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Sample records for indirect land-use effects

  1. A Dynamic Simulation of the Indirect Land Use Implications of Recent Biofuel Production and Use in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Kline, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    The global indirect land use change (ILUC) implications of biofuel use in the United States of America (USA) from 2001 to 2010 are evaluated with a dynamic general equilibrium model. The effects of biofuels production on agricultural land area vary by year; from a net expansion of 0.17 ha per 1000 gallons produced (2002) to a net contraction of 0.13 ha per 1000 gallons (2018) in Case 1 of our simulation. In accordance with the general narrative about the implications of biofuel policy, agricultural land area increased in many regions of the world. However, oil-export dependent economies experienced agricultural land contraction because of reductions in their revenues. Reducing crude oil imports is a major goal of biofuel policy, but the land use change implications have received little attention in the literature. Simulations evaluating the effects of doubling supply elasticities for land and fossil resources show that these parameters can significantly influence the land use change estimates. Therefore, research that provides empirically-based and spatially-detailed agricultural land-supply curves and capability to project future fossil energy prices is critical for improving estimates of the effects of biofuel policy on land use.

  2. Consideration of land use change-induced surface albedo effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effects in life-cycle analysis of biofuels Title Consideration of land use change-induced surface albedo effects in life-cycle analysis of biofuels Publication Type Journal Article ...

  3. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  4. Consideration of land use change-induced surface albedo effects in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    life-cycle analysis of biofuels | Argonne National Laboratory Consideration of land use change-induced surface albedo effects in life-cycle analysis of biofuels Title Consideration of land use change-induced surface albedo effects in life-cycle analysis of biofuels Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Cai, H, Wang, J, Wang, MQ, Qin, Z, Dunn, JB Journal Energy and Environmental Science Date Published 08/2016 Abstract Land use change (LUC)-induced surface albedo

  5. Effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on the ecology of the Cumberland forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Lannom, Karen O.; Hodges, Donald G.; Tharp, M Lynn; Fogel, Jonah

    2009-02-01

    Effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on the ecology of the Cumberland forests

  6. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead ...

  7. Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s ... of regional aerosol impacts in China as part of a joint program with the ...

  8. The First Aerosol Indirect Effect: Beyond Twomey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Dunn, M.; Daum, P.

    2008-03-10

    The traditional first aerosol indirect effect or the Twomey effect involves several fundamental assumptions. Some of the assumptions (e.g., constant liquid water content) are explicitly stated in studies of the Twomey effect whereas others are only implicitly embedded in the quantitative formulation. This work focuses on examining the implicit assumptions. In particular, we will show that anthropogenic pollution not only increases aerosol loading and droplet concentrations but also alters the relative dispersions of both the aerosol and subsequent droplet size distributions. The indirect effects resulting from the two altered relative dispersions (aerosol dispersion effect and droplet dispersion effect) are likely opposite in sign and proportional in magnitude to the conventional Twomey effect. This result suggests that the outstanding problems of the Twomey effect (i.e., large uncertainty and overestimation reported in literature) may lie with violation of the constant spectral shapes of aerosol and droplet size distributions implicitly assumed in evaluation of the Twomey effect, and therefore, further progress in understanding and quantification of the first aerosol indirect effect demands moving beyond the traditional paradigm originally conceived by Twomey.

  9. Greenhouse gas policy influences climate via direct effects of land-use change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Chini, Louise M.; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter; Hurtt, George; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-06-01

    Proposed climate mitigation measures do not account for direct biophysical climate impacts of land-use change (LUC), nor do the stabilization targets modeled for the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). To examine the significance of such effects on global and regional patterns of climate change, a baseline and alternative scenario of future anthropogenic activity are simulated within the Integrated Earth System Model, which couples the Global Change Assessment Model, Global Land-use Model, and Community Earth System Model. The alternative scenario has high biofuel utilization and approximately 50% less global forest cover compared to the baseline, standard RCP4.5 scenario. Both scenarios stabilize radiative forcing from atmospheric constituents at 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. Thus, differences between their climate predictions quantify the biophysical effects of LUC. Offline radiative transfer and land model simulations are also utilized to identify forcing and feedback mechanisms driving the coupled response. Boreal deforestation is found to strongly influence climate due to increased albedo coupled with a regional-scale water vapor feedback. Globally, the alternative scenario yields a 21st century warming trend that is 0.5 °C cooler than baseline, driven by a 1 W/m2 mean decrease in radiative forcing that is distributed unevenly around the globe. Some regions are cooler in the alternative scenario than in 2005. These results demonstrate that neither climate change nor actual radiative forcing are uniquely related to atmospheric forcing targets such as those found in the RCP’s, but rather depend on particulars of the socioeconomic pathways followed to meet each target.

  10. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  11. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  12. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects ... DOE Contract Number: SC0007396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Leeds ...

  13. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  14. integrated-land-use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Planning Tool for Sydney, Australia Dr. Matthew Berryman, University of Wollongong Monday, November 28, 2011 - 1pm Argonne TRACC Building 222, Room D-233 The SMART Infrastructure Facility at the University of Wollongong, Australia, has been building an agent-based model to explore the feedbacks between transportation and land use. We focus on livability as a key driver of agent's location choice, and in addition to transport we include factors such

  15. Bioenergy and the importance of land use policy in a carbon-constrained world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2010-06-01

    Policies aimed at limiting anthropogenic climate change would result in significant transformations of the energy and land-use systems. However, increasing the demand for bioenergy could have a tremendous impact on land use, and can result in land clearing and deforestation. Wise et al. (2009a,b) analyzed an idealized policy to limit the indirect land use change emissions from bioenergy. The policy, while effective, would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement in the real world. In this paper, we consider several different land use policies that deviate from this first-best, using the Joint Global Change Research Institute’s Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Specifically, these new frameworks are (1) a policy that focuses on just the above-ground or vegetative terrestrial carbon rather than the total carbon, (2) policies that focus exclusively on incentivizing and protecting forestland, and (3) policies that apply an economic penalty on the use of biomass as a proxy to limit indirect land use change emissions. For each policy, we examine its impact on land use, land-use change emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, agricultural supply, and food prices.

  16. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  17. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International offsets are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  18. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  19. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  20. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  1. Land Use License | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Land Use LicenseLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2013 Legal Citation Not...

  2. H.R.S. 205 - Land Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 - Land Use Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: H.R.S. 205 - Land UseLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect...

  3. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  4. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd

  5. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  6. FY 2011 Third Quarter Report Estimate of Historical Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-06-22

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects estimated from Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations are -0.06 W m-2 and -1.39 W m-2, respectively.

  7. Geothermal/Land Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GeothermalLand Use < Geothermal(Redirected from Land Use) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT GeothermalLand Use Planning Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  8. csp land use | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    csp land use Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 25 June, 2013 - 12:10 Solar Land Use Data on OpenEI acres csp land use how much land land requirements pv land...

  9. Global Biofuels Modeling and Land Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels Modeling and Land Use DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Strategic Analysis & Cross-cutting Sustainability March 25 2015 Gbadebo Oladosu (PI) Oak Ridge National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information GOAL STATEMENT * Primary goal of the project is to demonstrate the viability of biofuels in the context of the national/global economy. * Metrics include: - Cost effectiveness:

  10. Final Report for "Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A New Parameterization for Frost Flower Aerosol Salt Emissions" (DESC0006679) for 9/15/2011 through 9/14/2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Report for "Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects. A New Parameterization for Frost Flower Aerosol Salt Emissions" (DESC0006679) for 9/15/2011 through 9/14/2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report for "Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects. A New

  11. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Land use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6. Land use 6.1. Total land use, land use change, and forests This chapter presents estimates of carbon sequestration (removal from the atmosphere) and emissions (release into the atmosphere) from forests, croplands, grasslands, and residential areas (urban trees, grass clippings, and food scraps) in the United States. In 2008, land use, land use change, and forests were responsible for estimated net carbon sequestration of 940 MMTCO2e (Table 31), representing 16 percent of total U.S. CO2

  12. Land-use history alters contemporary insect herbivore community composition and decouples plant-herbivore relationships.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Philip G.; Orrock, John L.

    2015-04-01

    1. Past land use can create altered soil conditions and plant communities that persist for decades, although the effects of these altered conditions on consumers are rarely investigated. 2. Using a large-scale field study at 36 sites in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands, we examined whether historic agricultural land use leads to differences in the abundance and community composition of insect herbivores (grasshoppers, families Acrididae and Tettigoniidae). 3. We measured the cover of six plant functional groups and several environmental variables to determine whether historic agricultural land use affects the relationships between plant cover or environmental conditions and grasshopper assemblages. 4. Land-use history had taxa-specific effects and interacted with herbaceous plant cover to alter grasshopper abundances, leading to significant changes in community composition. Abundance of most grasshopper taxa increased with herbaceous cover in woodlands with no history of agriculture, but there was no relationship in post-agricultural woodlands. We also found that grasshopper abundance was negatively correlated with leaf litter cover. Soil hardness was greater in post-agricultural sites (i.e. more compacted) and was associated with grasshopper community composition. Both herbaceous cover and leaf litter cover are influenced by fire frequency, suggesting a potential indirect role of fire on grasshopper assemblages. 5. Our results demonstrate that historic land use may create persistent differences in the composition of grasshopper assemblages, while contemporary disturbances (e.g. prescribed fire) may be important for determining the abundance of grasshoppers, largely through the effect of fire on plants and leaf litter. Therefore, our results suggest that changes in the contemporary management regimes (e.g. increasing prescribed fire) may not be sufficient to shift the structure of grasshopper communities in post-agricultural sites towards communities in

  13. On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, M.; Ghan, S. J.; Ding, A.; Wang, H.; Zhang, K.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.; Ferrachat, S.; Takeamura, T.; et al

    2015-09-02

    Aerosol-cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (?500), lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs), with a focus on liquid water path (LWP) response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascendmore(?500 ?1) and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus) where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is as large as that in stratocumulus regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascend are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm d?1) contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %). Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes than that globally, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.less

  14. Analysis of Aerosol Indirect Effects in California Coastal Stratus and Fog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Aerosol Indirect Effects in California Coastal Stratus and Fog Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory Bartholomew, Mary Jane Brookhaven National Laboratory Daum, Peter Brookhaven National Laboratory Dunn, Maureen Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Liu, Yangang Brookhaven National Laboratory Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Andrews, Betsy NOAA/CMDL Ogren, John NOAA/CMDL

  15. Solar Land Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Land Use Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory report on solar land use in the United States.)1 One concern...

  16. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  17. On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Shipeng; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Takeamura, Toshihiko; et al

    2016-03-04

    Aerosol–cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (ω500), lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs), with a focus on liquid water path (LWP) response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascentmore » (ω500  <  −25 hPa day−1) and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus) where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is close to that in subsidence regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascent are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm day−1) contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %). Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes compared to the uncertainty in its global mean values, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.« less

  18. Use of ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) Data to Study Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhanqing

    2012-12-19

    General goals: 1) Facilitating the deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Ancillary Facility (AAF) in China in 2008, 2) Processing, retrieving, improving and analyzing observation data from ground-based, air-borne and space-borne instruments; 3) Conducting a series of studies to gain insights into the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols on radiation, clouds, and precipitation using both

  19. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  20. Hawaii State Land Use Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hawaii State Land Use Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name: State Land Use Commission Abbreviation: LUC Place: Honolulu, Hawaii References: State Land Use Commission -...

  1. Geothermal/Land Use Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Use Planning < Geothermal(Redirected from GeothermalLand Use) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Planning Leasing Exploration Well Field...

  2. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  3. The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) intensive observation period (IOP)-4 and simulations of land use pattern effect on the LLJ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Raman, S.

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) is an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation. It transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of weather over the Great Plains of the central United States. The LLJ is generally recognized as a complex response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the diurnal cycle of thermal forcing. Early studies have attributed the Great Plains LLJ to the diurnal oscillations of frictional effect, buoyancy over sloping terrain, and the blocking effects of the Rocky Mountains. Recent investigations show that the speed of the LLJ is also affected by the soil type and soil moisture. Some studies also suggest that synoptic patterns may play an important role in the development of the LLJ. Land surface heterogeneties significantly affect mesoscale circulations by generating strong contrasts in surface thermal fluxes. Thus one would expect that the land use pattern should have effects on the LLJ`s development and structure. In this study, we try to determine the relative roles of the synoptic forcing, planetary boundary layers (PBL) processes, and the land use pattern in the formation of the LLJ using the observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Intensive Operation Period (IOP)-4 and numerical sensitivity tests.

  4. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  5. solar land use | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    solar land use Home Rosborne318's picture Submitted by Rosborne318(5) Member 2 December, 2013 - 11:06 Request for Information Renewable Energy GenerationProduction Shreveport...

  6. pv land use | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    pv land use Home Rosborne318's picture Submitted by Rosborne318(5) Member 2 December, 2013 - 11:06 Request for Information Renewable Energy GenerationProduction Shreveport Airport...

  7. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  8. Effect of product upgrading on Fischer-Tropsch indirect coal liquefaction economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, G.N.; Kramer, S.J.; Tam, S.S.; Fox, J.M. III

    1995-12-31

    Conceptual plant designs with cost estimates for indirect coal liquefaction technology to produce environmentally acceptable transportation liquid fuels meeting the Clear Air Act requirements were developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The designs incorporate the latest development in coal gasification technology and advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) slurry reactor design. ASPEN process simulation models were developed to provide detailed plant material and energy balances, utility requirements, operating and capital costs. A linear programming model based on a typical PADD II refinery was developed to assess the values of the produced F-T products. The results then were used in a discounted cash flow spreadsheet model to examine the effect of key process variables on the overall F-T economics. Different models were developed to investigate the various routes of upgrading the F-T products. The effects of incorporating a close-coupled ZSM-5 reactor to upgrade the vapor stream leaving the Fischer-Tropsch reactor have been reported previously. This paper compares two different schemes of F-T was upgrading, namely fluidized bed catalytic cracking verse mild hydrocracking.

  9. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  10. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  11. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition

  12. RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDGeothermalLand UseFederal < RAPID | Geothermal | Land Use Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk...

  13. Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel production: empirical evidence Title Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel...

  14. Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas...

  15. ORS 197 - Comprehensive Land Use Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    197 - Comprehensive Land Use Planning Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS 197 - Comprehensive Land Use...

  16. California Land Use Planning Information Network | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Use Planning Information Network Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: California Land Use Planning Information...

  17. Geothermal/Land Use Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GeothermalLand Use Planning < Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Planning Leasing Exploration Well Field Power Plant Grid Connection...

  18. Montana - Land Use License Application | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Use License Application Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: Montana - Land Use License Application Author Montana Department of Natural...

  19. Land-Use Change Data Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review 4.1.2.40 Land-Use Change Data Analysis 03/25/2015 Analysis & Sustainability Nagendra Singh (PI) Keith Kline, Rebecca Efroymson, Raju Vatsavai, Huina Mao, Erica Pham, Budhendra Bhaduri. Oak Ridge National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Presentation name Goal Statement Project Goal Design and develop scalable tools and assessment methods to establish scientific basis for

  20. Vermont Land Use: Essentials of Local Land Use Planning and Regulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Use: Essentials of Local Land Use Planning and Regulation Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook:...

  1. Land-Use Change Data and Causal Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Land-Use Change Data and Causal Analysis 05/21/2013 Analysis & Sustainability Nagendra Singh (PI), Keith Kline, Rebecca Efroymson, Varun Chandola, Esther Parish, Budhendra Bhaduri Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Presentation name Goal Statement Project Goal * Design and develop tools and assessment methods to establish scientific basis for understanding and simulating effects

  2. Environmental assessment of spatial plan policies through land use scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geneletti, Davide

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents a method based on scenario analysis to compare the environmental effects of different spatial plan policies in a range of possible futures. The study aimed at contributing to overcome two limitations encountered in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for spatial planning: poor exploration of how the future might unfold, and poor consideration of alternative plan policies. Scenarios were developed through what-if functions and spatial modeling in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and consisted in maps that represent future land uses under different assumptions on key driving forces. The use of land use scenarios provided a representation of how the different policies will look like on the ground. This allowed gaining a better understanding of the policies' implications on the environment, which could be measured through a set of indicators. The research undertook a case-study approach by developing and assessing land use scenarios for the future growth of Caia, a strategically-located and fast-developing town in rural Mozambique. The effects of alternative spatial plan policies were assessed against a set of environmental performance indicators, including deforestation, loss of agricultural land, encroachment of flood-prone areas and wetlands and access to water sources. In this way, critical environmental effects related to the implementation of each policy were identified and discussed, suggesting possible strategies to address them. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method contributes to two critical issues in SEA: exploration of the future and consideration of alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future scenarios are used to test the environmental performance of different spatial plan policies in uncertainty conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatially-explicit land use scenarios provide a representation of how different policies will look like on the ground.

  3. Employment and land-use impacts of resource program elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankle, S A; Baechler, M C; Blondin, D W; Grover, S E

    1992-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated several power resource alternatives under consideration by the Bonneville Power Administration in its Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS). The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the potential impacts of each alternative in terms of land use and employment. We reviewed the literature that describes land-use and employment impacts to derive estimates of each type of effect. These estimates were scaled to a per-megawatt basis for use as multipliers in the RPEIS analysis. Multipliers for employment were taken from the literature and developed from power plant capital cost estimates. Land-use multipliers were taken from the literature or estimated from existing plants. In this report we compared information sources and estimates to develop the most applicable multipliers. Employment levels required (in terms of employee years per MW of plant capacity) for the construction and operation phases of each energy-generating resource alternative analyzed are shown. The amounts of land required (in terms of acres per MW capacity) for the construction and operation phases of each energy-generating resource alternatives analyzed are also shown.

  4. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  5. Land-use transition for bioenergy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts and interactions with other land use based mitigation options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popp, Alexander; Rose, Steven K.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Dietrich, Jan P.; Wise, Marshall A.; Stehfest, Eike; Humpenoder, Florian; Kyle, G. Page; Van Vliet, Jasper; Bauer, Nico; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This study is a model comparison assessing the drivers and impacts of bioenergy production on the global land system and the interaction with other land use based mitigation options in the context of the EMF 27 project. We compare and evaluate results from three integrated assessment models (GCAM, IMAGE, and ReMIND/MAgPIE). All three models project that dedicated bioenergy crops and biomass residues are a potentially important and cost-effective component of the energy system. But bioenergy deployment levels and feedstock composition vary notably across models as do the implications for land-use and greenhouse gas emissions and the interaction with other land use based mitigation measures. Despite numerous model differences, we identify a few that are likely contributing to differences in land-use and emissions attributable to energy crop deployment.

  6. File:01LandUseOverview.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1LandUseOverview.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:01LandUseOverview.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 ...

  7. Title 36 CFR 251 Land Uses | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    51 Land Uses Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 36 CFR 251 Land UsesLegal Abstract...

  8. Alaska Department of Natural Resources Land Use Planning Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Alaska Department of Natural Resources Land Use Planning Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an overview of Alaska's land use...

  9. Title 50 CFR 29 Land Use Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    9 Land Use Management Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 50 CFR 29 Land Use ManagementLegal Abstract...

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GHG Emissions | Department of Energy Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting Misconceptions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Jennifer B. Dunn, Energy Systems and Sustainability Analyst, Argonne National Laboratory

  11. Harmonization of Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100: 600 Years of Global Gridded Annual Land-Use Transitions, Wood Harvest, and Resulting Secondary Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurtt, George; Chini, Louise Parsons; Frolking, Steve; Betts, Richard; Feddema, Johannes; Fischer, Gavin M.; Fisk, J.P.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Houghton, R. A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Jones, C.; Kindermann, G.; Kinoshita, Tsuguki; Goldeweijk, Kees K.; Riahi, Keywan; Shevliakova, Elena; Smith, Steven J.; Stehfest, Eike; Thomson, Allison M.; Thornton, P.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Wang, Y.

    2011-08-08

    In preparation for the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the international community is developing new advanced Earth System Models (ESM) to assess the combined effects of human activities (e.g. land use and fossil fuel emissions) on the carbon-climate system. In addition, four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios of the future (2005-2100) are being provided by four Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) teams to be used as input to the ESMs for future carbon-climate projections (Moss et al., 2010). The diversity of approaches and requirements among IAMs and ESMs for tracking land-use change, along with the dependence of model projections on land-use history, presents a challenge for effectively passing data between these communities and for smoothly transitioning from the historical estimates to future projections. Here, a harmonized set of land-use scenarios are presented that smoothly connects historical reconstructions of land use with future projections, in the format required by ESMs.

  12. Geothermal Direct-Use — Minimizing Land Use and Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With geothermal direct-use applications, land use issues usually only arise during exploration and development when geothermal reservoirs are located in or near urbanized areas, critical habitat...

  13. EIS-0222: Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has prepared the EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with implementing a comprehensive land-use plan (CLUP) for the Hanford Site for at least the next 50 years. DOE is expected to use this land-use plan in its decision-making process to establish what is the “highest and best use” of the land (41 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 101-47, “Federal Property Management Regulations”). The final selection of a land-use map, land-use policies, and implementing procedures would create the working CLUP when they are adopted through the ROD for the EIS.

  14. Oregon Land Use Compatibility Statements Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Statements Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Land Use Compatibility Statements Website Author Oregon Department of...

  15. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES earth system modeling; climate change; land use Word Cloud More ...

  16. Accuracy Assessment for Forest and Land Use Maps (English version...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orglibraryusaid-leaf-accuracy-assessment-forest-and-lan Cost: Free Language: English Accuracy Assessment for Forest and Land Use Maps (English version)...

  17. Bureau of Land Management - Land Use Planning Handbook | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Bureau of Land Management - Land Use Planning HandbookPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook Abstract...

  18. LAND USE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS FROM SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN THE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LAND USE AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS FROM SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN THE APPALACHIANS THE NATURE ... Research by The Nature Conservancy (Johnson et al. 2010; Johnson et al. 2011) indicates ...

  19. Oregon Land Use Compatibility Statement for Onsite Wastewater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon Land Use Compatibility Statement for Onsite Wastewater Treatment System Permits Abstract...

  20. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionLand Use < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  1. RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDGeothermalLand Use < RAPID | Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal...

  2. Land Use and Water Efficiency in Current and Potential Future...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ethanol Systems (Poster) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Land Use and Water Efficiency in Current and Potential Future U.S. Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol ...

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring data was collected at four locations in China during 2008. The various sites are located in regions with different climate regimes and with high aerosol loadings of different optical, physical, and chemical properties. Measurements obtained at all the AMF sites during the 8-month deployment in China will help scientists to validate satellite-based findings, understand the mechanisms of the aerosol indirect effects in the region, and examine the roles of aerosols in affecting regional climate and atmospheric circulation, with a special focus on the impact of the East Asian monsoon system. As with other collections from the ARM Mobile Facility, the datasets are available from the ARM Archive. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. Evaluating California local land use plan's environmental impact reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Zhenghong Bright, Elise; Brody, Samuel

    2009-02-15

    Local land use planning has profound impacts on environmental quality; however, few empirical studies have been conducted to systematically measure local land use plans' environmental assessment quality and to identify the factors influencing it. This paper analyzes the quality of 40 Environmental Impact Reports (EIRs) of local jurisdictions' land use plans in California. A plan evaluation protocol defined by five core components and sixty-three indicators is developed to measure the quality of local land use plans' EIRs. The descriptive results indicate that the local jurisdictions produce relatively good quality on its EIRs, but there is still much room for improvement. There are large variations in the quality of EIRs across local jurisdictions. The regression results further highlight three major factors that can significantly influence local land use plan's EIR quality: number of planners, plan updating ability, and development pressure.

  5. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; et al

    2016-01-21

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300% over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ~40–60% smallermore » than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) × dln(Nliq)/dln(BBt)) to be ~0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (~0.02gm–3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm–3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 Wm–2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. Furthermore, we lastly explore evidence suggesting that

  6. New understanding and quantification of the regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interaction for studying aerosol indirect effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Jingyi; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Minghua; Peng, Yiran

    2016-02-28

    In this study, aerosol indirect effects suffer from large uncertainty in climate models and among observations. This study focuses on two plausible factors: regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interactions and the effect of cloud droplet spectral shape. We show, using a new parcel model, that combined consideration of droplet number concentration (Nc) and relative dispersion (ε, ratio of standard deviation to mean radius of the cloud droplet size distribution) better characterizes the regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interactions than considering Nc alone. Given updraft velocity (w), ε increases with increasing aerosol number concentration (Na) in the aerosol-limited regime, peaks in the transitionalmore » regime, and decreases with further increasing Na in the updraft-limited regime. This new finding further reconciles contrasting observations in literature and reinforces the compensating role of dispersion effect. The nonmonotonic behavior of ε further quantifies the relationship between the transitional Na and w that separates the aerosol- and updraft-limited regimes.« less

  7. Town of Chapel Hill- Land-Use Management Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2003, the Town of Chapel Hill adopted a land-use management ordinance that includes prohibitions against neighborhood or homeowners association covenants or other conditions of sale that...

  8. Bureau of Land Management - Land Use Planning | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Planning Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Bureau of Land Management - Land Use Planning Abstract The BLM's Resource Management Plans...

  9. Alaska Department of Natural Resources Land Use Plans | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plans Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Alaska Department of Natural Resources Land Use Plans Published Publisher Not Provided, Date Not...

  10. Application for State Land Use Lease: Commercial/Multi-Family...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CommercialMulti-Family Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Application for State Land Use Lease: CommercialMulti-Family Published...

  11. Land Use and Water Efficiency in Current and Potential Future...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Efficiency in Current and Potential Future U.S. Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems (Poster) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Land Use and Water Efficiency ...

  12. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  13. INL Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INL Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report The Idaho National Laboratory announced recently that the Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship (CLUES) Report for Fiscal Year 2011 has been finalized. The CLUES Report compliments the INL Ten Year Site Plan and provides a look ahead to INL facilities 10, 30 and 100 years into the future. The CLUES Report discusses how land on the INL will be managed and the process for reviewing requests. The report represents a

  14. Savannah River Site Land Use Plan - May, 2013 i SRNS-RP-2013-00162

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Savannah River Site Land Use Plan - May, 2013 i SRNS-RP-2013-00162 Savannah River Site Land Use Plan - May, 2013 i Table of Contents 1.0 - Purpose p1 2.0 - Executive Summary p1 3.0 - SRS Land Use Overview p5 Assumptions Current Land Use Leases, Transfers and Other Land Use Actions Future Land Use Land Use Issues 4.0 - Land Use Planning and Control for Existing Missions p13 Cleanup, Production and Support Missions Natural and Cultural Resource Management 5.0 - Process for Future Land Use Changes

  15. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To support research and development (R&D) planning efforts within the Thermochemical Conversion Program, the Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted the Biomass Indirect Liquefaction (IDL)...

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No name listed on publication

    2011-08-01

    Land and facility use planning and decisions at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site are guided by a comprehensive site planning process in accordance with Department of Energy Policy 430.1, 'Land and Facility Use Policy,' that integrates mission, economic, ecologic, social, and cultural factors. The INL Ten-Year Site Plan, prepared in accordance with Department of Energy Order 430.1B, 'Real Property Asset Management,' outlines the vision and strategy to transform INL to deliver world-leading capabilities that will enable the Department of Energy to accomplish its mission. Land use planning is the overarching function within real property asset management that integrates the other functions of acquisition, recapitalization, maintenance, disposition, real property utilization, and long-term stewardship into a coordinated effort to ensure current and future mission needs are met. All land and facility use projects planned at the INL Site are considered through a formal planning process that supports the Ten-Year Site Plan. This Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report describes that process. The land use planning process identifies the current condition of existing land and facility assets and the scope of constraints across INL and in the surrounding region. Current land use conditions are included in the Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report and facility assets and scope of constraints are discussed in the Ten-Year Site Plan. This report also presents the past, present, and future uses of land at the INL Site that are considered during the planning process, as well as outlining the future of the INL Site for the 10, 30, and 100-year timeframes.

  17. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Li, Long

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  18. Future land use threats to range-restricted fish species in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R.; Holtz, Lauren A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; McIntyre, Peter B.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-03-04

    Land use change is one major threat to freshwater biodiversity, and land use change scenarios can help to assess threats from future land use change, thereby guiding proactive conservation decisions. Furthermore, our goal was to identify which range-restricted freshwater fish species are most likely to be affected by land use change and to determine where threats to these species from future land use change in the conterminous United States are most pronounced.

  19. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  20. Meeting the Demand for Biofuels: Impact on Land Use and Carbon Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, Madhu; Jain, Atul; Onal, Hayri; Scheffran, Jurgen; Chen, Xiaoguang; Erickson, Matt; Huang, Haixiao; Kang, Seungmo.

    2011-08-14

    The purpose of this research was to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary framework to investigate the implications of large scale production of biofuels for land use, crop production, farm income and greenhouse gases. In particular, we examine the mix of feedstocks that would be viable for biofuel production and the spatial allocation of land required for producing these feedstocks at various gasoline and carbon emission prices as well as biofuel subsidy levels. The implication of interactions between energy policy that seeks energy independence from foreign oil and climate policy that seeks to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for the optimal mix of biofuels and land use will also be investigated. This project contributes to the ELSI research goals of sustainable biofuel production while balancing competing demands for land and developing policy approaches needed to support biofuel production in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.

  1. Direct and indirect effect of changes in family structure and lifestyle upon energy consumption, 1950-1080

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stever, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    This research project examines both the direct and indirect influence of changes in family structure and lifestyle dimensions upon residential energy consumption patterns from 1950 to 1980. These relationships are investigated on a macro level using three national energy surveys administered from 1974 to 1980 and the Census Bureau and other government sources of documenting changes in social characteristics and energy consumption levels over thirty years. Stage I looks at changes in residential consumption from 1950 to 1980 and conservation behavior from 1965 to 1980. The objective of Stage II is to identify those family structure and lifestyle characteristics that constrain conservation measures in which a household engages. Stage III examines the commonly held assumption that investment in conservation equipment will result in reduced consumption. Stage IV explores the potential influence that changes in structural and lifestyle characteristics of householders may have upon average consumption levels from 1950 to 1980. The primary implications of this study are: (1) in order to obtain a complete picture of the current energy situation, it is necessary to examine consumption and conservation behavior both before and after the 1973 oil embargo, and (2) changes in social structural and lifestyle of households over time appear to have contributed as much, if not more, to reduce consumption in the late 1970s as did conscious conservation efforts by householders.

  2. Developing a methodology and building a team to ensure objectivity in future land use planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cusick, L.T.

    1995-12-01

    The paper describes the steps involved in the development of an integrated methodology for identifying future land use options on Department of Energy (DOE) property and the establishment of a team to undertake the analysis. Three sources of information are considered: (1) internal and external stakeholder preferences, (2) economic data, and (3) environmental data. The analysis is part of a DOE process to propose future land use options for its real property while considering DOE missions and the expressed preferences of stakeholders. The process is presently ongoing at several DOE facilities; the analysis described herein is taking place on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Further described in this paper are the benefits of considering stakeholder preferences in determining future land uses and the necessity of weighing economic factors and their effects on stakeholder preferences. Similarly, this paper details the need for considering environmental information to ascertain the value of the ORR`s ecological resources. During the analysis taking place on the ORR, a methodology will be developed to integrate these varied data sets and to address both the individual and the combined effects of economic and environmental factors on stakeholders preferences. Several future land use options which will result form the analysis must be: (1) technically sound and promote informed decision-making, (2) understood by the parties involved, and (3) options that can be supported by the parties involved. This framework may be used in combination with defined technical, regulatory, and legal requirements to define achievable remediation goals for the ORR.

  3. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  4. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  5. Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Burges, S J.

    2001-10-01

    What is the effect of urbanization and forest use on hydrologic and geomorphic processes? How can we develop land use policies that minimize adverse impacts on ecosystems while sustaining biodiversity? Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas addresses these issues and more. By featuring watersheds principally in the American Pacific Northwest, and the effects of timber harvesting and road construction on stream flow, sediment yield and landslide occurrence, scientists can advance their understanding of what constitutes appropriate management of environments with similar hydro-climatic-geomorphic settings worldwide.

  6. Quantifying the Uncertainties of Aerosol Indirect Effects and Impacts on Decadal-Scale Climate Variability in NCAR CAM5 and CESM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sungsu

    2014-12-12

    The main goal of this project is to systematically quantify the major uncertainties of aerosol indirect effects due to the treatment of moist turbulent processes that drive aerosol activation, cloud macrophysics and microphysics in response to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations using the CAM5/CESM1. To achieve this goal, the P.I. hired a postdoctoral research scientist (Dr. Anna Fitch) who started her work from the Nov.1st.2012. In order to achieve the project goal, the first task that the Postdoc. and the P.I. did was to quantify the role of subgrid vertical velocity variance on the activation and nucleation of cloud liquid droplets and ice crystals and its impact on the aerosol indirect effect in CAM5. First, we analyzed various LES cases (from dry stable to cloud-topped PBL) to check whether this isotropic turbulence assumption used in CAM5 is really valid. It turned out that this isotropic turbulence assumption is not universally valid. Consequently, from the analysis of LES, we derived an empirical formulation relaxing the isotropic turbulence assumption used for the CAM5 aerosol activation and ice nucleation, and implemented the empirical formulation into CAM5/CESM1, and tested in the single-column and global simulation modes, and examined how it changed aerosol indirect effects in the CAM5/CESM1. These results were reported in the poster section in the 18th Annual CESM workshop held in Breckenridge, CO during Jun.17-20.2013. While we derived an empirical formulation from the analysis of couple of LES from the first task, the general applicability of that empirical formulation was questionable, because it was obtained from the limited number of LES simulations. The second task we did was to derive a more fundamental analytical formulation relating vertical velocity variance to TKE using other information starting from basic physical principles. This was a somewhat challenging subject, but if this could be done in a successful way, it could be directly

  7. Solar Land Use Data on OpenEI | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Land Use Data on OpenEI Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 25 June, 2013 - 12:10 acres csp land use how much land land...

  8. Land-use Policy and Program Design Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pages S251-S264 | Wheater, H.; Evans, E. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia Land Use Policy, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages...

  9. File:01-FD-b - LandUsePlanAmendmentProcess.pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FD-b - LandUsePlanAmendmentProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:01-FD-b - LandUsePlanAmendmentProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  10. File:01-FD-a - LandUsePlanning.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    01-FD-a - LandUsePlanning.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:01-FD-a - LandUsePlanning.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution:...

  11. File:01NVAStateLandUsePlanning (1).pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1NVAStateLandUsePlanning (1).pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:01NVAStateLandUsePlanning (1).pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels....

  12. IC 67-75 - Local Land Use Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    67-75 - Local Land Use Planning Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: IC 67-75 - Local Land Use PlanningLegal Published...

  13. OAR 660-015 - Land Use Planning Statewide Planning Goals | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    60-015 - Land Use Planning Statewide Planning Goals Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: OAR 660-015 - Land Use...

  14. Idaho - IS 67-6508 - Land Use Planning Duties | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IS 67-6508 - Land Use Planning Duties Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Idaho - IS 67-6508 - Land Use Planning...

  15. GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport (Espaol) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning...

  16. Future land use threats to range-restricted fish species in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Future land use threats to range-restricted fish species in the United States Citation ... Title: Future land use threats to range-restricted fish species in the United States Land ...

  17. Tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inaoka, Takeshi Furukawa, Takuro; Toma, Ryo; Yanagisawa, Susumu

    2015-09-14

    By means of a hybrid density-functional method, we investigate the tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge. We consider [001], [111], and [110] uniaxial tensility and (001), (111), and (110) biaxial tensility. Under the condition of no normal stress, we determine both normal compression and internal strain, namely, relative displacement of two atoms in the primitive unit cell, by minimizing the total energy. We identify those strain types which can induce the band-gap transition, and evaluate the critical strain coefficient where the gap transition occurs. Either normal compression or internal strain operates unfavorably to induce the gap transition, which raises the critical strain coefficient or even blocks the transition. We also examine how each type of tensile strain decreases the band-gap energy, depending on its orientation. Our analysis clearly shows that synergistic operation of strain orientation and band anisotropy has a great influence on the gap transition and the gap energy.

  18. Bureau of Land Management - Table 1.4-1 - Land Use Planning Process...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Instructions: Bureau of Land Management - Table 1.4-1 - Land Use Planning Process StepsPermittingRegulatory...

  19. Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Forestry Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture and Forestry...

  20. Land-Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 August 2009 Land-Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States Paul Denholm, Maureen Hand, Maddalena Jackson, and Sean Ong National Renewable Energy...

  1. DOE indirect liquefaction program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schehl, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Processes for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide have had commercial importance since about 1920, when the commercial production of methanol and higher alcohols on oxide catalysts began. Soon thereafter Fischer and Tropsch discovered that liquid hydrocarbons could be synthesized from carbon monoxide and hydrogen over Group VIII metal catalysts. Following extensive catalyst and process development efforts, this technology provided Germany with a source of liquid fuels during World War II. The period following the war saw an acceleration in research and development on the Fischer-Tropsch process, but the only commercial application that was to emerge was the SASOL process in the Union of South Africa. The oil crises of the 1970s have rekindled worldwide interest in indirect liquefaction technologies for the production of clean, high-quality motor fuels from coal. The development of more efficient coal gasification processes and the advent of molecular sieve catalysts that allow tailoring of product distributions have set the stage for revolutionary improvements in process designs over state-of-the-art technology. This paper reviews, in brief, the research and development projects that the Department of Energy is sponsoring in the area of synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels. These projects range from pilot-plant-scale operations, such as the fluidized-bed MTG plant in Wesseling, FRG, to basic research into reaction mechanisms at universities and government laboratories. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. On linking an Earth system model to the equilibrium carbon representation of an economically optimizing land use model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Mao, Jiafu; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Xiaoying; Thomson, Allison M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2014-01-01

    Human activities are significantly altering biogeochemical cycles at the global scale, posing a significant problem for earth system models (ESMs), which may incorporate static land-use change inputs but do not actively simulate policy or economic forces. One option to address this problem is a to couple an ESM with an economically oriented integrated assessment model. Here we have implemented and tested a coupling mechanism between the carbon cycles of an ESM (CLM) and an integrated assessment (GCAM) model, examining the best proxy variables to share between the models, and quantifying our ability to distinguish climate- and land-use-driven flux changes. CLMs net primary production and heterotrophic respiration outputs were found to be the most robust proxy variables by which to manipulate GCAMs assumptions of long-term ecosystem steady state carbon, with short-term forest production strongly correlated with long-term biomass changes in climate-change model runs. By leveraging the fact that carbon-cycle effects of anthropogenic land-use change are short-term and spatially limited relative to widely distributed climate effects, we were able to distinguish these effects successfully in the model coupling, passing only the latter to GCAM. By allowing climate effects from a full earth system model to dynamically modulate the economic and policy decisions of an integrated assessment model, this work provides a foundation for linking these models in a robust and flexible framework capable of examining two-way interactions between human and earth system processes.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  4. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' Manual and Technical Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Qin, Zhangcai; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  5. Final Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-10-01

    This Final ''Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement'' (HCP EIS) is being used by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its nine cooperating and consulting agencies to develop a comprehensive land-use plan (CLUP) for the Hanford Site. The DOE will use the Final HCP EIS as a basis for a Record of Decision (ROD) on a CLUP for the Hanford Site. While development of the CLUP will be complete with release of the HCP EIS ROD, full implementation of the CLUP is expected to take at least 50 years. Implementation of the CLUP would begin a more detailed planning process for land-use and facility-use decisions at the Hanford Site. The DOE would use the CLUP to screen proposals. Eventually, management of Hanford Site areas would move toward the CLUP land-use goals. This CLUP process could take more than 50 years to fully achieve the land-use goals.

  6. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's...

  7. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's ...

  8. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  9. Aerosol Indirect Effect on the Grid-scale Clouds in the Two-way Coupled WRF-CMAQ: Model Description, Development, Evaluation and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shaocai; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Wong, David; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, Kiran; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-24

    This study implemented first, second and glaciations aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQpredicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly-developed WRF-CMAQ model, with alternate CAM and RRTMG radiation schemes, was evaluated with the observations from the CERES satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNet, STN, and PRISM) over the continental U.S. (CONUS) (12-km resolution) and eastern Texas (4-km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the AQS surface sites show that in August, the NMB values for PM2.5 over the eastern/western U.S (EUS/WUS) and western U.S. (WUS) are 5.3% (?0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO4 2? by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the CASTNet, IMPROVE and STN sites, respectively. Both models (WRF-CMAQ/CAM, WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean OC, EC and TC concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both models generally underestimated the cloud field (SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the fact that the AIE on the subgrid convective clouds was not considered when the model simulations were run at the 12 km resolution. This is in agreement with the fact that both models captured SWCF and LWCF very well for the 4-km simulation over the eastern Texas when all clouds were resolved by the finer domain. Both models generally overestimated the observed precipitation by more than 40% mainly because of significant overestimation in the southern part of the CONUS in August. The simulations of WRF-CMAQ/CAM and WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG show dramatic improvements for SWCF, LWCF

  10. Reinterpreting SMCRA: {open_quotes}Permitting{close_quotes} phased postmining land use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkin, Z.R.; Nieman, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The coal producing area of Appalachian Kentucky has a shortage of developable land. The majority of mined land in this region has been reclaimed to pastureland or hayland, while narrow interpretation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) and regulations, especially regarding bond release, has limited alternative postmining land uses which could support economic development. A study of Federal and State of Kentucky laws and regulations shows that postmining land use regulations and their implementation have focussed on preventing and minimizing environmental damage. Land use and land use planning concepts are not well understood, thus permit applications inadequately address land use needs and the {open_quotes}highest and best use{close_quotes} of a site. Required information about pre-mining conditions is not collected and analyzed in a way useful for determining appropriate postmining land use. More comprehensive, higher quality land use information, with information about regional factors such as transportation, utilities, labor market, etc., should be included in the permit application to identify sites with strong development potential. This, combined with a broader interpretation of the law recognizing the validity of a phased implementation of postmined land use, would continue environmental protection while preparing reclaimed land to meet potential future land use needs. The mining plan can be designed so that appropriate areas are prepared and laid out for future buildings or roads, yet are conducive to interim use for pasture, wildlife or recreation. Reclamation to the interim use, sufficient to protect the public and allow bond release, maintains the potential for later development. Land later can be made available in response to development demands, contributing to a more diversified economy.

  11. NREL Report Firms Up Land-Use Requirements of Solar - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report Firms Up Land-Use Requirements of Solar Study shows solar for 1,000 homes would require 32 acres July 30, 2013 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has published a report on the land use requirements of solar power plants based on actual land-use practices from existing solar facilities. "Having real data from a majority of the solar plants in the United States will help people make proper comparisons and informed decisions," lead author Sean Ong

  12. Hillslope stability and land use (1985). Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidle, R.C.; Pearce, A.J.; O'Loughlin, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the natural factors affecting slope stability, including soils and geomorphic, hydrologic, vegetative, and seismic factors and provides information on landslide classification, global damage, and analytical methods. The effects of various extensive and intensive land management practices on slope stability are discussed together with methods for prediction, avoidance, and control. Examples of terrain evaluation procedures and land management practices are presented.

  13. RCW - 43.21B - Environmental and Land Use Hearings Office - Pollution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    43.21B - Environmental and Land Use Hearings Office - Pollution Control Hearings Board Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory Investigates Fenton Hill to Support Future Land Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – Supporting future land use for the U.S. Forest Service, Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Corrective Actions Program (CAP) completed sampling soil at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains this month.

  15. Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Land-use change and greenhouse gas emissions from corn and cellulosic ethanol July 16, ... Estimates of LUC GHG emissions focus mainly on corn ethanol and vary widely. Increasing ...

  16. Title 10 Chapter 151 State Land Use and Development Plans | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Title 10 Chapter 151 State Land Use and Development Plans Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Title 10 Chapter 151...

  17. I.C. 67-65 - Local Land Use Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: I.C. 67-65 - Local Land Use PlanningLegal Abstract This statute outlines the zoning and...

  18. Idaho IC 67-6508, Planning Duties for Local Land Use | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Idaho IC 67-6508, Planning Duties for Local Land Use Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Idaho IC 67-6508, Planning...

  19. Wind Power Siting: Public Acceptance and Land Use; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-06-17

    Suzanne Tegen presented this information as part of the June 17, 2015 WINDExchange webinar: Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges III: Public Acceptance and Land Use. This presentation provides an overview of current NREL research related to wind energy deployment considerations, the DOE Wind Vision as it relates to public acceptance and land use, why public acceptance of wind power matters, where the U.S. wind resource is best, and how those rich resource areas overlay with population centers.

  20. Quantum-Size Effects on the Pressure-Induced Direct-to-Indirect Band-Gap Transition in InP Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, H.; Zunger, A.

    1998-06-01

    We predict that the difference in quantum confinement energies of {Gamma} -like and X -like conduction states in a covalent quantum dot will cause the direct-to-indirect transition to occur at substantially lower pressure than in the bulk material. Furthermore, the first-order transition in the bulk is predicted to become, for certain dot sizes, a second-order transition. Measurements of the {open_quotes}anticrossing gap{close_quotes} could thus be used to obtain unique information on the {Gamma}-X- L intervalley coupling, predicted here to be surprisingly large (50{endash}100thinspthinspmeV). {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect ...

  2. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation TRI Technology Update & IDL R&D ... ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation ...

  3. Assessment of uncertainties in the response of the African monsoon precipitation to land use change simulated by a regional model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung Ruby; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin -Ho

    2014-02-22

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature.

  4. Assessment of Uncertainties in the Response of the African Monsoon Precipitation to Land Use change simulated by a regional model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-02-22

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Although the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubs and an increase in surface air temperature.

  5. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were

  6. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  7. An integrated computer modeling environment for regional land use, air quality, and transportation planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, C.J.; Marshall, N.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Land Use, Air Quality, and Transportation Integrated Modeling Environment (LATIME) represents an integrated approach to computer modeling and simulation of land use allocation, travel demand, and mobile source emissions for the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area. This environment provides predictive capability combined with a graphical and geographical interface. The graphical interface shows the causal relationships between data and policy scenarios and supports alternative model formulations. Scenarios are launched from within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and data produced by each model component at each time step within a simulation is stored in the GIS. A menu-driven query system is utilized to review link-based results and regional and area-wide results. These results can also be compared across time or between alternative land use scenarios. Using this environment, policies can be developed and implemented based on comparative analysis, rather than on single-step future projections. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Integrated Dynamic Gloabal Modeling of Land Use, Energy and Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Jain, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL Brian O'Neill, NCAR, Boulder, CO

    2009-10-14

    The overall objective of this collaborative project is to integrate an existing general equilibrium energy-economic growth model with a biogeochemical cycles and biophysical models in order to more fully explore the potential contribution of land use-related activities to future emissions scenarios. Land cover and land use change activities, including deforestation, afforestation, and agriculture management, are important source of not only CO2, but also non-CO2 GHGs. Therefore, contribution of land-use emissions to total emissions of GHGs is important, and consequently their future trends are relevant to the estimation of climate change and its mitigation. This final report covers the full project period of the award, beginning May 2006, which includes a sub-contract to Brown University later transferred to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) when Co-PI Brian O'Neill changed institutional affiliations.

  9. Evaluating the Probabilistic Land-Use Scenarios in the Radiological Dose Assessment for License Termination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Kamboj, S.; Allison, T.; LePoire, D.; Mo, T.

    2006-07-01

    A recent trend in establishing regulatory policy regarding environmental cleanup has been the adoption of a risk-informed decision approach. This approach places an emphasis on the development of a defensible technical basis upon which cleanup decisions can be understood and accepted by stakeholders. The process has been exemplified by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) approach to implement its License Termination Rule in Title 10, Part 20, Subpart E of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 20, Subpart E), for which probabilistic radiological dose assessment has been a key technical element for demonstrating compliance. Further guidance including NUREG-1757 and its supplemental document are also prepared for this purpose. The approach also entails extensive data collection to cover the range of parameter variability, along with interpretations of the probabilistic dose results and demonstration of compliance. One major remaining issue, however, involves the future use of the land following cleanup. Land use is a key factor that may profoundly influence dose assessment, which in turn will affect the level of cleanup and therefore the associated costs. Despite this, incorporation of land-use considerations into the current probabilistic dose assessment approach has not actually been performed in the regulatory process. In order to address the issue, a study was initiated to evaluate the potential influence of land use on dose analysis, to understand the possible ramifications in cleanup decision-making. A probabilistic distribution based on land use was developed as input into the probabilistic RESRAD analysis for the demonstration of this approach.. This results in an understanding of the characteristics of dose distributions as exhibited by various land-use scenarios. By factoring in the probability distribution of land-use scenarios, the potential 'levels of conservatism' can be explicitly defined and evaluated. The results allow the

  10. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  11. Integrated Assessment and the Relation Between Land-Use Change and Climate Change

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Dale, V. H.

    1994-10-07

    Integrated assessment is an approach that is useful in evaluating the consequences of global climate change. Understanding the consequences requires knowledge of the relationship between land-use change and climate change. Methodologies for assessing the contribution of land-use change to atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are considered with reference to a particular case study area: south and southeast Asia. The use of models to evaluate the consequences of climate change on forests must also consider an assessment approach. Each of these points is discussed in the following four sections.

  12. Indirect heating system for turbine anti-icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagar, S.N.

    1980-03-01

    Gas-transmission service in northern Minnesota has verified the effectiveness of American Air Filter Co.'s indirect-heating method of preventing gas-turbine icing at compressor stations. By routing hot exhaust gases through a heat exchanger rather than directly into the inlet-air system, the indirect-heating method avoids turbine fouling, raises the air temperature at a constant specific humidity, and provides a uniform cross section of heated intake air for good turbine efficiency.

  13. Ecological perspectives of land use history: The Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinds, N R; Rogers, L E

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this study was to gather information on the land use history of the Arid Land Ecology (ALE) Reserve so that current ecological research could be placed within a historical perspective. The data were gathered in the early 1980s by interviewing former users of the land and from previously published research (where available). Interviews with former land users of the ALE Reserve in Benton County, Washington, revealed that major land uses from 1880 to 1940 were homesteading, grazing, oil/gas production, and road building. Land use practices associated with grazing and homesteading have left the greatest impact on the landscape. Disturbed sites where succession is characterized by non-native species, plots where sagebrush was railed away, and sheep trails are major indications today of past land uses. Recent estimates of annual bunchgrass production do ALE do not support the widespread belief that bunchgrass were more productive during the homesteading era, though the invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissium), and other European alien plant species has altered pre-settlement succession patterns. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel production: Empirical evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Kwon, Hoyoung; Mueller, Steffen; Wander, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) change can be a major impact of land use change (LUC) associated with biofuel feedstock production. By collecting and analyzing data from worldwide field observations with major LUCs from cropland, grassland and forest to lands producing biofuel crops (i.e., corn, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar and willow), we were able to estimate SOC response ratios and sequestration rates and evaluate the effects of soil depth and time scale on SOC change. Both the amount and rate of SOC change were highly dependent on the specific land transition. Irrespective of soil depth or time horizon, cropland conversions resulted in an overall SOC gain of 6-14% relative to initial SOC level, while conversion from grassland or forest to corn (without residue removal) or poplar caused significant carbon loss (9-35%). No significant SOC changes were observed in land converted from grasslands or forests to switchgrass, Miscanthus or willow. The SOC response ratios were similar in both 0-30 and 0-100 cm soil depths in most cases, suggesting SOC changes in deep soil and that use of top soil only for SOC accounting in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) might underestimate total SOC changes. Soil carbon sequestration rates varied greatly among studies and land transition types. Generally, the rates of SOC change tended to be the greatest during the 10 years following land conversion, and had declined to approach 0 within about 20 years for most LUCs. Observed trends in SOC change were generally consistent with previous reports. Soil depth and duration of study significantly influence SOC change rates and so should be considered in carbon emission accounting in biofuel LCA. High uncertainty remains for many perennial systems, field trials and modeling efforts are needed to determine the site- and system-specific rates and direction of change associated with their production.

  15. Accounting for radiative forcing from albedo change in future global land-use scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Andrew D.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a new method for quantifying radiative forcing from land use and land cover change (LULCC) within an integrated assessment model, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The method relies on geographically differentiated estimates of radiative forcing from albedo change associated with major land cover transitions derived from the Community Earth System Model. We find that conversion of 1 km² of woody vegetation (forest and shrublands) to non-woody vegetation (crops and grassland) yields between 0 and –0.71 nW/m² of globally averaged radiative forcing determined by the vegetation characteristics, snow dynamics, and atmospheric radiation environment characteristic within each of 151 regions we consider globally. Across a set of scenarios designed to span a range of potential future LULCC, we find LULCC forcing ranging from –0.06 to –0.29 W/m² by 2070 depending on assumptions regarding future crop yield growth and whether climate policy favors afforestation or bioenergy crops. Inclusion of this previously uncounted forcing in the policy targets driving future climate mitigation efforts leads to changes in fossil fuel emissions on the order of 1.5 PgC/yr by 2070 for a climate forcing limit of 4.5 Wm–2, corresponding to a 12–67 % change in fossil fuel emissions depending on the scenario. Scenarios with significant afforestation must compensate for albedo-induced warming through additional emissions reductions, and scenarios with significant deforestation need not mitigate as aggressively due to albedo-induced cooling. In all scenarios considered, inclusion of albedo forcing in policy targets increases forest and shrub cover globally.

  16. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-09-22

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  17. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-04-09

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  18. A spatially distributed model for the assessment of land use impacts on stream temperature in small urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Yearsley, John; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-05-15

    Stream temperatures in urban watersheds are influenced to a high degree by anthropogenic impacts related to changes in landscape, stream channel morphology, and climate. These impacts can occur at small time and length scales, hence require analytical tools that consider the influence of the hydrologic regime, energy fluxes, topography, channel morphology, and near-stream vegetation distribution. Here we describe a modeling system that integrates the Distributed Hydrologic Soil Vegetation Model, DHSVM, with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM, which has the capability to simulate the hydrology and water temperature of urban streams at high time and space resolutions, as well as a representation of the effects of riparian shading on stream energetics. We demonstrate the modeling system through application to the Mercer Creek watershed, a small urban catchment near Bellevue, Washington. The results suggest that the model is able both to produce realistic streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales, and to provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that are consistent with observations throughout a complex stream network. We use the modeling construct to characterize impacts of land use change and near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature throughout the Mercer Creek system. We then explore the sensitivity of stream temperature to land use changes and modifications in vegetation along the riparian corridor.

  19. EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

    2001-08-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  20. Final Report for “Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects. A New Parameterization for Frost Flower Aerosol Salt Emissions” (DESC0006679) for 9/15/2011 through 9/14/2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Somerville, Richard C.J.; Burrows, Susannah; Rasch, Phil

    2015-12-12

    Description of the Project: This project has improved the aerosol formulation in a global climate model by using innovative new field and laboratory observations to develop and implement a novel wind-driven sea ice aerosol flux parameterization. This work fills a critical gap in the understanding of clouds, aerosol, and radiation in polar regions by addressing one of the largest missing particle sources in aerosol-climate modeling. Recent measurements of Arctic organic and inorganic aerosol indicate that the largest source of natural aerosol during the Arctic winter is emitted from crystal structures, known as frost flowers, formed on a newly frozen sea ice surface [Shaw et al., 2010]. We have implemented the new parameterization in an updated climate model making it the first capable of investigating how polar natural aerosol-cloud indirect effects relate to this important and previously unrecognized sea ice source. The parameterization is constrained by Arctic ARM in situ cloud and radiation data. The modified climate model has been used to quantify the potential pan-Arctic radiative forcing and aerosol indirect effects due to this missing source. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Li Xu) for two years and contributed to the training and research of an undergraduate student. This research allowed us to establish a collaboration between SIO and PNNL in order to contribute the frost flower parameterization to the new ACME model. One peer-reviewed publications has already resulted from this work, and a manuscript for a second publication has been completed. Additional publications from the PNNL collaboration are expected to follow.

  1. Scenarios of Future Socio-Economics, Energy, Land Use, and Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Moss, Richard H.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Kopp, Roberrt; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Patel, Pralit L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Wise, Marshall A.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2013-04-13

    This chapter explores uncertainty in future scenarios of energy, land use, emissions and radiative forcing that span the range in the literature for radiative forcing, but also consider uncertainty in two other dimensions, challenges to mitigation and challenges to adaptation. We develop a set of six scenarios that we explore in detail including the underlying the context in which they are set, assumptions that drive the scenarios, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), used to produce quantified implications for those assumptions, and results for the global energy and land-use systems as well as emissions, concentrations and radiative forcing. We also describe the history of scenario development and the present state of development of this branch of climate change research. We discuss the implications of alternative social, economic, demographic, and technology development possibilities, as well as potential stabilization regimes for the supply of and demand for energy, the choice of energy technologies, and prices of energy and agricultural commodities. Land use and land cover will also be discussed with the emphasis on the interaction between the demand for bioenergy and crops, crop yields, crop prices, and policy settings to limit greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  3. Assessment of uncertainties in the response of the African monsoon precipitation to land use change simulated by a regional model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung Ruby; Xue, Yongkang; Boone, Aaron; de Sales, Fernando; Neupane, Naresh; Huang, Maoyi; Yoon, Jin -Ho

    2014-02-22

    Land use and land cover over Africa have changed substantially over the last sixty years and this change has been proposed to affect monsoon circulation and precipitation. This study examines the uncertainties on the effect of these changes on the African Monsoon system and Sahel precipitation using an ensemble of regional model simulations with different combinations of land surface and cumulus parameterization schemes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response covers a broad range of values, most of the simulations show a decline in Sahel precipitation due to the expansion of pasture and croplands at the expense of trees and shrubsmore » and an increase in surface air temperature.« less

  4. Climate change in the four corners and adjacent regions: Implications for environmental restoration and land-use planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the workshop proceedings on Climate Change in the Four Corners and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Environmental Restoration and Land-Use Planning which took place September 12-14, 1994 in Grand Junction, Colorado. The workshop addressed three ways we can use paleoenvironmental data to gain a better understanding of climate change and its effects. (1) To serve as a retrospective baseline for interpreting past and projecting future climate-induced environmental change, (2) To differentiate the influences of climate and humans on past environmental change, and (3) To improve ecosystem management and restoration practices in the future. The papers presented at this workshop contained information on the following subjects: Paleoclimatic data from the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, climate change and past cultures, and ecological resources and environmental restoration. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. DOE’s Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop.

  6. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  7. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic

  8. Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-02-01

    Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

  9. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  10. Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Atul Jain

    2005-04-17

    This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and

  11. Impacts of Array Configuration on Land-Use Requirements for Large-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.

    2008-05-01

    Land use is often cited as an important issue for renewable energy technologies. In this paper we examine the relationship between land-use requirements for large-scale photovoltaic (PV) deployment in the U.S. and PV-array configuration. We estimate the per capita land requirements for solar PV and find that array configuration is a stronger driver of energy density than regional variations in solar insolation. When deployed horizontally, the PV land area needed to meet 100% of an average U.S. citizen's electricity demand is about 100 m2. This requirement roughly doubles to about 200 m2 when using 1-axis tracking arrays. By comparing these total land-use requirements with other current per capita land uses, we find that land-use requirements of solar photovoltaics are modest, especially when considering the availability of zero impact 'land' on rooftops. Additional work is need to examine the tradeoffs between array spacing, self-shading losses, and land use, along with possible techniques to mitigate land-use impacts of large-scale PV deployment.

  12. Land Use and Ecosystems Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication titled Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Land Use and Ecosystems information includes Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Data Sets, data sets from Africa and Asia, the Worldwide Organic Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dataset, and much more.

  13. Experimental Design for CMIP6: Aerosol, Land Use, and Future Scenarios Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnott, James

    2015-10-30

    The Aspen Global Change Institute hosted a technical science workshop entitled, “Experimental design for CMIP6: Aerosol, Land Use, and Future Scenarios,” on August 3-8, 2014 in Aspen, CO. Claudia Tebaldi (NCAR) and Brian O’Neill (NCAR) served as co-chairs for the workshop. The Organizing committee also included Dave Lawrence (NCAR), Jean-Francois Lamarque (NCAR), George Hurtt (University of Maryland), & Detlef van Vuuren (PBL Netherlands Environmental Change). The meeting included the participation of 22 scientists representing many of the major climate modeling centers for a total of 110 participant days.

  14. DOE/EIS-0222-SA-O1 Supplement Analysis Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O1 Supplement Analysis Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office Richland, Washington 99352 June 2008 DOE/EIS-0222-SA-0 1 SUMMARY In September 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Final Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan (HCP) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (DOE/EIS-0222-F). The HCP EIS analyzed the impacts of alternatives for implementing a land-use plan for the DOE's Hanford Site for at least

  15. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Presentation Biomass RDD Review Template pearson_rentech_clearfuels.pdf (1 MB) More Documents & Publications ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop: Summary Report 2013 Peer Review Presnentations-Plenaries

  16. Impact of land use change on the local climate over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, J.; Lu, S.; Li, S.; Miller, N.L.

    2010-04-01

    Observational data show that the remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) has a significant downward trend over the east Tibetan Plateau (TP), while a warming trend is found in the same area. Further analysis indicates that this warming trend mainly results from the nighttime warming. The Single-Column Atmosphere Model (SCAM) version 3.1 developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is used to investigate the role of land use change in the TP local climate system and isolate the contribution of land use change to the warming. Two sets of SCAM simulations were performed at the Xinghai station that is located near the center of the TP Sanjiang (three rivers) Nature Reserve where the downward LAI trend is largest. These simulations were forced with the high and low LAIs. The modeling results indicate that, when the LAI changes from high to low, the daytime temperature has a slight decrease, while the nighttime temperature increases significantly, which is consistent with the observations. The modeling results further show that the lower surface roughness length plays a significant role in affecting the nighttime temperature increase.

  17. Aerosol indirect effects - general circulation model intercomparison...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (a) and various cloud ... Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the ...

  18. Land use change and carbon exchange in the tropics. I. Detailed estimates for Costa Rice, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C.A.S.; Detwiler, R.P.; Bogdonoff, P.; Underhill, S.

    1985-01-01

    This group, composed of modelers working in conjunction with tropical ecologists, has produced a simulation model that quantifies the net carbon exchange between tropical vegetation and the atmosphere due to land use change. The model calculates this net exchange by combining estimates of land use change with several estimates of the carbon stored in tropical vegetation and general assumptions about the fate of cleared vegetation. In this report, the authors use estimates of land use and carbon of land use and carbon storage organized into six life zone (sensu Holdridge) categories to calculate the exchange between the atmosphere and the vegetation of four tropical countries. Their analyses of these countries indicate that this life zone approach has several advantages because (a) the carbon content of vegetation varies significantly among life zones, (b) much of the land use change occurs in life zones of only moderate carbon storage, and (c) the fate of cleared vegetation varies among life zones. Their analyses also emphasize the importance of distinguishing between temporary and permanent land use change, as the recovery of vegetation on abandoned areas decreases the net release of carbon due to clearing. They include sensitivity analysis of those factors that they found to be important but are difficult to quantify at present.

  19. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' manual and technical documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, S; Dunn, JB; Wang, M

    2012-06-07

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released May 31, 2012 which includes corn, as did the previous CCLUB version, and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass. CCLUB calculations are based upon two data sets: land change areas and above- and below-ground carbon content. Table 1 identifies where these data are stored and used within the CCLUB model, which is built in MS Excel. Land change area data is from Purdue University's Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, a computable general equilibrium (CGE) economic model. Section 2 describes the GTAP data CCLUB uses and how these data were modified to reflect shrubland transitions. Feedstock- and spatially-explicit below-ground carbon content data for the United States were generated with a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic carbon sub-model (Kwon and Hudson 2010) as described in Section 3. CENTURY is a soil organic matter model developed by Parton et al. (1987). The previous CCLUB version used more coarse domestic carbon emission factors. Above-ground non-soil carbon content data for forest ecosystems was sourced from the USDA/NCIAS Carbon Online Estimator (COLE) as explained in Section 4. We discuss emission factors used for calculation of international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Section 5. Temporal issues associated with modeling LUC emissions are the topic of Section 6. Finally, in Section 7 we provide a step-by-step guide to using CCLUB and obtaining results.

  20. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  1. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  2. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and...

  3. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  4. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct ...

  5. Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be implosions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance and mix measurements of indirect drive Cu doped Be ...

  6. Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage ...

  7. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Homes & Buildings Water Heating Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of ...

  8. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications You ...

  9. Indirect ( n , γ ) cross sections of thorium cycle nuclei using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Indirect ( n , ) cross sections of thorium cycle nuclei using the surrogate method Title: Indirect ( n , ) cross sections of thorium cycle nuclei using the surrogate method ...

  10. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis ...

  11. Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark matter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark matter Prev Next Title: Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark matter Authors: Pearce, Lauren ; ...

  12. Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark matter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark matter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark ...

  13. Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, R.A.

    2001-02-22

    The database documented in this numeric data package, a revision to a database originally published by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) in 1995, consists of annual estimates, from 1850 through 1990, of the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere resulting from deliberate changes in land cover and land use, especially forest clearing for agriculture and the harvest of wood for wood products or energy. The data are provided on a year-by-year basis for nine regions (North America, South and Central America, Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, Tropical Africa, the Former Soviet Union, China, South and Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Developed Region) and the globe. Some data begin earlier than 1850 (e.g., for six regions, areas of different ecosystems are provided for the year 1700) or extend beyond 1990 (e.g., fuelwood harvest in South and Southeast Asia, by forest type, is provided through 1995). The global net flux during the period 1850 to 1990 was 124 Pg of carbon (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams). During this period, the greatest regional flux was from South and Southeast Asia (39 Pg of carbon), while the smallest regional flux was from North Africa and the Middle East (3 Pg of carbon). For the year 1990, the global total net flux was estimated to be 2.1 Pg of carbon.

  14. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  15. Quantification of progress in indirect coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; ElSawy, A.; Tomlinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the economic and technical impact of incorporating various advanced technologies into the indirect coal liquefaction system. These advanced technologies include entrained flow Shell gasification and slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. This objective was accomplished by substituting the Shell entrained goal gasifier system for the Lurgi and the advanced slurry F-T reactor for the Synthol and ARGE F-T systems in a SASOL-type indirect liquefaction facility. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Land-use legacies and present fire regimes interact to mediate herbivory by altering the neighboring plant community.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Philip G.; Orrock, John L.

    2015-04-01

    Past and present human activities, such as historic agriculture and fire suppression, are widespread and can create depauperate plant communities. Although many studies show that herbivory on focal plants depends on the density of herbivores or the composition of the surrounding plant community, it is unclear whether anthropogenic changes to plant communities alter herbivory. We tested the hypothesis that human activities that alter the plant community lead to subsequent changes in herbivory. At 20 sites distributed across 80 300 hectares, we conducted a field experiment that manipulated insect herbivore access (full exclosures and pseudo-exclosures) to four focal plant species in longleaf pine woodlands with diff erent land-use histories (post-agricultural sites or non-agricultural sites) and degrees of fi re frequency (frequent and infrequent). Plant cover, particularly herbaceous cover, was lower in post-agricultural and fi re suppressed woodlands. Density of the dominant insect herbivore at our site (grasshoppers) was positively related to plant cover. Herbivore access reduced biomass of the palatable forb Solidago odora in frequently burned post-agricultural sites and in infrequently burned non-agricultural woodlands and increased mortality of another forb (Pityopsis graminifolia ), but did not aff ect two other less palatable species ( Schizachyrium scoparium and Tephrosia virginiana ). Herbivory on S. odora exhibited a hump-shaped response to plant cover, with low herbivory at low and high levels of plant cover. Herbivore density had a weak negative effect on herbivory. These findings suggest that changes in plant cover related to past and present human activities can modify damage rates on focal S. odora plants by altering grasshopper foraging behavior rather than by altering local grasshopper density. The resulting changes in herbivory may have the potential to limit natural recovery or restoration eff orts by reducing the establishment or performance of

  17. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  18. Spatial decision support for strategic environmental assessment of land use plans. A case study in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geneletti, Davide . E-mail: davide.geneletti@ing.unitn.it; Bagli, Stefano . E-mail: home@gecosistema.it; Napolitano, Paola . E-mail: home@gecosistema.it

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents and discusses the construction of a spatial decision-support tool for the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of a land use plan: the spatial coordination plan of the Province of Naples, in southern Italy. The decision-support tool organises the relevant information, spatially resolves the actions of the plan, predicts their environmental impacts, and generates overall performance maps. Its final goal is to provide a suitable technical support to a formal SEA procedure. The expected implications of the plan, such as changes in land use and traffic flows and urban expansion, were modelled and assessed against a set of environmental criteria using SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis and mapping. It was found that the SWOT analysis provided a good basis for assessment and strategy formulation. The paper also intends to contribute to the topic of data and scale issues in SEA, by exemplifying the role played by spatial data and spatial analyses to support informative SEA.

  19. Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Indirect Solar...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes In 2011, ...

  20. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San Jos Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a ...

  1. The role of plant-soil feedbacks and land-use legacies in restoration of a temperate steppe in northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Lili; Han, Xingguo; Zhang, Guangming; Kardol, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Plant soil feedbacks affect plant performance and plant community dynamics; however, little is known about their role in ecological restoration. Here, we studied plant soil feedbacks in restoration of steppe vegetation after agricultural disturbance in northern China. First, we analyzed abiotic and biotic soil properties under mono-dominant plant patches in an old-field restoration site and in a target steppe site. Second, we tested plant soil feedbacks by growing plant species from these two sites on soils from con- and heterospecific origin. Soil properties generally did not differ between the old-field site and steppe site, but there were significant differences among mono-dominant plant patches within the sites. While soil species origin (i.e., the plant species beneath which the soil was collected) affected biomass of individual plant species in the feedback experiment, species-level plant soil feedbacks were neutral . Soil site origin (old-field, steppe) significantly affected biomass of old-field and steppe species. For example, old-field species had higher biomass in old-field soils than in steppe soils, indicating a positive land-use legacy. However, soil site origin effects depended on the plant species beneath which the soils were collected. The predictive value of abiotic and biotic soil properties in explaining plant biomass differed between and within groups of old-field and steppe species. We conclude that the occurrence of positive land-use legacies for old-field species may retard successional replacement of old-field species by steppe species. However, high levels of idiosyncrasy in responses of old-field and steppe plant species to con- and heterospecific soils indicate interspecific variation in the extent to which soil legacies and plant soil feedbacks control successional species replacements in Chinese steppe ecosystems.

  2. EA-1936: Proposed Changes to Parcel ED-1 Land Uses, Utility Infrastructure, and Natural Area Management Responsibility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed modifications to the allowable land uses, utility infrastructure, and Natural Area management responsibility for Parcel ED-1. The purpose of the modifications is to enhance the development potential of the Horizon Center business/industrial park, while ensuring protection of the adjacent Natural Area. The area addressed by the proposed action was evaluated for various industrial/business uses in the Environmental Assessment Addendum for the Proposed Title Transfer of Parcel ED-1, DOE/EA-1113-A.

  3. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  4. Land-use change trajectories up to 2050: insights from a global agro-economic model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, Christoph; van Meijl, Hans; Kyle, G. Page; Nelson, Gerald C.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Gurgel, Angelo; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Popp, Alexander; Sands, Ronald; Tabeau, Andrzej; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; von Lampe, Martin; Wise, Marshall A.; Blanc, Elodie; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Valin, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in agricultural land use have important implications for environmental services. Previous studies of agricultural land-use futures have been published indicating large uncertainty due to different model assumptions and methodologies. In this article we present a first comprehensive comparison of global agro-economic models that have harmonized drivers of population, GDP, and biophysical yields. The comparison allows us to ask two research questions: (1) How much cropland will be used under different socioeconomic and climate change scenarios? (2) How can differences in model results be explained? The comparison includes four partial and six general equilibrium models that differ in how they model land supply and amount of potentially available land. We analyze results of two different socioeconomic scenarios and three climate scenarios (one with constant climate). Most models (7 out of 10) project an increase of cropland of 1025% by 2050 compared to 2005 (under constant climate), but one model projects a decrease. Pasture land expands in some models, which increase the treat on natural vegetation further. Across all models most of the cropland expansion takes place in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In general, the strongest differences in model results are related to differences in the costs of land expansion, the endogenous productivity responses, and the assumptions about potential cropland.

  5. Landscape ecological planning: Integrating land use and wildlife conservation for biomass crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiller, A.

    1995-12-31

    What do a mussel shoat, a zoo, and a biomass plantation have in common? Each can benefit from ecology-based landscape planning. This paper provides examples of landscape ecological planning from some diverse projects the author has worked on, and discusses how processes employed and lessons learned from these projects are being used to help answer questions about the effects of biomass plantings (hardwood tree crops and native grasses) on wildlife habitat. Biomass environmental research is being designed to assess how plantings of different acreage, composition and landscape context affect wildlife habitat value, and is addressing the cumulative effect on wildlife habitat of establishing multiple biomass plantations across the landscape. Through landscape ecological planning, answers gleaned from research can also help guide biomass planting site selection and harvest strategies to improve habitat for native wildlife species within the context of economically viable plantation management - thereby integrating the needs of people with those of the environment.

  6. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  7. Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of...

  8. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes Greenfield, Massachusetts ... Building Component: Solar water heating Application: Single-family Years Tested: 2010-2013 ...

  9. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin ... Sponsoring Org: US DOE Office of Science (DOE SC) Country of Publication: United States ...

  10. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  11. Federal Energy Subsidies Direct and Indirect Interventions in Energy Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1992-01-01

    A one-time study defining direct and indirect federal energy subsidies, methods of valuation of such subsidies, and a survey of existing subsidies.

  12. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  13. Final Report for ''SOURCES AND SINKS OF CARBON FROM LAND-USE CHANGE AND MANAGEMENT: A GLOBAL SYNTHESIS'' Project Period September 15, 2001--September 14, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, R.A.

    2003-12-12

    Land management and land-use change can either release carbon (as CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere, for example when forests are converted to agricultural lands, or withdraw carbon from the atmosphere as forests grow on cleared lands or as management practices sequester carbon in soil. The purpose of this work was to calculate the annual sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use and management, globally and for nine world regions, over the period 1850 to 2000. The approach had three components. First, rates of land-use change were reconstructed from historical information on the areas of croplands, pastures, forests, and other lands and from data on wood harvests. In most regions, land-use change included the conversion of natural ecosystems to cultivated lands and pastures, including shifting cultivation, harvest of wood (for timber and fuel), and the establishment of tree plantations. In the U.S., woody encroachment and woodland thickening as a result of fire suppression were also included. Second, the amount of carbon per hectare in vegetation and soils and changes in that carbon as a result of land-use change were determined from data obtained in the ecological and forestry literature. These data on land-use change and carbon stocks were then used in a bookkeeping model (third component) to calculate regional and global changes in terrestrial carbon. The results indicate that for the period 1850-2000 the net flux of carbon from changes in land use was 156 PgC. For comparison, emissions of carbon from combustion of fossil fuels were approximately 280 PgC during the same interval. Annual emissions from land-use change exceeded emissions from fossil fuels before about 1920. Somewhat more that half (60%) of the long-term flux was from the tropics. Average annual fluxes during the 1980s and 1990s were 2.0 and 2.2 ({+-}0.8) PgC yr{sup -1} (30-40% of fossil fuel emissions), respectively. In these decades, the global sources of carbon were almost entirely from

  14. Applying geographic information systems to support strategic environmental assessment: Opportunities and limitations in the context of Irish land-use plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Gilmer, Alan; Foley, Ronan; Sweeney, John; Fry, John

    2011-04-15

    The strengthening of spatial database infrastructures, further promoted by the INSPIRE Directive adopted in 2007, has led to an increased use of spatial data in planning and decision-making. Given that land-use plans are intrinsically spatial, such evidence and approaches can significantly benefit plan-making. A spatial framework could especially support the specific Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) aspects of the plan-making process. Spatial tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are particularly well-placed to support the environmental integration sought in SEA by providing evidence through the spatial assessment of multiple environmental datasets. Moreover, GIS bring the opportunity to augment conventional assessment techniques (e.g. matrix-based assessments) by acting as visual mediators of spatial knowledge and by providing an effective tool for the spatial and temporal analysis of environmental impacts. This paper presents a GIS-based approach to SEA (GISEA), and analyses the above premise by evaluating the barriers, limitations, opportunities and benefits of its implementation. The GISEA approach has been applied to seven development plans of differing scales in the Republic of Ireland. The results of the case studies revealed that current issues in SEA (e.g. restricted time-frames and institutional arrangements) condition the implementation of a GIS-based approach. Moreover, GIS expertise, data accessibility and quality remain limiting factors to an effective GIS application in SEA. However, the results also confirmed that GIS have the potential to increase the objectivity and accuracy of the assessment, enhance both the understanding of environmental and planning considerations and the delivery of information, and, therefore, help to improve the effectiveness of SEA practice.

  15. A top-down assessment of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Schneider; B. Carlsen; E. Tavrides; C. van der Hoeven; U. Phathanapirom

    2013-11-01

    Land, water and energy use are key measures of the sustainability of uranium production into the future. As the most attractive, accessible deposits are mined out, future discoveries may prove to be significantly, perhaps unsustainably, more intensive consumers of environmental resources. A number of previous attempts have been made to provide empirical relationships connecting these environmental impact metrics to process variables such as stripping ratio and ore grade. These earlier attempts were often constrained by a lack of real world data and perform poorly when compared against data from modern operations. This paper conditions new empirical models of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining on contemporary data reported by operating mines. It shows that, at present, direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 1% of the electrical energy produced by the once-through fuel cycle. Projections of future energy intensity from uranium production are also possible by coupling the empirical models with estimates of uranium crustal abundance, characteristics of new discoveries, and demand. The projections show that even for the most pessimistic of scenarios considered, by 2100, the direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 3% of the electrical energy produced by the contemporary once-through fuel cycle.

  16. Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Energy Storage System | Department of Energy Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to design and validate a prototype and demonstrate a full-size (800 MWth) thermal energy storage (TES) system based on phase change materials (PCMs). Approach Acciona is using a test loop to

  17. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest ... 1977 and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000. ...

  18. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  19. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.

  20. Forecasting the response of Earth's surface to future climatic and land use changes: A review of methods and research needs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Murray, A. Brad; Pierce, Jennifer L.; Bierman, Paul R.; Breshears, David D.; Crosby, Benjamin T.; Ellis, Michael; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Heimsath, Arjun M.; Houser, Chris; et al

    2015-07-14

    In the future, Earth will be warmer, precipitation events will be more extreme, global mean sea level will rise, and many arid and semiarid regions will be drier. Human modifications of landscapes will also occur at an accelerated rate as developed areas increase in size and population density. We now have gridded global forecasts, being continually improved, of the climatic and land use changes (C&LUC) that are likely to occur in the coming decades. However, besides a few exceptions, consensus forecasts do not exist for how these C&LUC will likely impact Earth-surface processes and hazards. In some cases, we havemore » the tools to forecast the geomorphic responses to likely future C&LUC. Fully exploiting these models and utilizing these tools will require close collaboration among Earth-surface scientists and Earth-system modelers. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art tools and data that are being used or could be used to forecast changes in the state of Earth's surface as a result of likely future C&LUC. We also propose strategies for filling key knowledge gaps, emphasizing where additional basic research and/or collaboration across disciplines are necessary. The main body of the paper addresses cross-cutting issues, including the importance of nonlinear/threshold-dominated interactions among topography, vegetation, and sediment transport, as well as the importance of alternate stable states and extreme, rare events for understanding and forecasting Earth-surface response to C&LUC. Five supplements delve into different scales or process zones (global-scale assessments and fluvial, aeolian, glacial/periglacial, and coastal process zones) in detail.« less

  1. Forecasting the response of Earth's surface to future climatic and land use changes: A review of methods and research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Murray, A. Brad; Pierce, Jennifer L.; Bierman, Paul R.; Breshears, David D.; Crosby, Benjamin T.; Ellis, Michael; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Heimsath, Arjun M.; Houser, Chris; Lancaster, Nick; Marani, Marco; Merritts, Dorothy J.; Moore, Laura J.; Pederson, Joel L.; Poulos, Michael J.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Rowland, Joel C.; Ruggiero, Peter; Ward, Dylan J.; Wickert, Andrew D.; Yager, Elowyn M.

    2015-07-14

    In the future, Earth will be warmer, precipitation events will be more extreme, global mean sea level will rise, and many arid and semiarid regions will be drier. Human modifications of landscapes will also occur at an accelerated rate as developed areas increase in size and population density. We now have gridded global forecasts, being continually improved, of the climatic and land use changes (C&LUC) that are likely to occur in the coming decades. However, besides a few exceptions, consensus forecasts do not exist for how these C&LUC will likely impact Earth-surface processes and hazards. In some cases, we have the tools to forecast the geomorphic responses to likely future C&LUC. Fully exploiting these models and utilizing these tools will require close collaboration among Earth-surface scientists and Earth-system modelers. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art tools and data that are being used or could be used to forecast changes in the state of Earth's surface as a result of likely future C&LUC. We also propose strategies for filling key knowledge gaps, emphasizing where additional basic research and/or collaboration across disciplines are necessary. The main body of the paper addresses cross-cutting issues, including the importance of nonlinear/threshold-dominated interactions among topography, vegetation, and sediment transport, as well as the importance of alternate stable states and extreme, rare events for understanding and forecasting Earth-surface response to C&LUC. Five supplements delve into different scales or process zones (global-scale assessments and fluvial, aeolian, glacial/periglacial, and coastal process zones) in detail.

  2. Quantifying the Aerosol Indirect Effect Using Ground-Based Remote...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (with assumed particle chemistry), a vertical wind profile (ideally we would need a Doppler lidar to provide this, but the cloud radar will suffice), and surface temperature...

  3. Effect of Subgrid Cloud Variability on Parameterization of Indirect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    used. However, much greater sensitivity is found with the (discontinuous) Tripoli and Cotton (1980) autoconversion. Figure 6. Time evolution of LWP simulated by the LES model and...

  4. A New Assessment of the Aerosol First Indirect Effect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    very uncertain; large discrepancies exist among the observed values published in the literature. In this study, we first survey the published values of those parameters used for...

  5. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300% over the next 50-100 ...

  6. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  7. Final Report, DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER45780, "Indirect Excitons in Coupled Quantum Wells"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snoke, david W.

    2014-07-21

    The is the final technical report for this project, which was funded by the DOE from 1999 to 2012. The project focused on experimental studies of spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells, with the aim of understanding the quantum physics of these particles, including such effects as pattern formation due to electron-hole charge separation, the Mott plasma-insulator transition, luminescence up-conversion through field-assisted tunneling, luminescence line shifts due to many-body renormalization and magnetic field effects on tunneling, and proposed effects such as Bose-Einstein condensation of indirect excitons and phase separation of bright and dark indirect excitons. Significant results are summarized here and the relation to other work is discussed.

  8. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  9. Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-05-16

    In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United

  10. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM{sub 2.5} with personal exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Aileen; Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise; Leseman, Daan L.A.C.; Hellack, Bryan; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Janssen, Nicole A.H.

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial variation of personal OP. We collected 96-hour personal, home outdoor and indoor PM{sub 2.5} samples from 15 volunteers living either at traffic, urban or regional background locations in Utrecht, the Netherlands. OP was also measured at one central reference site to account for temporal variations. OP was assessed using electron spin resonance (OP{sup ESR}) and dithiothreitol (OP{sup DTT}). Spatial variation of average OP at the home address was modeled using land use regression (LUR) models. For both OP{sup ESR} and OP{sup DTT}, temporal correlations of central site measurements with home outdoor measurements were high (R>0.75), and moderate to high (R=0.49–0.70) with personal measurements. The LUR model predictions for OP correlated significantly with the home outdoor concentrations for OP{sup DTT} and OP{sup ESR} (R=0.65 and 0.62, respectively). LUR model predictions were moderately correlated with personal OP{sup DTT} measurements (R=0.50). Adjustment for indoor sources, such as vacuum cleaning and absence of fume-hood, improved the temporal and spatial agreement with measured personal exposure for OP{sup ESR}. OP{sup DTT} was not associated with any indoor sources. Our study results support the use of central site OP for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies focusing on short-term health effects. - Highlights: • Oxidative potential (OP) of PM was proposed as a health-relevant exposure metric. • We evaluated the relationship between measured and modeled outdoor and personal OP. • Temporal correlations of central site with personal OP are moderate to high. • Adjusting for indoor sources improved the agreement with personal OP. • Our results

  11. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  12. LandUse/Land Cover Map of the CF of ARM in the SGP Site Using DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) Satellite Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Land Use/Land Cover Map of the Central Facility of ARM in the Southern Great Plains Site Using DOE's Multi-Spectral Thermal Imager Satellite Images S. E. Báez Cazull Pre-Service Teacher Program University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico A. Cialla Brookhaven National Laboratory Department of Environmental Sciences Upton, New York Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a multi-laboratory, interagency program that was created with funding from the U.S.

  13. Application of satellite and GIS technologies for land-cover and land-use mapping at the rural-urban fringe - A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treitz, P.M.; Howarth, P.J.; Gong, Peng )

    1992-04-01

    SPOT HRV multispectral and panchromatic data were recorded and coregistered for a portion of the rural-urban fringe of Toronto, Canada. A two-stage digital analysis algorithm incorporating a spectral-class frequency-based contextual classification of eight land-cover and land-use classes resulted in an overall Kappa coefficient of 82.2 percent for training-area data and a Kappa coefficient of 70.3 percent for test-area data. A matrix-overlay analysis was then performed within the geographic information system (GIS) to combine the land-cover and land-use classes generated from the SPOT digital classification with zoning information for the area. The map that was produced has an estimated interpretation accuracy of 78 percent. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provided a positional reference for new road networks. These networks, in addition to the new land-cover and land-use map derived from the SPOT HRV data, provide an up-to-date synthesis of change conditions in the area. 51 refs.

  14. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  15. Sample Indirect Rate Proposal (Pre-Award) and For-Profit Compliance Audit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information | Department of Energy Sample Indirect Rate Proposal (Pre-Award) and For-Profit Compliance Audit Information Sample Indirect Rate Proposal (Pre-Award) and For-Profit Compliance Audit Information Indirect rate and audit forms for the financial opportunities process: Sample Indirect Rate Proposal (Pre-Award): There are several methods for allocating indirect cost/expenses to projects, activities and programs, DCAA "ICE" model, Single Rate Method, and Two Rate Method.

  16. Preventing the self-destruction of the indirect coal firing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, C.W.; Rayner, C.C.

    1983-07-01

    The most widely used fuel in the cement industry is pulverized coal. The current trend is to burn coal through the use of an indirect firing system, as opposed to direct firing which was formerly standard for cement kilns. Indirect firing is favored for precalciners and to improve thermal efficiency, but the benefits are sometimes overshadowed by increased hazard potential. Thoughtful design and careful operating practices are essential for safe operation. The hazards are primarily a result of the explosive mixture of coal and air which can be formed in various parts of the system and the tendency for coal to self-heat and undergo spontaneous combustion. The systems for indirect coal firing are reviewed, with emphasis on the potential fire and explosion hazards. The effectiveness of various methods to extinguish a fire or suppress an explosion is discussed, together with their applicability and related operating problems. The available alarm systems are evaluated according to their ability to signal impending danger in time for corrective action. Some parameters of safe design and operating practices are outlined as a guide to avoiding the types of problems that have been experienced at some existing installations.

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15_Liu_ARM_STM_indirect.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    l i di t ff t ld l d Aerosol indirect effect on cold clouds Xiaohong Liu (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) Paul DeMott (Colorado State University) Some evidence for alteration of ice l d b i ft i i clouds by aircraft emissions * Soot associated with increasing ice concentrations in i f h d t t b bl d t i ft regions of enhanced soot most probably due to aircraft (Ström and Ohlsson, 1998); Ice effective radius reduced by 10-30% perturbed by aircraft (Kristensson et al., 2000) 2000) * Trend

  18. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  19. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John E.; Craig, Anthony P.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter E.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-11-27

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). To facilitate consistency, CMIP5 used a novel land use harmonization to provide ESMs with seamless, 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. However, we have identified and partially addressed a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design. The CMIP5 Community ESM (CESM) global afforestation is only 22% of RCP4.5 afforestation from 2005 to 2100. Likewise, only 17% of the Global Change Assessment Models (GCAMs) 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation signal, and none of the pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within a newly integrated model. This is a critical problem because afforestation is necessary for achieving the RCP4.5 climate stabilization. We attempted to rectify this problem by modifying only the ESM component of the integrated model, enabling CESM to simulate 66% of GCAMs afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAMs pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Similar inconsistencies likely exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models, with possible contributions from afforestation exceeding model-specific, potentially viable forest area. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to adequately rectify this problem.

  20. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Parsons, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  1. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  2. Implications of High Renewable Electricity Penetration in the U.S. for Water Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, and Materials Supply

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified.

  3. Indirect Gas Species Monitoring Using Tunable Diode Lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A.; Saucedo, Victor M.

    2005-02-22

    A method for indirect gas species monitoring based on measurements of selected gas species is disclosed. In situ absorption measurements of combustion species are used for process control and optimization. The gas species accessible by near or mid-IR techniques are limited to species that absorb in this spectral region. The absorption strength is selected to be strong enough for the required sensitivity and is selected to be isolated from neighboring absorption transitions. By coupling the gas measurement with a software sensor gas, species not accessible from the near or mid-IR absorption measurement can be predicted.

  4. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunning, Colleen; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John

    2011-07-15

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  5. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Dppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  6. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 1, Land-use model and research design, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea Geothermal Subzones, Puna District, Hawaii Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtchard, G.C.; Moblo, P.

    1994-07-01

    The Puna Geothermal Resource Subzones (GRS) project area encompasses approximately 22,000 acres centered on the Kilauea East Rift Zone in Puna District, Hawaii Island. The area is divided into three subzones proposed for geothermal power development -- Kilauea Middle East Rift, Kamaili and Kapoho GRS. Throughout the time of human occupation, eruptive episodes along the rift have maintained a dynamic landscape. Periodic volcanic events, for example, have changed the coastline configuration, altered patterns of agriculturally suitable sediments, and created an assortment of periodically active, periodically quiescent, volcanic hazards. Because of the active character of the rift zone, then, the area`s occupants have always been obliged to organize their use of the landscape to accommodate a dynamic mosaic of lava flow types and ages. While the specific configuration of settlements and agricultural areas necessarily changed in response to volcanic events, it is possible to anticipate general patterns in the manner in which populations used the landscape through time. This research design offers a model that predicts the spatial results of long-term land-use patterns and relates them to the character of the archaeological record of that use. In essence, the environmental/land-use model developed here predicts that highest population levels, and hence the greatest abundance and complexity of identifiable prehistoric remains, tended to cluster near the coast at places that maximized access to productive fisheries and agricultural soils. With the possible exception of a few inland settlements, the density of archaeological remains expected to decrease with distance from the coastline. The pattern is generally supported in the regions existing ethnohistoric and archaeological record.

  7. A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razavipour, S. G. Xu, C.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Ban, D.; Dupont, E.; Laframboise, S. R.; Chan, C. W. I.; Hu, Q.

    2014-01-27

    A Terahertz quantum cascade laser with a rather high injection coupling strength based on an indirectly pumped scheme is designed and experimentally implemented. To effectively suppress leakage current, the chosen quantum cascade module of the device is based on a five-well GaAs/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As structure. The device lases up to 151 K with a lasing frequency of 2.67 THz. This study shows that the effect of higher energy states in carrier transport and the long-range tunnel coupling between states that belong to non-neighbouring modules have to be considered in quantum design of structures with a narrow injector barrier. Moreover, the effect of interface roughness scattering between the lasing states on threshold current is crucial.

  8. Thermal modeling of an indirectly heated E-beam gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jallouk, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium atomic vapor for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process is produced by magnetically steering a high-power electron beam to the surface of the uranium melt. The electron beam is produced by a Pierce-type axial E-beam gun with an indirectly heated emitter (IDHE)-the industry standard for high-power melting and vaporization. AVLIS process design requirements for the E-beam gun are stringent, particularly in the areas of modularity, compactness, and lifetime. The gun assembly details are complex, geometric clearances are tight, and operating temperatures and stress levels are at the upper limits of acceptability. Detailed three-dimensional finite-element thermal models of the E-beam gun have been developed to address this challenging thermal packaging issue. These models are used in conjunction with design and testing activities to develop a gun exhibiting a high level of reliability for acceptable operation in a plant environment.

  9. Novel geminate recombination channel after indirect photoionization of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Martin K.; Rossmadl, Hubert; Iglev, Hristo

    2011-06-07

    We studied the photolysis of neat protonated and heavy water using pump-probe and pump-repump-probe spectroscopy. A novel recombination channel is reported leading to ultrafast quenching (0.7 {+-} 0.1 ps) of almost one third of the initial number of photo-generated electrons. The efficiency and the recombination rate of this channel are lower in heavy water, 27 {+-} 5% and (0.9 {+-} 0.1 ps){sup -1}, respectively. Comparison with similar data measured after photodetachment of aqueous hydroxide provides evidence for the formation of short-lived OH:e{sup -} (OD:e{sup -}) pairs after indirect photoionization of water at 9.2 eV.

  10. (In)direct detection of boosted dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Cui, Yanou; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse E-mail: cuiyo@umd.edu E-mail: jthaler@mit.edu

    2014-10-01

    We initiate the study of novel thermal dark matter (DM) scenarios where present-day annihilation of DM in the galactic center produces boosted stable particles in the dark sector. These stable particles are typically a subdominant DM component, but because they are produced with a large Lorentz boost in this process, they can be detected in large volume terrestrial experiments via neutral-current-like interactions with electrons or nuclei. This novel DM signal thus combines the production mechanism associated with indirect detection experiments (i.e. galactic DM annihilation) with the detection mechanism associated with direct detection experiments (i.e. DM scattering off terrestrial targets). Such processes are generically present in multi-component DM scenarios or those with non-minimal DM stabilization symmetries. As a proof of concept, we present a model of two-component thermal relic DM, where the dominant heavy DM species has no tree-level interactions with the standard model and thus largely evades direct and indirect DM bounds. Instead, its thermal relic abundance is set by annihilation into a subdominant lighter DM species, and the latter can be detected in the boosted channel via the same annihilation process occurring today. Especially for dark sector masses in the 10 MeV10 GeV range, the most promising signals are electron scattering events pointing toward the galactic center. These can be detected in experiments designed for neutrino physics or proton decay, in particular Super-K and its upgrade Hyper-K, as well as the PINGU/MICA extensions of IceCube. This boosted DM phenomenon highlights the distinctive signatures possible from non-minimal dark sectors.