National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for indium gallium selenide

  1. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S.; Nekuda, Jennifer A.

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  2. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  3. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Wednesday, 21 December 2005 00:00 Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features

  4. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burghoorn, M.; Kniknie, B.; Deelen, J. van; Ee, R. van; Xu, M.; Vroon, Z.; Belt, R. van de; Buskens, P. E-mail: buskens@dwi.rwth-aachen.de

    2014-12-15

    Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the J{sub sc} and efficiency of CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (d{sub CIGS}) of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (n{sub resist} = 1.792 vs. n{sub AZO} = 1.913 at 633 nm) to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, J{sub sc} increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%). No trend towards a larger relative increase in J{sub sc} with decreasing d{sub CIGS} was observed. Ergo, the increase in J{sub sc} can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in J{sub sc} based on an increased photon path length.

  5. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  6. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  7. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  8. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  9. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  10. Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Since its initial development, copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) thin-film technology has been considered promising for solar cells because of its favorable electronic and optical ...

  11. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L. , Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  12. Traps identification in Copper-Indium-Gallium-Sulfur-Selenide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Cells Completed with Various Buffer Layers by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy Current-voltage ... devices cells with high and low efficiencies were studied. ...

  13. Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2000-01-01

    Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

  14. Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

    2012-05-01

    A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

  15. Hydrogenation of palladium rich compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlmann, H.

    2010-02-15

    Palladium rich intermetallic compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium have been studied before and after hydrogenation by powder X-ray diffraction and during hydrogenation by in situ thermal analysis (DSC) at hydrogen gas pressures up to 39 MPa and temperatures up to 700 K. Very weak DSC signals and small unit cell increases of below 1% for AlPd{sub 2}, AlPd{sub 3}, GaPd{sub 2}, Ga{sub 5}Pd{sub 13}, In{sub 3}Pd{sub 5}, and InPd{sub 2} suggest negligible hydrogen uptake. In contrast, for both tetragonal modifications of InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} and TiAl{sub 3} type), heating to 523 K at 2 MPa hydrogen pressure leads to a rearrangement of the intermetallic structure to a cubic AuCu{sub 3} type with an increase in unit cell volume per formula unit by 3.6-3.9%. Gravimetric analysis suggests a composition InPd{sub 3}H{sub a}pprox{sub 0.8} for the hydrogenation product. Very similar behaviour is found for the deuteration of InPd{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: In situ differential scanning calorimetry of the hydrogenation of tetragonal InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} type) at 1.3 MPa hydrogen pressure.

  16. Revealing the preferred interlayer orientations and stackings of two-dimensional bilayer gallium selenide crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xufan; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A.; Yoon, Mina; Ma, Cheng; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; et al

    2015-01-21

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0° or 60° interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA' and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale andmore » the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. Here, the combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.« less

  17. Revealing the preferred interlayer orientations and stackings of two-dimensional bilayer gallium selenide crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xufan; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A.; Yoon, Mina; Ma, Cheng; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-21

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0° or 60° interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA' and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale and the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. Here, the combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.

  18. Revealing the Preferred Interlayer Orientations and Stackings of Two-Dimensional Bilayer Gallium Selenide Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xufan; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Yoon, Mina; Ma, Cheng; Puretzky, Alexander A; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0 or 60 interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale and the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. The combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.

  19. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2002-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  20. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  1. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interefere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  2. Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowiresvia Chemical Vapor Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    2006-03-13

    We utilized a vapor-liquid-solid growth technique to synthesize indium oxide, gallium oxide, and tin oxide nanowires using chemical vapor transport with gold nanoparticles as the catalyst. Using identical growth parameters we were able to synthesize single crystal nanowires typically 40-100 nm diameter and more than 10-100 microns long. The products were characterized by means of XRD, SEM and HRTEM. All the wires were grown under the same growth conditions with growth rates inversely proportional to the source metal vapor pressure. Initial experiments show that different transparent oxide nanowires can be grown simultaneously on a single substrate with potential application for multi-component gas sensors.

  3. Liquid precursor for deposition of indium selenide and method of preparing the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-22

    Liquid precursors containing indium and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and method of depositing a liquid precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  4. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-15

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  5. Ohmic contact formation process on low n-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Shik; Lee, In-Yeal; Jung, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Gil-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: We propose a method to fabricate non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs with IGZO. 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current and 1.5 on/off-current ratio are achieved in the junction. InAs and InGaAs formed by this process decrease an electron barrier height. Traps generated by diffused O atoms also induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon. - Abstract: Here, an excellent non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs is demonstrated by using indium gallium zinc oxide and investigating through time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, JV measurement, and H [enthalpy], S [entropy], Cp [heat capacity] chemistry simulation. In is diffused through GaAs during annealing and reacts with As, forming InAs and InGaAs phases with lower energy bandgap. As a result, it decreases the electron barrier height, eventually increasing the reverse current. In addition, traps generated by diffused O atoms induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon, increasing generation current and subsequently the reverse current. Therefore, an excellent Ohmic contact with 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current density and 1.5 on/off-current ratio is achieved on n-type GaAs.

  6. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S.; Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-06-09

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  7. Preparation of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Hasoon, Falah S.; Wiesner, Holm; Keane, James; Noufi, Rommel; Ramanathan, Kannan

    1999-02-16

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of 13.6% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor thin film. The film is fabricated by first simultaneously electrodepositing copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a glass/molybdenum substrate (12/14). The electrodeposition voltage is a high frequency AC voltage superimposed upon a DC voltage to improve the morphology and growth rate of the film. The electrodeposition is followed by physical vapor deposition to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In.sub.1-n Ga.sub.x)Se.sub.2, with the ratio of Ga/(In+Ga) being approximately 0.39.

  8. The influence of random indium alloy fluctuations in indium gallium nitride quantum wells on the device behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Tsung-Jui; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Shivaraman, Ravi; Speck, James S.

    2014-09-21

    In this paper, we describe the influence of the intrinsic indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum wells on the carrier transport, efficiency droop, and emission spectrum in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Both real and randomly generated indium fluctuations were used in 3D simulations and compared to quantum wells with a uniform indium distribution. We found that without further hypothesis the simulations of electrical and optical properties in LEDs such as carrier transport, radiative and Auger recombination, and efficiency droop are greatly improved by considering natural nanoscale indium fluctuations.

  9. Recovery from ultraviolet-induced threshold voltage shift in indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by positive gate bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2013-11-11

    The effect of short-duration ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) and its recovery characteristics were investigated. The V{sub th} exhibited a significant negative shift after UV exposure. The V{sub th} instability caused by UV illumination is attributed to the positive charge trapping in the dielectric layer and/or at the channel/dielectric interface. The illuminated devices showed a slow recovery in threshold voltage without external bias. However, an instant recovery can be achieved by the application of positive gate pulses, which is due to the elimination of the positive trapped charges as a result of the presence of a large amount of field-induced electrons in the interface region.

  10. Saddle-like deformation in a dielectric elastomer actuator embedded with liquid-phase gallium-indium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wissman, J.; Finkenauer, L.; Deseri, L.; Majidi, C.

    2014-10-14

    We introduce a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) composed of liquid-phase Gallium-Indium (GaIn) alloy electrodes embedded between layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and examine its mechanics using a specialized elastic shell theory. Residual stresses in the dielectric and sealing layers of PDMS cause the DEA to deform into a saddle-like geometry (Gaussian curvature K<0). Applying voltage Φ to the liquid metal electrodes induces electrostatic pressure (Maxwell stress) on the dielectric and relieves some of the residual stress. This reduces the longitudinal bending curvature and corresponding angle of deflection ϑ. Treating the elastomer as an incompressible, isotropic, NeoHookean solid, we develop a theory based on the principle of minimum potential energy to predict the principal curvatures as a function of Φ. Based on this theory, we predict a dependency of ϑ on Φ that is in strong agreement with experimental measurements performed on a GaIn-PDMS composite. By accurately modeling electromechanical coupling in a soft-matter DEA, this theory can inform improvements in design and fabrication.

  11. Synthesis and optical properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots for white light-emitting diode application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xianmei; Wang, Yilin; Gule, Teri; Luo, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Zhou, Liya, E-mail: zhouliyatf@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Gong, Fuzhong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Stable CdSe QDs were synthesized by the one-step and two-level process respectively. ? The fabricated white LEDs show good white balance. ? CdSe QDs present well green to yellow band luminescence. ? CdSe QDs displayed a broad excitation band. - Abstract: Yellow light-emitting cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized using one-step and two-step methods in an aqueous medium. The structural luminescent properties of these quantum dots were investigated. The obtained cadmium selenide quantum dots displayed a broad excitation band suitable for blue or near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode applications. White light-emitting diodes were fabricated by coating the cadmium selenide samples onto a 460 nm-emitting indium gallium nitrite chip. Both samples exhibited good white balance. Under a 20 mA working current, the white light-emitting diode fabricated via the one-step and two-step methods showed Commission Internationale de lclairage coordinates at (0.27, 0.23) and (0.27, 0.33), respectively, and a color rendering index equal to 41 and 37, respectively. The one-step approach was simpler, greener, and more effective than the two-step approach. The one-step approach can be enhanced by combining cadmium selenide quantum dots with proper phosphors.

  12. Gallium and indium imaging agents. 2. Complexes of sulfonated catecholyamide sequestering agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecoraro, V.L.; Wong, G.B.; Raymond, K.N.

    1982-06-01

    The solution equilibria for the reaction of Ga(III) and In(III) with the hexadentate ligands N, N', N''-tris(2,3-dihydroxy-5-sulfonatobenzoyl)-1,3,5-tris(aminomethyl)benzene (MECAMS) and N, N', N''-tris(2,3-dihydroxy-5-sulfonatobenzoyl)-1,5,10-triazadecane (3,4-LICAMS) and the bidentate catechol N,N-dimethyl-2,3-dihydroxy-5-sulfonatobenzamide (DMBS) have been determined on 0.1 M KNO/sub 3/ at 25/sup 0/C. Both Ga(III) and In(III) are coordinated by three catecholate groups at high pH and have formation constants of the order ..beta../sub 110/ = 10/sup 38/ M/sup -1/. As the acidity of the medium is increased, the metal complexes of the hexadentate sequestering agents undergo protonation reactions. For the determination of the nature of the protonated metal chelates, the stretching frequency of the amide carbonyl has been monitored in D/sub 2/O by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR). These data support a series of two one-proton steps to form a mixed salicylate-catecholate coordination about the metal ion. In the salicylate bonding mode the metal is bound through the ortho phenolic oxygen and the amide cabonyl whereas catecholate coordination is via the adjacent phenols. In contrast, protonation of the M/sup III/(DMBS)/sub 3/ complexes results in dissociation of a catechol moiety to form M/sup III/(DMBS)/sub 2/. The potential use of these compounds as tumor-imaging agents in cancer diagnosis is discussed, with specific attention to the role of the gallium transferrin complex.

  13. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jae-sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Oh, Byung Su; Joo, Min-Kyu; Ahn, Seung-Eon

    2014-12-28

    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that the trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.

  14. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P. Chen, T. P. Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-20

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 9} ? for a device with the radius of 50??m) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 3} ? for the radius of 50??m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10?V/1??s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  15. Effect of top gate bias on photocurrent and negative bias illumination stress instability in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eunji; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Park, Min Sang; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-07

    We have studied the effect of top gate bias (V{sub TG}) on the generation of photocurrent and the decay of photocurrent for back channel etched inverted staggered dual gate structure amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Upon 5 min of exposure of 365 nm wavelength and 0.7 mW/cm{sup 2} intensity light with negative bottom gate bias, the maximum photocurrent increases from 3.29 to 322 pA with increasing the V{sub TG} from −15 to +15 V. By changing V{sub TG} from negative to positive, the Fermi level (E{sub F}) shifts toward conduction band edge (E{sub C}), which substantially controls the conversion of neutral vacancy to charged one (V{sub O} → V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+} + e{sup −}/2e{sup −}), peroxide (O{sub 2}{sup 2−}) formation or conversion of ionized interstitial (O{sub i}{sup 2−}) to neutral interstitial (O{sub i}), thus electron concentration at conduction band. With increasing the exposure time, more carriers are generated, and thus, maximum photocurrent increases until being saturated. After negative bias illumination stress, the transfer curve shows −2.7 V shift at V{sub TG} = −15 V, which gradually decreases to −0.42 V shift at V{sub TG} = +15 V. It clearly reveals that the position of electron quasi-Fermi level controls the formation of donor defects (V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+}/O{sub 2}{sup 2−}/O{sub i}) and/or hole trapping in the a-IGZO /interfaces.

  16. Preparation and characterization of selenide semiconductor particles in surfactant vesicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Ancheng; Pfeiffer, W.F.; Guillaume, B.; Baral, S.; Fendler, J.H. )

    1990-05-17

    Cadmium, lead, indium, and zinc selenide particles have been in situ generated on the surfaces of negatively charged dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) and positively charged dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) vesicles. Selenide particles were formed by two different methods. In method A, MSe particles were in situ generated from M{sup 2+}-coated DHP or (MH{sub 2}EDTA){sup 2{minus}}-coated DODAB vesicles by exposure to gaseous H{sub 2}Se. In method B, MSe particles were formed by the chemical reduction of SeO{sub 2} and M{sup 2+} in the presence of DHP vesicles. Selenide particle formation was monitored by absorption spectroscopy. Increasing the amount of H{sub 2}Se added and decreasing the pH of the solution shifted the absorption edge to higher wavelengths, which indicated the formation of larger particles. On standing particles, generated by the addition of H{sub 2}Se to their precursors attached to DHP vesicles, underwent time-dependent growth. Selenide particles, formed by chemical reductions, and those generated by the addition of H{sub 2}Se to Cd/EDTA-coated DODAB vesicles appeared to be small and more stable than their counterparts in DHP vesicles.

  17. EA-1686: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to SoloPower Inc. for the Electrodeposition-based Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) Solar Technology Manufacturing Facility near San Jose, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EA cancelled due to a change in project scope; DOE prepared a categorical exclusion determination (8/15/11).

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: From Modules to Atoms: Increasing Reliability...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The project will study reliability-related defects in major photovoltaic (PV) technologies that include silicon (Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium selenide ...

  19. PROJECT PROFILE: Manufacturing and Reliability Science for CIGS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This project aims to overcome the largest challenges to investor confidence and long product lifetime in copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS): meta-stability, potential-induced ...

  20. PTIP Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Africa Sector: Solar Product: Thin-film Copper-indium-gallium-sulphur-selenide solar cell technology spinout from the University of Johannesburg. References: PTIP Ltd1 This...

  1. HelioVolt Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: HelioVolt Corporation Place: Austin, Texas Zip: TX 78744 Product: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV module manufacturer based in Austin,...

  2. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ways to exploit the novel properties that result are frontier areas of today's solid-state physics and materials science. However, before exploring and exploiting comes making....

  3. Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors Title: Pressure-Driven Quantum Criticality in Iron-Selenide Superconductors Authors: Guo, Jing ; Chen, Xiao-Jia ...

  4. NREL preprints for the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, M.

    1993-05-01

    Topics covered include various aspects of solar cell fabrication and performance. Aluminium-gallium arsenides, cadmium telluride, amorphous silicon, and copper-indium-gallium selenides are all characterized in their applicability in solar cells.

  5. Time-resolved photoluminescence of ytterbium in indium phosphide. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bumgarner, T.F.

    1988-12-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence of ytterbium (Yb) implanted in indium phosphide (Inp) was the primary emphasis of this research. The decay lifetimes of the 1002-nm Yb emission were investigated as a function of temperature. Initial attempts were made to investigate as a function of temperature. Initial attempts were made to investigate aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) implanted with ytterbium.

  6. Thin-Film Photovoltaics on Solar House

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this photograph, people are reflected on Team Germany's window louvers with integrated thin-film copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells during the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon...

  7. Nuvosun Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nuvosun Inc Place: Palo Alto, California Zip: 94303-4601 Product: California-based copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) thin film PV maker. References: Nuvosun Inc1 This...

  8. PROJECT PROFILE: University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign (PREDICTS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    how to reduce the instability of materials used for copper indium gallium selenide solar (CIGS) cells or thin film photovoltaics (PV) when they are exposed to water and light. ...

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended...

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stresses, defects, and dislocations. In addition, the small as-deposited indium grains grow into large crystals at ambient conditions. Indium and its compounds have many...

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (SXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical...

  12. Gallium nitride nanotube lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Hurtado, Antonio; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Xu, Huiwen; Luk, Ting Shan; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Lasing is demonstrated from gallium nitride nanotubes fabricated using a two-step top-down technique. By optically pumping, we observed characteristics of lasing: a clear threshold, a narrow spectral, and guided emission from the nanotubes. In addition, annular lasing emission from the GaN nanotube is also observed, indicating that cross-sectional shape control can be employed to manipulate the properties of nanolasers. The nanotube lasers could be of interest for optical nanofluidic applications or application benefitting from a hollow beam shape.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale

  14. Magnetic states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides AFe2Se3 Prev Next Title: Magnetic states of the two-leg-ladder alkali metal iron selenides AFe2Se3 Authors: Luo, ...

  15. Ex Situ Formation of Metal Selenide Quantum Dots Using Bacterially Derived Selenide Precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellowes, Jonathan W.; Pattrick, Richard; Lloyd, Jon; Charnock, John M.; Coker, Victoria S.; Mosselmans, JFW; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Pearce, Carolyn I.

    2013-04-12

    Luminescent quantum dots were synthesized using bacterially derived selenide (SeII-) as the precursor. Biogenic SeII- was produced by the reduction of Se-IV by Veillonella atypica and compared directly against borohydride-reduced Se-IV for the production of glutathione-stabilized CdSe and beta-mercaptoethanol-stabilized ZnSe nanoparticles by aqueous synthesis. Biological SeII- formed smaller, narrower size distributed QDs under the same conditions. The growth kinetics of biologically sourced CdSe phases were slower. The proteins isolated from filter sterilized biogenic SeII- included a methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase previously characterized in the closely related Veillonella parvula. XAS analysis of the glutathione-capped CdSe at the S K-edge suggested that sulfur from the glutathione was structurally incorporated within the CdSe. A novel synchrotron based XAS technique was also developed to follow the nucleation of biological and inorganic selenide phases, and showed that biogenic SeII- is more stable and more resistant to beam-induced oxidative damage than its inorganic counterpart. The bacterial production of quantum dot precursors offers an alternative, 'green' synthesis technique that negates the requirement of expensive, toxic chemicals and suggests a possible link to the exploitation of selenium contaminated waste streams.

  16. Efficient solution-processed small molecule: Cadmium selenide quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vinay; Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 ; Upreti, Tanvi; Chand, Suresh

    2013-12-16

    We report bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of solution-processed small molecule [7,7?-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(6-fluoro-4-(5?-hexyl-[2,2?-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c] [1,2,5] thiadiazole)] p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) (70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) in the device configuration: Indium Tin Oxide /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: CdSe/Ca/Al. The optimized ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe::60:40 leads to a short circuit current density (J{sub sc})?=?5.45?mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc})?=?0.727?V, and fill factor (FF)?=?51%, and a power conversion efficiency?=?2.02% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5G illumination. The J{sub sc} and FF are sensitive to the ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe, which is a crucial factor for the device performance.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  18. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  1. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  2. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have a significant impact on the commercial success of these novel devices. Scanning electron microscopy image of an indium pillar characterized by scanning x-ray...

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical...

  5. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  6. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  7. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  8. Electron beam assisted synthesis of cadmium selenide nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, M. C.; Guleria, A.; Singh, S.; Singh, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Sarkar, S. K.

    2013-02-05

    Cadmium selenide nanomaterials of various shapes and sizes have been synthesized in different condensed media through electron beam irradiation using a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The microstructures in different media as well as the presence of capping reagents play a crucial role in the formation of nanomaterials of different shapes and sizes. Their optical properties could be efficiently tuned by controlling the synthetic parameters.

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical...

  10. Gallium arsenide recycle chemistry and metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, R.W.

    1987-03-23

    Research was successfully conducted on a smelting approach to separate gallium from arsenic using a liquid copper alloy to collect arsenic while oxidizing the gallium into a soda-silica slag. The slag and copper form two immiscible liquid phases. With GaAs in powder form, smelting at 1150 to 1220{degree}C yields 98% of the gallium in the slag and at least 96% of the arsenic in the copper. The gallium concentration in this slag is, relative to other sources, very high, and it can be processed further to obtain crude gallium. The effect of chemical oxidizers on arsenic and gallium distribution between slag and copper was determined. The solidified copper-arsenic alloy is environmentally inert. However, any precious metals present with the electronic scrap will nearly completely collect in the copper. Commercial copper refineries are capable of recovering precious metals from the copper-arsenic alloy, and are equipped to handle large amounts of arsenic when compared with the amount of arsenic used in GaAs devices, even with many fold future expansions.

  11. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neirinckx, Rudi D. (Medfield, MA); Davis, Michael A. (Westwood, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  12. BES Web Highlight: Single-mode gallium nitride nanowire lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Web Highlight: Single-mode gallium nitride nanowire lasers - Sandia Energy Energy Search ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare BES Web Highlight: Single-mode gallium ...

  13. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  14. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  15. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  16. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.; Knapp, Gordon S.; Westbrook, Edwin M.; Forster, George A.

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  17. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is producing high-efficiency semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates.

  18. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  19. Laser photochemistry of gallium-containing compounds. [Trimethylgallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baughcum, S.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The production of gas-phase gallium atoms in the photolysis of trimethylgallium has been investigated at 193 nm and at other laser wavelengths. Ground state (4 /sup 2/P/sup 0//sub 1/2) and metastable (4 /sup 2/P/sup 0//sub 3/2/) gallium atoms are detected using laser-induced fluorescence techniques. Our results indicate that gallium atoms continue to be produced at long times after the laser pulse. The observed dependence on photolysis laser fluence, trimethylgallium pressure, and buffer gas pressure are consistent with a mechanism in which highly excited gallium methyl radicals undergo unimolecular decomposition to produce gallium atoms. Since this process is observed to happen on the time scale of hundreds of microseconds, these results have important implications for studies of metal deposition and direct laser writing by laser photolysis of organometallic compounds. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  1. Interactions of Zircaloy Cladding with Gallium: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.F. Wilson; E.T. Manneschmidt; J.F. King; J.P. Strizak; J.R. DiStefano

    1998-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fhel, on cladding material performance. Three previous repmts"3 identified several compatibility issues relating to the presence of gallium in MOX fuel and its possible reaction with fiel cladding. Gallium initially present in weapons-grade (WG) plutonium is largely removed during processing to produce MOX fhel. After blending the plutonium with uranium, only 1 to 10 ppm gallium is expected in the sintered MOX fuel. Gallium present as gallium oxide (G~OJ could be evolved as the suboxide (G~O). Migration of the evolved G~O and diffusion of gallium in the MOX matrix along thermal gradients could lead to locally higher concentrations of G~03. Thus, while an extremely low concentration of gallium in MOX fiel almost ensures a lack of significant interaction of gallium whh Zircaloy fhel cladding, there remains a small probability that corrosion effects will not be negligible. General corrosion in the form of surface alloying resulting from formation of intermetallic compounds between Zircaloy and gallium should be ma& limited and, therefore, superficial because of the expected low ratio of gallium to the surface area or volume of the Zircaloy cladding. Although the expected concentration of gallium is low and there is very limited volubility of gallium in zirconium, especially at temperatures below 700 "C,4 grain boundary penetration and liquid metal embrittlement (LME) are forms of localized corrosion that were also considered. One fuel system darnage mechanism, pellet clad interaction, has led to some failure of the Zircaloy cladding in light-water reactors (LWRS

  2. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8??10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(?/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0??10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5??m and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2??30?kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488?MHz.

  3. Generator for ionic gallium-68 based on column chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 fluorides, having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of solution is provided. The solution is obtained from a generator comprising germanium-68 hexafluoride bound to a column of an anion exchange resin which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with an acid solution to form a solution containing .sup.68 Ga-fluorides. The solution then is neutralized prior to administration.

  4. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liang; Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2010-02-15

    The availability of economically-produced and environmentally-stable transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coatings is critical for the development of a variety of electronic devices requiring transparent electrodes. Such devices include liquid crystal display pixels and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),[1, 2] solar cell applications,[3, 4] and electrically heated windows.[5, 6] The materials fulfilling these requirements are usually wide band gap inorganic transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Tin-doped indium oxide, or ITO, has traditionally been used for electronic TCO applications because of its low resistivity, high work function and transparency. Due to the increasing cost and limited supply of indium and its tendency to migrate in to the device, there has been increasing research interest to substitute ITO with an indium-free material. A number of alternative metal oxides and doped oxides have been evaluated as TCO materials with varying degrees of success.[7, 8] Among these alternatives to ITO, gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) [2, 9] and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) [10, 11] have drawn particular attention. These materials have been demonstrated to have resistivities and transparencies approaching those of the best ITO, low toxicity, and much lower materials cost. Although AZO is attractive as a TCO electrode material, GZO features a greater resistance to oxidation as a result of gallium’s greater electronegativity compared to Submitted to 2 aluminum.[12, 13

  5. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. TOPO-capped silver selenide nanoparticles and their incorporation into polymer nanofibers using electrospinning technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    More, D.S.; Moloto, M.J.; Moloto, N.; Matabola, K.P.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles produced spherical particles with sizes 12 nm (180 °C) and 27 nm (200 °C). • Higher temperature produced increased particle size (∼75 nm) and changed in shape. • Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles (0.2–0.6%) added into PVP (35–45%) to yield reduced fiber beading. • Polymer nanofibers electrospun at 11–20 kV produced fiber diameters of 425–461 nm. • Optical properties in the fibers were observed due to the Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles loaded. - Abstract: Electrospinning is the most common technique for fabricating polymer fibers as well as nanoparticles embedded polymer fibers. Silver selenide nanoparticles were synthesized using tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) as solvent and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as capping environment. Silver selenide was prepared by reacting silver nitrate and selenium with tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) to form TOP–Ag and TOP–Se solutions. Both absorption and emission spectra signify the formation of nanoparticles as well as the TEM which revealed spherical particles with an average particle size of 22 nm. The polymer, PVP used was prepared at concentrations ranging from (35 to 45 wt%) and the TOPO-capped silver selenide nanoparticles (0.2 and 0.6 wt%) were incorporated into them and electrospun by varying the voltage from 11 to 20 kV. The SEM images of the Ag{sub 2}Se/PVP composite fibers revealed the fibers of diameters with average values of 425 and 461 nm. The X-ray diffraction results show peaks which were identified due to α-Ag{sub 2}Se body centered cubic compound. The sharp peak observed for all the samples at 2θ = 44.5 suggest the presence of Ag in the face centered cubic which can be attributed to higher concentration of silver nitrate used with molar ratio of selenium to silver and the abundance of silver in the silver selenide crystal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy were used to characterize the

  7. Sputtering of neutral and ionic indium clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Z.; Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Von Nagy-Felsobuki, E.I.

    1993-10-01

    Secondary neutral and secondary ion cluster yields were measured during the sputtering of a polycrystalline indium surface by normally incident {approximately}4 keV Ar{sup +} ions. In the secondary neutral mass spectra, indium clusters as large as In{sub 32} were observed. In the secondary ion mass spectra, indium clusters up to In{sub 18}{sup +} were recorded. Cluster yields obtained from both the neutral and ion channel exhibited a power law dependence on the number of constituent atoms, n, in the cluster, with the exponents measured to be {minus}5.6 and {minus}4. 1, respectively. An abundance drop was observed at n=8, 15, and 16 in both the neutral and ion yield distributions suggesting that the stability of the ion (either secondary ion or photoion) plays a significant role in the observed distributions. In addition, our experiments suggest that unimolecular decomposition of the neutral cluster may also plays an important role in the measured yield distributions.

  8. Thermoelectric Properties of Indium-Filled Skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Tao; Chen, Jiazhong; Rosenfeld, H. David; Subramanian, M.A.

    2008-09-18

    Structural, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CoSb{sub 3} partially filled with indium are reported. Polycrystalline samples of In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (0 {le} x {le} 0.3) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H{sub 2} and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of the indium filling voids in CoSb{sub 3} was found to be close to 0.22. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinement of the x = 0.2 sample showed that the indium is located in the classic rattler site and has a substantially larger thermal factor than those of Co and Sb. The electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficients, and thermal conductivity of the In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} samples were measured in the temperature range of 300-600 K. All samples showed metal-like behavior, and the large negative Seebeck coefficients indicated n-type conduction. The thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature for all samples. A thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) {ge} 1 (n-type) has been achieved when x {ge} 0.2 in In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} at 575 K.

  9. PROJECT PROFILE: Case Western Reserve University (PVRD-SIPS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project investigates the impact of surface modification of the transparent electrode in thin film copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) solar cells on improving the reliability. The modification with a molecular surface modifier will limit chemical exposure of the cell to water and acetic acid from the breakdown of ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) encapsulants. The modification is expected to double the lifetime of the cell.

  10. PROJECT PROFILE: Manufacturing and Reliability Science for CIGS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics | Department of Energy Manufacturing and Reliability Science for CIGS Photovoltaics PROJECT PROFILE: Manufacturing and Reliability Science for CIGS Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $4,000,000 This project aims to overcome the largest challenges to investor confidence and long product lifetime in copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS): meta-stability,

  11. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory INEEL/CON-03-00078

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... 1987, pp. 411-418. 27. F. F. Hahn, R. K. Wolff, and R. F. Henderson, "Gallium Oxide ... Institute, December 1987. 28. R. K. Wolff et al., "Toxicity of Gallium Oxide ...

  12. Gallium based low-interaction anions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Wayne A.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  13. J/{psi} production in indium-indium collisions at SPS energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillot, P.; Ducroux, L.; Guichard, A.; Tieulent, R.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Keil, M.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.; Cicalo, C.

    2006-01-12

    The NA60 experiment collected data on dimuon production in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV/c per incident nucleon, in year 2003, to contribute to the clarification of several questions raised by previous experiments studying high-energy heavy-ion physics at the CERN SPS in search of the quark gluon plasma. Among these previous results stands the observation, by NA50, that the production yield of J/{psi} mesons is suppressed in central Pb-Pb collisions beyond the normal nuclear absorption defined by proton-nucleus data. By comparing the centrality dependence of the suppression pattern between different colliding systems, S-U, Pb-Pb and In-In, we should be able to identify the corresponding scaling variable, and the physics mechanism driving the suppression. In this paper, we will present the ratio of J/{psi} and Drell-Yan production cross-sections in indium-indium collisions, in three centrality bins, and how these values compare to previous measurements. We will also present a study of the transverse momentum distributions of the J/{psi} mesons, in seven centrality bins.

  14. Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hogan, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  15. Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hogan, S.J.

    1983-03-13

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  16. Low frequency pressure modulation of indium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, Gary A.; Meier, Mark A.

    2012-07-15

    A lumped parameter resonator capable of generating megapascal pressures at low frequency (kilohertz) is described. Accelerometers are used to determine the applied pressure, and are calibrated with a piezoelectric sample. A laser diagnostic was also developed to measure the pressure in semiconductor samples through the band gap pressure dependence. In addition, the laser diagnostic has been used to measure the attenuation coefficient {alpha} of commercially available indium antimonide (InSb) wafers. The resonator and laser diagnostic have been used with InSb samples to verify the pressure response.

  17. First results from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov, A.I.; Abdurashitov, D.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Eroshkina, L.A.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.I.; Petukhov, V.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.Y.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zakharov, Y.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhandarov, V.I. . Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij); Bowl

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment is the first experiment able to measure the dominant flux of low energy p-p solar neutrinos. Four extractions made during January to May 1990 from 30 tons of gallium have been counted and indicate that the flux is consistent with 0 SNU and is less than 72 SNU (68% CL) and less than 138 SNU (95% CL). This is to be compared with the flux of 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 03.01.16 RH Nickel-Gallium - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 electrochemical reduction catalyzed by bimetallic materials at low overpotential Torelli, D. A., Francis, S.A. et al. Nickel-Gallium-Catalyzed Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Highly Reduced Products at Low Overpotentials. ACS Catalysis, 6, 2100-2104, DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.5b02888 (2016). Scientific Achievement Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to highly reduced C2 (ethylene and ethane) and C1 (methane) products was accomplished on three different phases of nickel-gallium films at low

  19. Compatibility of ITER candidate materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Chopra, O.K.

    1995-09-01

    Corrosion tests have been conducted to determine the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) first wall/blanket systems, e.g., Type 316 stainless steel (SS), Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr. The results indicate that Type 316 SS is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400 C, corrosion rates for Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy are {approx} 4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr, respectively. Iron, nickel, and chromium react rapidly with gallium. Iron shows greater corrosion than nickel at 400 C ({ge} 88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively). The present study indicates that at temperatures up to 400 C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The growth of intermetallic compounds may control the overall rate of corrosion.

  20. Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicols, Samuel Piers

    2002-03-26

    The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak

  1. Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ozone | Argonne National Laboratory Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Title Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Mane, AU, Allen, AJ, Kanjolia, RK, Elam, JW Journal Journal of Physical Chemistry C Volume 120 Start Page 9874 Issue 18 Pagination 10 Date Published 04182016 Abstract We investigated the atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  2. Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Films on Metal Foil for PV Applications -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Films on Metal Foil for PV Applications Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Zheng, M., Yu, Z., Seok, T.J., Chen, Y-Z., Kapadia, R., Takei, K., Aloni, S., Ager, J.W., Wu, M., Chueh, Y-L., Javey, A. "High optical quality polycrystalline indium phosphide grown on metal substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Journal of Applied Physics 111,

  3. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Copper...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers ...

  4. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , Honcho Kawaguchi, 3320012 Saitama

    2013-12-09

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436?V, short-circuit current of 24.8?mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5?G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

  5. Electron emitting device and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsen, Gregory Hammond; Martinelli, Ramon Ubaldo; Ettenberg, Michael

    1977-04-19

    A substrate of single crystalline gallium arsenide has on a surface thereof a layer of single crystalline indium gallium phosphide. A layer of single crystalline gallium arsenide is on the indium gallium phosphide layer and a work function reducing material is on the gallium arsenide layer. The substrate has an opening therethrough exposing a portion of the indium gallium phosphide layer.

  6. Photoluminescence properties of cadmium-selenide quantum dots embedded in a liquid-crystal polymer matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tselikov, G. I. Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Plenge, J.; Ruehl, E.; Shatalova, A. M.; Shandryuk, G. A.; Merekalov, A. S.; Tal'roze, R. V.

    2013-05-15

    The photoluminescence properties of cadmium-selenide (CdSe) quantum dots with an average size of {approx}3 nm, embedded in a liquid-crystal polymer matrix are studied. It was found that an increase in the quantum-dot concentration results in modification of the intrinsic (exciton) photoluminescence spectrum in the range 500-600 nm and a nonmonotonic change in its intensity. Time-resolved measurements show the biexponential decay of the photoluminescence intensity with various ratios of fast and slow components depending on the quantum-dot concentration. In this case, the characteristic lifetimes of exciton photoluminescence are 5-10 and 35-50 ns for the fast and slow components, respectively, which is much shorter than the times for colloidal CdSe quantum dots of the same size. The observed features of the photoluminescence spectra and kinetics are explained by the effects of light reabsorption, energy transfer from quantum dots to the liquid-crystal polymer matrix, and the effect of the electronic states at the CdSe/(liquid crystal) interface.

  7. Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, William F.; Page, Ralph H.; DeLoach, Laura D.; Payne, Stephen A.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr.sup.2+ -doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 .mu.m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d.sup.4 and d.sup.6 electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers.

  8. Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, W.F.; Page, R.H.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

    1996-07-30

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr{sup 2+}-doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 {micro}m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d{sup 4} and d{sup 6} electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers. 18 figs.

  9. HIGH-QUALITY, LOW-COST BULK GALLIUM NITRIDE SUBSTRATES GROWN...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 60%, and energy for information technology infrastructure power delivery by 20%. High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates (1009.69 KB) More Documents & ...

  10. Application of the bounds-analysis approach to arsenic and gallium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 23, 2016 Title: Application of the bounds-analysis approach to arsenic and gallium antisite...

  11. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory INEEL/CON-03-00078

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    or represents that its use by such third party would not infringe privately owned rights. ... gallium surfaces with oils from human skin, and gloves protect against puncture wounds. ...

  12. Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (886 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has developed a disruptive new crystal growth technology, called Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG).

  13. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  14. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Allen, M. W.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.

    2015-02-02

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ∼520 °C, with indium migrating from the (0001{sup ¯}) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar (11{sup ¯}00) and (112{sup ¯}0) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (∼20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  15. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaming E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Sun, Yongli

    2015-09-15

    We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  16. Preliminary survey report: control technology for gallium arsenide processing at Morgan Semiconductor Division, Garland, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenihan, K.L.

    1987-03-01

    The report covers a walk through survey made of the Morgan Semiconductor Facility in Garland, Texas, to evaluate control technology for gallium-arsenide dust in the semiconductor industry. Engineering controls included the synthesis of gallium-arsenide outside the crystal pullers to reduce arsenic residues in the pullers, also reducing worker exposure to arsenic during cleaning of the crystal pullers.

  17. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  18. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Leisch, Jennifer; Taylor, Matthew; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  19. Study on natural convection capability of liquid gallium for passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    The safety issues of the SFRs are important due to the fact that it uses sodium as a nuclear coolant, reacting vigorously with water and air. For that reason, there are efforts to seek for alternative candidates of liquid metal coolants having excellent heat transfer property and to adopt improved safety features to the SFR concepts. This study considers gallium as alternative liquid metal coolant applicable to safety features in terms of chemical activity issue of the sodium and aims to experimentally investigate the natural convection capability of gallium as a feasibility study for the development of gallium-based passive safety features in SFRs. In this paper, the design and construction of the liquid gallium natural convection loop were carried out. The experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of liquid gallium resulting in heat removal {approx}2.53 kW were compared with existing correlations and they were much lower than the correlations. To comparison of the experimental data with computer code analysis, gallium property code was developed for employing MARS-LMR (Korea version of RELAP) based on liquid gallium as working fluid. (authors)

  20. Electron transport in zinc-blende wurtzite biphasic gallium nitride nanowires and GaNFETs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ayres, Virginia M.; Stallcup, Richard E.; Hartman, Alan; Tupta, Mary Ann; Baczewski, Andrew David; Crimp, Martin A.; Halpern, Joshua B.; He, Maoqi; Shaw, Harry C.

    2007-10-19

    Two-point and four-point probe electrical measurements of a biphasic gallium nitride nanowire and current–voltage characteristics of a gallium nitride nanowire based field effect transistor are reported. The biphasic gallium nitride nanowires have a crystalline homostructure consisting of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases that grow simultaneously in the longitudinal direction. There is a sharp transition of one to a few atomic layers between each phase. Here, all measurements showed high current densities. Evidence of single-phase current transport in the biphasic nanowire structure is discussed.

  1. HIGH-QUALITY, LOW-COST BULK GALLIUM NITRIDE SUBSTRATES GROWN...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient manufacturing of gallium nitride (GaN) could reduce the cost of and improve the output for light-emitting diodes, solid-state lighting, laser displays, and other power ...

  2. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wampler, William R.; Modine, Normand A.

    2015-08-01

    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  3. Method for enhancing the solubility of boron and indium in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadigh, Babak; Lenosky, Thomas J.; Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas; Giles, Martin; Caturla, Maria-Jose; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Theiss, Silva; Foad, Majeed; Quong, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A method for enhancing the equilibrium solubility of boron and indium in silicon. The method involves first-principles quantum mechanical calculations to determine the temperature dependence of the equilibrium solubility of two important p-type dopants in silicon, namely boron and indium, under various strain conditions. The equilibrium thermodynamic solubility of size-mismatched impurities, such as boron and indium in silicon, can be raised significantly if the silicon substrate is strained appropriately. For example, for boron, a 1% compressive strain raises the equilibrium solubility by 100% at 1100.degree. C.; and for indium, a 1% tensile strain at 1100.degree. C., corresponds to an enhancement of the solubility by 200%.

  4. Commercialization of High Efficiency Low Cost CIGS Technology Based on Electroplating: Final Technical Progress Report, 28 September 2007 - 30 June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basol, B.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes SoloPower's work as a Photovoltaic Technology Incubator awardee within the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program. The term of this subcontract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was two years. The project focused on SoloPower's electrodeposition-based copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) technology. Under this subcontract, SoloPower improved the quality of its flexible metal substrates, increased the size of its solar cells from 0.5 cm2 to 120 cm2, increased the small-area cell efficiencies from near 11% to near 14%, demonstrated large-area cells, and developed a module manufacturing process.

  5. Exploration of Novel Reaction Pathway for Formation of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-03-121

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2014-11-01

    The investigation will explore a potentially low-cost method of forming CIGS for use in solar cells. Investigators from HelioVolt will work in NREL laboratories to modify and apply our tools in fabrication of the CIGS layer. Investigators from NREL will assist in preparing substrates and in compleing solar cells composed of these CIGS layers to evaluate the effectiveness of the HelioVolt processes.

  6. Spin-phonon coupling in scandium doped gallium ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Keka R. E-mail: smyusuf@barc.gov.in; Mukadam, M. D.; Basu, S.; Yusuf, S. M. E-mail: smyusuf@barc.gov.in; Paul, Barnita; Roy, Anushree; Grover, Vinita; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-03-28

    We embarked on a study of Scandium (Sc) doped (onto Ga site) gallium ferrite (GaFeO{sub 3}) and found remarkable magnetic properties. In both doped as well as parent compounds, there were three types of Fe{sup 3+} ions (depending on the symmetry) with the structure conforming to space group Pna2{sub 1} (Sp. Grp. No. 33) below room temperature down to 5?K. We also found that all Fe{sup 3+} ions occupy octahedral sites, and carry high spin moment. For the higher Sc substituted sample (Ga{sub 1?x}Sc{sub x}FeO{sub 3}: x?=?0.3), a canted magnetic ordered state is found. Spin-phonon coupling below Nel temperature was observed in doped compounds. Our results indicated that Sc doping in octahedral site modifies spin-phonon interactions of the parent compound. The spin-phonon coupling strength was estimated for the first time in these Sc substituted compounds.

  7. Optical properties and plasmonic response of silver-gallium nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lereu, Aude; Lemarchand, F.; Zerrad, M.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Passian, Ali

    2015-02-12

    Silver and gallium form an alloy Ag2Ga via a room temperature spontaneous self-assembly that exhibits remarkable mechanical and electrical properties [1] suitable for nanoscale measurements [2]. However, whether photon excitation of plasmons in this emerging nanomaterial is retained or not has not been established. Here, we present a thin lm formation of Ag2Ga via a spreading- reactive process of liquid Ga on an Ag lm and a characterization of its dielectric function (E) = 1(E) - i 2(E) in the photon energy range 1.42 eV E <4.2 eV. It is observed that while the plasmon damping increases, near an energymore » of 3.4 eV, the real part of exhibits a crossing with respect to that of Ag. Furthermore, the impact of new plasmon supporting materials [3] is discussed and in order to enable further applications in plasmonics, the possibility of photon excitation of surface plasmons in Ag2Ga is studied.« less

  8. Deposition of metallic gallium on re-crystallized ceramic material during focused ion beam milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muoz-Tabares, J.A.; Reyes-Gasga, J.

    2013-12-15

    We report a new kind of artifact observed in the preparation of a TEM sample of zirconia by FIB, which consists in the deposition of metallic gallium nano-dots on the TEM sample surface. High resolution TEM images showed a microstructure of fine equiaxed grains of ? 5 nm, with some of them possessing two particular characteristics: high contrast and well-defined fast Fourier transform. These grains could not be identified as any phase of zirconia but it was possible to identify them as gallium crystals in the zone axis [110]. Based on HRTEM simulations, the possible orientations between zirconia substrate and deposited gallium are discussed in terms of lattice mismatch and oxygen affinity. - Highlights: We show a new type of artifact induced during preparation of TEM samples by FIB. Deposition of Ga occurs due to its high affinity for oxygen. Materials with small grain size (? 5 nm) could promote Ga deposition. Small grain size permits the elastic accommodation of deposited Ga.

  9. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofstetter, Markus; Howgate, John; Schmid, Martin; Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Adiguezel, Denis; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D.; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gallium nitride based sensors show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell growth experiments reveal excellent biocompatibiltiy of the host GaN material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA repair is utilized to evaluate material induced alterations in the cellular behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GaN shows no bio-functional influence on the cellular environment. -- Abstract: There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth

  10. Results of the Gallium-Clad Phase 3 and Phase 4 tasks (canceled prior to completion)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, R.N.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Gallium-Clad interactions Phase 3 and 4 tasks. Both tasks were to involve examining the out-of-pile stability of residual gallium in short fuel rods with an imposed thermal gradient. The thermal environment was to be created by an electrical heater in the center of the fuel rod and coolant flow on the rod outer cladding. Both tasks were canceled due to difficulties with fuel pellet fabrication, delays in the preparation of the test apparatus, and changes in the Fissile Materials Disposition program budget.

  11. Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seager, C.H.; Evans, J.T. Jr.

    1998-11-24

    A method is described for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100 C and 300 C for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer. 1 fig.

  12. Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seager, Carleton H.; Evans, Jr., Joseph Tate

    1998-01-01

    A method for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100.degree. C. and 300.degree. C. for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer.

  13. Revealing the Preferred Interlayer Orientations and Stackings...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Revealing the Preferred Interlayer Orientations and Stackings of Two-Dimensional Bilayer Gallium Selenide Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Revealing the ...

  14. Tunable morphologies of indium tin oxide nanostructures using nanocellulose templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aytug, Tolga; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Ozcan, Soydan; Lu, Yuan; Poole, II, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures have emerged as an important family of materials for various device applications. The performance is highly dependent on the morphology of the metal oxide nanostructures. Here we report a completely green approach to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles using only water and cellulose nanofibril (CNF) in addition to the ITO precursor. Surface hydroxyl groups of the CNFs allow for efficient conjugation of ITO precursors (e.g., metal ions) in aqueous solution. The resulting CNF film allows for controllable spatial arrangement of metal oxide precursors, which results in tunable particle morphology (e.g., nanowires, nanospheres, and octahedral nanoparticles). These ITO nanoparticles can also form conductive and transparent ITO films. This study opens a new perspective on developing metal oxide nanostructures.

  15. Tunable morphologies of indium tin oxide nanostructures using nanocellulose templates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aytug, Tolga; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Ozcan, Soydan; Lu, Yuan; Poole, II, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures have emerged as an important family of materials for various device applications. The performance is highly dependent on the morphology of the metal oxide nanostructures. Here we report a completely green approach to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles using only water and cellulose nanofibril (CNF) in addition to the ITO precursor. Surface hydroxyl groups of the CNFs allow for efficient conjugation of ITO precursors (e.g., metal ions) in aqueous solution. The resulting CNF film allows for controllable spatial arrangement of metal oxide precursors, which results in tunable particle morphology (e.g., nanowires, nanospheres, and octahedral nanoparticles). Thesemore » ITO nanoparticles can also form conductive and transparent ITO films. This study opens a new perspective on developing metal oxide nanostructures.« less

  16. Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolaenko, Y. M.; Kuzovlev, Y. E.; Medvedev, Y. V.; Mezin, N. I.; Fasel, C.; Gurlo, A.; Schlicker, L.; Bayer, T. J. M.; Genenko, Y. A.

    2014-07-28

    Solid state synthesis and physical mechanisms of electrical conductivity variation in polycrystalline, strontium doped indium oxide In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(SrO){sub x} were investigated for materials with different doping levels at different temperatures (T?=?20300?C) and ambient atmosphere content including humidity and low pressure. Gas sensing ability of these compounds as well as the sample resistance appeared to increase by 4 and 8 orders of the magnitude, respectively, with the doping level increase from zero up to x?=?10%. The conductance variation due to doping is explained by two mechanisms: acceptor-like electrical activity of Sr as a point defect and appearance of an additional phase of SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. An unusual property of high level (x?=?10%) doped samples is a possibility of extraordinarily large and fast oxygen exchange with ambient atmosphere at not very high temperatures (100200?C). This peculiarity is explained by friable structure of crystallite surface. Friable structure provides relatively fast transition of samples from high to low resistive state at the expense of high conductance of the near surface layer of the grains. Microscopic study of the electro-diffusion process at the surface of oxygen deficient samples allowed estimation of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies in the friable surface layer at room temperature as 3??10{sup ?13}?cm{sup 2}/s, which is by one order of the magnitude smaller than that known for amorphous indium oxide films.

  17. GreenStone Technologies LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: GreenStone Technologies LLC Place: Wisconsin Zip: 53719 Product: Developing a copper indium hallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technology, also performs custom contract...

  18. Exploring the electronic structure and optical properties of the quaternary selenide compound, Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}: For photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2015-09-15

    Due to huge demand on discovering new materials for energy, we used first-principle calculations to explore the electronic structure and optical properties of a recent quaternary selenide, namely Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}. The electronic structure and the optical properties of Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} were calculated through a reliable approach of Engle Vosko-GGA (EV-GGA). We found that Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} has a direct band gap of 2.14 eV positioned at Γ. Acquiring the fundamental characteristics of Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12,} we studied the linear optical properties like dielectric function in the energy range of 0–14 eV. From the dielectric function we noticed a weak directional anisotropy for the two components. The absorption spectrum indicates the possibility of greater multiple direct and indirect inter-band transitions in the visible regions and shows similar behavior with experimental spectrum. Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} can be used as shielding material from UV radiations. Present study predicts that the Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} is promising for photovoltaic applications due to their high absorption of solar radiations and photoconductivity in the visible range. - Graphical abstract: Interesting quaternary selenide compound, Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}, for photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} is a quaternary selenide designed for PV and thermoelectric. • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} has a direct band gap of 2.14 eV. • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12,} has a maximum reflectivity in the visible and UV regions.

  19. Sandia Demonstrated First-Time, Single-Mode Lasing in Gallium-Nitride

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanowire Lasers Demonstrated First-Time, Single-Mode Lasing in Gallium-Nitride Nanowire Lasers - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  20. Gallium hole traps in irradiated KTiOPO{sub 4}:Ga crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grachev, V.; Meyer, M.; Malovichko, G.; Hunt, A. W.

    2014-12-07

    Nominally pure and gallium doped single crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}) have been studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance at low temperatures before and after irradiation. Irradiation with 20?MeV electrons performed at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature caused an appearance of electrons and holes. Gallium impurities act as hole traps in KTiOPO{sub 4} creating Ga{sup 4+} centers. Two different Ga{sup 4+} centers were observed, Ga1 and Ga2. The Ga1 centers are dominant in Ga-doped samples. For the Ga1 center, a superhyperfine structure with one nucleus with nuclear spin was registered and attributed to the interaction of gallium electrons with a phosphorus nucleus or proton in its surrounding. In both Ga1 and Ga2 centers, Ga{sup 4+} ions substitute for Ti{sup 4+} ions, but with a preference to one of two electrically distinct crystallographic positions (site selective substitution). The Ga doping eliminates one of the shortcomings of KTP crystalsionic conductivity of bulk crystals. However, this does not improve significantly the resistance of the crystals to electron and ?-radiation.

  1. Band gap narrowing in zinc oxide-based semiconductor thin films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ABSORPTION; ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS; BORON COMPOUNDS; CHARGE CARRIERS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; DENSITY; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; ENERGY GAP; GALLIUM COMPOUNDS; INDIUM...

  2. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ABSORPTION; ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS; BORON COMPOUNDS; CHARGE CARRIERS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; DENSITY; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; ENERGY GAP; GALLIUM COMPOUNDS; INDIUM...

  3. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ABSORPTION ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS BORON COMPOUNDS CHARGE CARRIERS CONCENTRATION RATIO DENSITY DOPED MATERIALS ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE ENERGY GAP GALLIUM COMPOUNDS INDIUM COMPOUNDS...

  4. Vapor phase tri-methyl-indium seeding system suitable for high temperature spectroscopy and thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiddon, R.; Zhou, B.; Borggren, J.; Aldén, M.; Li, Z. S.

    2015-09-15

    Tri-methyl-indium (TMI) is used as an indium transport molecule to introduce indium atoms to reactive hot gas flows/combustion environments for spectroscopic diagnostics. A seeding system was constructed to allow the addition of an inert TMI laden carrier gas into an air/fuel mixture burning consequently on a burner. The amount of the seeded TMI in the carrier gas can be readily varied by controlling the vapor pressure through the temperature of the container. The seeding process was calibrated using the fluorescent emission intensity from the indium 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → 5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → 5{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions as a function of the calculated TMI seeding concentration over a range of 2–45 ppm. The response was found to be linear over the range 3–22.5 ppm; at concentrations above 25 ppm there is a loss of linearity attributable to self-absorption or loss of saturation of TMI vapor pressure in the carrier gas flow. When TMI was introduced into a post-combustion environment via an inert carrier gas, molecular transition from InH and InOH radicals were observed in the flame emission spectrum. Combined laser-induced fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy were applied to detect indium atoms in the TMI seeded flame and the measured atomic indium concentration was found to be at the ppm level. This method of seeding organometallic vapor like TMI to a reactive gas flow demonstrates the feasibility for quantitative spectroscopic investigations that may be applicable in various fields, e.g., chemical vapor deposition applications or temperature measurement in flames with two-line atomic fluorescence.

  5. Modification of the crystal structure of gadolinium gallium garnet by helium ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostafiychuk, B. K.; Yaremiy, I. P. Yaremiy, S. I.; Fedoriv, V. D.; Tomyn, U. O.; Umantsiv, M. M.; Fodchuk, I. M.; Kladko, V. P.

    2013-12-15

    The structure of gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) single crystals before and after implantation by He{sup +} ions has been investigated using high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods and the generalized dynamic theory of X-ray scattering. The main types of growth defects in GGG single crystals and radiation-induced defects in the ion-implanted layer have been determined. It is established that the concentration of dislocation loops in the GGG surface layer modified by ion implantation increases and their radius decreases with an increase in the implantation dose.

  6. Dynamics of formation of photoresponse in a detector structure made of gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayzenshtat, G. I., E-mail: ayzen@mail.tomsknet.ru; Lelekov, M. A.; Tolbanov, O. P. [Tomsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-04-15

    The influence of capture effects on the characteristics of detectors of the ionizing radiation based on semi-insulating gallium arsenide is considered. Generation of nonequilibrium electrons and holes along the entire thickness of the active region was performed under illumination with an infrared light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 0.9 {mu}m. In this case, the situation emerging in the device structure under the effect of X-ray radiation or a high-energy electron beam was simulated. It is shown that the variation in the shape of the output signal with time in this case is caused by variation in the electric field profile due to the capture of holes at deep centers in gallium arsenide. An absolutely different distribution of the electric field emerges in the structure under irradiation of a semitransparent cathode of the structure with a red light-emitting diode, emission of which penetrates into the active region for mere 1 {mu}m. In this case, the transformation of the electric field is caused by the capture of electrons. Under the prolonged effect of such radiation, a space-charge-limited current mode emerges in the device.

  7. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Fatih Kilicaslan, M.; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  8. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk. With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.

  9. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk.more » With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.« less

  10. Temperature sensibility of the birefringence properties in side-hole photonic crystal fiber filled with Indium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes-Vera, Erick Gmez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Chesini, Giancarlo; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.; Torres, Pedro

    2014-11-17

    We report on the temperature sensitivity of the birefringence properties of a special kind of photonic crystal fiber containing two side holes filled with Indium metal. The modulation of the fiber birefringence is accomplished through the stress field induced by the expansion of the metal. Although the fiber was made at low gas pressures during the indium infiltration process, the birefringence showed anomalous property at a relatively low temperature value, which is completely different from those reported in conventional-like fibers with two holes filled with metal. By modeling the anisotropic changes induced by the metal expansion to the refractive index within the fiber, we are able to reproduce the experimental results. Our results have practical relevance for the design of devices based on this technology.

  11. Synthesis and Raman spectrum of crystalline indium oxide micro-rods with rectangular cross-section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Kavita Mehta, B. R. Singh, J. P.

    2014-04-24

    Indium oxide (IO) micro-rods with rectangular cross section were synthesized without catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system by carbothermal reduction of indium oxide at 900 °C. The rectangular micro-rods (RMRs) were grown on Si substrate in presence of water vapors and Ar atmosphere. Water was used as oxidizing reagent which controls the In/O stoichiometry in RMRs. The IO RMRs have dimensions of about 20 μm in length and about 1 μm width. The growth process involved in formation of RMRs is vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. Raman analysis was performed to obtain the phonon modes of the RMRs and the peaks of Raman spectrum were indexed to the modes being associated with bcc−In{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  12. Indium diffusion through high-k dielectrics in high-k/InP stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Cabrera, W.; Santosh KC,; Brennan, B.; Qin, X.; McDonnell, S.; Hinkle, C. L.; Cho, K.; Chabal, Y. J.; Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D.; Wallace, R. M.; Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080

    2013-08-05

    Evidence of indium diffusion through high-k dielectric (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) films grown on InP (100) by atomic layer deposition is observed by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The analysis establishes that In-out diffusion occurs and results in the formation of a PO{sub x} rich interface.

  13. Novel solar light driven photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate for photodegradation of aqueous phenol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahapure, Sonali A.; Ambekar, Jalindar D.; Nikam, Latesh K.; Marimuthu, R.; Kulkarni, Milind V.

    2011-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate (ZnIn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 9}) demonstrated and showed an excellent photocatalytic activity for phenol degradation under visible light. Research highlights: {yields} Designing and identification of a photocatalyst having prospective potential application to be used in visible light (400-800 nm). {yields} Successful synthesis of novel ZnIn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 9} by solid state route. {yields} Confirmation of the designed product using characterization techniques. {yields} Application study comprising photodegradation of aqueous phenol at visible light despite of UV radiations. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, we have demonstrated the synthesis of novel photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate (ZIV) by solid-solid state route using respective oxides of zinc, indium and vanadium. This novel photocatalyst was characterized using XRD, FESEM, UV-DRS and FTIR in order to investigate its structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD clearly shows the formation of phase pure ZIV of triclinic crystal structure with good crystallinity. FESEM micrographs showed the clustered morphology having particle size between 0.5 and 1 {mu}m. Since, optical study showed the band gap around 2.8 eV, i.e. in visible region, we have performed the photocatalytic activity of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation. The photodecomposition of phenol by ZIV is studied for the first time and an excellent photocatalytic activity was obtained using this novel photocatalyst. Considering the band gap of zinc indium vanadate in visible region, it will also be the potential candidate for water splitting.

  14. Short-range order and dynamics of atoms in liquid gallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokshin, A. V. Khusnutdinoff, R. M.; Novikov, A. G.; Blagoveshchenskii, N. M.; Puchkov, A. V.

    2015-11-15

    The features of the microscopic structure, as well as one-particle and collective dynamics of liquid gallium in the temperature range from T = 313 to 1273 K, are studied on the p = 1.0 atm isobar. Detailed analysis of the data on diffraction of neutrons and X-rays, as well as the results of atomic dynamics simulation, lead to some conclusions about the structure. In particular, for preset conditions, gallium is in the equilibrium liquid phase showing no features of any stable local crystalline clusters. The pronounced asymmetry of the principle peak of the static structure factor and the characteristic “shoulder” in its right-hand part appearing at temperatures close to the melting point, which are clearly observed in the diffraction data, are due to the fact that the arrangement of the nearest neighbors of an arbitrary atom in the system is estimated statistically from the range of correlation length values and not by a single value as in the case of simple liquids. Compactly located dimers with a very short bond make a significant contribution to the statistics of nearest neighbors. The temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient calculated from atomic dynamics simulation agrees well with the results obtained from experimental spectra of the incoherent scattering function. Interpolation of the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient on a logarithmic scale reveals two linear regions with a transition temperature of about 600 K. The spectra of the dynamic structure factor and spectral densities of the local current calculated by simulating the atomic dynamics indicate the existence of acoustic vibrations with longitudinal and transverse polarizations in liquid gallium, which is confirmed by experimental data on inelastic scattering of neutrons and X-rays. It is found that the vibrational density of states is completely reproduced by the generalized Debye model, which makes it possible to decompose the total vibrational motion into

  15. Structure and electrical characterization of gallium arsenide nanowires with different V/III ratio growth parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhammad, R.; Ahamad, R.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2014-03-05

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires were grown vertically on GaAs(111)B substrate by gold-assisted using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conductivity atomic force microscopy (CAFM) analysis were carried out to investigate the effects of V/III ratio on structural properties and current-voltage changes in the wires. Results show that GaAs NWs grow preferably in the wurtzite crystal structure than zinc blende crystal structure with increasing V/III ratio. Additionally, CAFM studies have revealed that zincblende nanowires indicate ohmic characteristic compared to oscillation current occurred for wurtzite structures. The GaAs NWs with high quality structures are needed in solar cells technology for trapping energy that directly converts of sunlight into electricity with maximum capacity.

  16. Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

  17. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-06-01

    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  18. Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ{sub zxx}{sup (2)}, χ{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.

  19. Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imtiaz, Atif; Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel; Weber, Joel C.; Coakley, Kevin J.

    2014-06-30

    We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ?}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ?}? effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ?} images.

  20. Crystal and electronic structures of two new iron selenides: Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10} and BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berthebaud, David; Perez, Olivier; Tobola, Janusz; Pelloquin, Denis; Maignan, Antoine

    2015-10-15

    The new ternary selenides, Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10} and BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4,} were synthesized from a reaction of appropriate amounts of elements at high temperature in a silica sealed tube, and their structures were resolved using X-ray single crystal diffraction. BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4} crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4/m with a=8.008(9) Å and c=5.483(3) Å as cell parameters. It is a new compound with a structure isotypical to the sulfide BaFe{sub 2}S{sub 4} which belongs to the infinitely adaptive structures series Ba{sub 1+x}Fe{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The second compound, Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10}, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n with a=8.8593(1) Å, b=8.8073(1) Å, c=12.2724(1) Å and β=109.037(6)° as cell parameters. It exhibits an original structure with a new type of iron selenide polyhedra. These data were consistent with the powder X-ray diffraction and TEM analyses. Their electronic structures point towards metallicity and electronic correlations for both selenides. - Graphical abstract: Experimental [010] oriented ED pattern and corresponding HREM image of Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10}. Image calculated with a focus and thickness to 15nm and 8 nm respectively is inserted. Bright contrasts are correlated to Se rows belonging to FeSe{sub 3}(Se{sub 2}){sup 2−}–FeSe{sub 6}–FeSe{sub 3}(Se{sub 2}){sup 2−} trimers. The corresponding structure projection is also shown. - Highlights: • Two new barium iron selenide compounds. • An original structure type Ba4Fe3Se10. • Electronic structure calculations.

  1. I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell utilizing the structure CuInGaSe.sub.2 CdZnS/ZnO

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S.; Stewart, John M.

    1992-01-07

    A thin film I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell having a first layer of copper indium gallium selenide, a second layer of cadmium zinc sulfide, a double layer of zinc oxide, and a metallization structure comprised of a layer of nickel covered by a layer of aluminum. An optional antireflective coating may be placed on said metallization structure. The cadmium zinc sulfide layer is deposited by means of an aqueous solution growth deposition process and may actually consist of two layers: a low zinc content layer and a high zinc content layer. Photovoltaic efficiencies of 12.5% at Air Mass 1.5 illumination conditions and 10.4% under AMO illumination can be achieved.

  2. PROJECT PROFILE: From Modules to Atoms: Increasing Reliability/Stability of Commercially Relevant Photovoltaic Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While there are statistical studies and macroscopic descriptions of module-level degradation, there is a lack of understanding of the structural, chemical, and electrical properties at the microscopic scale of how these processes occur and how to reduce or eliminate them. The project will study reliability-related defects in major photovoltaic (PV) technologies that include silicon (Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS). Researchers will use imaging and microscopy characterization tools along with multi-physics modeling to derive the causes of power-limiting defects that are responsible for potential-induced degradation in Si, metastability and transient degradations in CdTe, and increased degradation due to reverse-bias breakdown in CIGS.

  3. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudin, Sven Peter

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  4. Real-time x-ray studies of indium island growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demasi, Alexander; Rainville, Meliha G.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have investigated the early stages of indium island formation and growth by vapor phase deposition on room temperature sapphire using real-time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), followed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results are consistent with the formation and coalescence of hemispherical islands, as described by Family and Meakin. Monte Carlo simulations of systems of coalescing islands were used to supplement and quantify the results of GISAXS, and a good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations.

  5. Waste reduction options for manufacturers of copper indium diselenide photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper identifies general waste reduction concepts and specific waste reduction options to be used in the production of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic cells. A general discussion of manufacturing processes used for the production of photovoltaic cells is followed by a description of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for waste reduction (i.e., waste minimization through pollution prevention). A more specific discussion of manufacturing CIS cells is accompanied by detailed suggestions regarding waste minimization options for both inputs and outputs for ten stages of this process. Waste reduction from inputs focuses on source reduction and process changes, and reduction from outputs focuses on material reuse and recycling.

  6. Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chan-Shan; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Pan, Ru-Pin; Yu, Peichen; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-04-07

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding ?/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ?517??m-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (?78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66?V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

  7. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2?ms-3?kW-2.45?GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  8. Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu; Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin; Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30?V to 0.55?V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

  9. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaki, Sunil H. Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  10. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2014-02-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  11. Preparation of CIGS-based solar cells using a buffered electrodeposition bath

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath

    2007-11-20

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of at least 9.0% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide thin film. The thin film is prepared by simultaneously electroplating copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a substrate using a buffered electro-deposition bath. The electrodeposition is followed by adding indium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film.

  12. Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-15

    The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 {epsilon}/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1} on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

  13. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Teslich, N. E.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U₈₆Ga₁₄, (UC)₇₀Ga₃₀ and U₈₁Cs₉, (UC)₇₉Cs₂₁, respectively.

  14. Indium oxide thin film as potential photoanodes for corrosion protection of stainless steel under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jianqiang; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Yukun; Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: If the conduction band potential of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more negative than the corrosion potential of stainless steel, photo-induced electrons will be transferred from In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the steel, thus shifting the potential of the steel into a corrosion immunity region and preventing the steel from the corrosion. - Highlights: • Indium oxide performed novel application under visible light. • Indium oxide by sol–gel method behaved better photoelectrochemical properties. • Electrons were transferred to stainless steel from indium oxide once light on. - Abstract: This paper reports the photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-film under visible-light. The films were fabricated with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, synthesized by both sol–gel (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg) and solid-state (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss) processes. The photo-induced open circuit potential and the photo-to-current efficiency measurements suggested that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be a promising candidate material for photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of metallic alloys under visible light. Moreover, the polarization curve experimental results indicated that In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film can mitigate the corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel to much more negative values with a higher photocurrent density than the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss film under visible-light illumination. All the results demonstrated that the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film provides a better photoelectrochemical cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel than In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss thin-film under visible-light illumination. The higher photoelectrochemical efficiency is possibly due to the uniform thin films produced with the smaller particle size of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg, which facilitates the transfer of the photo-induced electrons from bulk to the surface and suppresses the charge recombination of the electrons and holes.

  15. Phosphonic Acid Functionalized Asymmetric Phthalocyanines: Synthesis, Modification of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), and Charge Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polaske, Nathan W.; Lin, Hsiao-Chu; Tang, Anna; Mayukh, Mayank; Oquendo, Luis E.; Green, John; Ratcliff, Erin L.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Saavedra, S. Scott; McGrath, Dominic V.

    2011-12-20

    Metalated and free-base A?B-type asymmetric phthalocyanines (Pcs) bearing, in the asymmetric quadrant, a flexible alkyl linker of varying chain lengths terminating in a phosphonic acid (PA) group have been synthesized. Two parallel series of asymmetric Pc derivatives bearing aryloxy and arylthio substituents are reported, and their synthesis and characterization through NMR, combustion analysis, and MALDI-MS are described. We also demonstrate the modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the PA functionalized asymmetric Pc derivatives and monitoring their electrochemistry. The PA functionalized asymmetric Pcs were anchored to the ITO surface through chemisorption and their electrochemical properties characterized using cyclic voltammetry to investigate the effects of PA structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of charge transfer. Ionization energies of the modified ITO surfaces were measured using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy.

  16. Indium tin oxide nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for near-field radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta Wang, Liping

    2015-02-07

    We investigate near-field radiative heat transfer between Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowire arrays which behave as type 1 and 2 hyperbolic metamaterials. Using spatial dispersion dependent effective medium theory to model the dielectric function of the nanowires, the impact of filling fraction on the heat transfer is analyzed. Depending on the filling fraction, it is possible to achieve both types of hyperbolic modes. At 150?nm vacuum gap, the heat transfer between the nanowires with 0.5 filling fraction can be 11 times higher than that between two bulk ITOs. For vacuum gaps less than 150?nm the heat transfer increases as the filling fraction decreases. Results obtained from this study will facilitate applications of ITO nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for energy systems.

  17. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, Andr

    2012-11-26

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). In this study, it is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 x 10-5 ?cm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80% from 500-1250 nm (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.

  18. Optimisation of the material properties of indium tin oxide layers for use in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doggart, P.; Bristow, N.; Kettle, J.

    2014-09-14

    The influence of indium tin oxide [(In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn), ITO] material properties on the output performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has been modelled and investigated. In particular, the effect of altering carrier concentration (n), thickness (t), and mobility (?{sub e}) in ITO films and their impact on the optical performance, parasitic resistances and overall efficiency in OPVs was studied. This enables optimal values of these parameters to be calculated for solar cells made with P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM and PCPDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM active layers. The optimal values of n, t and ?{sub e} are not constant between different OPV active layers and depend on the absorption spectrum of the underlying active layer material system. Consequently, design rules for these optimal values as a function of donor bandgap in bulk-heterojunction active layers have been formulated.

  19. Ferromagnetism of manganese-doped indium tin oxide films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Toshihiro; Isozaki, Shinichi; Tanabe, Kohei; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2009-04-01

    Mn-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The magnetic, electrical, and optical properties of the films deposited on PEN substrates were investigated by comparing with the properties of films grown on glass substrates at the same growth conditions. Thin films on PEN substrates exhibited low electrical resistivity of the order of 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and high optical transmittance between 75% and 90% in the visible region. Ferromagnetic hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature for the samples grown on PEN substrates. Mn-doped ITO films can be one of the most promising candidates of transparent ferromagnetic materials for flexible spintronic devices.

  20. Effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J.

    1990-12-01

    Metallorganic chemical-vapor-deposited heteroepitaxial indium phosphide (InP) solar cell experimental results were simulated by using a PC-1D computer model. The effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of n(+)/p/p(+) heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs solar cell was presented. The thinner and lighter doped emitters were observed to offer higher cell efficiencies. The influence of emitter thickness and minority carrier diffusion length on the cell efficiency with respect to dislocation density was studied. Heteroepitaxial cells with efficiencies similar to present day homojunction InP efficiencies (greater than 16 percent AMO) were shown to be attainable if a dislocation density lower than 10(exp 6)/sq cm could be achieved. A realistic optimized design study yielded InP solar cells of over 22 percent AMO efficiency at 25 C.

  1. Defect structure of indium tin oxide and its relationship to conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, G. B.; Cohen, J. B.; Hwang, J.-H.; Mason, T. O.; Hodges, J. P.; Jorgensen, J. D.

    2000-05-09

    Doping In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with tin results in an improved transparent conducting oxide (TCO). Although indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most frequently used commercial TCO, its defect structure is still uncertain. Previously, its defect chemistry has been inferred based on the conductivity of the material. To directly study the defect structure of ITO, the authors prepared powders under different processing environments and performed neutron powder diffraction. Structural information was obtained by performing Rietveld analysis. The results include positions of the atoms, their thermal displacements, the fractional occupancy of the defect oxygen site, and the fractional occupancies of Sn on each of the two nonequivalent cation sites, showing a strong preference for the b site. These structural results are correlated with the measured electrical properties of the same samples.

  2. ZnO:H indium-free transparent conductive electrodes for active-matrix display applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shuming Wang, Sisi

    2014-12-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes based on hydrogen (H)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been proposed for active-matrix (AM) display applications. When fabricated with optimal H plasma power and optimal plasma treatment time, the resulting ZnO:H films exhibit low sheet resistance of 200 Ω/◻ and high average transmission of 85% at a film thickness of 150 nm. The demonstrated transparent conductive ZnO:H films can potentially replace indium-tin-oxide and serve as pixel electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes as well as source/drain electrodes for ZnO-based thin-film transistors. Use of the proposed ZnO:H electrodes means that two photomask stages can be removed from the fabrication process flow for ZnO-based AM backplanes.

  3. Shear strain mediated magneto-electric effects in composites of piezoelectric lanthanum gallium silicate or tantalate and ferromagnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreenivasulu, G.; Piskulich, E.; Srinivasan, G.; Qu, P.; Qu, Hongwei; Petrov, V. M.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Nosov, A. P.

    2014-07-21

    Shear strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) coupling is studied in composites of piezoelectric Y-cut lanthanum gallium silicate (LGS) or tantalate (LGT) and ferromagnetic Fe-Co-V alloys. It is shown that extensional strain does not result in ME effects in these layered composites. Under shear strain generated by an ac and dc bias magnetic fields along the length and width of the sample, respectively, strong ME coupling is measured at low-frequencies and at mechanical resonance. A model is discussed for the ME effects. These composites of Y-cut piezoelectrics and ferromagnetic alloys are of importance for shear strain based magnetic field sensors.

  4. Indium out-diffusion in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs stacks during anneal at different ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, Igor; Winter, Roy; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2014-06-16

    Indium out-diffusion during anneal enhances leakage currents in metal/dielectric/InGaAs gate stacks. In this work, we study the influence of ambient conditions during anneal on indium out-diffusion in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs structures, prior to the gate metal deposition. Using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry, we observed much lower indium concentrations in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer following vacuum and O{sub 2} anneals compared to forming gas or nitrogen anneals. The electrical characteristics of the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stack following these pre-metallization anneals as well as after subsequent post metallization anneals are presented. Possible explanations for the role of the annealing ambient conditions on indium out-diffusion are presented.

  5. Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg-doped GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, Erin C. H. Kaun, Stephen W.; Young, Erin C.; Speck, James S.

    2015-06-01

    We have examined the effect of an indium surfactant on the growth of p-type GaN by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. p-type GaN was grown at temperatures ranging from 700 to 780 °C with and without an indium surfactant. The Mg concentration in all films in this study was 4.5–6 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. All p-type GaN films grown with an indium surfactant had higher p-type conductivities and higher hole concentrations than similar films grown without an indium surfactant. The lowest p-type GaN room temperature resistivity was 0.59 Ω-cm, and the highest room temperature carrier concentration was 1.6 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. Fits of the temperature-dependent carrier concentration data showed a one to two order of magnitude lower unintentional compensating defect concentration in samples grown with the indium surfactant. Samples grown at higher temperature had a lower active acceptor concentration. Improvements in band-edge luminescence were seen by cathodoluminescence for samples grown with the indium surfactant, confirming the trends seen in the Hall data.

  6. Effect of temperature and rare-earth doping on charge-carrier mobility in indium-monoselenide crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdinov, A. Sh.; Babayeva, R. F.; Amirova, S. I.; Rzayev, R. M.

    2013-08-15

    In the temperature range T = 77-600 K, the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility ({mu}) on the initial dark resistivity is experimentally investigated at 77 K ({rho}d{sub 0}), as well as on the temperature and the level (N) of rare-earth doping with such elements as gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), and dysprosium (Dy) in n-type indium-monoselenide (InSe) crystals. It is established that the anomalous behavior of the dependences {mu}(T), {mu}({rho}d{sub 0}), and {mu}(N) found from the viewpoint of the theory of charge-carrier mobility in crystalline semiconductors is related, first of all, to partial disorder in indium-monoselenide crystals and can be attributed to the presence of random drift barriers in the free energy bands.

  7. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Standards Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current standards lack specifics on how to precondition cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) modules so that when tested for reporting conditions, ...

  8. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transport and formation of ore deposits with strategic importance such as rare earth elements (REE), beryllium, cobalt, gallium, indium, and telluride deposits, etc., which ...

  9. Summer 2011 Intern Project- Jonathan Waltman | Center for Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High efficiency solar cells require multiple junctions optimized for different wavelengths, and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) has the potential to further improve the efficiency ...

  10. Solibro AB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sweden Zip: 751 21 Sector: Solar Product: Develops thin film solar cells using copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). References: Solibro AB1 This article is a stub....

  11. Johanna Solar Technology GmbH JST | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Havel, Brandenburg, Germany Zip: D-14772 Sector: Solar Product: German manufacturer of copper-indium-gallium-sulphide-selenium (CIGSSe) thin-film solar modules. References: Johanna...

  12. Understanding Drooping Light Emitting Diodes CEEM | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Understanding "droop" may result in cheaper, more efficient LEDs; LEDs are more energy ... indium in Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) green LEDs caused a decrease in light intensity. ...

  13. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, André

    2012-11-26

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). In this study, it is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 x 10-5 Ωcm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80% from 500-1250 nmmore » (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.« less

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Dec. 10, 2013-Solar cells made with low-cost, nontoxic copper- based ... These dots are based on copper indium selenide sulfide and are rigorously optimized to ...

  15. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, Joshua R. Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-11-09

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. An experiment to test the viability of a gallium-arsenide cathode in a SRF electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Wu, Q.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

    2009-05-04

    Strained gallium arsenide cathodes are used in electron guns for the production of polarized electrons. In order to have a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode the vacuum in the gun must be 10{sup -11} Torr or better, so that the cathode is not destroyed by ion back bombardment or through contamination with residual gases. All successful polarized guns are DC guns, because such vacuum levels can not be obtained in normal conducting RF guns. A superconductive RF gun may provide a sufficient vacuum level due to cryo-pumping of the cavity walls. We report on the progress of our experiment to test such a gun with normal GaAs-Cs crystals.

  17. Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

  18. The n-type conduction of indium-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films fabricated by direct current magnetron co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Xing-Min; Su, Xiao-Qiang; Ye, Fan Wang, Huan; Tian, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Ping; Luo, Jing-Ting; Zheng, Zhuang-Hao; Liang, Guang-Xing; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-08-24

    Indium-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films were fabricated on K9 glass substrates by direct current magnetron co-sputtering in an atmosphere of Ar and O{sub 2}. Metallic copper and indium disks were used as the targets. X-ray diffraction showed that the diffraction peaks could only be indexed to simple cubic Cu{sub 2}O, with no other phases detected. Indium atoms exist as In{sup 3+} in Cu{sub 2}O. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed that the transmittance of the samples was relatively high and that indium doping increased the optical band gaps. The Hall effect measurement showed that the samples were n-type semiconductors at room temperature. The Seebeck effect test showed that the films were n-type semiconductors near or over room temperature (<400 K), changing to p-type at relatively high temperatures. The conduction by the samples in the temperature range of the n-type was due to thermal band conduction and the donor energy level was estimated to be 620.2–713.8 meV below the conduction band. The theoretical calculation showed that indium doping can raise the Fermi energy level of Cu{sub 2}O and, therefore, lead to n-type conduction.

  19. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki; Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In

    2014-09-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8 nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}, comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10 nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs.

  20. Recommended method for indium-111 platelet survival studies. International Committee for Standardization in Hematology. Panel on Diagnostic Applications of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    Radioactive indium (/sup 111/In) has been introduced as an alternative to /sup 51/Cr as a platelet label because of its shorter half-life, higher photon yield and greater affinity for platelets. Furthermore, platelet labelling with /sup 111/In is possible at lower platelet counts than with /sup 51/Cr. In healthy individuals, the kinetics of simultaneously injected /sup 111/In-labeled and /sup 51/Cr-labeled platelets are similar. The document describes the technical and analytic aspects of platelet survival determination with /sup 111/In-labeled platelets and is intended to supplement the previously published recommendations for platelet survival studies.

  1. Low Temperature, Self-nucleated Growth of Indium Tin Oxide Nanostructures by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, S. S.; Lee, W. K.; Kee, Y. Y.; Wong, H. Y.; Tou, T. Y.

    2011-03-30

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanostructures were successfully deposited on glass substrate by pulsed laser ablation in argon gas at 250 deg. C. Microstructural changes were observed in the argon gas pressure between 30 to 50 mTorr. The as-grown, nanostructured ITO exhibit In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bixbyite structure orientated at <111> direction. At the initial stage of growth, there was a large number of nucleation sites detected which eventually evolved into needle-like branches. The presence of spheres at the tip of these branches indicates that these nanostructured ITO were likely governed by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism.

  2. Rare-earth transition-metal gallium chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} (M=Fe, Co, Ni; Ch=S, Se)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudyk, Brent W.; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Oliynyk, Anton O.; Mar, Arthur

    2014-02-15

    Six series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} (M=Fe, Co, Ni; Ch=S, Se), comprising 33 compounds in total, have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1050 °C (for the sulphides) or 900 °C (for the selenides). They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (ordered Ce{sub 3}Al{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}-type, space group P6{sub 3}, Z=2) with cell parameters in the ranges of a=9.5–10.2 Å and c=6.0–6.1 Å for the sulphides and a=10.0–10.5 Å and c=6.3–6.4 Å for the selenides as refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Single-crystal structures were determined for five members of the sulphide series RE{sub 3}FeGaS{sub 7} (RE=La, Pr, Tb) and RE{sub 3}CoGaS{sub 7} (RE=La, Tb). The highly anisotropic crystal structures consist of one-dimensional chains of M-centred face-sharing octahedra and stacks of Ga-centred tetrahedra all pointing in the same direction. Magnetic measurements on the sulphides reveal paramagnetic behaviour in some cases and long-range antiferromagnetic behaviour with low Néel temperatures (15 K or lower) in others. Ga L-edge XANES spectra support the presence of highly cationic Ga tetrahedral centres with a tendency towards more covalent Ga–Ch character on proceeding from the sulphides to the selenides. Band structure calculations on La{sub 3}FeGaS{sub 7} indicate that the electronic structure is dominated by Fe 3d-based states near the Fermi level. - Graphical abstract: The series of chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7}, which form for a wide range of rare-earth and transition metals (M=Fe, Co, Ni), adopt highly anisotropic structures containing chains of M-centred octahedra and stacks of Ga-centred tetrahedra. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Six series (comprising 33 compounds) of chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} were prepared. • They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures with high anisotropy. • Most compounds are paramagnetic; some show antiferromagnetic ordering. • Ga L

  3. (Ion beam deposition of epitaxial germanium and gallium arsenide layers): Foreign trip report, June 2, 1989--June 18, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, T.E.

    1989-07-05

    The traveler presented an invited paper entitled ''Ion Beam Deposition of Epitaxial Germanium and Gallium Arsenide Layers'' at the Twelfth Symposium on Ion Sources and Ion-Assisted Technology (ISIAT '89) in Tokyo. During informal conversations at this meeting, the traveler was informed about a new Japanese initiative, sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and an industrial consortium, to establish an Ion Engineering Research Center, whose purpose will be to provide sophisticated equipment and technology base for exploring and developing new applications of ion beam processing. The traveler also visited five Japanese laboratories involved in research on ion-solid interactions. Developments in ionized cluster beam (ICB) deposition were emphasized at ISIAT '89 and during visits to Kyoto University, where the ICB technique was pioneered, and to Mitsubishi Electric's Itami Works, where commercial ICB systems are now being produced. Discussions at Osaka University concentrated on the application of focused ion beams for maskless patterning of submicron devices and on recent studies of one- dimensional quantum effects in semiconductor wires. At Hitachi Research Laboratory, basic research on thin-film growth was described, as well as progress toward the development of a variable frequency RF quadrupole accelerator for ion implantation. Researchers at JAERI outlined programs in characterization and thin-film deposition of superconductors and in materials science studies using high-energy ion beams.

  4. Light-trapping and recycling for extraordinary power conversion in ultra-thin gallium-arsenide solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eyderman, Sergey; John, Sajeev

    2016-06-23

    Here, we demonstrate nearly 30% power conversion efficiency in ultra-thin (~200 nm) gallium arsenide photonic crystal solar cells by numerical solution of the coupled electromagnetic Maxwell and semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. Our architecture enables wave-interference-induced solar light trapping in the wavelength range from 300-865 nm, leading to absorption of almost 90% of incoming sunlight. Our optimized design for 200 nm equivalent bulk thickness of GaAs, is a square-lattice, slanted conical-pore photonic crystal (lattice constant 550 nm, pore diameter 600 nm, and pore depth 290 nm), passivated with AlGaAs, deposited on a silver back-reflector, with ITO upper contact and encapsulated with SiO2.more » Our model includes both radiative and non-radiative recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. When all light from radiative recombination is assumed to escape the structure, a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 27.6 mA/cm2 is obtained from normally incident AM 1.5 sunlight. For a surface non-radiative recombination velocity of 103 cm/s, this corresponds to a solar power conversion efficiency of 28.3%. When all light from radiative recombination is trapped and reabsorbed (complete photon recycling) the power conversion efficiency increases to 29%. If the surface recombination velocity is reduced to 10 cm/sec, photon recycling is much more effective and the power conversion efficiency reaches 30.6%.« less

  5. Observed damage during Argon gas cluster depth profiles of compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, Anders J. Portoles, Jose F.; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2014-08-07

    Argon Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) sources have become very popular in XPS and SIMS in recent years, due to the minimal chemical damage they introduce in the depth-profiling of polymer and other organic materials. These GCIB sources are therefore particularly useful for depth-profiling polymer and organic materials, but also (though more slowly) the surfaces of inorganic materials such as semiconductors, due to the lower roughness expected in cluster ion sputtering compared to that introduced by monatomic ions. We have examined experimentally a set of five compound semiconductors, cadmium telluride (CdTe), gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP), indium arsenide (InAs), and zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a high-? dielectric material, hafnium oxide (HfO), in their response to argon cluster profiling. An experimentally determined HfO etch rate of 0.025?nm/min (3.95??10{sup ?2}?amu/atom in ion) for 6?keV Ar gas clusters is used in the depth scale conversion for the profiles of the semiconductor materials. The assumption has been that, since the damage introduced into polymer materials is low, even though sputter yields are high, then there is little likelihood of damaging inorganic materials at all with cluster ions. This seems true in most cases; however, in this work, we report for the first time that this damage can in fact be very significant in the case of InAs, causing the formation of metallic indium that is readily visible even to the naked eye.

  6. Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (α-Ge)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • In- and Sn-based MIC phenomenon on amorphous (α)-Ge is newly reported. • The In- and Sn-MIC phenomenon respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. • The Sn-MIC process presents higher sheet resistance and bigger crystal grains. - Abstract: In this paper, metal-induced crystallization (MIC) phenomenon on α-Ge by indium (In) and tin (Sn) are thoroughly investigated. In- and Sn-MIC process respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. Compared to the previously reported MIC samples including In-MIC, Sn-MIC process presented higher sheet resistance (similar to that of SPC) and bigger crystal grains above 50 nm (slightly smaller than that of SPC). According to SIMS analysis, Sn atoms diffused more slowly into Ge than In at 400 °C, providing lower density of heterogeneous nuclei induced by metals and consequently larger crystal grains.

  7. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  8. Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

  9. Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyer, Ulf; Hauss, Julian; Riedel, Boris; Gleiss, Sebastian; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2008-11-01

    We describe a cost-efficient and large area scalable production process of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with photonic crystals (PCs) as extraction elements for guided modes. Using laser interference lithography and physical plasma etching, we texture the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode layer of an OLED with one- and two-dimensional PC gratings. By optical transmission measurements, the resonant mode of the grating is shown to have a drift of only 0.4% over the 5 mm length of the ITO grating. By changing the lattice constant between 300 and 600 nm, the OLED emission angle of enhanced light outcoupling is tailored from -24.25 deg. to 37 deg. At these angles, the TE emission is enhanced up to a factor of 2.14.

  10. Enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a silicon nanocrystal light-emitting diode by indium tin oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huh, Chul, E-mail: chuh@etri.re.kr; Kim, Bong Kyu; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeob [IT Convergence Technology Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chel-Jong [Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-21

    We report an enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a Si nanocrystal (NC) light-emitting diode (LED) by employing indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs). The formed ITO NWs (diameter?

  11. Noncentrosymmetric rare-earth copper gallium chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd; Ch=S, Se): An unexpected combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Rudyk, Brent W.; Lin, Xinsong; Singh, Harpreet; Sharma, Arzoo Z.; Wiebe, Christopher R.; Mar, Arthur

    2015-09-15

    The quaternary rare-earth chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaS{sub 7} and RE{sub 3}CuGaSe{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1050 °C and 900 °C, respectively. They crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type structure (hexagonal, space group P6{sub 3}, Z=2) in which the a-parameter is largely controlled by the RE component (a=10.0–10.3 Å for the sulfides and 10.3–10.6 Å for the selenides) whereas the c-parameter is essentially fixed by the choice of Ga and chalcogen atoms within tetrahedral units (c=6.1 Å for the sulfides and 6.4 Å for the selenides). They extend the series RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7}, previously known for divalent metal atoms (M=Mn–Ni), differing in that the Cu atoms in RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} occupy trigonal planar sites instead of octahedral sites. Among quaternary chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MM′Ch{sub 7}, the combination of monovalent (M=Cu) and trivalent (M′=Ga) metals is unusual because it appears to violate the condition of charge balance satisfied by most La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type compounds. The possibility of divalent Cu atoms was ruled out by bond valence sum analysis, magnetic measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electron deficiency in RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} is accommodated through S-based holes at the top of the valence band, as shown by band structure calculations on La{sub 3}CuGaS{sub 7}. An optical band gap of about 2.0 eV was found for La{sub 3}CuGaSe{sub 7}. - Graphical abstract: The chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} contain monovalent Cu in trigonal planes and trivalent Ga in tetrahedra; they are electron-deficient representatives of La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type compounds, which normally satisfy charge balance. - Highlights: • Quaternary chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd; Ch=S, Se) were prepared. • Bond valence sums, magnetism, and XPS data give evidence for monovalent Cu. • Crystal structures reveal high anisotropy of Cu displacement.

  12. Quantification and impact of nonparabolicity of the conduction band of indium tin oxide on its plasmonic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaoge; Park, Junghyun; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Yuan, Hongtao; Cui, Yi; Hwang, Harold Y.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2014-11-03

    Doped indium tin oxide (ITO) behaves as a Drude metal with a plasma frequency that is controlled by its free carrier density. In this work, we systematically tune this frequency across the mid-infrared range by annealing treatments in a reducing environment that produce high electron concentrations (∼10{sup 21 }cm{sup −3}). The changes in ITO's optical properties that result from the changes in carrier density are measured by attenuated total reflection measurements. These optical frequency measurements are complemented by Hall measurements to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Drude response of the ITO films. It was found that a complete description of the optical properties at very high carrier densities needs to account for the nonparabolicity of the conduction band of ITO and a reduced carrier mobility. More specifically, an increase in carrier concentration from 6.2 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} to 1.4 × 10{sup 21 }cm{sup −3} comes with a change of the effective electron mass from 0.35 m{sub 0} to 0.53 m{sub 0} and a decrease in the optical frequency mobility from about 20 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} to 9 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  13. Hydrogen Sensor Based on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Electrolyte and Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Sensing Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, L P; Glass, R S

    2004-03-26

    A solid state electrochemical sensor has been developed for hydrogen leak detection in ambient air. The sensor uses an yttria-stabilized electrolyte with a tin-doped indium oxide sensing electrode and a Pt reference electrode. Excellent sensitivity, and response time of one second or less, are reported for hydrogen gas over the concentration range of 0.03 to 5.5% in air. Cross-sensitivity to relative humidity and to CO{sub 2} are shown to be low. The response to methane, a potentially significant source of interference for such a sensor, is significantly less than that for hydrogen. The sensor shows good reproducibility and was unaffected by thermal cycling over the course of this investigation. The effects of sensing electrode thickness and thermal aging are also reported, and the sensing mechanism is discussed. The sensor is intended for use in vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen internal combustion engines. Those vehicles will use and/or store significant quantities of hydrogen, and will require safety sensor for monitoring potential hydrogen leakage in order to ensure passenger safety.

  14. Superconductivity in epitaxially grown self-assembled indium islands: progress towards hybrid superconductor/semiconductor optical sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gehl, Michael; Gibson, Ricky; Zandbergen, Sander; Keiffer, Patrick; Sears, Jasmine; Khitrova, Galina

    2016-02-01

    Currently, superconducting qubits lead the way in potential candidates for quantum computing. This is a result of the robust nature of superconductivity and the non-linear Josephson effect which make possible many types of qubits. At the same time, transferring quantum information over long distances typically relies on the use of photons as the elementary qubit. Converting between stationary electronic qubits in superconducting systems and traveling photonic qubits is a challenging yet necessary goal for the interface of quantum computing and communication. The most promising path to achieving this goal appears to be the integration of superconductivity with optically active semiconductors,more » with quantum information being transferred between the two by means of the superconducting proximity effect. Obtaining good interfaces between superconductor and semiconductor is the next obvious step for improving these hybrid systems. As a result, we report on our observation of superconductivity in self-assembled indium structures grown epitaxially on the surface of semiconductor material.« less

  15. Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie

    2011-12-01

    Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

  16. Growth of gallium nitride films via the innovative technique of atomic-layer epitaxy. Annual progress report, 1 June 1987-31 May 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.F.; Paisley, M.J.; Sitar, Z.

    1988-06-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap (3.45 eV at 300K) III-V compound semiconductor. The large direct bandgap and high electron-drift velocity of GaN are important properties in the performance of short-wavelength optical devices and high-power microwave devices. Immediate applications that would be greatly enhanced by the availability of GaN and/or Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/N devices include threat warning systems (based on the ultraviolet (UV) emission from the exhaust plumes of missiles) and radar systems (which require high-power microwave generation). Important future applications for devices produced from these materials include blue and ultraviolet semiconductor lasers, blue-light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and high temperature electronic devices. This report discusses this material.

  17. Results from Coupled Optical and Electrical Sentaurus TCAD Models of a Gallium Phosphide on Silicon Electron Carrier Selective Contact Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limpert, Steven; Ghosh, Kunal; Wagner, Hannes; Bowden, Stuart; Honsberg, Christiana; Goodnick, Stephen; Bremner, Stephen; Green, Martin

    2014-06-09

    We report results from coupled optical and electrical Sentaurus TCAD models of a gallium phosphide (GaP) on silicon electron carrier selective contact (CSC) solar cell. Detailed analyses of current and voltage performance are presented for devices having substrate thicknesses of 10 μm, 50 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm, and with GaP/Si interfacial quality ranging from very poor to excellent. Ultimate potential performance was investigated using optical absorption profiles consistent with light trapping schemes of random pyramids with attached and detached rear reflector, and planar with an attached rear reflector. Results indicate Auger-limited open-circuit voltages up to 787 mV and efficiencies up to 26.7% may be possible for front-contacted devices.

  18. Hydrogenated indium oxide window layers for high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jäger, Timo Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Bissig, Benjamin; Pianezzi, Fabian; Fuchs, Peter; Gretener, Christina; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.; Döbeli, Max

    2015-05-28

    High mobility hydrogenated indium oxide is investigated as a transparent contact for thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. Hydrogen doping of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films is achieved by injection of H{sub 2}O water vapor or H{sub 2} gas during the sputter process. As-deposited amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:H films exhibit a high electron mobility of ∼50 cm{sup 2}/Vs at room temperature. A bulk hydrogen concentration of ∼4 at. % was measured for both optimized H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}-processed films, although the H{sub 2}O-derived film exhibits a doping gradient as detected by elastic recoil detection analysis. Amorphous IOH films are implemented as front contacts in CIGS based solar cells, and their performance is compared with the reference ZnO:Al electrodes. The most significant feature of IOH containing devices is an enhanced open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of ∼20 mV regardless of the doping approach, whereas the short circuit current and fill factor remain the same for the H{sub 2}O case or slightly decrease for H{sub 2}. The overall power conversion efficiency is improved from 15.7% to 16.2% by substituting ZnO:Al with IOH (H{sub 2}O) as front contacts. Finally, stability tests of non-encapsulated solar cells in dry air at 80 °C and constant illumination for 500 h demonstrate a higher stability for IOH-containing devices.

  19. SU-E-T-557: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac Devices Irradiated During Proton Therapy Using Indium Foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, S; Christodouleas, J; Delaney, K; Diffenderfer, E; Brown, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac devices Irradiated during Proton Therapy using Indium Foils Methods: The foils had dimensions of 25mm x 25mm x 1mm. After being activated, the foils were placed in a Canberra Industries well chamber utilizing a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The resulting gamma spectrum was acquired and analyzed using Genie 2000 spectroscopy software. One activation foil was placed over the upper, left chest of RANDO where a pacemaker would be. The rest of the foils were placed over the midline of the patient at different distances, providing a spatial distribution over the phantom. Using lasers and BBs to align the patient, 200 MU square fields were delivered to various treatment sites: the brain, the pancreas, and the prostate. Each field was shot at least a day apart, giving more than enough time for activity of the foil to decay (t1=2 = 54.12 min). Results: The net counts (minus background) of the three aforementioned peaks were used for our measurements. These counts were adjusted to account for detector efficiency, relative photon yields from decay, and the natural abundance of 115-In. The average neutron flux for the closed multi-leaf collimator irradiation was measured to be 1.62 x 106 - 0.18 x 106 cm2 s-1. An order of magnitude estimate of the flux for neutrons up to 1 keV from Diffenderfer et al. gives 3 x 106 cm2 s-1 which does agree on the order of magnitude. Conclusion: Lower energy neutrons have higher interaction cross-sections and are more likely to damage pacemakers. The thermal/slow neutron component may be enough to estimate the overall risk. The true test of the applicability of activation foils is whether or not measurements are capable of predicting cardiac device malfunction. For that, additional studies are needed to provide clinical evidence one way or the other.

  20. Neutron diffraction and thermoelectric properties of indium filled In x Co 4 Sb 12 ( x=0.05, 0.2) and indium cerium filled Ce 0.05 In 0.1 Co 4 Sb 12 skutterudites: Neutron diffraction and thermoelectric properties of In/Ce skutterudites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sesselmann, Andreas; Klobes, Benedikt; Dasgupta, Titas; Gourdon, Olivier; Hermann, Raphael; Mueller, Eckhard

    2015-09-25

    The thermoelectric properties on polycrystalline single (In) and double filled (Ce, In) skutterudites are characterized between 300 and 700 K. Powder neutron diffraction measurements of the skutterudite compositions InxCo4Sb12 (x= 0.05, 0.2) and Ce0.05In0.1Co4Sb12 as a function of temperature (12- 300 K) were carried out, which gives more insight into the structural data of single and double-filled skutterudites. Our results show that due to the annealing treatment, a Sb deficiency is detectable and thus verifies defects at the Sb lattice site of the skutterudite. Furthermore, we show by electron microprobe analysis that a considerable amount of indium is lost duringmore » synthesis and post-processing for the single indium filled samples, but not for the double cerium and indium skutterudite sample. The double-filled skutterudite is superior to the single-filled skutterudite composition due to a higher charge carrier density, a comparable lattice thermal resistivity, and a higher density of states effective mass in our experiment. Finally, we obtained a significantly higher Einstein temperature for the double-filled skutterudite composition in comparison to the single-filled species, which reflects the high sensitivity due to filling of the void lattice position within the skutterudite crystal.« less

  1. Plasma-Assisted Coevaporation of S and Se for Wide Band Gap Chalcopyrite Photovoltaics: Phase I Annual Report; December 2001-December 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I.; Wolden, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, ITN Energy Systems (ITN) and lower-tier subcontractor Colorado School of Mines (CSM) explore the replacement of the molecular chalcogen precursors during deposition (e.g., Se2 or H2Se) with more reactive chalcogen monomers or radicals (e.g., Se). Molecular species will be converted to atomic species in a low-pressure inductively coupled plasma. The non-equilibrium environment created by the plasma will allow control over the S/Se ratio in these films. Tasks of the proposed program center on developing and validating monoatomic chalcogen chemistry, tuning of low-pressure monomer chalcogen sources, and evaluating plasma-assisted coevaporation (PACE) for CIGS coevaporation. Likely advantages of deposition by plasma-enhanced coevaporation include: (a)provides potential for lower deposition temperature and/or for better film quality at higher deposition temperature; (b) provide potential for decreased deposition times; (c) provides high material utilization efficiency ({approx}90%) that results in less deposition on other parts of the reactor, leading to lower clean-up and maintenance costs, as well as longer equipment lifetime; (d) high material utilization efficiency also reduces the total operating pressure, which is beneficial for the design and control of metal coevaporation (advantages include minimal metal-vapor beam spread and lower source operating temperatures); (e) enables deposition of wide-bandgap copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide (CIGSS) films with controlled stoichiometry.

  2. Coloration and oxygen vacancies in wide band gap oxide semiconductors: Absorption at metallic nanoparticles induced by vacancy clustering—A case study on indium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, M. Schewski, R.; Irmscher, K.; Galazka, Z.; Markurt, T.; Naumann, M.; Schulz, T.; Uecker, R.; Fornari, R.; Meuret, S.; Kociak, M.

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we show by optical and electron microscopy based investigations that vacancies in oxides may cluster and form metallic nanoparticles that induce coloration by extinction of visible light. Optical extinction in this case is caused by generation of localized surface plasmon resonances at metallic particles embedded in the dielectric matrix. Based on Mie's approach, we are able to fit the absorption due to indium nanoparticles in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to our absorption measurements. The experimentally found particle distribution is in excellent agreement with the one obtained from fitting by Mie theory. Indium particles are formed by precipitation of oxygen vacancies. From basic thermodynamic consideration and assuming theoretically calculated activation energies for vacancy formation and migration, we find that the majority of oxygen vacancies form just below the melting point. Since they are ionized at this temperature they are Coulomb repulsive. Upon cooling, a high supersaturation of oxygen vacancies forms in the crystal that precipitates once the Fermi level crosses the transition energy level from the charged to the neutral charge state. From our considerations we find that the ionization energy of the oxygen vacancy must be higher than 200 meV.

  3. The role of cobalt doping on magnetic and optical properties of indium oxide nanostructured thin film prepared by sol–gel method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baqiah, H.; Ibrahim, N.B.; Halim, S.A.; Flaifel, Moayad Husein; Abdi, M.H.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Cobalt doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared by a sol–gel method. • The films have a thickness less than 100 nm and grain size less than 10 nm. • The lattice parameters and grain size of films decrease as Co content increase. • The optical band gap of films increases as the grain size decrease. • The films' magnetic behaviour is sensitive to ratio of oxygen defects per Co ions. - Abstract: The effect of Co doping concentration, (x = 0.025–0.2), in In{sub 2−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} thin film was investigated by X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). All films were prepared by sol–gel technique followed by spin coating process. The XRD and XPS measurements indicate that Co{sup +2} has been successfully substituted in In{sup +3} site. The TEM measurement shows nanostructure morphology of the films. The doping of Co in indium oxide resulted in a decrease in the lattice parameters and grain size while the band gap increased with increasing Co concentration. Further, by comparing VSM and XPS results, the magnetic behaviour of the films were found to be sensitive to Co concentrations, oxygen vacancies and ratio of oxygen defects to Co concentrations. The magnetic behaviour of the prepared films was explained using bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model.

  4. Summer 2010 Intern Project- Ali Al-Heji | Center for Energy Efficient...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mentor: Robert M. Farrell Faculty Advisor: James S. Speck Department: Materials Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) solar cells show promise for absorbing high-energy photons with ...

  5. Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L. C.

    2010-03-01

    This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

  6. A Mechanistic Study of CO2 Reduction at the Interface of a Gallium Phosphide (GaP) Surface using Core-level Spectroscopy - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, Kristen

    2015-08-19

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission into the atmosphere has increased tremendously through burning of fossil fuels, forestry, etc.. The increased concentration has made CO2 reductions very attractive though the reaction is considered uphill. Utilizing the sun as a potential energy source, CO2 has the possibility to undergo six electron and four proton transfers to produce methanol, a useable resource. This reaction has been shown to occur selectively in an aqueous pyridinium solution with a gallium phosphide (GaP) electrode. Though this reaction has a high faradaic efficiency, it was unclear as to what role the GaP surface played during the reaction. In this work, we aim to address the fundamental role of GaP during the catalytic conversion, by investigating the interaction between a clean GaP surface with the reactants, products, and intermediates of this reaction using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We have determined a procedure to prepare atomically clean GaP and our initial CO2 adsorption studies have shown that there is evidence of chemisorption and reaction to form carbonate on the clean surface at LN2 temperatures (80K), in contrast to previous theoretical calculations. These findings will enable future studies on CO2 catalysis.

  7. A Mechanistic Study of CO2 Reduction at the Interface of a Gallium Phosphide (GaP) Surface using Core-level Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, Kristen

    2015-08-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission into the atmosphere has increased tremendously through burning of fossil fuels, forestry, etc.. The increased concentration has made CO2 reductions very attractive though the reaction is considered uphill. Utilizing the sun as a potential energy source, CO2 has the possibility to undergo six electron and four proton transfers to produce methanol, a useable resource. This reaction has been shown to occur selectively in an aqueous pyridinium solution with a gallium phosphide (GaP) electrode. Though this reaction has a high faradaic efficiency, it was unclear as to what role the GaP surface played during the reaction. In this work, we aim to address the fundamental role of GaP during the catalytic conversion, by investigating the interaction between a clean GaP surface with the reactants, products, and intermediates of this reaction using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We have determined a procedure to prepare atomically clean GaP and our initial CO2 adsorption studies have shown that there is evidence of chemisorption and reaction to form carbonate on the clean surface at LN2 temperatures (80K), in contrast to previous theoretical calculations. These findings will enable future studies on CO2 catalysis.

  8. High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (202{sup }1{sup }) GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourhashemi, A. Farrell, R. M.; Cohen, D. A.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-03-16

    We demonstrate a high power blue laser diode (LD) using indium tin oxide as a cladding layer on semipolar oriented GaN. These devices show peak output powers and external quantum efficiencies comparable to state-of-the-art commercial c-plane devices. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated on (202{sup }1{sup }) oriented GaN substrates using InGaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 451?nm at room temperature, an output power of 2.52?W and an external quantum efficiency of 39% were measured from a single facet under a pulsed injection current of 2.34?A. The measured differential quantum efficiency was 50%.

  9. Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Mi E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2014-07-07

    We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

  10. CX-010895: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development and Industrialization of Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Light Emitting Diodes LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrate (PSS) for Low Cost Emitter Architecture CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06/27/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Y. Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Furuta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25?nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850?C for 10?min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2?m??cm. The fabricated LED up to 3?mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  12. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  13. Neutron diffraction and thermoelectric properties of indium filled In x Co 4 Sb 12 ( x=0.05, 0.2) and indium cerium filled Ce 0.05 In 0.1 Co 4 Sb 12 skutterudites: Neutron diffraction and thermoelectric properties of In/Ce skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sesselmann, Andreas; Klobes, Benedikt; Dasgupta, Titas; Gourdon, Olivier; Hermann, Raphael; Mueller, Eckhard

    2015-09-25

    The thermoelectric properties on polycrystalline single (In) and double filled (Ce, In) skutterudites are characterized between 300 and 700 K. Powder neutron diffraction measurements of the skutterudite compositions InxCo4Sb12 (x= 0.05, 0.2) and Ce0.05In0.1Co4Sb12 as a function of temperature (12- 300 K) were carried out, which gives more insight into the structural data of single and double-filled skutterudites. Our results show that due to the annealing treatment, a Sb deficiency is detectable and thus verifies defects at the Sb lattice site of the skutterudite. Furthermore, we show by electron microprobe analysis that a considerable amount of indium is lost during synthesis and post-processing for the single indium filled samples, but not for the double cerium and indium skutterudite sample. The double-filled skutterudite is superior to the single-filled skutterudite composition due to a higher charge carrier density, a comparable lattice thermal resistivity, and a higher density of states effective mass in our experiment. Finally, we obtained a significantly higher Einstein temperature for the double-filled skutterudite composition in comparison to the single-filled species, which reflects the high sensitivity due to filling of the void lattice position within the skutterudite crystal.

  14. High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Chun; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yu E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com; Wang, Yu; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Kershaw, Stephen V.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W. E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com

    2014-06-30

    In a line with most recent trends in developing non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterials, we combined blue emissive carbon dots with green and red emissive zinc copper indium sulfide (ZCIS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to achieve white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color rendering index of 93. This indicates that ZCIS QDs, with their broad emission bands, can be employed to effectively make up the emission of carbon dots in the yellow and red regions to produce WLEDs in the wide region of color temperature by tuning the volume ratio of these constituting luminophores. Their electroluminescence characteristics including color rendering index, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates, and color temperatures were evaluated as a function of forward current. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates of the as-prepared WLEDs, exhibiting good stability, were slightly shifted from (0.321, 0.312) at 10?mA to (0.351, 0.322) at 30?mA, which was mainly caused by the different thermal quenching coefficients of carbon dots and ZCIS QDs.

  15. Morphology and structure evolution of tin-doped indium oxide thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: The role of the sputtering atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Man Mete, Tayfun; Ellmer, Klaus

    2014-04-21

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in different sputtering atmospheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. The surface roughness w increases with increasing film thickness d{sub f}, and exhibits a power law behavior w ∼ d{sub f}{sup β}. The roughness decreases with increasing O{sub 2} flow, while it increases with increasing H{sub 2} flow. The growth exponent β is found to be 0.35, 0.75, and 0.98 for depositions in Ar/10%O{sub 2}, pure Ar, and Ar/10%H{sub 2} atmospheres, respectively. The correlation length ξ increases with film thickness also with a power law according to ξ ∼ d{sub f}{sup z} with exponents z = 0.36, 0.44, and 0.57 for these three different gas atmospheres, respectively. A combination of local and non-local growth modes in 2 + 1 dimensions is discussed for the ITO growth in this work.

  16. Trap-assisted tunneling in aluminum-doped ZnO/indium oxynitride nanodot interlayer Ohmic contacts on p-GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ke, Wen-Cheng Yang, Cheng-Yi; Lee, Fang-Wei; Chen, Wei-Kuo; Huang, Hao-Ping

    2015-10-21

    This study developed an Ohmic contact formation method for a ZnO:Al (AZO) transparent conductive layer on p-GaN films involving the introduction of an indium oxynitride (InON) nanodot interlayer. An antisurfactant pretreatment was used to grow InON nanodots on p-GaN films in a RF magnetron sputtering system. A low specific contact resistance of 1.12 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2} was achieved for a sample annealed at 500 °C for 30 s in nitrogen ambient and embedded with an InON nanodot interlayer with a nanodot density of 6.5 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}. By contrast, a sample annealed in oxygen ambient exhibited non-Ohmic behavior. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results showed that the oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) in the InON nanodots played a crucial role in carrier transport. The fitting I–V characteristic curves indicated that the hopping mechanism with an activation energy of 31.6 meV and trap site spacing of 1.1 nm dominated the carrier transport in the AZO/InON nanodot/p-GaN sample. Because of the high density of donor-like oxygen vacancy defects at the InON nanodot/p-GaN interface, positive charges from the underlying p-GaN films were absorbed at the interface. This led to positive charge accumulation, creating a narrow depletion layer; therefore, carriers from the AZO layer passed through InON nanodots by hopping transport, and subsequently tunneling through the interface to enter the p-GaN films. Thus, AZO Ohmic contact can be formed on p-GaN films by embedding an InON nanodot interlayer to facilitate trap-assisted tunneling.

  17. Microstructure evolution of Al-doped zinc oxide and Sn-doped indium oxide deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: A comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Man; Bikowski, Andre; Ellmer, Klaus

    2015-04-21

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on borosilicate glass substrates deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). One-dimensional power spectral density (1DPSD) functions derived from the AFM profiles, which can be used to distinguish different growth mechanisms, were used to compare the microstructure scaling behavior of the thin films. The rms roughness R{sub q} evolves with film thickness as a power law, R{sub q} ∼ d{sub f}{sup β}, and different growth exponents β were found for AZO and ITO films. For AZO films, β of 1.47 and 0.56 are obtained for RT and 300 °C depositions, respectively, which are caused by the high compressive stress in the film at RT and relaxation of the stress at 300 °C. While for ITO films, β{sub 1} = 0.14 and β{sub 2} = 0.64 for RT, and β{sub 1} = 0.89 and β{sub 2} = 0.3 for 300 °C deposition are obtained, respectively, which is related to the strong competition between the surface diffusion and shadowing effect and/or grain growth. Electrical properties of both materials as a function of film thickness were also compared. By the modified Fuchs-Sondheimer model fitting of the electrical transport in both materials, different nucleation states are pointed out for both types of films.

  18. Plasma-Assisted Coevaporation of S and Se for Wide Band Gap Chalcopyrite Photovoltaics: Phase II Annual Report, December 2002--December 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I.; Wolden, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, ITN Energy Systems (ITN) and lower-tier subcontractor Colorado School of Mines (CSM) explore the replacement of the molecular chalcogen precursors during deposition (e.g., Se2 or H2Se) with more reactive chalcogen monomers or radicals (e.g., Se). Molecular species are converted to atomic species in a low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Tasks of the proposed program center on development and validation of monatomic chalcogen chemistry, tuning of low-pressure monomer chalcogen sources, and evaluation of plasma-assisted co-evaporation (PACE) for CIGS co-evaporation. Likely advantages of deposition by plasma-enhanced co-evaporation include: (1) Providing potential for lower deposition temperature and/or for better film quality at higher deposition temperature. (2) Providing potential for decreased deposition times. (3) Providing high material utilization efficiency ({approx}90%) that results in less deposition on other parts of the reactor, leading to lower clean up and maintenance costs, as well as longer equipment lifetime. High material utilization efficiency also reduces the total operating pressure, which is beneficial for the design and control of metal co-evaporation. Advantages include minimal metal-vapor beam spread and lower source operating temperatures. (4) Enabling deposition of wide-bandgap copper indium gallium disulfur-selenide (CIGSS) films with controlled stoichiometry. University researchers at CSM are developing and testing the fundamental chemistry and engineering principles. Industrial researchers at ITN are adapting PACE technology to CIGSS co-evaporation and validating PACE process for fabrication of thin-film photovoltaics. In2Se3 films, which are used as precursor layers in high-efficiency CIGS depositions, were used this year as the first test case for examining the advantages of PACE listed above. Gradually, the investigation is being extended to the complete high-efficiency three-stage co-evaporation process.

  19. Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like indium oxide: Controllable synthesis and application as H{sub 2}S cataluminescence sensing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Pingyang; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Lichun; Song, Hongjie; Su, Yingying; Lv, Yi

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controllable fabricated through a novel and simple hydrothermal process, and the former showed superior cataluminescence sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. Highlights: ► In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere were prepared via a hydrothermal route. ► The growth process of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere has been investigated. ► The sensor based on prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows good sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. -- Abstract: In the present work, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like microstructure were achieved controllably by a hydrothermal process in the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) system. XRD, SEM, HRTEM and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements were used to characterize the as-prepared indium oxide materials and the possible mechanism for the microstructures formation was briefly discussed. The cataluminescence gas sensor based on the as-prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was utilized to detect H{sub 2}S concentrations in flowing air. Comparative gas sensing results revealed that the sensor based on hierarchical hollow microsphere exhibited much higher sensing sensitivity in detecting H{sub 2}S gas than the sensor based on flower-like microstructure. The present gas sensor had a fast response time of 5 s and a recovery time of less than 25 s, furthermore, the cataluminescence intensity vs. H{sub 2}S concentration was linear in range of 2–20 μg mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.5 μg mL{sup −1}. The present highly sensitive, fast-responding, and low-cost In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based gas sensor for H{sub 2}S would have many practical applications.

  20. Thermoelectric materials ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

  1. Thermoelectric materials: ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2002-06-04

    Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

  2. Ion beam modification of topological insulator bismuth selenide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sharma, Peter Anand; Sharma, A. L. Lima; Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Stavila, Vitalie; Goeke, Ronald S.; Erickson, K.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Brahlek, M.; Oh, S.; et al

    2014-12-17

    In this study, we demonstrate chemical doping of a topological insulator Bi2Se3 using ion implantation. Ion beam-induced structural damage was characterized using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ion damage was reversed using a simple thermal annealing step. Carrier-type conversion was achieved using ion implantation followed by an activation anneal in Bi2Se3 thin films. These two sets of experiments establish the feasibility of ion implantation for chemical modification of Bi2Se3, a prototypical topological insulator. Ion implantation can, in principle, be used for any topological insulator. The direct implantation of dopants should allow better control over carrier concentrations formore » the purposes of achieving low bulk conductivity. Ion implantation also enables the fabrication of inhomogeneously doped structures, which in turn should make possible new types of device designs.« less

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication about this research: G. Lee, J.Y. Kim, A.S. Budiman, N. Tamura, M. Kunz, K. Chen, M.J. Burek, J.R. Greer, and T.Y. Tsui, "Fabrication, structure and mechanical...

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measuring energy efficiency: Opportunities from standardization and common metrics For 2016 EIA Energy Conference July 11, 2016 | Washington, D.C. By Stacy Angel, Energy Information Portfolio Analyst Carol White, Senior Energy Efficiency Analyst How is the importance of measuring energy efficiency changing? * The number of energy efficiency policies and programs is growing. * Common metrics help measure progress towards multiple objectives. * Clear metrics help consumers make informed energy

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of GNDs. The initial density of GNDs in this grain was estimated to be 3.35 x 109 cm-2 (Cahn-Nye analysis), which translates into about 4.2 total dislocations in a 250-nm-diameter...

  6. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} prepared on gadolinium gallium garnet (001) by metal organic decomposition method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asada, H. Kuwahara, A.; Sakata, N.; Ono, T.; Kishimoto, K.; Koyanagi, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Meguro, A.; Hashinaka, T.

    2015-05-07

    Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} thin films with the Ga composition x = 0, 0.5, and 1.0 are prepared on (001) oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates by a metal organic decomposition method. Only (001) peaks are observed in x-ray diffraction patterns for all the films, suggesting that the highly oriented Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} thin films were formed. Increasing Ga composition, the saturation magnetization decreases, and the perpendicular easy axis is enhanced due to the decrease of the shape anisotropy. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) in Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} thin films with a Pt layer of 10 nm in thickness were investigated. Magnetic field dependence of the thermoelectric voltage caused by the LSSE in Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} films indicates the hysteresis loop with the small coercivity reflecting the magnetization curve. The decrease of LSSE voltage in Nd{sub 2}BiFe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} is clearly observed with the decrease of Fe composition.

  7. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaak, Raymond

    2015-02-19

    This project sought to develop new low-temperature synthetic pathways to intermetallic and chalcogenide nanostructures and powders, with an emphasis on systems that are relevant to advancing the synthesis, processing, and discovery of superconducting materials. The primary synthetic routes involved solution chemistry methods, and several fundamental synthetic challenges that underpinned the formation of these materials were identified and investigated. Methods for incorporating early transition metals and post transition metals into nanoscale and bulk crystals using low-temperature solution chemistry methods were developed and studied, leading to colloidal nanocrystals of elemental indium, manganese, and germanium, as well as nanocrystalline and bulk intermetallic compounds containing germanium, gallium, tin, indium, zinc, bismuth, and lithium. New chemical tools were developed to help target desired phases in complex binary intermetallic and metal chalcogenide systems that contain multiple stable phases, including direct synthesis methods and chemical routes that permit post-synthetic modification. Several phases that are metastable in bulk systems were targeted, synthesized, and characterized as nanocrystalline solids and bulk powders, including the L12-type intermetallic compounds Au3Fe, Au3Ni, and Au3Co, as well as wurtzite-type MnSe. Methods for accessing crystalline metal borides and carbides using direct solution chemistry methods were also developed, with an emphasis on Ni3B and Ni3C, which revealed useful correlations of composition and magnetic properties. Methods for scale-up and nanoparticle purification were explored, providing access to centimeter-scale pressed pellets of polyol-synthesized nanopowders and a bacteriophage-mediated method for separating impure nanoparticle mixtures into their components. Several advances were made in the synthesis of iron selenide and related superconducting materials, including the production of colloidal Fe

  8. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-06-16

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  9. Synthesis and use of (perfluoroaryl) fluoro-aluminate anion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2001-01-01

    A trityl perfluorophenyl alumninate such as tris(2,2',2"-nonafluorobiphenyl)-fluoroaluminate (PBA.sup..crclbar.) and its role as a cocatalyst in metallocene-mediated olefin polymerization is disclosed. Gallium and indium analogs are also disclosed, as are analogs with different anyl groups or different numbers of flourine atoms thereon.

  10. CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS) Linear Source Thermal DepositionCX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1Date: 05/19/2010Location(s): St. Paul, MinnesotaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office