich liquid/liquid interface close enough to the free surface to allow its detailed study by x rays. The structure of the interface is determined with Angstromsngstrem resolution, which allows the application of a mean-field square gradient model extended by the inclusion of capillary waves as the dominant thermal fluctuations. The sole free parameter of the gradient model, the influence parameter K, that characterizes the influence of concentration gradients on the interfacial excess energy, is determined from our measurements. This, in turn, allows a calculation of the liquid/liquid interfacial tension, and a separation of the intrinsic and capillary wave contributions to the interfacial structure. In spite of expected deviations from MF behavior, based on the upper critical dimensionality (Du = 3 ) of the bulk, we find that the capillary wave excitations only marginally affect the short-range complete wetting behavior. A critical wetting transition that is sensitive to thermal fluctuations appears to be absent in this binary liquid-metal alloy.

Huber, P.; Shpyrko, O; Pershan, P; Ocko, B; DiMasi, E; Deutsch, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Ion exchange separation of plutonium and gallium (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent, and (3) facility size  

SciTech Connect

The following report summarizes an effort intended to estimate within an order-of-magnitude the (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent amounts, and (3) facility size, for ion exchange (IX) separation of plutonium and gallium. This analysis is based upon processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr. The technical basis for this summary is detailed in a separate document, {open_quotes}Preconceptual Design for Separation of Plutonium and Gallium by Ion Exchange{close_quotes}. The material balances of this separate document are based strictly on stoichiometric amounts rather than details of actual operating experience, in order to avoid classification as Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. This approximation neglets the thermodynamics and kinetics which can significantly impact the amount of reagents required. Consequently, the material resource requirements and waste amounts presented here would normally be considered minimums for processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr; however, the author has compared the inventory estimates presented with that of an actual operating facility and found them similar. Additionally, the facility floor space presented here is based upon actual plutonium processing systems and can be considered a nominal estimate.

DeMuth, S.

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

232

Flisom AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flisom AG Flisom AG Jump to: navigation, search Name Flisom AG Place Zurich, Switzerland Zip 8005 Sector Efficiency, Solar Product Flisom has a high-efficiency copper-indium-gallium-selenide technology that it plans to put on plastic foilâ€"not glassâ€"potentially opening up new applications like solar for cell phones. Coordinates 47.37706°, 8.53955° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.37706,"lon":8.53955,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

233

Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008  

SciTech Connect

This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

Olsen, L. C.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Johanna Solar Technology GmbH JST | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product: German manufacturer of copper-indium-gallium-sulphide-selenium (CIGSSe) thin-film solar modules. References: Johanna Solar Technology GmbH (JST)1 This article is a...

235

Sorption behavior of Ga(III) and In(III) into a microcapsule containing long-chain alkylphosphonic acid monoester .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The sorption behavior of gallium and indium into a microcapsule containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester is investigated. The effects of pH and metal concentration on… (more)

Kamio, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Spectroscopic Study of the Simultaneous Adsorption of PVP and Azelaic Acid on ?-Alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 180° backscattering geometry and an indium gallium arsenide detector were applied. ... The azelaic acid concentration was not equal in the two solvents, due to the limited solubility in water. ...

Ildikó Száraz; Willis Forsling

2001-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

237

Association between oxygen vacancies and trivalent dopants in crystalline and amorphous ZnO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the structure and binding energies of clusters formed between oxygen vacancies and trivalent dopant atoms (indium, gallium and aluminium) substituted into zinc oxide. Our results show...

Muñoz Ramo, D.; Chroneos, A.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Bristowe, P .D.

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Strong carrier localization and diminished quantum-confined Stark effect in ultra-thin high-indium-content InGaN quantum wells with violet light emission  

SciTech Connect

Here, we report on the optical and structural characteristics of violet-light-emitting, ultra-thin, high-Indium-content (UTHI) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and of conventional low-In-content MQWs, which both emit at similar emission energies though having different well thicknesses and In compositions. The spatial inhomogeneity of In content, and the potential fluctuation in high-efficiency UTHI MQWs were compared to those in the conventional low-In-content MQWs. We conclude that the UTHI InGaN MQWs are a promising structure for achieving better quantum efficiency in the visible and near-ultraviolet spectral range, owing to their strong carrier localization and reduced quantum-confined Stark effect.

Ko, Suk-Min; Kwack, Ho-Sang; Park, Chunghyun; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Cho, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: yhc@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and KI for the NanoCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon-Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Kim, Hee; Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Si Dang, Le [Nanophysics and Semiconductors, CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Institut Néel, CNRS Grenoble, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Nanophysics and Semiconductors, CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Institut Néel, CNRS Grenoble, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

239

Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode  

SciTech Connect

We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

Jung, Mi, E-mail: jmnano00@gmail.com, E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung [Korea Printed Electronics Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Jeollabuk-do, 561-844 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha, E-mail: jmnano00@gmail.com, E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr [Sensor System Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Si-Hyung [School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Zone Melting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...four-turn induction coils of water-cooled copper tubing...by introducing a bit of water vapor into the hydrogen...apparatus (6). The water vapor combines with the...indium antimo-nide, gallium arsenide, gallium phos-phide...

W. G. Pfann

1962-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Transient absorption and Raman spectroscopy of Cadmium Selenide/Zinc Selenide core/shell alloy particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it would render solar technology based on nanoparticle MEGto be understood if solar technology utilizing MEG will everto their use in solar energy technology. In the figure E gap

Sobotta, Cory R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Transient absorption and Raman spectroscopy of Cadmium Selenide/Zinc Selenide core/shell alloy particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

junction solar cell utilizing MEG technology, a value thatideal solar cell based on nanocrystal and MEG technology insolar cell [8]. By utilizing nanoparticle and MEG technology,

Sobotta, Cory R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

InAs quantum wire induced composition modulation in an In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.37}Al{sub 0.10}As barrier layer grown on an InP substrate  

SciTech Connect

Composition modulations are observed by transmission electron microscopy in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.37}Al{sub 0.10}As barrier layers that overgrow both single- and multilayer InAs quantum wire structures grown on an InP substrate. Indium-rich (gallium-deficient) regions were observed in the region of the barrier layer lying directly above individual quantum wires, while indium-deficient (gallium-rich) regions were detected in the barrier above the gaps between adjacent underlying quantum wires. The magnitude of such modulation was typically 7% (atomic percent) for both indium and gallium as estimated from the energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The origin of such composition modulations was determined by modeling the chemical potential distribution for indium and gallium on the growth front of the barrier layer at the initial capping stage of the quantum wires with finite element simulations. It is found that the number and positions of the indium-rich regions are determined by the combined effects of strain and surface energy distributions on the barrier material capping the quantum wires. Moreover the estimated magnitudes of the composition modulation for both indium and gallium from the finite element models are in good agreement with the experimental observations. This method provides a simple way to understand the origin of, and to estimate the magnitude of the quantum wire-induced composition modulation in the barrier layer.

Cui, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Robinson, B. J. [Center for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Thompson, D. A. [Center for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Center for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Synthesis and Structure of Sr3GaN3 and Sr6GaN5:? Strontium Gallium Nitrides with Isolated Planar [GaN3]6- Anions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis and Structure of Sr3GaN3 and Sr6GaN5:? Strontium Gallium Nitrides with Isolated Planar [GaN3]6- Anions ... 9-19 In most cases, an alkaline earth metal is introduced into a Na melt to enhance the solubility of nitrogen, and is incorporated in the nitride product. ... The container was sealed by welding its open end in an argon atmosphere with active water-cooling so that NaN3 did not decompose due to heating during the welding. ...

Dong Gon Park; Zoltán A. Gál; Francis J. DiSalvo

2003-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

247

Enhancement of conduction noise absorption by hybrid absorbers composed of indium-tin-oxide thin film and magnetic composite sheet on a microstrip line  

SciTech Connect

In order to develop wide-band noise absorbers with a focused design for low frequency performance, this study investigates hybrid absorbers that are composed of conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film and magnetic composite sheets. The ITO films prepared via reactive sputtering exhibit a typical value of electrical resistivity of ?10{sup ?4} ? m. Rubber composites with flaky Fe-Si-Al particles are used as the magnetic sheet with a high permeability and high permittivity. For the ITO film with a low surface resistance and covered by the magnetic sheet, approximately 90% power absorption can be obtained at 1?GHz, which is significantly higher than that of the original magnetic sheet or ITO film. The high power absorption of the hybrid absorber is attributed to the enhanced ohmic loss of the ITO film through increased electric field strength bounded by the upper magnetic composite sheet. However, for the reverse layering sequence of the ITO film, the electric field experienced by ITO film is very weak due to the electromagnetic shielding by the under layer of magnetic sheet, which does not result in enhanced power absorption.

Kim, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sung-Soo, E-mail: sskim@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

248

Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III: Results for the 2002--2007 data-taking period  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in Dec. 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. We give here the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in Dec. 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through Dec. 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4 (+3.1)(-3.0) (stat) (+2.6)(-2.8) (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 +/- 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced 37Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior 51Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87 +/- 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63-66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be (6.0 +/- 0.8) x 10^(10)/(cm^2 s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

SAGE Collaboration; J. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. V. Gorbachev; P. P. Gurkina; T. V. Ibragimova; A. V. Kalikhov; N. G. Khairnasov; T. V. Knodel; I. N. Mirmov; A. A. Shikhin; E. P. Veretenkin; V. E. Yants; G. T. Zatsepin; T. J. Bowles; S. R. Elliott; W. A. Teasdale; J. S. Nico; B. T. Cleveland; J. F. Wilkerson

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Crystal structure and chemistry of a complex indium phosphate framework material, (ethylenediammonium)In{sub 3}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry and structure of a novel indium phosphate material (RIPS-4), (H{sub 3}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3})In{sub 3}-P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 2}, are described. RIPS-4 was synthesized using ethylene diamine as a structure-directing organic agent. The X-ray crystal structure was determined from a 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 Multiplication-Sign 42 {mu}m{sup 3} crystal in space group C2/m with a=18.662(4) A, b=6.600(2) A, c=12.573(3) A and {beta}=120.92(1) Degree-Sign . The structure consists of a complex edge- and vertex-shared open framework of InO{sub 6} octahedra and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra enclosing cavities occupied by ethylenediamonium ions. One set of octahedra share opposing edges to form chains along the b-axis matching the structural unit in rutile (TiO{sub 2}). This rutile edge-shared chain has its projecting oxygen atoms shared with the vertexes of either a PO{sub 4} tetrahedron or a second type of InO{sub 6} octahedron. The O atoms are 2-connected, each to one In and one P, except for two protonated O atoms (hydroxyl groups) that connect to two and three In atoms, giving three- and four-coordinate O atoms, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The unique topology contains an unusual 4-connected oxygen atom (O{sub 1}) in a complex edge- and vertex-shared open framework of InO{sub 6} octahedra (blue) and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra (yellow) that encloses cavities occupied by ethylenediammonium ions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure has a unique open-framework topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The framework contains an unusual 4-connected oxygen atom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen bonds hold the ethylenediammonium ions in the cavities.

Broach, Robert W., E-mail: robert.broach@uop.com [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); Bedard, Robert L. [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States)] [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); King, Lisa M., E-mail: lisa.king@uop.com [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); Pluth, Joseph J., E-mail: pluth@cars.uchicago.edu [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); The University of Chicago, The Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Smith, Joseph V. [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)] [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kirchner, Richard M., E-mail: richard.kirchner@manhattan.edu [Manhattan College, Chemistry Department, Bronx, NY 10471 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Carrier localization in gallium nitride  

SciTech Connect

In wide bandgap GaN, a large number of interesting and important scientific questions remain to be answered. For example, the large free electron concentration reaching 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup - 3} in nominally undoped material are ascribed to intrinsic defects because no chemical impurity has been found at such high concentrations. According to theoretical models, a nitrogen vacancy acts as a donor but its formation energy is very large in n-type materials, making this suggestion controversial. We have investigated the nature of this yet unidentified donor at large hydrostatic pressure. Results from infrared reflection and Raman scattering indicate strong evidence for localization of free carriers by large pressures. The carrier density is drastically decreased by two orders of magnitude between 20 and 30 GPa. Several techniques provide independent evidence for results in earlier reports and present the first quantitative analysis. A possible interpretation of this effect in terms of the resonant donor level is presented.

Wetzel, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Walukiewicz, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)][California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Realization of indium liquidus point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Glass Rod, and Thermi. stor Reading vs Time (yZ) 43 ThRLN 2 PRT OUTPUT VS. HEhTlNG VOLThGR Voltage on hluainua PRT Output (aV) 22 g 28 g 28 N 29 N 32 M 34 N 13. 600 14. 391 14 ~ 395 14. 393 14. 414 3. Final Results The cell... FOR CONSTANT CURRENT SUPPLT TABLE B-I DATA fOR CONSTANT CURRENT WITHIN HOURS (4/28/83) Tias (hr ~ ( aiu ) Output Voltsgs (aV) 35. 02507 35. 02505 35. 02496 35. 02498 TABLE B-II DATA FOR CONSTANT CURRENT WITHIN HOURS (6/22/83) Tias (hr. : ain. ) Output...

Feng, En-Ling

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

252

Thermoelectric materials ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

Sharp, Jeffrey W. (Richardson, TX)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Thermoelectric materials: ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

Sharp, Jeffrey W. (Richardson, TX)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

254

Evaluating the potential for high thermoelectric efficiency of silver selenide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the exceptionally high mobility, higher than other optimized thermoelectric materials. Although zT decreases at high refrigerants.1 Increasing the efficiency of a thermoelectric material necessitates increasing the gure of merit contribution and an electronic contribution. Thermoelectric materials used in practice have zT near 1. One

Martin, Alain

255

Predicting the stability of surface phases of molybdenum selenides  

SciTech Connect

The selenization of molybdenum might become an important step in the production of nanostructures based on the layered compound MoSe{sub 2}. It is already technologically relevant for the production of thin film chalcopyrite solar cells. However, the control of the process is still very poor, due to the lack of basic knowledge of the surface thermodynamics of the system. Here, we present a theoretical study on the stability of surface adlayers of Se on the Mo(110) surface, predicting surface patterns and their stability range in terms of temperature and selenium partial pressure. Our results, based on density functional theory, show that the attainable Se coverages range from 1/4 to 3/4 of a monolayer for systems in equilibrium with a gas formed of Se molecules. We provide simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images to help the experimental characterization of adsorbed surface patterns.

Roma, Guido [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ghorbani, Elaheh [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); IBM Mainz (Germany); Mirhosseini, Hossein; Kühne, Thomas D. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); Kiss, Janos; Felser, Claudia [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

256

High-efficiency solar cells fabricated from direct-current magnetron sputtered n-indium tin oxide onto p-InP grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Solar cells based on dc magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide onto epitaxially grown films of p-InP have been fabricated and analyzed. The best cells had a global efficiency of 18.4% and an air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 16.0%. The principal fabrication variable considered was the constituency of the sputtering gas and both argon/hydrogen and argon/oxygen mixtures have been used. The former cells have the higher efficiencies, are apparently stable, and exhibit almost ideal junction characteristics. The latter cells are relatively unstable and exhibit much higher ideality factors and reverse saturation current densities. The temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current indicates totally different charge transfer mechanisms in the two cases.

Li, X.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.; Emery, K.A.; Coutts, T.J.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer  

SciTech Connect

Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150?°C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100?°C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi'an 710071 (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

258

Synthesis and use of (perfluoroaryl) fluoro-aluminate anion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A trityl perfluorophenyl alumninate such as tris(2,2',2"-nonafluorobiphenyl)-fluoroaluminate (PBA.sup..crclbar.) and its role as a cocatalyst in metallocene-mediated olefin polymerization is disclosed. Gallium and indium analogs are also disclosed, as are analogs with different anyl groups or different numbers of flourine atoms thereon.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Functional materials: electronics, information and sensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Functional materials are those that have properties enabling them to preform a specific functional purpose, e.g. electrical, magnetic or optical. The rapid development of the technology of transistors and intergrated circuits will continue into the future with design incorporating new materials, notably gallium arsenide. Silica glass is finding increasing application in photonics, light emitting diodes and optical fibres for telephone cables. Optical-fibre technology depends on reliable and durable lasers which now use compound semiconductors such as indium-gallium-arsenide phosphide. It is anticipated that new materials application (indium-gallium-arsenide phosphide) will contribute towards progress in photovoltaics. Interest in superconducting material has heightened during 1980s with the promise that high-temperature superconductivity offers for more-efficient power generation and transmission. In future advantage will come from developing economic and reliable ways of producing functional materials to meet increasing demand.

Merton C. Flemings

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.  

SciTech Connect

This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Electronic properties of gallium nitride nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a systematic study of the electrical transport in GaN nanowires. Particularly, the effect of the surrounding dielectric on the conductivity of GaN nanowires is experimentally shown for the first time. ...

Yoon, Joonah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Interactions of gallium with zircaloy cladding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The accepted options for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) are immobilization or conversion to a mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. There are two benefits of conversion, one, the plutonium can't be converted back... into a viable weapon and two, the material could be used as an energy producing natural resource. Typical reactors use uranium dioxide enriched with about 3'le U-235. The proposed MOX fuel would consist of depleted uranium with WGPu. In order...

Mitchell, Lee Josey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Designing Asynchronous Circuits in Gallium Arsenide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3.2.2 Super Buffered Fet Logic : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 18 4 A New Logic Family 21 4.1 Input Stage : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 21 4.1.1 Inverter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 34 5.2.2 Output stage : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 36 5.2.3 Delay model and power

Martin, Alain

264

Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. Ozkan, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 11 (M. Ozkan, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 10 (C. S. Ozkan, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 9 (

Penchev, Miroslav Valentinov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

response upon exposure to IPA vapor, followed by Ar gas. b)gas. c) Current response to IPA vapor exposure alternated bybefore and after exposure to IPA vapor…………….95 Figure 4.6 a)

Penchev, Miroslav Valentinov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Indium Antimonide Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics 3 (2008) 119-203. A.in electronics, optoelectronics, and sensing. Indiumelectronics and optoelectronics; it is a direct consequence

Penchev, Miroslav Valentinov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Direct Patterning of CdSe Quantum Dots into Sub-100 nm Structures  

SciTech Connect

Ordered, two-dimensional cadmium selenide (CdSe) arrays have been fabricated on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes using the pattern replication in nonwetting templates (PRINT) process. CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with an average diameter of 2.7 nm and a pyridine surface ligand were used for patterning. The PRINT technique utilizes a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) elastomeric mold that is tolerant of most organic solvents, thus allowing solutions of CdSe QDs in 4-picoline to be used for patterning without significant deformation of the mold. Nanometer-scale diffraction gratings have been successfully replicated with CdSe QDs.

Hampton, Meredith J.; Templeton, Joseph L.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas July 3, 2013 - 2:04pm Addthis Kim Kisslinger, a researcher at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials seen here with a focused-ion beam instrument, reduced the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) samples to a thickness of just 20 nanometers to prepare them for electron microscopy. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Kim Kisslinger, a researcher at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials seen here with a focused-ion beam instrument, reduced the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) samples to a thickness of just 20 nanometers to prepare them for electron microscopy. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux

269

Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

270

Modeling and simulation of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} based thin film solar cell  

SciTech Connect

In this work, CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide) based solar cell structure has been simulated. We have been calculated short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the cell. The thickness of the absorption layer is varied from 400 to 3000 nm, keeping the thickness of other layers unchanged. The effect of absorption layer thickness over cell performance has been analyzed and found that the efficiency increases upto 22% until the thickness of the absorption layer reaches around 2000 nm.

Kumari, S., E-mail: sarita.kumari132@gmail.com; Verma, A. S. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Rajasthan-304022 (India); Singh, P.; Gautam, R. [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engg. and Tech., Ghaziabad-201206 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

271

NREL Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Many scientists once believed that high-quality gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) alloys could not be grown for use as semiconductors because the alloys would separate. However, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) thought differently, and they employed GaInP in a material combination that allowed the multijunction cell to flourish. The multijunction cell is now the workhorse that powers satellites and the catalyst for renewed interest in concentrator photovoltaic products.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Synthesis and Characterization of Anionic and Cationic Poly(ferrocenylsilane) Polyelectrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

5 Thin films of such block copolymers, e.g., poly(ferrocenyldimethylsilane-block-isoprene), can serve as self-assembling templates, enabling nanometer-sized patterns to be transferred directly into silicon or silicon nitride substrates by reactive ion etching. ... Transition temperatures were calibrated using cyclohexane, gallium, and indium standards. ... (29)?The solubility of 5 in water decreases above pH 7, while 8 becomes less soluble at pH < 6. ...

Mark A. Hempenius; Fabiane F. Brito; G. Julius Vancso

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Block Copolymer Templated Chemistry for the Formation of Metallic Nanoparticle Arrays on Semiconductor Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of key ingredients for many future applications is the ability to precisely pattern nanoscale features on technologically relevant semiconductor surfaces such as silicon and germanium, as well as compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide and indium phosphide. ... Deposition of these metals is possible presumably due to the water solubility of their oxides:? Ge oxide,14c As oxide,24 and P oxide25 are soluble in water. ...

Masato Aizawa; Jillian M. Buriak

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

275

Preparation and Characterization of Nickel Oxide Photocathodes Sensitized with Colloidal Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Among the advantages of using these sensitizers, there is the possibility of both tuning the visible response and properly locating the VB edge (enhancing consequently the hole injection efficiency) by controlling the QD size and taking advantage of hot carriers to get larger photocurrents (through multiple exciton generation). ... By considering the IPCE curve between 420 and 700 nm, the spectral irradiance of the Xe lamp employed for the photocurrent transient measurements of Figure 3, and the light absorbed by the electrolyte in the three-electrode cell, the theoretical maximum photocurrent attainable by the characterized electrode can be estimated to be around 2.4 mA·cm–2. ... Dye-sensitized solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of up to 6.5% have been fabricated using a cobalt tris-bipyridyl redox mediator with the cis-diisothiocyanato-(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dinonyl) ruthenium(II) (Z907) sensitizer. ...

Irene Barceló; Elena Guillén; Teresa Lana-Villarreal; Roberto Gómez

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

276

Lead selenide nanowire solar cells via LPNE and its new found derivatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

type of solar cell in this third generation technology thatgeneration solar technology based on thick silicon cells,

Hujdic, Justin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony selenides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Molten Antimony Anode This research was conducted by the groups... oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten antimony (Sb) anode at 973 K. The anode operates by oxidation... .;...

278

G. J. Snyder Page 1 of 6 THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF CR3S4-TYPE SELENIDES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

devices depends primarily on increasing the figure of merit, ZT, for thermoelectric materials. The figure thermoelectric materials is to search for semiconductors with low lattice thermal conductivity. In this paper we lower than the state-of-the-art thermoelectric material, Bi2Te3 alloys. The structure of Cr3S4 (Figure 1

279

Electrodeposition of Antimony Selenide Thin Films and Application in Semiconductor Sensitized Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The current–voltage characteristic of the cells were measured using a xenon arc lamp simulator (Sun 2000, ABET Technologies) with an AM 1.5 G spectral filter, and the intensity was adjusted to provide 1 sun (100 mW/cm2) using a calibrated silicon solar cell. ... In selenosulfate electrolyte, the cathodic current detected for V production of Se2– by means of SeSO32– + 2 e– = Se2– + SO2–. ... Indeed, the Jsc is similar to values reported for the state of the art of the inorganic semiconductor sensitized solar cells based on liquid(36) and organic(7) hole conductors. ...

T. Tuyen Ngo; Sudam Chavhan; Ivet Kosta; Oscar Miguel; Hans-Jurgen Grande; Ramón Tena-Zaera

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

280

Short time duration electrophoretic deposition of cadmium selenide nanocrystals on Jamin M. Johnston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is being done in the field renewable energy, from which solar power is among the most viable possibilities, nanocrystals provide some key advantages over current dye sensitized solar cell devices. Primarily In the constant progression toward more efficient ways to produce usable energy, high efficiency next generation

Smith, Nathanael J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Syntheses, Structure, Magnetism, and Optical Properties of Lutetium-based Interlanthanide Selenides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Syntheses, Structure, Magnetism, and Optical Properties ofin some cases atypical magnetism. 1-21 New developments insimpler systems in term of magnetism and less investigated,

Jin, Geng Bang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium selenides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July-August 2011 Volume 33, No. 4 supplement The world that surrounds us, including the water that Summary: because it has one stable isotope. Element (americium) that has no...

283

Hyperbranched Lead Selenide Nanowire Jia Zhu, Hailin Peng, Candace K. Chan, Konrad Jarausch,|  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chalcogenide nanostructures are good potential candidates for applications in multiexciton solar cells in a tube furnace, similar to our previous studies.24-27 NWs were grown on Si 001 substrates with a native tube furnace (Lindberg/Blue M) with the source material, PbSe (Sigma Aldrich, Purity 99.999%) and In2Se

Cui, Yi

284

Lead selenide nanowire solar cells via LPNE and its new found derivatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a cost effective solar energy source………………………2 LMR infor a cost effective solar energy source Just 10 years agonot exploited, solar energy sources provide an excellent

Hujdic, Justin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Photovoltaic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Kitt C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Fabrication of a gated gallium arsenide heterostructure resonant tunneling diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metallization process ivas required because separate potentials must be apphed to the top and base ol' the defined mesas. A potent&al is apphed to the top of the mesas to inject carriers for tunneling through the douhle barrier heterostructures A. rectifying... was a demetal/degrease cleanup process which re- moved any contamination that may have been nn the wal'er. This process ivas followed by deposition of AuGe/Ni on the ivafer's backside which ivill provide an ohmic contact after annealing. The backside...

Kinard, William Brian

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Neutron irradiation effects on gallium nitride-based Schottky diodes  

SciTech Connect

Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS), time-resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and current-voltage measurements together show that fast versus thermal neutrons differ strongly in their electronic and morphological effects on metal-GaN Schottky diodes. Fast and thermal neutrons introduce GaN displacement damage and native point defects, while thermal neutrons also drive metallurgical reactions at metal/GaN interfaces. Defect densities exhibit a threshold neutron fluence below which thermal neutrons preferentially heal versus create new native point defects. Scanning XPS and DRCLS reveal strong fluence- and metal-dependent electronic and chemical changes near the free surface and metal interfaces that impact diode properties.

Lin, Chung-Han; Katz, Evan J.; Zhang, Zhichun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States); Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mishra, Umesh K. [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Brillson, Leonard J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States) [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Center for Materials Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

Au-free Ohmic Contacts to Gallium Nitride and Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. ................................................................................................. 43 Figure 28 Specific contact resistivity of co-sputtered Ti-Ta contact calculated after RTA at different temperatures ......................................................... 43 Figure 29 PMMA transfer method for transferring CVD grown...

Ravikirthi, Pradhyumna

2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

Production of gallium-66, positron emitting nuclide for radioimmumotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Excitation functions for production of {sup 66}Ga via {alpha}-induced nuclear reactions on enriched {sup 66}Zn have been measured with E{sub {alpha}}{le}27.3 MeV and E{sub {alpha}}{le}43.7 MeV employing the stack-thin target technique. In addition, the induced activity of {sup 67}Ga in the same sets of targets allowed an evaluation of the excitation functions of the corresponding nuclear reactions. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Chu, Yung Yee (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

To develop ESG into a viable bulk growth process for GaN that is more scalable to large-area wafer manufacturing and able to produce cost-effective, high-quality bulk GaN substrates.

293

Superconductivity in gallium-substituted Ba8Si46 clathrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

superconductor, with an onset at T-C approximate to 3.3 K. For x=10 and higher, no superconductivity was observed down to T=1.8 K. This represents a strong suppression of superconductivity with increasing Ga content, compared to Ba8Si46 with T-C approximate to 8...

Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ning; Luo, Z. P.; Ma, Xingqiao; Cao, Guohui; Feng, Z. S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Rutherford backscattering analysis of gallium implanted 316 stainless steel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental Procedure Sample Analysis 3 3 . 9 . 11 HI THEORY. . IH. 1 Backscattering Principles HI. 2 The RBS Spectrum IH. 3 The Surface Energy Approximation . . . HI. 4 Stainless Steel 316. . IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . 13 . 13 15... for the disposition of weapons grade (WG) plutonium (Pu) in the United States: MOX fuel conversion and immobilization. The first option uses nuclear reactors to transmutate WG Pu and the second imbeds the WG Pu in glass logs for deep burial. Due to the large amount...

Ortensi, Javier

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

Ohmic contact metallization on p-type indium phosphide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contact resistivities comparable to those of Au-based contacts, determined by the Cox and Strack structure, can be obtained for a pure Pd contact on p-InP (hole concentration -3xlOl' cm-'). The defects can be identified to be related with phosphorus...

Park, Moonho

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

zinc oxide (GZO) uniformly over a 12” diameter area at room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). During deposition, the system heats to about 60oC due to the...

297

Thermal neutron flux perturbation due to indium foils in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

press) 13. Axford, R. A. , and Day, G. M. , personnel communication. 14. Ritchie, R. H. , Thermal Neutron Flux De ression, Health Physics Division Annual Prog. Rep. July, 1958, ORNL-2806, p. 133. 27 i 5, Walker, J. V. , "The Measurement of Absolute... Fluxes in Water and Graphite, " 'ORNL- 2842, 204 (f959). ...

Stinson, Ronald Calvin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Synthesis and characterization of single-crystal indium nitride nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in visible light range, and high-efficiency solar cells.2 Furthermore, InN has distinct advantages over Ga-solid (VLS) approach using a single-zone furnace at 500 °C,6 and a diameter distribution from 40 to 80 nm-zone furnace for InN nanowire synthe- sis. This technique allowed us to use a high-temperature zone (700 °C

Zhou, Chongwu

299

Regenerative mode photo electrochemical cells in molten salt electrolytes. 1st four monthly report (1/31/80)  

SciTech Connect

The most promising photoelectrodes selected for use in the butyl pyridinium chloride-aluminum chloride room temperature molten salt are n-type silicon, gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride. The solubilities of these semiconductors are low, and their conduction and valence band edges are favorably located. Cadmium selenide and sulfide showed significant solubility in the melt, and the conduction band edge for p-type cadmium telluride was too close to the aluminum deposition potential. Several reversible redox couples have been identified, which could potentially be used in a photoelectrochemical cell. These include W/sup 5 +//W/sup 6 +/ and Eu/sup 2 +//Eu/sup 3 +/ as well as ferrocene and its derivatives.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

71 - 13980 of 28,560 results. 71 - 13980 of 28,560 results. Download CX-010894: Categorical Exclusion Determination Graphene-Based Composite Sensor for Energy Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010894-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010895-categorical-exclusion-determination

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

NREL: News - NREL Reports 31.1% Efficiency for III-V Solar Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

913 913 NREL Reports 31.1% Efficiency for III-V Solar Cell Conversion-efficiency mark is a world record for a two-junction solar cell measured under one-sun illumination June 24, 2013 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Lab has announced a world record of 31.1% conversion efficiency for a two-junction solar cell under one sun of illumination. NREL Scientist Myles Steiner announced the new record June 19 at the 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference in Tampa, Fla. The previous record of 30.8% efficiency was held by Alta Devices. The tandem cell was made of a gallium indium phosphide cell atop a gallium arsenide cell, has an area of about 0.25 square centimeters and was measured under the AM1.5 global spectrum at 1,000 W/m2. It was grown inverted, similar to the NREL-developed inverted metamorphic multi-junction

302

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 9940 of 29,416 results. 31 - 9940 of 29,416 results. Download CX-010893: Categorical Exclusion Determination Modification to Demolish Building 900A and Reconstruct Building 900 Project CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B1.15 Date: 06/28/2013 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010893-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010894: Categorical Exclusion Determination Graphene-Based Composite Sensor for Energy Applications CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010894-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride

303

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

71 - 13680 of 26,764 results. 71 - 13680 of 26,764 results. Download CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010895-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-010896: Categorical Exclusion Determination California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative (SUMMARY Categorical Exclusion) CX(s) Applied: B5.22 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010896-categorical-exclusion-determination

304

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic Engineering Photovoltaic Engineering Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering at NREL supports commercial and emerging PV technology development. Our support covers the following three areas: Engineering Testing and Evaluation. We provide engineering testing and evaluation of PV products developed by companies during work sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). We determine if products meet performance criteria established by DOE for a company's contractual obligations. Standards Development. We support the development of national and international standards. Current work includes investigating methods of preconditioning cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium diselenide PV modules so that when they are tested for reporting conditions, the results are correlated with subsequent field measurements.

305

Improved method of preparing p-i-n junctions in amorphous silicon semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junctions for amorphous silicon semiconductors includes depositing amorphous silicon on a thin layer of trivalent material, such as aluminum, indium, or gallium at a temperature in the range of 200/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C. At this temperature, the layer of trivalent material diffuses into the amorphous silicon to form a graded p/sup +/-i junction. A layer of n-type doped material is then deposited onto the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer in a conventional manner to finish forming the p/sup +/-i-n/sup +/ junction.

Madan, A.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

306

Characterization of Irradiated Starches by Using FT-Raman and FTIR Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Degradation of starch polymers resulting in decreased viscosity and increased water solubility, and increased acidity with increasing radiation doses are potential changes observed in irradiated starches. ... FT-Raman spectra were obtained using a Nicolet 870 spectrometer with the Raman module 32B (Madison, WI) and Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with a maximum power of 2 W. The system was equipped with an InGaAs (Indium?Gallium Arsenide) detector, XT-KBr beam-splitter with 180° reflective optics, and a fully motorized sample position adjustment feature. ...

Ramazan Kizil; Joseph Irudayaraj; Koushik Seetharaman

2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

307

Crystal Engineering Approach To Forming Cocrystals of Amine Hydrochlorides with Organic Acids. Molecular Complexes of Fluoxetine Hydrochloride with Benzoic, Succinic, and Fumaric Acids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectroscopic analyses were carried out on a Thermo Nicolet 960 spectrometer equipped with an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) detector. ... Fluoxetine hydrochloride and cocrystals 2 and 4 were stable in water at 20 °C such that the equilibrium solubility values could be obtained at this temperature (Table 7). ... Approximate solubilities in water are as follows:? benzoic acid, 0.34 g/100 g at 25 °C;18 succinic acid, 7.5 g/100 g at 25 °C;19 fumaric acid, 0.61 g/100 g at 25 °C. ...

Scott L. Childs; Leonard J. Chyall; Jeanette T. Dunlap; Valeriya N. Smolenskaya; Barbara C. Stahly; G. Patrick Stahly

2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

308

Fabrication of Semiconductors by Wet Chemical Etch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arsenide. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1994. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK A selective wet etch process to re- move GaAs epitaxial cap layers from underlying InGaP layers has been de- veloped using a solution of H2SO4: H2O2:deionized water at a rate... the computing and electronics industries. Semiconducting materials, such as silicon, germanium, gallium ar- senide, and indium phosphide, are neither good insulators nor good con- ductors, but they have intrinsic electri- cal properties so that by controlled...

Francoviglia, Laura

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Effectiveness of a dopant in U-Zr metallic fuel to prevent lanthanide migration  

SciTech Connect

The advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (about 50%) without requiring refueling by way of using metallic alloy fuel have gained interest. Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and its migration to cladding and reaction with cladding is a potential life-limiting phenomenon. As a means to solve this problem, adding an element that forms stable compounds with lanthanides to immobilize them has been proposed. The theoretical assessment shows that indium, thallium, gallium, and antimony are good candidates. Except for Sb, because these elements are low-melting temperature elements, liquid metal embrittlement of cladding is a concern if large sized agglomerates exist contacting the cladding. Alloy characterization of as-fabricated samples was performed to examine the effectiveness of the dopant addition method using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Although preliminary, the present results showed that indium is a better dopant to immobilize lanthanides.

Kim, Yeon Soo; Wieneck, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J. [Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 104 (1999) 99107 XPS and EELS study of the bismuth selenide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Se Synchroton-Radiation Photoemission study of the (polycrystalline) and Bi Se (monocrystal) samples2

Soares, Edmar Avellar

312

Recombination in Low-Bandgap InGaAs  

SciTech Connect

We review our investigation of recombination in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As with indium concentrations ranging between x=0.53 (i.e., lattice-matched to InP) and x=0.78. External radiative efficiency measurements were used to study how defect-related and Auger mechanisms compete with radiative recombination. The results indicated that deep mid-gap levels facilitate defect-related recombination in lattice-matched InGaAs while shallower levels play a more important role in the indium-rich alloys. Subsequent sub-bandgap photoluminescence measurements confirmed the presence of deep levels in the lattice-matched InGaAs. The superlinear excitation dependence of the sub-gap emission led to a defect-related deep-donor/shallow-acceptor pair model. Recent cathodoluminescence measurements of the subgap transitions show no spatial contrast, supporting the assignment of this mechanism to evenly distributed point defects. We hypothesize that the deep states observed in lattice-matched InGaAs are related to imperfections in the incorporation of indium or gallium, which become less likely as the indium concentration is increased.

Gfroerer, T. H.; Wanlass, M. W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A new optical parametric amplifier based on lithium thioindate used for sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies of the Amide I mode of an interfacial model peptide  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new optical parametric amplifier (OPA) that employs lithium thioindate, LiInS{sub 2} (LIS), to create tunable infrared light between 1500 cm{sup -1} and 2000 cm{sup -1}. The OPA based on LIS described within provides intense infrared light with a good beam profile relative to similar OPAs built on silver gallium sulfide, AgGaS{sub 2} (AGS), or silver gallium selenide, AgGaSe{sub 2} (AGSe). We have used the new LIS OPA to perform surface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy of the amide I vibrational mode of a model peptide at the hydrophobic deuterated polystyrene (d{sub 8}-PS)-phosphate buffered saline interface. This model polypeptide (which is known to be an ?-helix in the bulk solution under the high ionic strength conditions employed here) contains hydrophobic leucyl (L) residues and hydrophilic lysyl (K) residues, with sequence Ac-LKKLLKLLKKLLKL-NH{sub 2}. The amide I mode at the d{sub 8}-PS-buffer interface was found to be centered around 1655 cm{sup -1}. This can be interpreted as the peptide having maintained its {alpha}-helical structure when adsorbed on the hydrophobic surface, although other interpretations are discussed.

York, Roger L.; Holinga, George J.; Guyer, Dean R.; McCrea, Keith R.; Ward, Robert S.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

314

Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1996. Two companies in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used

316

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2006. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuits. Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

317

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1998. Two companies in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

318

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2000. Two companies in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

319

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2003. One company in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

320

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2012. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace, consumer goods, industrial equipment, medical

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2008. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

322

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2001. Two companies in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as consumer goods

323

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2005. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuits. Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas such as aerospace

324

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2007. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

325

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2009. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

326

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2010. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

327

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1999. Two companies in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

328

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2011. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumed was used in integrated circuits (ICs). Optoelectronic devices, which include laser diodes, light% was used in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were

329

(Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1997. Two companies in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were used in areas

330

(Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2004. One company in Utah  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumed was used in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes% was used in research and development, specialty alloys, and other applications. Optoelectronic devices were

331

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

74 (19) 2821 (1999). F. H. Spedding, Rare-earth Elements, inby the use of rare- earth elements as color emitters inpowders activated with rare-earth elements Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ ,

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

residential lighting using incandescent lights [2], as shownenergy used for the incandescent lamp is wasted as infraredlight source to replace incandescent lighting [1]. Figure

Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

(Data in metric tons, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: No indium was recovered from ores in the United States in 1995. Domestic indium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, refinery NA NA NA NA -- Imports for consumption 36.3 36.3 73.4 70.2 73.0 Exports NA NA NA NA NA marketed through a U.S. company. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery

334

Hydrogen Adsorption on the Indium-Rich Indium Phosphide (001) Surface: A Novel Way to Produce Bridging In-H-In  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bridging In-H-In Bonds K. Raghavachari,§ Q. Fu, G. Chen, L. Li, C. H. Li, D. C. Law, and R. F. Hicks, two types of bridging hydrides were identified, a (µ-H)In2 and a (µ-H)2In3 "butterfly-like" structure compounds with bridged hydrogen bonds have been unsuccess- ful, except in the case of the salts K[H{In(CH2

Li, Lian

335

Tuning the Optical Properties of Nanoscale Materials on Surfaces Through Controlled Exchange Reactions on Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots and Patterning of Gold and QD Nanoparticle Arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combination between the use of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular linker and PS mask fabricated via polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-stamp was also discussed briefly. Particle lithography is a versatile method and can be used to fabricate pattern...

Pravitasari, Arika

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

336

Tellurides, selenides and Bi-mineral assemblages from the Río Narcea Gold Belt, Asturias, Spain: genetic implications in Cu–Au and Au skarns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gold ores in skarns from the Río Narcea Gold Belt are associated with Bi–Te(–Se)-bearing minerals. These mineral assemblages have been used to compare two different skarns from this belt, a Cu–Au skarn (calcic...

A. Cepedal; M. Fuertes-Fuente; A. Martín-Izard…

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu{sub x}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; (2) Cu{sub x}Ga{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0--1 and n=1--3; (3) Cu{sub x}In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.27, y=0.72--2 and n=1--3; (4) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.17, y=0.96--2 and n=1--3; (5) In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein y=1--2.3 and n=1--3; (6) Cu{sub x}S{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; and (7) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}(SeS){sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0.07--2 and n=0.663--3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes. 4 figs.

Bhattacharya, R.N.; Noufi, R.; Li Wang

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

338

Polymorphism and optical properties in [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The solvothermal synthesis and characterization of two indium selenides with stoichiometry [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] is described. Yellow [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] (1), which exhibits a layered structure, was initially prepared in an aqueous solution of trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane, and subsequently using a concentrated ammonia solution. A red polymorph of one-dimensional character, [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] (2), was obtained using 3,5-dimethylpyridine as solvent. [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] (1) crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group Cc (a=11.5147(6), b=11.3242(6), c=15.9969(9) Å and ?=100.354(3)°). The structural motif of the layers is the In{sub 4}Se{sub 10} adamantane unit, composed of four corner-linked InSe{sub 4} tetrahedra. These units are linked by their corners, forming [InSe{sub 2}]{sup ?} layers which are stacked back to back along the c-direction, and interspaced by [NH{sub 4}]{sup +}cations. The one-dimensional polymorph, (2), crystallizes in the tetragonal space group, I4/mcm (a=8.2519(16), c=6.9059 (14) Å). This structure contains infinite chains of edge-sharing InSe{sub 4} tetrahedra separated by [NH{sub 4}]{sup +} cations. - Graphical abstract: Two polymorphic forms of [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}], which are yellow and red, have been prepared and their optical properties investigated. Highlights: • Two new indium selenides prepared by a solvothermal method. • Depending on synthesis conditions, two polymorphic forms of [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] prepared. • Layered polymorph contains In{sub 4}Se{sub 10} adamantane clusters, linked by their corners. • One-dimensional polymorph contains [InSe{sub 2}]{sup ?} chains of edge-sharing tetrahedra. • Non-centrosymmetric layered polymorph shows a second harmonic generation response.

Ewing, Sarah J. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Woodward, David I. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Powell, Anthony V. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Vaqueiro, Paz, E-mail: P.Vaqueiro-Rodriguez@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

BridgeLux | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BridgeLux BridgeLux Jump to: navigation, search Logo: BridgeLux Name BridgeLux Address 1170 Sonora Court Place Sunnyvale, California Zip 94086 Sector Efficiency Product Designs and makes high power indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes Website http://www.bridgelux.com/ Coordinates 37.371138°, -121.998365° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.371138,"lon":-121.998365,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

340

NREL: Awards and Honors - R&D 100 Awards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D 100 Awards R&D 100 Awards Since its inception as the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in 1977, NREL/SERI has won 52 R&D 100 awards. 2013 Image Processing Occupancy Sensor (IPOS) Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs) Mono-crystalline Solar Cells 2012 Desiccant-enhanced Evaporative (DEVAP) Air-Conditioning Cycle SJ3 Solar Cells 2011 Innovalight Silicon Ink Process Flash Quantum Efficiency (Flash QE) System for Solar Cells Optical Cavity Furnace 2010 "Black Silicon" Nanocatalytic Wet-Chemical Etch Amonix 7700 Solar Power Generator 2009 Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) SkyTrough(tm) Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrating Collector PowerPlane UX Microbattery 2008 Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell Hybrid CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Global Solar Energy Inc GSE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GSE GSE Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Solar Energy Inc (GSE) Place Tucson, Arizona Zip 85747 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells with factory in Tucson, Arizona. Coordinates 32.221553°, -110.969754° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.221553,"lon":-110.969754,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

342

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Product Search  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Product Search Product Search Step 1 - Enter your search criteria below. Element Name Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copernicium Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununhexium Ununoctium Ununpentium Ununquadium Ununseptium Ununtrium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

343

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D Testing and Analysis to Advance R&D Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video. Text Alternative NREL has capabilities and experts in measurements, characterization, reliability, engineering, scientific computing, and theory to support photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) across a range of conversion technologies and scales. Conversion technologies include the primary areas of silicon, polycrystalline thin films (cadmium telluride [CdTe], copper indium gallium diselenide [CIGS]), III-V-based multijunctions, and organic PV. And scales of interest range from materials, to cells, modules, and systems. Measurements and Characterization Photo of a hand holding tweezers pinching a square wafer that is striped gold and black. We provide a huge range of techniques for measuring and characterizing PV

344

CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41: Categorical Exclusion Determination 41: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS) Linear Source Thermal Deposition CX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1 Date: 05/19/2010 Location(s): St. Paul, Minnesota Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The State of Minnesota plans to provide $800,000 in Recovery Act funds to Veeco Instrument, Inc. at 4900 Constellation Drive, St. Paul, Minnesota 55127 for the purchase of equipment and related activities in the manufacturing of thin film solar panels. Veeco Instruments, Inc. is a provider of process and metrology equipment used to manufacture data storage, semiconductor, wireless, lighting and solar equipment. Veeco's St.

345

Definition: Semiconductor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semiconductor Semiconductor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Semiconductor Any material that has a limited capacity for conducting an electric current. Certain semiconductors, including silicon, gallium arsenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride, are uniquely suited to the photovoltaic conversion process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity to a degree between that of a metal (such as copper) and that of an insulator (such as glass). Semiconductors are the foundation of modern solid state electronics, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), quantum dots and digital and analog integrated circuits. A semiconductor may have a number of unique properties, one of which is the

346

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Request a New Product  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Request a New Product Request a New Product Step 1 - Enter the new product's criteria below. Element Name Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copernicium Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununhexium Ununoctium Ununpentium Ununquadium Ununseptium Ununtrium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

347

Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical Circuits Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Self-Healing of Structural Damage to Restore Performance of Electrical Circuits Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement Designed chemical interactions of liquid-metal-filled microcapsules target areas of microstructural damage and restore conductive pathways. Significance and Impact Selective self-healing mechanism extends the lifetime and reliability of electronic devices including battery electrodes. Research Details Liquid Indium-Gallium metal-filled microcapsules restore nearly 99% of the

348

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

51 - 8160 of 31,917 results. 51 - 8160 of 31,917 results. Download CX-002564: Categorical Exclusion Determination FPE Renewables, LLC CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/26/2010 Location(s): Lynden, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002564-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002399: Categorical Exclusion Determination California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project (Fountain Valley, California) CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/25/2010 Location(s): Fountain Valley, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002399-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS)

349

NREL Scientists Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet), Innovation: The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists Spurred the Success Scientists Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells Before 1984, many scientists believed that high-quality gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) alloys could not be grown for use as semiconductors because the alloys would separate. One researcher at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) thought differently. His name was Jerry Olson, and his innovative thinking changed solar history. Olson identified a material combination that allowed the multijunction cell to flourish. It is now the workhorse that powers satellites and the catalyst for renewed interest in concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) products. In the early 1980s, Olson was a scientist at SERI, the predecessor of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). At the time, solar researchers were looking for the ideal combina-

350

CX-005363: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5363: Categorical Exclusion Determination 5363: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005363: Categorical Exclusion Determination Solar Junction's 100 Megawatt Manufacturing Line CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 03/04/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Loan Guarantee Program Office The Department of Energy's proposed action is to issue a loan guarantee to Solar Junction to finance a 100 megawatt (MW) solar cell manufacturing line for multifunction photovoltaic solar cells to expand their existing 7 MW Demonstration Facility at 401 Charcot Avenue, San Jose, California 95131. The proposed project will commercialize an entirely new class of high-efficiency solar cells and concentrating photovoltaic components that incorporate high performance junctions formed with a tunable band gap semiconductor material, Gallium Indium Nitride Arsenide.

351

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed the United States to attain world leadership in this area of solar technology. Three national R&D teams focused on thin-film semiconductor materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and its alloys. The Module Reliability Team and Environmental Health and Safety Team were crosscutting. The teams comprised researchers from the solar industry, academia, and NREL who focused their efforts on improving materials, devices, and manufacturing processes-all

352

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Product List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

List List Please select an available isotope product from the lists below. If you would like an isotope product that is not listed, you can make a request by clicking here. Stable Isotope Products Radio-Isotope Products Antimony Argon (Alt) Barium Bromine Bromine (Alt) Cadmium Calcium Carbon (Alt) Cerium Chlorine Chlorine (Alt) Chromium Copper Dysprosium Erbium Europium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Hafnium Helium (Alt) Indium Iridium Iron Krypton (Alt) Lanthanum Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon (Alt) Nickel Nitrogen (Alt) Osmium Oxygen (Alt) Palladium Platinum Potassium Rhenium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Selenium Silicon Silver Strontium Sulfur Sulfur (Alt) Tantalum Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Xenon (Alt) Ytterbium Zinc Zirconium Actinium-225 Aluminum-26 Americium-241

353

BridgeLux Inc former eLite Optoelectronics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BridgeLux Inc former eLite Optoelectronics BridgeLux Inc former eLite Optoelectronics Jump to: navigation, search Name BridgeLux Inc (former eLite Optoelectronics) Place Sunnyvale, California Zip 94086 Product Developer and provider of indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (InGaN LEDs) for solid state lighting, mobile appliance, signage, and automotive applications. References BridgeLux Inc (former eLite Optoelectronics)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. BridgeLux Inc (former eLite Optoelectronics) is a company located in Sunnyvale, California . References ↑ "BridgeLux Inc (former eLite Optoelectronics)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=BridgeLux_Inc_former_eLite_Optoelectronics&oldid=34303

354

Reactions of 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5 ethers with metal acetylacetonate ions in the gas phase  

SciTech Connect

A study was carried out on the ion-molecule reactions of ions arising in the dissociation of ferric, cobaltic, chromic, manganous, neodymium(II), gallium(III), and indium(III) acetylacetonates upon electron impact with 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5. The ratio of the yields of (acac)x-1 /SUP M+L/ ions is determined by the case of reduction of M /SUP x+1+/ to M /SUP x+/ and for (acac)/sub 3/M complexes, this ratio decreases in the series Nd, In, GA > Cr > Fe, Co. The rate constant for the formation of acacCoL/sup +/ ions is greater than for acacFeL/sup +/ ions. The possibility of fixing transition metals in unstable oxidation states by crown ethers is demonstrated in the case of nickel.

Timofeev, O.S.; Bogatskii, A.V.; Gren, A.I.; Lobach, A.V.; Nekarsov, Y.S.; Zagorevskii, D.V.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

355

Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels.

Srivastava, S.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

NREL photovoltaic subcontract reports: Abstracts and document control information, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report contains document control information and abstracts for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontracted photovoltaic program publications. It also lists source information on additional publications that describe US Department of Energy (DOE) PV research activities. It is not totally exhaustive, so it lists NREL contacts for requesting further information on the DOE and NREL PV programs. This report covers the period from August 1, 1991, through July 31, 1992. The purpose of continuing this type of publication is to help people keep abreast of specific PV interests, while maintaining a balance on the costs to the PV program. The information in this report is organized under PV technology areas: Amorphous silicon research; polycrystalline thin films (including copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and thin-film silicon); crystalline materials and advanced concepts (including silicon, gallium arsenide, and other group III-V materials); and PV manufacturing technology development (which may include manufacturing information for various types of PV materials).

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films  

SciTech Connect

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

1999-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

FTIR and FT-PL Spectroscopic Analysis of TPV Materials and Devices  

SciTech Connect

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 102 micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Olson, M. R.; Wu, X.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M. W.; Jones, K. M.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

359

Adaptation of thin-film photovoltaic technology for use in space  

SciTech Connect

The anticipated deployment of large numbers of satellites in low earth orbit (LEO) for global telecommunications networks renews interest in producing solar power systems that are lightweight, robust, resistant to radiation damage, and relatively inexpensive. Promising near term thin-film candidates are amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). The authors discuss the modifications that are necessary to adapt terrestrial thin-film technology for use in space. The authors characterize expected module performance and present results of tests performed on sample cells. They consider the possibility of achieving aggressive cost, weight, and performance targets through the use of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology.

Fairbanks, E.S.; Gates, M.T. [Boeing Commercial Space Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Low-Cost Label-Free Electrical Detection of Artificial DNA Nanostructures Using Solution-Processed Oxide Thin-Film Transistors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As stabilizers, monoethanolamine (MEA) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were dropped to ameliorate the solubility of the precursors and make a homogeneous IGZO solution, respectively. ... Prepared DNA-covered mica sheet was attached onto the metal puck using instant glue and 5 ?L of DX solution, 30 ?L of 1 × TAE/Mg2+ buffer was dropped onto the mica and 10 ?L of 1 × TAE/Mg2+ buffer was mounted onto the AFM tip (A NP-S oxide-sharpened silicon nitride tip). ... The original influence of water on the back-channel of sol-gel derived amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors was studied in various relative humidity environments. ...

Si Joon Kim; Joohye Jung; Keun Woo Lee; Doo Hyun Yoon; Tae Soo Jung; Sreekantha Reddy Dugasani; Sung Ha Park; Hyun Jae Kim

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Novel Porphyrin-Incorporated Hydrogels for Photoactive Intraocular Lens Biomaterials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is possible that the resulting high concentration of TPPS may have cross-linked the hydrogels to such an extent that it significantly reduced the solubility and/or diffusion rate of oxygen into the doped polymers. ... The 1O2 detection system was a liquid-nitrogen-cooled Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) detector (Judson Technologies Inc., Montgomeryville, PA, type J22D-M204-R01M-60-1.7) with a 1 mm2 active area. ... Overall, the data for TMPyP in MAA:HEMA suggest that loading water-soluble porphyrins into swellable acrylate-based gels leads to only minor perturbation in the photophysical and 1O2 generating properties of their excited states. ...

Clare Brady; Steven E. J. Bell; Carole Parsons; Sean P. Gorman; David S. Jones; Colin P. McCoy

2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

Investigation of channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors  

SciTech Connect

This Letter investigates abnormal channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Unlike drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, the wider the channel, the larger the threshold voltage observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider channel devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast IV measurement is utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation.

Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan; Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bo-Liang [Advanced Display Technology Research Center, AU Optronics, No. 1, Li-Hsin Rd. 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory INEEL/CON-03-00078  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication in a This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication in a journal or proceedings. Since changes may be made before publication, this preprint should not be cited or reproduced without permission of the author. This document was prepared as a account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, or any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for any third party's use, or the results of such use, of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use by such third party would not infringe privately owned rights. The views expressed in this paper are

364

Structure and electronic properties of saturated and unsaturated gallium nitride nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

The atomic and electronic structures of saturated and unsaturated GaN nanotubes along the [001] direction with (100) lateral facets are studied using first-principles calculations. Atomic relaxation of nanotubes shows that appreciable distortion occurs in the unsaturated nanotubes. All the nanotubes considered, including saturated and unsaturated ones, exhibit semiconducting, with a direct band gap. Surface states arisen from the threefold-coordinated N and Ga atoms at the lateral facets exist inside the bulk-like band gap. When the nanotubes saturated with hydrogen, these dangling bond bands are removed from the band gap, but the band gap decreases with increasing the wall thickness of the nanotubes.

Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Shengjie; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

365

Growth Kinetics and Doping of Gallium Nitride Grown by rf-Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thomas H. Myers, Ph.D., Chair Larry E. Halliburton, Ph.D. Nancy C. Giles, Ph.D. Charter D. Stinespring Giles, Dr. Charter Stinespring, Dr. Larry Halliburton, and Dr. Mohindar Seehra. In addition, I would

Myers, Tom

366

Theoretical study of sequential oxidation of clusters of gallium oxide: Ga3On (n: 48)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as well as addition (and removal) of an electron leads to significant changes in the geometry oxide clusters, we found that the structural changes induced by addition and removal of an electron properties of neutral and ionized small GamOn (m,n = 1,2) clusters [2]. Addition of an electron introduced

Pandey, Ravi

367

The determination of titanium, germanium and gallium by charged particle activation analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V FWHM for the 1. 332 MeV y-ray of Co; Peak-to-Compton ratio: 20. 1; 60 Efficiency relative to a 3 x 3 inch NaI (Tl) detector for the 1. 332 MeV y-ray measured at 25 cm distance: 3 05%%d Data Ac uisition and Processin Data was acquired via a 4096... of the reaction had to be sufficiently high to make measurements of ppm level concentrations feasible. The thick target yields were calculated by correlating the activities of the particular Y-rays 16 back to the time at the end of the irradiation...

Novak, Leo Robert

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Luminescent Properties of CdS Crystals Doped with Gallium and Tellurium in Cadmium Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique is devised for vapor-phase doping CdS in the quaternary system Cd–Ga–Te–S. CdS crystals are doped with Ga and Te via four-zone ... and Cd (the more volatile component of CdS). The luminescence spectra...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; M. E. Rubina

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Identification of the gallium vacancy-oxygen pair defect in GaN  

SciTech Connect

Cation vacancies like V{sub Ga}, V{sub Al} and their complexes with oxygen are predicted to be abundant in III-nitrides and to play an important role in nonradiative recombination. Appearing in triple or double negatively charged states, they are not paramagnetic and have not so far been detected by magnetic resonance even under illumination. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate an efficient way to make cation vacancy defects in GaN detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance and present our identification of the V{sub Ga}O{sub N} pair in GaN which is the model material for the III-nitrides and their alloys.

Son, N. T.; Hemmingsson, C. G.; Janzen, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Paskova, T.; Evans, K. R. [Kyma Technologies Inc., 8829 Midway West Road, Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Usui, A. [R and D Division, Furukawa Co., Ltd., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan); Morishita, N.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Isoya, J. [Graduate School of Library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550 (Japan); Monemar, B. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

4.2.3.4 Magnetic neutron scattering in terbium, holmium and dysprosium gallium garnets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This document is part of Subvolume E ‘Garnets’ of Volume 27 ‘Magnetic Properties of Non-Metallic Inorganic Compounds Based on Transition Elements’ of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter.

Z. A. Kazei; N. P. Kolmakova; V. I. Sokolov

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Non-Destructive Spent Fuel Characterization with Semi-Conducting Gallium Arsinde Neutron Imaging Arrays  

SciTech Connect

High resistivity bulk grown GaAs has been used to produce thermal neutron imaging devices for use in neutron radiography and characterizing burnup in spent fuel. The basic scheme utilizes a portable Sb/Be source for monoenergetic (24 keV) neutron radiation source coupled to an Fe filter with a radiation hard B-coated pixellated GaAs detector array as the primary neutron detector. The coated neutron detectors have been tested for efficiency and radiation hardness in order to determine their fitness for the harsh environments imposed by spent fuel. Theoretical and experimental results are presented, showing detector radiation hardness, expected detection efficiency and the spatial resolution from such a scheme. A variety of advanced neutron detector designs have been explored, with experimental results achieving 13% thermal neutron detection efficiency while projecting the possibility of over 30% thermal neutron detection efficiency.

Douglas S. McGregor; Holly K. Gersch; Jeffrey D. Sanders; John C. Lee; Mark D. Hammig; Michael R. Hartman; Yong Hong Yang; Raymond T. Klann; Brian Van Der Elzen; John T. Lindsay; Philip A. Simpson

2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Radiation-Hardened Gallium Nitride Detector and Arrays for Fusion Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This poster reports testing to confirm that GaN devices exhibit the extreme radiation hardness needed for use at the NIF, functioning properly after 1x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2} proton irradiation in one year.

Sun, K. X., and MacNeil, L.

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

373

SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

SAGE Collaboration

374

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenide gallium nitride Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An advanced diffusion model to identify emergent research issues: the case of optoelectronic devices Summary: instrumentation Absorption coefficients Aluminium Nitrides Aluminium...

375

Identification of a physical metallurgy surrogate for the plutonium—1 wt.?% gallium alloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Future plutonium research is expected to be limited due to the downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex and an industry focus on environmental remediation and decommissioning of former manufacturing and research facilities. However the need to further the understanding of the behavior of plutonium has not diminished. Disposition of high level residues long-term storage of wastes and certification of the nuclear stockpile through the Stockpile Stewardship Program are examples of the complex issues that must be addressed. Limited experimental facilities and the increasing cost of conducting plutonium research provide a strong argument for the development of surrogate materials. The purpose of this work was to identify a plutonium surrogate based on fundamental principles such as electronic structure and then to experimentally demonstrate its viability.

Frank E. Gibbs; David L. Olson; William Hutchinson

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman Spectroscopy and XPS  

SciTech Connect

Laser Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the evolution of composition of oxide films in the presence of zirconia coatings on miniature HT-9 alloy specimens subjected to elevated temperature in air. The experiments expanded on previous efforts to develop a quick-screening technique for candidate alloys for cladding materials (HT-9) and actinide-based mixed oxide fuel mixtures (represented by the zirconia coating) by investigating the effect of both coating composition and alloy pretreatment conditions on the high temperature reactions. In particular, the presence of the element Ga (a potential impurity in mixed oxide fuel) in the initial zirconia coating was found to accelerate the rate of oxide growth relative to that of yttria-stabilized zirconia studied previously. In addition, HT-9 samples that were subjected to different thermal pretreatments gave different results. The results suggest that the presence of Ga in a mixed oxide fuel will enhance the corrosion of HT-9 cladding under the conditions of this study, although the extent of enhancement is influenced by thermal pretreatment of the cladding material. The results also demonstrate the need to combine Raman spectroscopy with other techniques, particularly photoelectron spectroscopy, for optimizing composition and/or fabrication conditions of both cladding and oxide fuels for advanced nuclear reactors.

Windisch, Charles F.; Henager, Charles H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bennett, Wendy D.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fabrication of an optically driven 10 GHz ring resonator on a gallium arsenide substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/D converters, optical detectors, dc to rf converters, and millimeter-wave or microwave generators. Photoconductors can be easily integrated with microelectronic devices as well as microwave circuits. Recently, an optically excited photoconductive switch... is the barrier height and y, is the electron affinity for the semiconductor. Current flow at a metal-semiconductor barrier is due mainly to majority carriers. The four major current transport methods are thermionic emission over the barrier, quantum...

McGregor, Douglas Scott

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Gallium-68 Bioorthogonal Tetrazine Polymers for the Multistep Labeling of Cancer Biomarkers /  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M, Fox JM (2008) Tetrazine ligation: fast bioconjugationR, Hilderbrand SA (2008) Tetrazine-Based Cycloadditions:of Cancer Cells through a Tetrazine/trans- Cyclooctene

Nichols, Brandon Edward

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Thermodynamic properties of gallium hydroxide oxide (alpha -GaOOH) at temperatures to 700 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...periodically removed from the reactor at the experimental temperature...titanium filter inserted in the reactor cover. Each sample was divided...and V. Pokrovskii greatly improved the presentation and clarity...doctorat, Universit Paul-Sabatier de Toulouse, 166 p. Diakonov...

Gleb S. Pokrovski; Igor I. Diakonov; Pascale Benezeth; Vyacheslav M. Gurevich; Konstantin S. Gavrichev; Vadim E. Gorbunov; Jean-Louis Dandurand; Jacques Schott; Igor L. Khodakovsky

380

Process development for the fabrication of monolithic optoelectronic resonators on gallium arsenide substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of greater solubility wash away. The wafers were immersed in a diluted MF312 developer snd slightly agitated. When development was completed, the wafers were rinsed with deionized (DI) water and blown dry. Hard baking in a low pressure chamber removes any... of greater solubility wash away. The wafers were immersed in a diluted MF312 developer snd slightly agitated. When development was completed, the wafers were rinsed with deionized (DI) water and blown dry. Hard baking in a low pressure chamber removes any...

Fairchild, Brock Wilson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Testing the Reactor and Gallium Anomalies with Intense (Anti)Neutrino Emitters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several observed anomalies in neutrino oscillation data could be explained by a hypothetical fourth neutrino separated from the three standard neutrinos by a squared mass difference of a few 0.1 eV$^2$ or more. This hypothesis can be tested with MCi neutrino electron capture sources ($^{51}$Cr) or kCi antineutrino $\\beta$-source ($^{144}$Ce) deployed inside or next to a large low background neutrino detector. In particular, the compact size of this source coupled with the localization of the interaction vertex lead to an oscillating pattern in event spatial (and possibly energy) distributions that would unambiguously determine neutrino mass differences and mixing angles.

Th. Lasserre

2012-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

382

Heat treatment of bulk gallium arsenide using a phosphosilicate glass cap  

SciTech Connect

n-type bulk GaAs crystals, capped with chemically vapor-deposited phosphosilicate glass, were heat treated at temperatures in the range of 600 to 950 /sup 0/C. Measurements on Schottky diodes and solar cells fabricated on the heat-treated material, after removal of a damaged surface layer, show an increase in free-carrier concentration, in minority-carrier-diffusion length, and in solar-cell short-circuit current. The observed changes are attributed to a removal of lifetime-reducing acceptorlike impurities, defects, or their complexes.

Mathur, G.; Wheaton, M.L.; Borrego, J.M.; Ghandhi, S.K.

1985-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Hydrogen passivation of EL2 defects and H2*-like complex formation in gallium arsenide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A complex formed by one As antisite (AsGa), one As, and two H atoms is proposed, in GaAs, which is reminiscent of the H2* defect in crystalline Si and properly accounts for the hydrogen neutralization of the EL2 deep donor activity. It is noticeably stable, in agreement with experimental results. The geometry and electronic structure of this complex present interesting connections with those of the isolated As antisite which clarify the EL2 passivation mechanism.

A. Amore Bonapasta

1995-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Temperature dependence of plasmonic terahertz absorption in grating-gate gallium-nitride transistor structures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Strong plasmon resonances have been observed in the terahertz transmission spectra (1–5 THz) of large-area slit-grating-gate AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistor(HEMT) structures at temperatures from 10 to 170 K. The resonance frequencies correspond to the excitation of plasmons with wave vectors equal to the reciprocal lattice vectors of the metal grating which serves both as a gate electrode for the HEMT and a coupler between plasmons and incident terahertz radiation. Wide tunability of the resonances by the applied gate voltage demonstrates potential of these devices for terahertz applications.

A. V. Muravjov; D. B. Veksler; V. V. Popov; O. V. Polischuk; N. Pala; X. Hu; R. Gaska; H. Saxena; R. E. Peale; M. S. Shur

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Picosecond response of gallium-nitride metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodiodes fabricated on GaN were tested in the picosecond regime with an electro-optic sampling system. A device with a feature size of 1 ?m showed a response with 1.4 ps rise time and 3.5 ps full width at half maximum. The derived electron velocity 1.43×10 7 ? cm/s is in good agreement with independent photoexcitation measurements. A slower impulse response was observed in a device with smaller feature size of 0.5?? m .

Jianliang Li; Ying Xu; T. Y. Hsiang; W. R. Donaldson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Control of the emission wavelength of gallium nitride-based nanowire light-emitting diodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Halbleiter-Nanosäulen (auch -Nanodrähte) werden als Baustein für Leuchtdioden (LEDs) untersucht. Herkömmliche LEDs aus Galliumnitrid (GaN) bestehen aus mehreren Kristallschichten auf einkristallinen Substraten. Ihr Leistungsvermögen wird… (more)

Wölz, Martin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

The Hall mobility measurement of Liquid Phase Epitaxy grown aluminum gallium arsenide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

allows lasing action at or above room temperature. The utility of AI?Ga& ?As is based on the close latti&e match to GaAs over a range of Al mole fraction between zero and one(Fig. 1)IS). This is significant since heterojunctions between s...-type by occupying the site normally orc?pi& d by th& gro?p V element, ar?l acting as a donor. For the p-type of AI?Ga& ?As. %1g was used as an i&np?ri&y. Fig. 10 and Fig. 11 show I he r&'lal ionship bet wc?n th& in&p?r&I& & o???& r?t ?&n??&l t he alorr&i& weight...

Choi, Young-Shig

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

Gallium arsenide thermal conductivity and optical phonon relaxation times from first-principles calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, thermal conductivity of crystalline GaAs is calculated using first-principles lattice dynamics. The harmonic and cubic force constants are obtained by fitting them to the force-displacement data from density ...

Luo, Tengfei

389

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis gallium-67 lung Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ILD... , interstitial lung disease, texture analysis, co-occurrence matrix, computed tomography I. INTRODUCTION Computer... %. The aim of our work is to develop a novel texture ......

390

Gallium solar neutrino experiments: Absorption cross sections, neutrino spectra, and predicted event rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar neutrino sources with standard energy spectra, and for laboratory sources of 51 Cr and 37 Ar; the calculations include, where appropriate, the thermal energy of fusing solar ions and use improved nuclear the energy spectrum of solar neutrinos. Theoretical uncertainties are estimated for cross sections

Bahcall, John

391

The role of correlation entropy in nuclear fusion in liquid lithium, indium and mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear fusion cross-sections considerably higher than corresponding theoretical predictions are observed in low-energy experiments with metal matrix targets and accelerated deuteron beams. The cross-section increment is significantly higher for liquid than for solid targets. We propose that the same two-body correlation entropy used in evaluating the metal melting entropy explains the large liquid-solid difference of the effective screening potential that parameterizes the cross-section increment. This approach is applied to the specific case of the $^6$Li(d,$\\alpha$)$^4$He reaction, whose measured screening potential liquid-solid difference is $(235 \\pm 63)$ eV. Cross sections in the two metals with the highest two-body correlation entropy (In and Hg) have not yet been measured: increments of the cross sections in liquid relative to the ones in solid metals are estimated with the same procedure.

M. Coraddu; M. Lissia; P. Quarati; A. M. Scarfone

2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

392

Development of indium arsenide quantum dot solar cells for high conversion efficiency.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Sunlight is the largest energy source available on earth. Under clear conditions there is approximately 1,000 watts per directly incident square meter, which reaches the… (more)

El-Emawy, Mohamed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The role of correlation entropy in nuclear fusion in liquid lithium, indium and mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear fusion cross-sections considerably higher than corresponding theoretical predictions are observed in low-energy experiments with metal matrix targets and accelerated deuteron beams. The cross-section increment is significantly higher for liquid than for solid targets. We propose that the same two-body correlation entropy used in evaluating the metal melting entropy explains the large liquid-solid difference of the effective screening potential that parameterizes the cross-section increment. This approach is applied to the specific case of the $^6$Li(d,$\\alpha$)$^4$He reaction, whose measured screening potential liquid-solid difference is $(235 \\pm 63)$ eV. Cross sections in the two metals with the highest two-body correlation entropy (In and Hg) have not yet been measured: increments of the cross sections in liquid relative to the ones in solid metals are estimated with the same procedure.

Coraddu, M; Quarati, P; Scarfone, A M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

The active dopant concentration in ion implanted indium tin oxide thin films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of oxygen ion implantation on the electrical and optical properties of Sn?doped In2O3 (ITO) thin films sputter deposited from a planar magnetron source on glass substrates is described. The films were characterized as a function of the implanted dose (3×1013–1×1016 O+ cm?2) by Hall effect resistivity and optical transmission measurements. The dependencies observed are explained in terms of the deactivation of the Sn dopant and the removal of oxygen vacancies. In this way an estimate of the amount of electrically active Sn contributing to the carrier density in as?deposited films was obtained. Furthermore the accompanying changes in the band gap with decreasing free?carrier density could be explained quantitatively in terms of the Burstein–Moss effect.

T. J. Vink; M. H. F. Overwijk; W. Walrave

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Highly transparent Nb-doped indium oxide electrodes for organic solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the characteristics of Nb-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (INbO) films prepared by co-sputtering of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} for use in transparent anodes for organic solar cells (OSCs). To optimize the Nb dopant composition in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix, the effect of the Nb doping power on the resistivity and transparency of the INbO films were examined. The electronic structure and microstructure of the INbO films were also investigated using synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction examinations in detail. At the optimized Nb co-sputtering power of 30?W, the INbO film exhibited a sheet resistance of 15??/sq, and an optical transmittance of 86.04% at 550?nm, which are highly acceptable for the use as transparent electrodes in the fabrication of OSCs. More importantly, the comparable power conversion efficiency (3.34%) of the OSC with an INbO anode with that (3.31%) of an OSC with a commercial ITO anode indicates that INbO films are promising as a transparent electrode for high performance OSCs.

Kim, Jun Ho; Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seok-In [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Jeongju-si, Jellabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kwun-Bum [Department of Physics, Dankook University, Mt. 29, Anseo-Dong, Chenan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Sulfur incorporation into copper indium diselenide single crystals through annealing in hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

CuInSe{sub 2} crystals were sulfurized in a H{sub 2}S-Ar gas mixture at 575 deg. C. The focus was on the resulting mass transport, in particular, on the interdiffusion of Se and S. Experiments were done for various sulfurization times, and the resulting S distribution was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling and analyzed with the Boltzmann-Matano method. A one-dimensional diffusion process had shaped the S distribution in these crystals. The respective diffusion coefficient was on the order of 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s, and it varied only slightly with the S content in CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}.

Titus, Jochen; Birkmire, Robert W.; Hack, Christina; Mueller, Georg; McKeown, Patrick [Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Crystal Growth Laboratory, Department of Materials Science, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Evans East, Princeton, New Jersey 08520 (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Indium and tellurium doping of CdS crystals in cadmium vapor and their luminescent properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique is devised for vapor-phase doping of CdS in the quaternary system Cd-In-Te-S. CdS crystals are doped with In and Te via four-zone ... InTe vapors. The luminescence spectra of the CdS?In,Te?[Cd] crysta...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; M. E. Rubina

398

Indium and tellurium doping of CdS crystals in cadmium vapor and their luminescent properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

—A technique is devised for vapor-phase doping of CdS in the quaternary system Cd—In—Te—S. CdS crystals are doped with In and Te via four-zone ... InTe vapors. The luminescence spectra of the CdS?In,Te?[Cd] cryst...

I. N. Odin; M. V. Chukichev; M. E. Rubina

399

Undoped and indium-doped CdS films prepared by chemical vapour deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Undoped and In-doped films of CdS were deposited at different temperatures by the ... and good adherence to the substrate. The doped films have higher electron mobility values compared ... (Moss-Burstein effect) ...

G. Meyer; J. Saura

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Effect of indium doping and annealing on photoconducting property of wurtzite type CdS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we observed the effect of doping and annealing on the dark current and anomalous photoconducting behavior of hexagonal wurtzite CdS, synthesized by solid state reaction method. Undoped CdS sample sh...

Vineet Kumar Singh; Pratima Chauhan; Sheo Kumar Mishra…

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 ? BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80?000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Chen, Ying-Pin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Zhou, Hong-Cai, E-mail: zhou@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States)

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Indium in co-existing minerals from the Mount Pleasant tin deposit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...i E > i l q ' R E F 5 8 E"'i e 8t; * F N *., itsd; t r i i. t o. o q b r eErE.5o q o F tEa69 HiEE-!d# 6-?Ep t s = o * {ffd5d' x q o E:1 5 U Y'C'rEn 6 q ? I E'6EI d F...

R. S. Boorman; D. Abbott

403

PROCESSING ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIUM-ARSENIDE-BASE HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the forward plasma power was kept at $100 W with 5.0 sccm CF4 plus 10.0 sccm Ar gas flow. The dry etching rate

404

Indium phosphide based integrated photonic devices for telecommunications and sensing applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonics is an exciting area of study that is situated at the cross-section of physics, material science, and electrical engineering. The integration of photonic devices serves to reduce the size, weight, power consumption, ...

Shih, Ta-Ming, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Indium-Vanadium Oxides Deposited by Radio Frequency Sputtering: New Thin Film Transparent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in order to determine their possible applications in electrochromic devices as optically passive ion-vis-NIR transmittance and reflectance modes, have demonstrated that films are electrochromic, but the presence in electrochromic devices (ECD) with variable light transmission ("smart windows").2,3 As has been demonstrated

Artuso, Florinda

406

High thermoelectric performance by resonant dopant indium in nanostructured SnTe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge...02467bDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139...work is supported by the Solid-State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S...

Qian Zhang; Bolin Liao; Yucheng Lan; Kevin Lukas; Weishu Liu; Keivan Esfarjani; Cyril Opeil; David Broido; Gang Chen; Zhifeng Ren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for efficient photovoltaic cells. ,” Nature Nanotechnology,Part II – Photovoltaic Cell I-V Characterization Theory andof the photovoltaic effect in the 19 th century, solar cells

Tu, Bor-An Clayton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

High thermoelectric performance by resonant dopant indium in nanostructured SnTe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From an environmental perspective, lead-free SnTe would be preferable for solid-state waste heat recovery if its thermoelectric figure-of-merit could be brought close to that of the lead-containing chalcogenides. In this ...

Liao, Bolin

409

Naval Research Laboratory`s programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Research Laboratory has been involved in developing InP solar cell technology since 1988. The purpose of these programs was to produce advanced cells for use in very high radiation environments, either as a result of operating satellites in the Van Allen belts or for very long duration missions in other orbits. Richard Statler was technical representative on the first program, with Spire Corporation as the contractor, which eventually produced several hundred, high efficiency 2 x 2 sq cm single crystal InP cells. The shallow homojunction technology which was developed in this program enabled cells to be made with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 19%. Many of these cells have been flown on space experiments, including PASP Plus, which have confirmed the high radiation resistance of InP cells. NRL has also published widely on the radiation response of these cells and also on radiation-induced defect levels detected by DLTS, especially the work of Rob Walters and Scott Messenger. In 1990 NRL began another Navy-sponsored program with Tim Coutts and Mark Wanlass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to develop a one sun, two terminal space version of the InP-InGaAs tandem junction cell being investigated at NREL for terrestrial applications. These cells were grown on InP substrates. Several cells with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 22% were produced. Two 2 x 2 sq cm cells were incorporated on the STRV lA/B solar cell experiment. These were the only two junction, tandem cells on the STRV experiment. The high cost and relative brittleness of InP wafers meant that if InP cell technology were to become a viable space power source, the superior radiation resistance of InP would have to be combined with a cheaper and more robust substrate. The main technical challenge was to overcome the effect of the dislocations produced by the lattice mismatch at the interface of the two materials.

Summers, G.P.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Stimulated Raman scattering from free holes in p-type indium antimonide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stimulated Raman scattering from photoexcited holes at magnetic fields up to 68 kG in p-InSb is described. Experiments varying excitation wavelength, magnetic field, polarization, and sample orientation are discussed. A comparison of the experimental results with the latest valence-band calculations allows the identification of the energy levels involved in the scattering process. For sample orientation H???100?, the initial state is the valence-band Landau level ALH 101+31 and the final state is BHH 313-31. ALH, BLH are the "light hole" ladders (approximate spin M=+32 and M=-32, respectively). AHH, BHH are the "heavy hole" ladders (approximate spin M=-12 and M=+12, respectively). For the orientation H???111? initial state and final state are BLH 000+ and AHH 32O+, respectively. The holes involved in this Raman scattering process always have a nonzero momentum along the direction of the magnetic field (kH?0). The largest Raman shift we measured was about 2.7 cm-1.

R. Ebert, H. Pascher, and H. G. Häfele

1981-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Race To Replace Tin-Doped Indium Oxide: Which Material Will Win?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and solar cells.1,2 In the case of solar cells, these components work as anodes to extract separated charge vacuum filtration and a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)-assisted transfer technique and subsequently used

Zhou, Chongwu

412

E-Print Network 3.0 - adoptively transferred indium-111 Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 77 THE APPLICABILITY OF NETWORK EFFECT THEORY TO LOW-COST ADOPTION DECISIONS: AN INVESTIGATION OF Summary: THE APPLICABILITY OF...

413

Preparation and characterization of indium zinc oxide thin films by electron beam evaporation technique  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the preparation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates is reported. Optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated. The effect of dopant amount and annealing temperature on the optical and electrical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films was also studied. Different amount of ZnO was used as dopant and the films were annealed at different temperature. The results showed that the most crystalline, transparent and uniform films with lowest resistivity were obtained using 25 wt% of ZnO annealed at 500 {sup o}C.

Keshavarzi, Reza [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhani, Valiollah, E-mail: mirkhani@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Majid, E-mail: moghadamm@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, Hamid Reza; Dastjerdi, Mohammad Javad Vahid; Modayemzadeh, Hamed Reza [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

2008 Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conference, May, Versailles, France Technology Development & Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of California San Diego #12;Specific Acknowledgements ( Device Team ) Uttam SingisettiDr. MarkGaAs growth on SiGa s g o t o S True MOSFET fabrication processes Designing small FETs which use big (low m off-state current (10 nA/m) for low static dissipationLow off-state current (10 nA/m) for low static

Rodwell, Mark J. W.

415

Physicochemical and catalytic properties of iron- and indium-containing zeolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of the preparation procedure of Fe- and In-containing zeolites on their physicochemical and catalytic properties in methanol conversion to hydrocarbons and the upgrading of the straight-run gasoline

L. M. Velichkina; L. L. Korobitsyna; B. Ulzii; A. V. Vosmerikov…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

renewable energy sources, solar energy is one of the mostthan 0.1% of energy comes from solar. Source: U.S. Energy

Tu, Bor-An Clayton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Rotational analysis of the 3?0(0+)?1?+(0+) system of indium iodide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 3??1?+ band systems of InI were observed in both emission and absorption. Twenty new bandheads were observed. Rotational parameters for the...

Davis, Sumner P; Pecyner, Rubén

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Electronic transport in graphene-based heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

While boron nitride (BN) substrates have been utilized to achieve high electronic mobilities in graphene field effect transistors, it is unclear how other layered two dimensional (2D) crystals influence the electronic performance of graphene. In this Letter, we study the surface morphology of 2D BN, gallium selenide (GaSe), and transition metal dichalcogenides (tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})) crystals and their influence on graphene's electronic quality. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows that these crystals have improved surface roughness (root mean square value of only ?0.1?nm) compared to conventional SiO{sub 2} substrate. While our results confirm that graphene devices exhibit very high electronic mobility (?) on BN substrates, graphene devices on WS{sub 2} substrates (G/WS{sub 2}) are equally promising for high quality electronic transport (????38?000 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature), followed by G/MoS{sub 2} (????10?000 cm{sup 2}/V s) and G/GaSe (????2200 cm{sup 2}/V s). However, we observe a significant asymmetry in electron and hole conduction in G/WS{sub 2} and G/MoS{sub 2} heterostructures, most likely due to the presence of sulphur vacancies in the substrate crystals. GaSe crystals are observed to degrade over time even under ambient conditions, leading to a large hysteresis in graphene transport making it a less suitable substrate.

Tan, J. Y.; Avsar, A.; Balakrishnan, J.; Taychatanapat, T.; O'Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H. [Graphene Research Center, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Koon, G. K. W.; Özyilmaz, B., E-mail: barbaros@nus.edu.sg [Graphene Research Center, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

419

Environmental, health and safety issues related to commercializing CuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaics technology is rapidly evolving towards a new generation of low-cost thin film technologies. One of the most promising materials in this new generation is copper indium selenide (CuInSe{sub 2} or CIS). As with any new material, successful commercialization of CIS photovoltaic (PV) technology will require attention to environmental, health and safety issues, including consideration of the sources, usage, and end-of-product-life disposal and/or recycling of the constituent materials. This work focuses on three specific environmental, health and safety (EH and S) issues related to CIS PV: (1) economics are analyzed to determine their impact on materials use and re-use; (2) Federal and California State environmental disposal and waste handling regulations are analyzed to evaluate their impact on PV module manufacturing and end-of-life module handling; and (3) the logistics and economics of product recycling and waste disposal by industries with comparable EH and S issues are examined to quantify the corresponding options available for handling, disposing of and/or recycling manufacturing by-products and end-of-life modules.

Eberspacher, C. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA (United States); Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowtiz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Diffusion of small solutes in polymer-containing solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Arsinogallane and Chemical Conversion to Gallium Arsenide ERIN K. BYRNE, LASZLO PARKANYI...yield the rn-V semiconductor gallium arsenide as a finely divided amorphous...the reaction small dusters of gallium arsenide were apparently present in solution...

KL Yam; DK Anderson; RE Buxbaum

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman Spectroscopy and XPS. Accelerated Testing of HT-9 with Zirconia Coatings Containing Gallium using Raman...

422

Monday, December 13, 1999 Physics Today On The Web -Physics Update Page: 1 http://www.aip.org/pt/nov99/physup1199.htm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, but with ratios of boron-10 to boron-11 and of gallium-69 to gallium-71 that exceeded the natural abundances

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

423

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenide-based ternary compounds Sample...  

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gallium arsenide-based... separately claimed breakthroughs in solar cell production. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and related compounds... of manufacturing compound semiconductors...

424

Structure, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and...  

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Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Gallium Oxide Thin Films. Structure, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Gallium...

425

Physics based analytical modelling of Gallium Nitride(GaN) MESFET considering different ion implantation energy with high temperature annealing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A physics based analytical model of ion implanted GaN MESFET has been presented considering high temperature annealing effects. Choosing appropriate activation energy of impurity atoms,… (more)

Raghavan, Vinay

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The radiation bio-effects of gallum-72 on leukemic cells via a gallium-transferrin complex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the beta is about 30'/o to 40'/o of the maximum energy. An anti-neutrino is emitted simultaneously, carrying the remainder of the energy. Values listed for beta energies are the maximum values unless otherwise stated (Cember 1996). Prominent beta...

Forbes, Christen Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

427

The design, construction, and testing of a nuclear fuel rod thermal simulation system to study gallium/Zircaloy interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

friends for their unending support and patience during this project. Thank you so much! NOMENCLATURE Abbreviations and Acronyms WGPu- weapons grade plutonium DOE- Department of Energy MOX- mixed oxide fuel WG MOX- weapons grade MOX fuel LWR- light... to be employed were immobilization and fissioning the WGPu as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial power reactors. Both approaches have many advantages and disadvantages and are currently being studied by scientists and engineers all over the world. The use...

Allison, Christopher Curtis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

Comparative band alignment of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited high-k dielectrics on gallium nitride  

SciTech Connect

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, HfO{sub 2} films, and HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacked structures were deposited on n-type, Ga-face, GaN wafers using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The wafers were first treated with a wet-chemical clean to remove organics and an in-situ combined H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasma at 650 Degree-Sign C to remove residual carbon contamination, resulting in a clean, oxygen-terminated surface. This cleaning process produced slightly upward band bending of 0.1 eV. Additional 650 Degree-Sign C annealing after plasma cleaning increased the upward band bending by 0.2 eV. After the initial clean, high-k oxide films were deposited using oxygen PEALD at 140 Degree-Sign C. The valence band and conduction band offsets (VBOs and CBOs) of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN and HfO{sub 2}/GaN structures were deduced from in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). The valence band offsets were determined to be 1.8 and 1.4 eV, while the deduced conduction band offsets were 1.3 and 1.0 eV, respectively. These values are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the electron affinity model and charge neutrality level model. Moreover, subsequent annealing had little effect on these offsets; however, the GaN band bending did change depending on the annealing and processing. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was investigated as an interfacial passivation layer (IPL), which, as results suggest, may lead to improved stability, performance, and reliability of HfO{sub 2}/IPL/GaN structures. The VBOs were {approx}0.1 and 1.3 eV, while the deduced CBOs were 0.6 and 1.1 eV for HfO{sub 2} with respect to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN, respectively.

Yang Jialing; Eller, Brianna S.; Zhu Chiyu; England, Chris; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, VoL 71, No..5, 1998 SIMULATION OF A GALLIUM ARSENIDE RUNNING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and investigating HHT devices containing active elements with distributed parameters. Nowadays an active search structure of one or another configuration and a cathode section in the form of a Schottky barrier whose of Materials of Electronic Technology, Warsaw; Institute of Physics and Technology, National Academy

Harilal, S. S.

430

Organometallic vapor-phase homoepitaxy of gallium arsenide assisted by a downstream hydrogen afterglow plasma in the growth region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the trimeth- ylgallium (TMGa) for homoepitaxial GaAs. They found in direct comparison of the pure thermal-insulating) substrate is loaded into the depo- sition reactor of Fig. 1 without any chemical degreasing or polishing

Collins, George J.

431

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

Not Available

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

A study of the interaction of gallium arsenide with wet chemical formulations using thermodynamic calculations and spectroscopic ellipsometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effectiveness of different wet chemical treatments and their ability to produce/regrow a thin, stable surface oxide layer on GaAs. Results from thermodynamic considerations indicate that a stable surface oxide layer, free of excess arsenic and arsenic oxides, can be achieved by properly choosing aqueous solutions targeted within the GaAs solubility range (pH  11) followed by deionized (DI) water rinsing. This is further corroborated by spectroscopic ellipsometric data that can qualitatively, but correctly, identify the thickness of the surface oxide layer after different wet chemical treatments. Specifically, samples treated with acidic solutions based on HCl, HF, and H3PO4 and diluted ammonium hydroxide solution produce a more stable surface layer that is thinner than the native oxide layer on GaAs. The results and subsequent discussion are presented in the context of an attempt at achieving a well passivated GaAs surface, free of excessive surface state defects responsible for Fermi-level pinning.

J. Price; J. Barnett; S. Raghavan; M. Keswani; R. Govindarajan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Calpain-Mediated Integrin Deregulation as a Novel Mode of Action for the Anticancer Gallium Compound KP46  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processes, including the regulation of mRNA stability and translation, cellular proliferation...population as shown in Fig. 1A. A bubble plot can be used to depict both the abundance...in different cell populations. A, a bubble plot depicting the relative abundance...

Ute Jungwirth; Johannes Gojo; Theresa Tuder; Gernot Walko; Martin Holcmann; Thomas Schöfl; Karin Nowikovsky; Nastasia Wilfinger; Sushilla Schoonhoven; Christian R. Kowol; Rosa Lemmens-Gruber; Petra Heffeter; Bernhard K. Keppler; and Walter Berger

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Temperature dependence of electrical properties of gallium-nitride bulk single crystals doped with Mg and their evolution with annealing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comprehensive studies of the electrical properties of Mg-doped bulk GaN crystals grown by high-pressure synthesis were performed as a function of temperature up to 750?°C. Annealing of the samples in nitrogen ambient modifies qualitatively their resistivity values ? and the ?(T) variation. It was found that our material is characterized by a high concentration of oxygen-related donors and that the charge transport in the studied samples is determined by two types of states one of shallow character (Mg-related state E A ?0.15? eV ) and the second one much more deep E 2 ?0.95? eV (above the valence band). Depending on the effective concentration of either states different resistivities ? can be observed: lower resistivity (?10 6 ??? cm at ambient temperature) in samples with dominant E 2 states. For the first type of samples annealing at T ann <500?° C leads to a decrease of their resistivity and is associated with an increase of the effective concentration of the shallow Mg acceptors. Annealing of both types of samples at temperatures between 600 and 750?°C leads to an increase of the deep state concentration. The presence of hydrogen ambient during annealing of the low-resistivity samples strongly influences their properties. The increase of the sample resistivity and an appearance of a local vibrational mode of hydrogen at 3125 cm?1 were observed. These effects can be removed by annealing in hydrogen-free ambient.

E. Litwin-Staszewska; T. Suski; R. Piotrzkowski; I. Grzegory; M. Bockowski; J. L. Robert; L. Ko?czewicz; D. Wasik; E. Kami?ska; D. Cote; B. Clerjaud

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

An experimental study of the solubility of Gallium(III) oxide in HCl-bearing water vapour  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at 200 °C at a pH of $4. The values are very similar to those estimated from data for geothermal wells

Devernal, Anne

436

GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz-10%) of transition metals such as copper, silver, and chromium (Feinstein et al 1997 and Pyke 1993). High temperature. Introduction Gas sensing and analysis based on gas adsorption on a catalytic metal surface has been extensively

437

Sputtered Molybdenum Bilayer Back Contact for Copper Indium Diselenide-Based Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grown CdS layer followed by an ion- beam-sputtered, lightly doped (50 nm) then heavily doped (300 nm), n with the CIS at 600°C.13 glass Mo CIGS Al-Ni grid n+ ZnO i ZnO CdS sunlight MgF 2 FIG. 1. Cross-sectional view

Scofield, John H.

438

Electroreflectance study of effects of indium segregation in molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown InGaAs/GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) experiments were performed on In 0.22 Ga 0.78 As/GaAs single quantum wells grown by the conventional molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) shutter operation and also by modified MBE shutter operation intended to form more compositionally abrupt normal and inverted interfaces. The latter included controlled thermal desorption of the surface segregated In at the InGaAs layer surface (flash off) and the deposition of In at the InGaAs/GaAs interface to eliminate compositional broadening (predeposition). The fundamental energy gap and subband transitions were determined experimentally and compared with an accurate calculation of the potential well problem including strain. These results confirmed the segregation of In atoms near the interface. The segregation was maximum in the conventional (normal) MBE sample and least with the modified growth incorporating predeposition and flash off as expected. The segregated atoms are observed to act as dopants and form junctions near the InGaAs/GaAs interface. This study shows that EER can be used as an effective tool for studying the segregation process in MBE growth.

K. Chattopadhyay; J. Aubel; S. Sundaram; J. E. Ehret; R. Kaspi; Keith R. Evans

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Chromium-Catalyzed Homoaldol Equivalent Reaction, Indium-Mediated Cycloisomerization, and Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2. Stoichiometric Homoaldol Equivalent Reaction Me O Me BrMg O O Et2O, rt 74% 1 2 3 n=2 p-MeC6H4 HO Me O O+ TiCl4 (1 equiv) TiCl3 O OEt p-NO2C6H4 CO2Et OH 88% 4 5 6 7 EtO OTMS CHOO2N CH2Cl2, ?78 ?C to 0 ?C SiMe3 OSiEt3 TiCl4 (1.1 equiv... to aldehyde 17a, activated by a co-catalyst of trimethylsilyl triflate 21 forming intermediate 22 and affording the homoaldol equivalent adducts 18 in the catalytic cycle (Scheme 1.4). EtO OTMS O Ph 4 18 O O Ti OiPr OTf 17a CO2EtPh OTMS19...

Kang, Jun

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

440

The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence devices q  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

structure including a trans- parent anode, an organic active layer, and a metallic cathode. It has recently zinc oxide films have been actively investigated as alternate materials to ITO because zinc oxide consisted of Al as a cathode, Al2O3 as an electro transport layer, Alq3 as a luminously layer, TPD as a hole

Boo, Jin-Hyo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Nanoscale Electrical Conductivity and Surface Spectroscopic Studies of Indium-Tin Oxide Yish-Hann Liau and Norbert F. Scherer*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

enabled the Electronic and optoelectronic devices impact many areas of society, from simple household and optoelectronic devices OCTOBER 2006 | VOLUME 9 | NUMBER 1018 #12;creation of a host of structures with modulated

Scherer, Norbert F.

442

Reconstruction of original indium distribution in InGaAs quantum wells from experimental SIMS depth profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Depth profiling analysis of InGaAs/GaAs hetero-structures grown by MBE on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates is reported. A novel two-step procedure for de-convolving experimental SIMS depth distribution is employed and the original In distribution in InGaAs quantum wells (QW) is estimated. The QW thickness calculated from the de-convolved profiles is shown to be in good agreement with the cross-sectional TEM images. The experimental In depth profile is shifted from the original In distribution due to the ion mixing process during depth profiling analysis. It is shown that the de-convolution procedure is suitable for reconstruction of the original QW width and depth by SIMS even for relatively high primary ion energies.

Yu. Kudriavtsev; R. Asomoza; S. Gallardo-Hernandez; M. Ramirez-Lopez; M. Lopez-Lopez; V. Nevedomsky; K. Moiseev

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Electra-optic and all-optical phase modulator on an indium tin oxide single-mode waveguide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O, films are widely used in solar energy conversion, in optoelectronics, and in other branches demonstrated an In,O,:Sn semiconductor thin-film waveguide. The energy gap of the film can be manipulated from of optical wavelengths to be multiplexed with the carrier signal. The index of refraction of the Inz

Chen, Ray

444

Direct evidence for self-trapping of excitons by indium nanowires at In/Si(111) surface  

SciTech Connect

We report on the real-space observation of self-trapped excitons using scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons of In nanowires transfer to the Si substrate, yielding charge-transfer excitons at In/Si interface. The strong coupling between excitons and lattice vibrations leads to the exciton localization at low carrier density and 80.0?K. Exciton condensation was observed at the proper carrier density and its microscopic origin is discussed.

Xu, Maojie, E-mail: mjxu@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Applied Physics, CREST-JST, University of Tsukuba, 305-8573 Tsukuba (Japan) [Institute of Applied Physics, CREST-JST, University of Tsukuba, 305-8573 Tsukuba (Japan); Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Yafei [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

445

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous selenium digital Sample Search...  

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Environmental Sciences and Ecology 55 Structural Organization of Arsenic Selenide Liquids: New Results from Liquid State NMR Summary: of pure amorphous selenium and is...

446

E-Print Network Topics: L  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

study lead reactor simulation lead region part lead region studied lead renovation repair lead research group lead scandium tantalate lead secular trend lead selenides lead...

447

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption line systems Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

colloidal solutions of cadmium selenide quantum dots, with a strong size dependence Source: Bentley, Sean - Department of Physics, Adelphi University Collection: Physics 36...

448

On the Mass Eigenstate Composition of the 8B Neutrinos from the Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present data of gallium experiments provide indirectly the only experimental limit on the fraction of $\

A. Kopylov; V. Petukhov

2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

449

It's Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements - Elements Listed by Atomic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atomic Number Atomic Number 1 Hydrogen H 2 Helium He 3 Lithium Li 4 Beryllium Be 5 Boron B 6 Carbon C 7 Nitrogen N 8 Oxygen O 9 Fluorine F 10 Neon Ne 11 Sodium Na 12 Magnesium Mg 13 Aluminum Al 14 Silicon Si 15 Phosphorus P 16 Sulfur S 17 Chlorine Cl 18 Argon Ar 19 Potassium K 20 Calcium Ca 21 Scandium Sc 22 Titanium Ti 23 Vanadium V 24 Chromium Cr 25 Manganese Mn 26 Iron Fe 27 Cobalt Co 28 Nickel Ni 29 Copper Cu 30 Zinc Zn 31 Gallium Ga 32 Germanium Ge 33 Arsenic As 34 Selenium Se 35 Bromine Br 36 Krypton Kr 37 Rubidium Rb 38 Strontium Sr 39 Yttrium Y 40 Zirconium Zr 41 Niobium Nb 42 Molybdenum Mo 43 Technetium Tc 44 Ruthenium Ru 45 Rhodium Rh 46 Palladium Pd 47 Silver Ag 48 Cadmium Cd 49 Indium In 50 Tin Sn 51 Antimony Sb 52 Tellurium Te 53 Iodine I 54 Xenon Xe 55 Cesium Cs 56 Barium Ba 57 Lanthanum La 58 Cerium Ce

450

It's Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements - Elements Listed by  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Name Chemical Name Actinium Ac 89 Aluminum Al 13 Americium Am 95 Antimony Sb 51 Argon Ar 18 Arsenic As 33 Astatine At 85 Barium Ba 56 Berkelium Bk 97 Beryllium Be 4 Bismuth Bi 83 Bohrium Bh 107 Boron B 5 Bromine Br 35 Cadmium Cd 48 Calcium Ca 20 Californium Cf 98 Carbon C 6 Cerium Ce 58 Cesium Cs 55 Chlorine Cl 17 Chromium Cr 24 Cobalt Co 27 Copernicium Cn 112 Copper Cu 29 Curium Cm 96 Darmstadtium Ds 110 Dubnium Db 105 Dysprosium Dy 66 Einsteinium Es 99 Erbium Er 68 Europium Eu 63 Fermium Fm 100 Flerovium Fl 114 Fluorine F 9 Francium Fr 87 Gadolinium Gd 64 Gallium Ga 31 Germanium Ge 32 Gold Au 79 Hafnium Hf 72 Hassium Hs 108 Helium He 2 Holmium Ho 67 Hydrogen H 1 Indium In 49 Iodine I 53 Iridium Ir 77 Iron Fe 26 Krypton Kr 36 Lanthanum La 57 Lawrencium Lr 103 Lead Pb 82 Lithium Li 3 Livermorium Lv 116

451

Installation of semiconductor crystal growth and processing facilities in the Building 166 addition at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A new addition has been constructed to Building 166 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This addition is intended to contain facilities as described below. The Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) facility is a proposed facility for the growth of semiconductor crystals composed of various combinations of gallium, aluminum, indium, arsenic, phosphorous, antimony, silicon, and zinc. This facility will utilize hazardous metal hydride gases (arsine, silane, and disilane) and pyrophoric materials (metal alkyls). The MOCVD process has been intensively developed over the past 10 years and is being safetly utilized in over 75 locations worldwide in both research and manufacturing applications. All equipment in the LLNL MOCVD facility is commercially available and is typical of that used in similar facilities in both industry and academia. The Semiconductor Device Fabrication (SDF) facility is a proposed facility for the fabrication of semiconductor devices from crystals grown in the MOCVD facility. General laboratory chemicals and silane gas will be utilized in this facility. The remaining space in the building addition will consist of an optics laboratory and general purpose work area. The only hazardous materials to be used in these areas are small quantities of common laboratory solvents. For the purposes of this Environmental Assessment, these areas will be considered to be part of the SDF. 27 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Influence of an anomalous dimension effect on thermal instability in amorphous-InGaZnO thin-film transistors  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates abnormal dimension-dependent thermal instability in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Device dimension should theoretically have no effects on threshold voltage, except for in short channel devices. Unlike short channel drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, for devices with either a relatively large channel width or a short channel length, the output drain current decreases instead of saturating with an increase in drain voltage. Moreover, the wider the channel and the shorter the channel length, the larger the threshold voltage and output on-state current degradation that is observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider/shorter channel length devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast I{sub D}-V{sub G} and modulated peak/base pulse time I{sub D}-V{sub D} measurements are utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous dimension-dependent threshold voltage variation and on-state current degradation.

Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com, E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-chu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com, E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hua-Mao; Tai, Ya-Hsiang [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-chu 300, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bo-Liang [Advanced Display Technology Research Center, AU Optronics, No.1, Li-Hsin Rd. 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsin-Chu 30078, Taiwan (China)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

453

Toward Active-Matrix Lab-On-A-Chip: Programmable Electrofluidic control Enaled by Arrayed Oxide Thin Film Transistors  

SciTech Connect

Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m x n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 x 5 electrode array connected to a 2 x 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 {mu}m and mobility of 6.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform.

Noh, Joo Hyon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Noh, Jiyong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kreit, Eric [University of Cincinnati; Heikenfeld, Jason [University of Cincinnati; Rack, Philip D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Structure and transformation of the metastable boron- and oxygen-related defect center in crystalline silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the core structure of the carrier-lifetime-reducing boron- and oxygen-related metastable defect center in crystalline silicon by measuring the correlation of the defect concentration with the boron and the oxygen contents on a large number of different silicon materials. The experimental results indicate that the defect is composed of one substitutional boron and two interstitial oxygen atoms. Formation and annihilation of the metastable boron-oxygen complex are found to be thermally activated processes, characterized by two strongly differing activation energies. Measurements of the defect generation rate as a function of light intensity show that the defect generation rate increases proportionally with light intensity below 1 mW/cm2 and saturates at higher intensities. All experimental results can be consistently explained using a defect reaction model based on fast-diffusing oxygen dimers (O2i), which are captured by substitutional boron (Bs) to form a metastable Bs-O2i complex. Based on this model, new strategies for an effective reduction of the light degradation of solar cells made on oxygen-rich silicon materials are derived. The model also explains why no lifetime degradation is observed in aluminum-, gallium-, and indium-doped oxygen-rich silicon.

Jan Schmidt and Karsten Bothe

2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

455

The influence of bond flexibility and molecular size on the chemically selective bonding of In 2 O and Ga 2 O on GaAs (001)-c(2×8)/(2×4)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface structures formed upon deposition of In 2 O and Ga 2 O by molecular beam epitaxy onto the arsenic-rich GaAs (001)-c(2×8)/(2×4) surface have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory. In 2 O initially bonds with indium atoms bonding to second layer gallium atoms within the trough and proceeds to insert into or between first layer arsenic dimer pairs. In contrast Ga 2 O only inserts into or between arsenic dimer pairs due to chemical site constraints. The calculated energy needed to bend a Ga 2 O molecule approximately 70° so that it can fit into an arsenic dimer pair is 0.6 eV less than that required for In 2 O . The greater flexibility of the Ga 2 O molecule causes its insertion site to be 0.77 eV more exothermic than the In 2 O insertion site. This result shows that although trends in the periodic table can be used to predict some surface reactions small changes in atomic size can play a significant role in the chemistry of gas/surface reactions through the indirect effects of bond angle flexibility and bond length stiffness.

M. J. Hale; J. Z. Sexton; D. L. Winn; A. C. Kummel; M. Erbudak; M. Passlack

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

In–Ga–Zn–O thin film transistor with HfO{sub 2} gate insulator prepared using various O{sub 2}/(Ar + O{sub 2}) gas ratios  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the effect of the deposition of an HfO{sub 2} thin film as a gate insulator with different O{sub 2}/(Ar + O{sub 2}) gas ratios using RF magnetron sputtering. The HfO{sub 2} thin film affected the device performance of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide transistors. The performance of the fabricated transistors improved monotonously with increasing O{sub 2}/(Ar + O{sub 2}) gas ratio: at a ratio of 0.35, the field effect mobility of the amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors was improved to 7.54 cm{sup 2}/(V s). Compared to those prepared with an O{sub 2}/(Ar + O{sub 2}) gas ratio of 0.05, the field effect mobility of the amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors was increased to 1.64 cm{sup 2}/(V s) at a ratio of 0.35. This enhancement in the field effect mobility was attributed to the reduction of the root mean square roughness of the gate insulator layer, which might result from the trap states and surface scattering of the gate insulator layer at the lower O{sub 2}/(Ar + O{sub 2}) gas ratio.

Jo, Young Je [WCU Department of Printed Electronics, Sunchon National University, Chonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [WCU Department of Printed Electronics, Sunchon National University, Chonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Hwan [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Joon Seop, E-mail: jskwak@sunchon.ac.kr [WCU Department of Printed Electronics, Sunchon National University, Chonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Production data on 0.55 eV InGaAs thermophotovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect

Low bandgap 0.55 eV (2.25 {micro}m cutoff wavelength) indium gallium arsenide (In{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 0.28}As) thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells use much more of the long wavelength energy emitted from low temperature (< 1,200 C) thermal sources than either Si or GaSb cells. Data are presented on a statistically significant number (2,500) of these TPV cells, indicating the performance obtainable in large numbers of cells. This data should be useful in the design and modeling of TPV system performance. At 1.2 A/cm{sup 2} short-circuit current, an average open-circuit voltage of 283 mV is obtained with a 60% fill factor. The peak external quantum efficiency for uncoated cells is 65% and is over 50% from 1.1 to 2.2 {micro}m. Internal quantum efficiency is over 76% in this range assuming an estimated 34% reflectance loss.

Wojtzuk, S.; Colter, P. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States); Charache, G.; Campbell, B. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing  

SciTech Connect

3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6?A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70?G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

Li, Longguang [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

460

Method for producing superconducting Nb3Sn wires  

SciTech Connect

In a method of producing a superconducting Nb3Sn wire is disclosed which comprises passing a wire or tape of a niobium-base alloy through a molten metal bath containing tin and then heat-treating it to form a Nb3Sn compound layer on the surface of said wire or tape, the improvement wherein said niobium-base alloy is an alloy comprising niobium and 0.1 to 30 atomic percent of hafnium, and said molten metal bath is a molten bath of pure tin or a tin-base alloy consisting of tin, from 0.1 to 70 atomic percent of one element of group IIIb of the periodic table selected from the group consisting of gallium, indium, and aluminum, and from 0.1 to 70 atomic percent of one element of group Ib of the periodic table selected from the group consisting of copper and silver, the total amount of the element of group IIIb and the element of group Ib not exceeding 70 atomic percent.

Sekine, H.; Tachikawa, K.

1982-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

It's Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements - Elements Listed by  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Symbol Chemical Symbol Ac Actinium 89 Ag Silver 47 Al Aluminum 13 Am Americium 95 Ar Argon 18 As Arsenic 33 At Astatine 85 Au Gold 79 B Boron 5 Ba Barium 56 Be Beryllium 4 Bh Bohrium 107 Bi Bismuth 83 Bk Berkelium 97 Br Bromine 35 C Carbon 6 Ca Calcium 20 Cd Cadmium 48 Ce Cerium 58 Cf Californium 98 Cl Chlorine 17 Cm Curium 96 Cn Copernicium 112 Co Cobalt 27 Cr Chromium 24 Cs Cesium 55 Cu Copper 29 Db Dubnium 105 Ds Darmstadtium 110 Dy Dysprosium 66 Er Erbium 68 Es Einsteinium 99 Eu Europium 63 F Fluorine 9 Fe Iron 26 Fl Flerovium 114 Fm Fermium 100 Fr Francium 87 Ga Gallium 31 Gd Gadolinium 64 Ge Germanium 32 H Hydrogen 1 He Helium 2 Hf Hafnium 72 Hg Mercury 80 Ho Holmium 67 Hs Hassium 108 I Iodine 53 In Indium 49 Ir Iridium 77 K Potassium 19 Kr Krypton 36 La Lanthanum 57 Li Lithium 3 Lr Lawrencium 103

462

Characterization of the Binding of Gallium, Platinum, and Uranium to Pseudomonas fluorescens by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering and Transmission Electron Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that combined small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering...by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering. Plenum Press, New York...of biological structures by neutron scattering from solution. Rep. Prog...

Susan Krueger; Gregory J. Olson; David Johnsonbaugh; T. J. Beveridge

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Photovoltaic properties of ferroelectric solar cells based on polycrystalline BiFeO3 films sputtered on indium tin oxide substrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To study the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect based on polycrystalline films, preparation of...3 (BFO) thin films with extremely large remnant polarization (2P r = 180 C/cm2...) were successfully d...

JianNing Ding; MengJiao Chen; JianHua Qiu…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

(Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2000. Domestically  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistics--United States: 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000e Production, refinery -- -- -- -- -- Imports fluctuations. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery productione Reserves2 Reserve

465

atom. The indium lies almost at the center of gravity of the ring spanned by the five manganese atoms (distance 8.5 pm;  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-Mn2a 269.2(2), In 1-Mn2 265.0(2), Inl-CII 248.8(4). Mn2-Mn2a 316.4(2): Inl-Mn2-Mn2a 54.3(1). Inla. 1986, 98, 189-190: Angew. Cliem. Inl. Ed. Engl. 1986, 25. 185 -186. [14] G. L. Simon, L. F. Dahl, J. Am

Silverman, Scott K.

466

Microstructural development and mechanical behavior of eutectic bismuth-tin and eutectic indium-tin in response to high temperature deformation  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior and microstructure of eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solders were studied in parallel in order to better understand high temperature deformation of these alloys. Bi-Sn solder joints were made with Cu substrates, and In-Sn joints were made with either Cu or Ni substrates. The as-cast microstructure of Bi-Sn is complex regular, with the two eutectic phases interconnected in complicated patterns. The as-cast microstructure of In-Sn depends on the substrate. In-Sn on Cu has a non-uniform microstructure caused by diffusion of Cu into the solder during sample preparation, with regions of the Sn-rich {gamma} phase imbedded in a matrix of the In-rich {beta} phase. The microstructure of In-Sn on Ni is uniform and lamellar and the two phases are strongly coupled. The solders deform non-uniformly, with deformation concentrating in a band along the length of the sample for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu, though the deformation is more diffuse in In-Sn than in Bi-Sn. Deformation of In-Sn on Ni spreads throughout the width of the joint. The different deformation patterns affect the shape of the stress-strain curves. Stress-strain curves for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu exhibit sharp decays in the engineering stress after reaching a peak. Most of this stress decay is removed for In-Sn on Ni. The creep behavior of In-Sn also depends on the substrate, with the creep deformation controlled by the soft P phase of the eutectic for In-Sn on Cu and controlled by the harder {gamma} phase for In-Sn on Ni. When In-Sn on Ni samples are aged, the microstructure coarsens and changes to an array of {gamma} phase regions in a matrix of the {beta} phase, and the creep behavior changes to resemble that of In-Sn on Cu. The creep behavior of Bi-Sn changes with temperature. Two independent mechanisms operate at lower temperatures, but there is still some question as to whether one or both of these, or a third mechanism, operates at higher temperatures.

Goldstein, J.L.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Growth and morphology of 0.80 eV photoemitting indium nitride nanowires M. C. Johnson, C. J. Lee, and E. D. Bourret-Courchesnea)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preparation of Optoelectronic Devices Based on AlN/AlGaN Superlattices M. Holtz,a,b G. Kipshidze) optoelectronic devices. Superlattices with extremely short periods have been studied. The AlN "barrier" layers interest in making optoelectronic devices operating in the ultraviolet (UV). Light emitting diodes (LEDs

Zettl, Alex

468

Indium-111 Labeling of Low Density Lipoproteins with the DTPA?Bis(stearylamide):? Evaluation as a Potential Radiopharmaceutical for Tumor Localization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shaw, J. M., Shaw, K. V., Yanovich, S., Iwanik, M., Futch, W. S., Rosowsky, A., and Schook, L. B. (1987) Delivery of lipophilic drugs using lipoproteins. ... Shaw, J. Michael; Shaw, Kala V.; Yanovich, Saul; Iwanik, Michael; Futch, William S.; Rosowsky, Andre; Schook, Lawrence B. ...

François Jasanada; Pascale Urizzi; Jean-Pierre Souchard; Francis Le Gaillard; Gilles Favre; Françoise Nepveu

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

469

Indium tin oxide single-mode waveguide modulator Ray T. Chen, Dan Robinson, Huey Lu, Lev Sadovnik, and Zonh-Zen Ho  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are widely used in solar energy conversion, in optoelectronics, and in other branches of technology. The wide ABSTRACT We have successfully demonstrated an 1n203:Sn semiconductor thin film waveguide. The energy gap a large number of optical wavelengths to be multiplexed with the carrier signal. The index of refraction

Chen, Ray

470

ANALYSE DES REACTIONS ( 3 ~ e , d ) , ( d , 3 ~ e ) , (d,df) EN VUE DE L'ETUDE SYSTEMATIQUE DES ISOTOPES PAIR-IMPAIRS DE L'INDIUM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pour Sn. 2~~~~n'a pu ê t r e mesurée : i) s o i t parce que l'é- 1. Les trois premiers états e x c iSession 2A ANALYSE DES REACTIONS ( 3 ~ e , d ) , ( d , 3 ~ e ) , (d,df) EN VUE DE L

Boyer, Edmond

471

Sandia National Laboratories: Energy Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-mode gallium nitride nanowire lasers On January 28, 2013, in EC, Energy Efficiency, Solid-State Lighting A new top-down method for fabricating gallium nitride...

472

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum oxide selectively Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

between GaN and AlGaN has been observed up to an aluminum mole fraction... oxides.1-3 For gallium nitride and aluminum gallium nitride this effect has been seldom reported.4... ,...

473

Processing Techniques for the 93 K Superconductor Ba2YCu3O7  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of either silicon or gallium arsenide field effect transistor...BaF2 also require some water to hydrolyze ith fluoride...than the normal solid solubilities. In addition, the...particularly in 930 gallium arsenide (GaAs) circuits...

D. W. MURPHY; D. W. JOHNSON JR.; S. JIN; R. E. HOWARD

1988-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

474

Sandia National Laboratories: BES Web Highlight: Single-mode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyEnergy EfficiencyBES Web Highlight: Single-mode gallium nitride nanowire lasers BES Web Highlight: Single-mode gallium nitride nanowire lasers "Solid-state Lighting:...

475

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to solar abundances) in certain chemically peculiar (CP) stars and old galactic halo stars [1]. Gallium (Ga

Rehse, Steven J.

476

2009 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As and gallium nitride (GaN) and was used in integrated circuits (ICs) and optoelectronic devices [laser diodes

477

2011 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cs) and optoelectronic devices [laser diodes, light-emitting diodes (lEDs), photodetectors, and solar cells]. Gallium

478

Determination of the retention function of [superscript 67]Ga in canine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

()))()] Fecal excretion was the primary route of elimination of gallium, accounting for 63K of the gallium excreted, during the 12 days of observation, Due to the wide variation in gallium retention exhibited by the individual dogs, it is recommended... ABSTRACT . . . ~ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW vi vii viii 3 History Gallium Kinetics Physical Properties of 67Ga METHODS AND MATERIAL 3 4 18 21 Research Subjects...

Schoenbucher, Bruce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

479
480

Transistor-Based Miniature Microwave-Drill Applicator Yehuda Meir and Eli Jerby*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Recent developments of gallium-nitride (GaN) and silicon- carbide (SiC) transistors have increased

Jerby, Eli

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "indium gallium selenide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

314 IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 39-GHz GaN-Based Microwave Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As-based counterparts of the same sizes. Index Terms--Amplifier, field-effect transistors, gallium-nitride (Ga

York, Robert A.

482

THERMAL STUDY OF A GaN-BASED HEMT A Dissertation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of gallium-nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) under bias conditions. An experimental

Sen, Mihir

483

Employment after UC Graduation: 2005 2007: Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, California Polytechnic State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Educational Activity on Gallium-Nitride (GaN) Lasers and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)" International Journal

Boolchand, Punit

484

3-D view of 1-D nanostructures January 6th, 2012 Filed under Nano Science Tagged cormick-school, engineering,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cormick-school, engineering, esearchers-at-the, gallium-nitride, great-promise, have-found, mccormick

Espinosa, Horacio D.

485

NREL Highlights SCIENCE These polycrystalline cells use Earth-abundant elements.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance continue to make progress on improving the conversion efficiency of in-house copper zinc tin selenide

486

Cryogenic refractive indices of ZnSe, Ge, and Si at 10.6 ?m  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Refractive-index measurements as a function of temperature have been made for zinc selenide, germanium, and silicon at 10.6 ?m over a temperature range of 20–300 K. Each measurement...

Hoffman, Jeffrey M; Wolfe, William L

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Solar Energy Conversion into Electricity and Hot Water by Thermoelectric Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this talk, I will discuss our recent studies on a few materials systems such as half-Heuslers, lead selenide, skutterudites, silicon-germanium alloys, etc. that are interest for...

Ren, Zhifeng

488

Growth and characterizations of semipolar (1122) InN  

SciTech Connect

We report on metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (1122) InN on (1122) GaN templates on m-plane (1010) sapphire substrates. The in-plane relationship of the (1122) InN samples is [1123]{sub InN} Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line [0001]{sub sapphire} and [1100]{sub InN} Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line [1210]{sub sapphire}, replicating the in-plane relationship of the (1122) GaN templates. The surface of the (1122) InN samples and the (1122) GaN templates shows an undulation along [1100]{sub InN,GaN}, which is attributed to anisotropic diffusion of indium/gallium atoms on the (1122) surfaces. The growth rate of the (1122) InN layers was 3-4 times lower compared to c-plane (0001) InN. High resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a relaxed interface between the (1122) InN layers and the (1122) GaN templates, consistent with x-ray diffraction results. Basal plane stacking faults were found in the (1122) GaN templates but they were terminated at the InN/(1122) GaN interface due to the presence of misfit dislocations along the entire InN/GaN interface. The misfit dislocations were contributed to the fully relaxation and the tilts of the (1122) InN layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the polarity of the grown (1122) InN sample, indicating an In-polar (1122) InN. The valence band maximum was determined to be at (1.7 {+-} 0.1) eV for the (1122) InN sample, comparable to In-polar c-plane InN.

Dinh, Duc V.; Skuridina, D.; Solopow, S.; Frentrup, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Vogt, P.; Kneissl, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ivaldi, F.; Kret, S.; Szczepanska, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02668 Warsaw (Poland)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

490

SIMS Studies in Compound Semiconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, the SIMS technique has approached significantly closer to the...+ ion-implanted, Fe-doped indium phosphide.

J. E. Baker; P. Williams; D. J. Wolford…

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

ccsd00004270, Prototype scintillator cell for an In-based solar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

indium-loaded scintillator of interest for real-time low energy solar neutrino spectroscopy. First, lightccsd­00004270, version 1 ­ 16 Feb 2005 Prototype scintillator cell for an In-based solar neutrino stable over a period of > 1 y. Key words: Solar neutrinos, Indium experiment, Indium loaded scintillator

492

2009 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrates. Lithic Resources Ltd. (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada), however, announced a new resource toward the prefeasibility stage (Lithic Resources Ltd., 2009). Indium metal was not produced, indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings, solders, and other indium products. Recycling A large portion of global

493

Photovoltaic Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics Photovoltaic Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis Single-crystalline thin films are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), a compound semiconductor that is a mixture of gallium and arsenic. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound semiconductor, a mixture of gallium and arsenic. Gallium is a byproduct of the smelting of other metals, notably aluminum and zinc, and it is rarer than gold. Arsenic is not rare, but it is poisonous. Gallium arsenide has been developed for use in solar cells at about the same time that it has been developed for light-emitting diodes, lasers, and other electronic devices that use light. GaAs solar cells offer several benefits: The GaAs bandgap is 1.43 eV-nearly ideal for single-junction solar

494

Sensitivity of absorption spectra to surface segregation in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the influence of the indium surface segregation on absorption spectra in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures having different indium amount. Results of the mathematical modeling show that such influence is more pronounced in quantum well structures with high indium amounts. The origin of this effect is related to the interplay between the indium surface segregation and internal electrostatic fields. Our theoretical analysis is performed using semiconductor Bloch equations within the Hartree-Fock approximation including into consideration excitonic effects. Results of the global sensitivity analysis evidence that the influence of the indium surface segregation is less than one order of magnitude in comparison with the impact of the quantum-well width and indium molar fraction. Also, the influence of the indium surface segregation is not the same for each interface of the quantum well.

Klymenko, M. V.; Shulika, O. V. [Lab. Photonics, Kharkov National University of Radio Electronics, Kharkov, 61166 (Ukraine); Sukhoivanov, I. A. [Department of Electronics, Engineering Division, University of Guanajuato, Salamanca, Guanajuato, 36885 (Mexico)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

In situ chemical sensing in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process for real-time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; accepted 14 June 2005; published 18 July 2005 Gallium nitride and its alloys promise to be key materials.1116/1.1993616 I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, gallium-nitride GaN - and aluminum- gallium-nitride AlGaN -based are grown at high temperatures e.g., up to 1100 °C using large concentrations of H2 carrier and NH3 N source

Rubloff, Gary W.

496

Fabrication of ?-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser molecular beam epitaxy technology has been employed to deposit ?-gallium oxide (?-Ga2O3) on (0001) sapphire substrates. After optimizing the...

Guo, Daoyou; Wu, Zhenping; Li, Peigang; An, Yuehua; Liu, Han; Guo, Xuncai; Yan, Hui; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Changlong; Li, Linghong; Tang, Weihua

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

E-Print Network 3.0 - anisotropy physics Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

physics Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anisotropy physics Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Gallium crystallization: implication for the...

498

Photonic crystal light emitting diode.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This master's thesis describe electromagnetic simulations of a gallium antimonide (GaSb) light emitting diode, LED. A problem for such devices is that most of… (more)

Leirset, Erlend

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium arsenides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: of gallium arsenide, a semiconductor, which is used in advanced optoelectronics, lasers, microwave circuits... , and solar cells. To determine material...

500

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive nitride-based coatings Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DELAUSANNE Summary: AND ELECTRONICS PROF. N. GRANDJEAN 33 III-NITRIDE BASED OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES 34 GALLIUM NITRIDE-BASED 2D... FOR DIVERSE APPLICATIONS 84 HOLE ARRAY...