Sample records for indirect drying concentration

  1. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  2. Solar energy for wood drying using direct or indirect collection with supplemental heating: a computer analysis. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschernitz, J.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to judge solar drying on a more quantitative basis, the Forest Products Laboratory has developed a computer analysis for calculating the energy demands in the restricted cases of direct and indirect solar wood dryers using supplemental energy. Calculated energy balances are reported including percent fuel savings compared to the net energy used in conventional dryer operation. Six dryer sizes are considered. Seasonal variation of performance is noted for each of 12 months, in 96 locations throughout the United States. Also discussed is variation of cover thermal properties as these influence the effectiveness of operation. The report attempts to organize these economic elements so that the reader can make reasonable choices for any wood-drying requirements.

  3. Measurement of Atmospheric Sea Salt Concentration in the Dry Storage Facility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masumi Wataru; Hisashi Kato; Satoshi Kudo; Naoko Oshima; Koji Wada [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI (Japan); Hirofumi Narutaki [Electric Power Engineering Systems Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel coming from a Japanese nuclear power plant is stored in the interim storage facility before reprocessing. There are two types of the storage methods which are wet and dry type. In Japan, it is anticipated that the dry storage facility will increase compared with the wet type facility. The dry interim storage facility using the metal cask has been operated in Japan. In another dry storage technology, there is a concrete overpack. Especially in USA, a lot of concrete overpacks are used for the dry interim storage. In Japan, for the concrete cask, the codes of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the governmental technical guidelines are prepared for the realization of the interim storage as well as the code for the metal cask. But the interim storage using the concrete overpack has not been in progress because the evaluation on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the canister is not sufficient. Japanese interim storage facilities would be constructed near the seashore. The metal casks and concrete overpacks are stored in the storage building in Japan. On the other hand, in USA they are stored outside. It is necessary to remove the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel in the cask from the storage building. Generally, the heat is removed by natural cooling in the dry storage facility. Air including the sea salt particles goes into the dry storage facility. Concerning the concrete overpack, air goes into the cask body and cools the canister. Air goes along the canister surface and is in contact with the surface directly. In this case, the sea salt in the air attaches to the surface and then there is the concern about the occurrence of the SCC. For the concrete overpack, the canister including the spent fuel is sealed by the welding. The loss of sealability caused by the SCC has to be avoided. To evaluate the SCC for the canister, it is necessary to make clear the amount of the sea salt particles coming into the storage building and the concentration on the canister. In present, the evaluation on that point is not sufficient. In this study, the concentration of the sea salt particles in the air and on the surface of the storage facility are measured inside and outside of the building. For the measurement, two sites of the dry storage facility using the metal cask are chosen. This data is applicable for the evaluation on the SCC of the canister to realize the interim storage using the concrete overpack. (authors)

  4. be explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    cloud properties and their effect on the surface radiation budget: selected cases from FIRE ACE. Jbe explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration enables us to separate the effects of the cloud LWP and cloud droplet number

  5. Separation, fractionation, concentration, and drying of food products: A technical case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers have investigated a new approach that separates juice into pulp and serum (liquid) fractions. The fractions are then processed individually and more efficiently to reduce the water content. Finally, the fractions are recombined at the site of use to obtain conventional or new products. Efforts to date have included laboratory and on-site studies of several fractionation schemes using energy-efficient membrane-based microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and hyperfiltration processes. These processes are used in combination with more conventional separation, concentration, and recombination methods such as centrifugation, vacuum evaporation, and homogenization. This technical case study provides an overview of the entire DOE/NFPA R D project and highlights the on-site testing of an advanced processing scheme for tomato juice. This scheme involves separation (centrifugation), concentration (hyperfiltration and evaporation), and recombination (homogenization) processes. The document is aimed at making field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and to private industry in a timely manner. The case study discusses project status; summarizes field testing efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of applications, energy savings, and preliminary economics.

  6. Concentration, size distribution, and dry deposition rate of particle-associated metals in the Los Angeles region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jeong-Hee H; Sabin, L D; Schiff, K C; Stolzenbach, K D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the result of cyclical resuspension and deposition of dustNRI; Dry Deposition Velocity; Resuspension; Image Analysis;upon contact without resuspension, the deposition velocity

  7. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  8. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun [Department of Building Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller successfully satisfy the indoor air conditioning load for the demo building. The indirect evaporative chiller has a potentially wide application in dry regions, especially for large scale commercial buildings. Finally, this paper presented the geographic regions suitable for the technology worldwide. (author)

  9. Drying Foods at Home Safely Drying Herbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    jars, freezer bags, and airtight plastic containers. Like other foods dried at home, dried herbs in an airtight container and store in a cool, dry, and dark place. Recommended containers include glass canning

  10. Dry effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, J.D. (Anderson, 2000 Inc., Peachtree City, GA (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The available choices of pollution control systems depend on what is being burned and how stringent the regulations are. The common systems are gas cooling by a waste heat boiler or an air-air heat exchanger followed by fabric filtration or electrostatic precipitation for particulate removal; alkaline spray absorbers followed by fabric filters (dry scrubbers) for particulate and acid gas removal; wet scrubbers for simultaneous particulate and acid gas removal, and; the newest - spray evaporation, followed by wet scrubbing for particulate and acid gas removal. Each has advantages and each has disadvantages. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the spray evaporator and wet scrubber combination.

  11. 7, 37193761, 2007 Aerosol indirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effects and is defined as the difference in the top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation be- tween present when either a statistical cloud cover scheme or a different aerosol emission inventory are employed. 1ACPD 7, 3719­3761, 2007 Aerosol indirect effects in ECHAM5-HAM U. Lohmann et al. Title Page

  12. Memorial University of Newfoundland Indirect Costs Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    Memorial University of Newfoundland Indirect Costs Report 2012-13 The grant provided through the Government of Canada Indirect Costs Program (ICP) is essential to Memorial's research success. Funding and impact can be found in the following section. Total 2013 Indirect Costs Grant: $4,318,814 Management

  13. Indirect exporters Fergal McCann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Indirect exporters Fergal McCann Paris School of Economics Université Paris 1 November 2010 G;Indirect Exporters Fergal McCann Universit´e Paris 1, Paris School of Economics. November 3, 2010 Abstract Indirect Exporters are defined as firms exporting through a trade inter- mediary. Despite numerous recent

  14. Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research Concordia University defines "Indirect Costs" as costs which cannot be associated specifically with a particular research program or other activity. Indirect costs include the provision and maintenance of physical space

  15. air dried soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    102 Concentration, size distribution, and dry deposition rate of particle-associated metals in the Los Angeles region University of California eScholarship Repository Summary:...

  16. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  17. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  18. aerosol concentration enrichment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  19. aerosol biokinetics concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON CCN CONCENTRATION AND AEROSOL FIRST INDIRECT RADIATIVE composition, aerosol size distribution is the more dominant parameter on CCN activation Feingold, GRL 2003;...

  20. Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of diffusion rate over short drops of ambient relative humidity. Techniques to determine drying isotherms prior to full equilibration of mass loss, as well as converting mass loss into concentration of water vapor were developed. Using the measured water vapor...

  1. Research and development of industrial drying concepts using a superheated steam atmosphere with exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibella, F.A.; Doyle, E.F.; Becker, F.E.; Lang, R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the thermal drying processes where water is to be removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. The concept utilizes a superheated steam drying atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to 55% of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Work on Phase I: Feasibility Investigation, has been completed and the results of this work are given in this Phase I Final Report. Two designs are described for steam drying systems, one directly heated and one indirectly heated. The work on Phase I of the program also concentrated on identifying the most significant industrial applications for this superheated steam drying concept. The work consisted of evaluating information gathered from a literature search, a survey of industrial dryer manufacturers product brochures, and material provided by a major industrial dryer manufacturer. Results from the six tasks in Phase I are given. The tasks were: industrial applicability study; exploration of system configurations; designing system elements; laboratory testing; energy savings analysis; and program management and reporting. Reports on the first 5 tasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Biofuels and indirect land use change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation October 2011 #12;About this study), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, National Farmers Union, Novozymes, Northeast Biofuels Collaborative, Patagonia Bio contributed views on a confidential basis. #12;1Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation

  3. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  4. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with good mechanical properties - Loading approaching targets - Process parameter optimization necessary to make thinner films with better density characteristics Images of dry...

  5. Transporting Dry Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements for Shipping Dry Ice IATA PI 904 Source: Reg of the Day from ERCweb 2006 Environmental Resource Center | 919-469-1585 | webmaster@ercweb.com http:...

  6. Cooking with Dry Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritonal value and safe storage of dry beans, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: DRI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DRI ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid Integration,...

  8. Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of indirect...

  9. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  10. Cow Concentrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    and carrying, say, 1000 songs in a tiny iPod, they have been storing and carrying 1000 pounds of beef in a tiny pouch. The meat is freeze dried between late November and March in barns across the steppes. The result is ???? or winter food. ???? is dried...

  11. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ratecapacity match cathode 12 8. Down-select low cost anode process 50% vs baseline capex + opex 13 9. Scale cathode film to support task 16 10 m 17 10. Lab prototype cell dry...

  12. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  13. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  14. Accelerated Learning without Semantic Similarity: Indirect Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Nir

    types. Transfer apparently facilitates the learning of this type of information from the input1 Accelerated Learning without Semantic Similarity: Indirect Objects ANAT NINIO* Abstract The hypothesis was tested that transfer and facilitation of learning in early syntactic development does not rely

  15. Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and dimethyl ether) by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Gasification of coal pro- duces a synthesis gas by coal gasification. The principal con- stituents of ``syngas'' are carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which modern coal gasification facilities in operation to make hydrogen for ammonia production. Also

  16. Indirect measurement of diluents in a multi-component natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Owen, Thomas E.

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of indirectly measuring the diluent (nitrogen and carbon dioxide) concentrations in a natural gas mixture. The molecular weight of the gas is modeled as a function of the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. A set of reference gas mixtures with known molecular weights and diluent concentrations is used to calculate the constant values. For the gas in question, if the speed of sound in the gas is measured at three states, the three resulting expressions of molecular weight can be solved for the nitrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the gas mixture.

  17. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  18. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  19. Cooking with Dried Potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    make a tasty vegetable dish. For added flavor, you can add salt and pepper along with small amounts of grated cheese, margarine or butter. Be careful: Adding large amounts of cheese, butter or margarine can turn a low-fat vegetable, such as potatoes..., into a high-fat dish. How to store them Store packages of dried potatoes in a cool, dry, place. After the package is opened, store the potatoes in an airtight container. Store cooked potatoes in a covered dish in the refrigerator. Use within 3 days...

  20. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo [NASA/GSFC] [NASA/GSFC

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bin

  1. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  2. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San Jos Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a...

  3. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were observed. The spatial and energy distributions of optically active excitons were used as thermodynamic quantities to construct a phase diagram of the exciton system, demonstrating the existence of distinct phases. Optical and electrical properties of the CQW sample were examined thoroughly to provide deeper understanding of the formation mechanisms of these cold exciton systems. These insights offer new strategies for producing cold exciton systems, which may lead to opportunities for the realization of BEC in solid-state systems.

  4. Cooling Dry Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , little work has been done on the responses of cooling cows in this period. The dry period is particularly crucial because it involves regen- eration of the mammary gland and rapid fetal growth. This is also when follicles begin develop- ing and maturing...

  5. HEALTHIER WISCONSIN PARNTERSHIP PROGRAM Direct, Indirect and Unallowable Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HEALTHIER WISCONSIN PARNTERSHIP PROGRAM Direct, Indirect and Unallowable Costs Direct and Indirect Costs The decision of whether a cost is direct or indirect is based on the ability to specifically identify the cost with the project, rather than on the nature of the goods and services. Failure to mention

  6. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W. (9253 Glenoaks Blvd., Sun Valley, CA 91352)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  7. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  8. Theory for optimal design of waveguiding light concentrators in photovoltaic microcell arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Theory for optimal design of waveguiding light concentrators in photovoltaic microcell arrays of ultrathin flexible solar photovoltaic silicon microcell arrays can be significantly improved using collectors do not result in their indirect gain degradation compared to flat solar concentrators

  9. 2010 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 Dry Bean Research Report Assessment of Narrow Row Technology Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD #12;The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDA Technology for the Michigan Dry Bean Industry". Expected outcomes from this project are: 1. Identification

  10. 2012 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012 Dry Bean Research Report Assessment of Narrow Row Technology Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production Research Advisory Board #12;The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDA Technology for the Michigan Dry Bean Industry". Expected outcomes from this project are: 1. Identification

  11. Drying Rough Rice in Storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Crane, L. E.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying. Rough Rice in Storage Ih AGRf""' TURP YPERIMENT STAT10 I. TEXAS SUMMARY Research was conducted at the Rice-Pasture Experiment Station near Beaumont during 7 crop years (1952-53 through 1958-59) to determine the engineering problems... and the practicability of dry- ing rough rice in storage in Texas. Drying rice in storage means drying rice in the same bin in which it is to be stored. Rough rice, with initial moisture contents of 15.0 to 23.0 percent, was dried at depths of 4 to 10 feet...

  12. Concentrating collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected specifications from sixteen concentrating collector manufacturers are tabulated. Eleven are linear parabolic trough collectors, and the others include slats, cylindrical trough, linear Fresnel lens, parabolic cylindrical Fresnel lens, and two point focus parabolic dish collectors. Also included is a brief discussion of the operating temperatures and other design considerations for concentrating collectors. (LEW)

  13. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  14. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  15. Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low...

  16. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  17. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  18. Seasonal formaldehyde concentrations in an office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopinski, V.J.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation was to determine if there was a seasonal effect on formaldehyde emissions from paneling and shelving in a one story office building. Measurement of formaldehyde was done by standard impinger sampling techniques using 1% bisulfite absorbing solution and by using a dry diffusional formaldehyde monitor. Results show a definite seasonal trend for formaldehyde concentrations by either monitoring method. The formaldehyde concentrations for warm weather are about twice as great as those in cold weather. In addition the dry diffusional monitor concentrations determined were consistently low compared to impinger sampling.

  19. 2012-13 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs of Research Program provides Canadian universities with annual funding to help

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    2012-13 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs of Research Program provides Canadian universities with annual funding to help pay for a portion of the hidden or "indirect" costs

  20. The ECA indirectly heated Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlqvist, S.G.; Darche, M.; Ducroux, P.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the beginning of the 1980s the ECA Company designed and manufactured the first French Stirling engine, partially funded by the French government. The ECA engine has several design features of special interest: indirect heating by sodium heat pipes, cylinder block with four double-acting cylinders in line with a single crankshaft, four identical and demountable heat exchanger modules, piston rod seals with recuperation of leakage losses by means of four integrated rod pumps and with hermetic gas and oil seals using four roll socks, and power control by means of three gas valves and a 3.5-MPa helium bottle. The ECA engine ran for the first time and at the first attempt at the end of June 1982 and rapidly delivered a power of 5 kW at reduced pressure. Further testing of this 4-by 113-cm3 engine is under way to obtain a nominal power of 12 kW and an efficiency of 36% (heat to shaft power) with a very simplified design.

  1. INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    1 INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400 Classification: Financial Management recoveries towards the indirect costs associated with externally funded Research conducted at the University Costs of Research include, but are not limited to those costs associated with: the operation

  2. Indirect Search for Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    significant high energy neutrino fluxes. Indirect search for Dark Matter looking at such neutrino fluxes for the Cherenkov light induced by high energy muons during their travel in the sea water throughout the detectorIndirect Search for Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope V. Bertin1 on behalf

  3. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  4. 2013 Dry Bean Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 1 2013 Dry Bean Research Report Black Bean Color Retention and White Mold Control in Narrow Row Production Systems Michigan Dry Edible Bean Production Research Advisory Board #12;Page 2 The Michigan Bean Commission was awarded a grant from the MDARD Specialty Crop Block Grant Program-Farm Bill

  5. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  6. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  7. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0.

  8. Indirect L to T point optical transition in bismuth nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, A. J.

    An indirect electronic transition from the L point valence band to the T point valence band has been previously observed in Bi nanowires oriented along the [011? 2] crystalline direction (used by Black et al. and by Reppert ...

  9. Direct/Indirect Costs - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs. g4301-1chp7.pdf -- PDF Document, 41 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: ID: DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 7...

  10. aerosol indirect effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of direct reciprocal and indirect effects in a host-parasite network Shai Pilosof Fortuna, Miguel A. First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19...

  11. aerosol indirect effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of direct reciprocal and indirect effects in a host-parasite network Shai Pilosof Fortuna, Miguel A. First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19...

  12. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  13. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  14. Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility in Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, squid, and salmon D.A.S. Rosen and A.W. Trites Abstract: Dry-matter digestibility and energy digestive efficiency-matter digestibility (DMD) and digestive efficiency (DE) were measured using the energy and manganese concentration

  15. Possible source of ancient carbon in phytolith concentrates from harvested grasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, G. M; Alexandre, A.; Southon, J. R; Treseder, K. K; Corbineau, R.; Reyerson, P. E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    classified as high, intermediate, and non-Si accumulators.High accumulators typically exhibit SiO 2 concentrations >dry weight, whereas non-accumulators exclude it (Marschner,

  16. Protein levels for Chios lambs given high concentrate diets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /kg dry matter) and lucerne hay. Following weaning all lambs were offered the same concentrate mixture ad libitum plus 0.1 kg lucerne hay (182 g CP/kg dry matter) daily. The animals were allocated on the three) and lucerne hay (0.1 kg/head daily) were offered in separate feed containers. The three diets were composed

  17. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal...

  18. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental results provided in Section 4.0. These results are further discussed in Section 5.0.

  19. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  20. CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the University for common or joint projects and cannot be specifically attributed to an individual project. Some examples of indirect costs include accounting staff

  1. Facilities and Administration (Indirect) Costs Rates Facilities and Administrative (indirect) costs rates are the result of negotiations with the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Facilities and Administration (Indirect) Costs Rates Facilities and Administrative (indirect) costs (Indirect Costs) Source of Funds Applicable To F&A Rate DHHS Federally Negotiated Rates: Federal, Non or a different rate has been approved by the Director of OSP. *MTDC Base: Modified total direct costs consist

  2. 2011-12 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs of Research Program provides Canadian universities with annual funding to help

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    2011-12 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs or "indirect" costs of research. Examples of such costs include lighting and heating for research space, salaries for staff that provide technical or administrative research support, training costs for workplace

  3. Efficient Mining of Indirect Associations Using HI-Mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An, Aijun

    Efficient Mining of Indirect Associations Using HI-Mine Qian Wan and Aijun An Department. Discovering association rules is one of the important tasks in data mining. While most of the existing algorithms are developed for efficient mining of frequent patterns, it has been noted recently that some

  4. Indirect control and power in mutual control Dominik Karos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Indirect control and power in mutual control structures Dominik Karos Hans Peters This version of the paper, we axiomatically develop a class of power indices for invariant mutual control structures. We accumulates his Shapley-Shubik power index assignments from controlling other players, diminished by the sum

  5. Fast Error Estimates For Indirect Measurements: Applications To Pavement Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Fast Error Estimates For Indirect Measurements: Applications To Pavement Engineering Carlos that is difficult to measure directly (e.g., lifetime of a pavement, efficiency of an engine, etc). To estimate y computation time. As an example of this methodology, we give pavement lifetime estimates. This work

  6. LEGAL REALISM IN ACTION: INDIRECT COPYRIGHT LIABILITY'S CONTINUING TORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 LEGAL REALISM IN ACTION: INDIRECT COPYRIGHT LIABILITY'S CONTINUING TORT FRAMEWORK AND SONY'S DE standard, derived in Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc. from patent law and reasserted for distributors of dual-use technologies. Yet, when one looks to cases decided since Sony, subsequent legislative

  7. DNA Deformation Energy as an Indirect Recognition Mechanism in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Richard H.

    DNA Deformation Energy as an Indirect Recognition Mechanism in Protein-DNA Interactions Kimberly A. Senear Abstract--Proteins that bind to specific locations in genomic DNA control many basic cellular. Deformation energy, which models the energy required to bend DNA from its native shape to its shape when bound

  8. A laboratory study of the activities of dried rumen microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harbers, Leniel Henry

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . cal pro? ceases vere made in this study to determine the ~ ~ activity of dried rumen microorganisms. . 'ellulose d1- gestion vas studied by employing a yurified cellulose preparation as a substrate and determination of the changes in concentration... the conditions of these experiments. There vere~ hovevsr~ bacteria present in the dr1ed rumen preparations vhich vere capable of hydro- lysing carboxymethyl cellulose. A method of detsrming "cellulose d1gestion" using a soluble cellulose derivative as a...

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics of Dry Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz-Josef Elmer

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamical behavior caused by dry friction is studied for a spring-block system pulled with constant velocity over a surface. The dynamical consequences of a general type of phenomenological friction law (stick-time dependent static friction, velocity dependent kinetic friction) are investigated. Three types of motion are possible: Stick-slip motion, continuous sliding, and oscillations without sticking events. A rather complete discussion of local and global bifurcation scenarios of these attractors and their unstable counterparts is present.

  10. Drying and Storing Sorghum Grain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, J. E.

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and Storing Sorghum Grain W. S. ALLEN AND J. W. SORENSON. JR.* lead to insect. niold and heat damage in stored grain. They cause most of the problems encountered in storing grain. High moisture may result from leak- age of outside... moisture through hin walls or from placing high-moisture grain in storage. If the following recornrnendations and procedures are followed. sorghum grain can be stored safely. The! are based on research conducted at Beeville by the Texas Agricultural...

  11. Indirect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Multi-Component Gas By Measuring The Speed Of Sound At Two States Of The Gas.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a gas mixture. The molecular weight of the gas is modeled as a function of the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the speed of sound in the gas is measured at two states and diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, two equations for molecular weight can be equated and solved for the nitrogen concentration in the gas mixture.

  12. Mathematical modeling of spray drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayanthi, Gopal Vithal

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution of nickel nitrate. The radius reached at the time at which precipitation starts was found to decrease with decreasing the initial radius of the drop and theinitial concentration of the solute. For a given initial concentration of nickel nitrate... the initial concentration of nickel nitrate and by increasing the ambient temperature. To my mother and late father ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Ahmed M. Gadalla, chairman of committee, for his constant support and encouragement of this work...

  13. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  14. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  15. Drying and Storing Cooperative Extension Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    . Sunflowers Joseph P. Harner Extension Agriculture Engineer The fire hazard is DECREASED when the fan can draw for attachment to the drying fan. Guidelines for drying sunflowers are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Use good housekeeping practices. Clean up around the dryer and in the plenum chamber daily. Do not over dry. Ensure continuous

  16. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

  17. CAMEA ESS - The Continuous Angle Multi-Energy Analysis Indirect Geometry Spectrometer for the European Spallation Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, P G; Markó, M; Bertelsen, M; Larsen, J; Christensen, N B; Lefmann, K; Jacobsen, J; Niedermayer, Ch; Juranyi, F; Ronnow, H M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CAMEA ESS neutron spectrometer is designed to achieve a high detection efficiency in the horizontal scattering plane, and to maximize the use of the long pulse European Spallation Source. It is an indirect geometry time-of-flight spectrometer that uses crystal analysers to determine the final energy of neutrons scattered from the sample. Unlike other indirect gemeotry spectrometers CAMEA will use ten concentric arcs of analysers to analyse scattered neutrons at ten different final energies, which can be increased to 30 final energies by use of prismatic analysis. In this report we will outline the CAMEA instrument concept, the large performance gain, and the potential scientific advancements that can be made with this instrument.

  18. Indirect Dark Matter search with large neutrino telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fermani, Paolo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter is one of the main goals of neutrino astronomy. At present, there are two big neutrino telescopes based on the Cherenkov technique in ice and water: IceCube at the South Pole and ANTARES in the northern hemisphere. Both telescopes are performing an indirect search for Dark Matter by looking for a statistical excess of neutrinos coming from astrophysical massive objects. This excess could be an evidence of the possible annihilation of dark matter particles in the centre of these objects. In one of the most popular scenarios the Dark Matter is composed of WIMP particles. The analysis and results of the ANTARES neutrino telescope for the indirect detection of Dark Matter fluxes from the Sun are here presented, as well as the latest IceCube published sensitivity results, for different Dark Matter models.

  19. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  20. Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putnam, Peggy H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that are responsible for their maturation, or their becoming ripe. These enzymes cause color and flavor changes, some of which may become more extensive when food surfaces are cut and exposed to air. The changes con tinue during drying and storage unless the enzyme... in recommendations for treatment before dry ing, for methods of drying, for temperatures and length of drying time, and for conditioning prior to storage. You may have to use the "trial and error" approach in finding out which drying technique works best for your...

  1. Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, we have studied the attrition behavior of Iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into liquid fuels.

  2. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments.

  3. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  4. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L. (Morgantown, WV); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Parsons, Edward L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  5. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  6. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K. [Queens` Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  7. Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

  8. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  9. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  10. The development of a 20-inch indirect fired fluidized bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanigan, V.J.; Sitton, O.C.; Huang, W.E

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the design, fabrication and operation of a 20'' I.D. fluidized bed gasifier producing medium Btu gas. The reactor is indirectly heated using 30 x 1-inch U-tubes inserted in the inert bed. The U-tubes are heated using flue gases produced from a propane burner system located at the bottom of the reactor. The feed material was dry wood chips fed into the bed with a 6in. auger. The reactor was fed both into the bed and at the top of the bed. The fluidizing medium was superheated steam which was superheated to 1000/degree/F. The gas produced from the reactor was passed through a cyclone for char removal and routed to the flare for combustion and disposal. The parameters measured during the experimental runs were wood feed rate, steam flow rate, steam temperatures, bed temperatures, free board temperatures, product gas temperatures, bed differential pressures, char production, gas production, gas analyses, and tar production. The parameters measured in the laboratory were moisture contents (wood and char), ash contents (wood and char), and tar content. 9 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds . Abstract:...

  12. High Precision Control of Indirect Drive Systems Based on End-effector Sensor Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Cheng-Huei

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Block diagram of a single-joint indirect drive train witha Figure 4.4: Block diagram of a single-joint indirect driveBlock diagram of the control system given in Section 3.6. Single-Joint

  13. Dry melting of high albite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anovitz, L.M.: Blencoe, J.G.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of albitic melts are central to thermodynamic models for synthetic and natural granitic liquids. The authors have analyzed published phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry fusion of high albite to develop a more accurate equation for the Biggs free energy of this reaction to 30 kbar and 1,400 C. Strict criteria for reaction reversal were sued to evaluate the phase-equilibrium data, and the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid albite were evaluated using the published uncertainties in the original measurements. Results suggest that neither available phase-equilibrium experiments nor thermodynamic data tightly constrain the location of the reaction. Experimental solidus temperatures at 1 atm range from 1,100 to 1,120 C. High-pressure experiments were not reversed completely and may have been affected by several sources of error, but the apparent inconsistencies among the results of the various experimentalists are eliminated when only half-reversal data are considered. Uncertainties in thermodynamic data yield large variations in permissible reaction slopes. Disparities between experimental and calculated melting curves are, therefore, largely attributable to these difficulties, and there is no fundamental disagreement between the available phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry melting of albite. Consequently, complex speciation models for albitic melts, based on the assumption that these discrepancies represent a real characteristic of the system, are unjustified at this time.

  14. Indirect Combustion Noise: Experimental Investigation of the Vortex Sound Generation in a Choked

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Indirect Combustion Noise: Experimental Investigation of the Vortex Sound Generation in a Choked-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 2315 #12;Combustion noise in gas turbines consists of direct noise related to the unsteady combustion process itself and indirect noise. As known, indirect noise is produced when entropy

  15. Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regier, Terry

    Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One Stephani Foraker learn a standard poverty-of-stimulus example, anaphoric one, from realistic input by relying on indirect constraints. Keywords: Language acquisition; Poverty of the stimulus; Indirect evidence; Bayesian learning

  16. Freeze-drying bovine spermatozoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faris, Harvey Lee

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~~to t~ roi'ipxg QQ ca dry ai gjuu QQjQigog aud ta Qst~~co cho ~~grso Qg 86lhVdratiea KXpkos Q~Kd Wlthstsud?. V~4MK Qhaersat9ZBE3 Vora used apprs~w~~~ a%oct@ a8 virious uaistma Eoroko as assess hot~& driad. OC WQQ QVBSd Chat horaous gQ Sud 2' hours...KK Hmm 'tiaao ZXZ"d. XnCEICno ~. ?n~ cpa~ Vms::Hach. . UIadpicoKdSq. X6, ESP& S&~o~c. L947, Tha Eccaaacii"cLBCII @IE HacCai. 'La Ljy Uqrlaj. ':. J? QvaacaL EELaoabiaKagyp X. " HSR;. K7p EESCKQ~~UZp g. 8 X956. ParCELU HaIILaa Saciemi HHCaC THicaa...

  17. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  18. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  19. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PROGRAM REVIEW 2013 Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power Principal Investigator: Prof. Gang Chen Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA...

  20. Using and Storing Nonfat Dry Milk Nonfat dry milk is convenient to store, easy to use and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a cool, dry place. s Dry milk products are very sensitive to temperature and humidity. The area where your dry milk is stored should be kept as cool as possible. s Dry milk will absorb moisture and odorsUsing and Storing Nonfat Dry Milk Nonfat dry milk is convenient to store, easy to use

  1. Indirect Gas Species Monitoring Using Tunable Diode Lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A. (Oak Forest, IL); Saucedo, Victor M. (Willowbrook, IL)

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for indirect gas species monitoring based on measurements of selected gas species is disclosed. In situ absorption measurements of combustion species are used for process control and optimization. The gas species accessible by near or mid-IR techniques are limited to species that absorb in this spectral region. The absorption strength is selected to be strong enough for the required sensitivity and is selected to be isolated from neighboring absorption transitions. By coupling the gas measurement with a software sensor gas, species not accessible from the near or mid-IR absorption measurement can be predicted.

  2. Indirect Excitonics | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFP »summerlectures [ICO] NameIndirect Excitonics

  3. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  4. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M. (A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  5. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  6. Cooking with Non-fat Dry Milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of non-fat dry milk, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  7. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  8. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2: dry deposition and resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semanin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers are presented under the headings: dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particles, wind erosion, plutonium deposition and resuspension, air-sea exchange, tropical and polar, global scale, and future studies.

  9. Feedstock blending studies with laboratory indirectly heated gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, A.E.S.; Mullin, J.P.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the further development of indirectly heated gasifiers intended to provide fuels for advanced gas turbines, several indirectly heated laboratory gasifiers were constructed. During many comparative tests, advantages and problems with each system were observed. The most useful systems make use of laboratory tube furnaces in conjunction with temperature, time and pressure or volume yield measuring systems and a gas chromatograph with a thermal conductivity detector. In this paper, high temperature pyrolysis results obtained with the latest system are presented. Contrasting feedstocks suitable for commercial systems separately or in blends are used. Yield versus time measurements are used to determine relevant rate constants and outputs. Since the rate constants are mainly reflective of heat transfer effects, cylindrical dowel sticks of varying radii were volatilized. The data set leads to an analytic heat transfer model that considers the hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of the dowels. Also developed from the dowel experiments is an approximate procedure for estimating the proportionate releases of CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} for any type of biomass whose component proportions are known.

  10. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5+-0.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic Ta and satellite-retrieved Nd - Ta regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.4+-0.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7+-0.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.2+-0.4 Wm-2.

  11. Evaluation of mixing characteristics of corn dry masa flours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobeira Massu, Rodrigo

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by loyd . Roon (Chair of Com ' ee) Ronald L. Richter (Member) Ralph D. Waniska (Member) ert Almeida-Dominguez (Member) ry Acu (Chair, Food Science and Technology Faculty) E. C. A. Rung (Head... of the embryonic axis and the scutellum which functions as a nutritive organ for the embryo. The germ makes up 10-12% of the kernel dry weight. About 85'/o of the lipids in corn are in the germ which has a lipid concentration of 30-38'%%d . Mos t lipid sar e fre...

  12. An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Kamal Raoji

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % moisture removed oven dried mass of handsheet, g mass of handsheet after drying test, g mass of handsheet before drying test, g relative moisture removed from handsheet moisture removed by drying, % initial moisture (im) initial handsheet sample mass..., and the effects on the paper sheet and drying felt can be detrimental. Elevated temperatures reduce water viscosity which permits reduced resistance to water flow in the sheet. Pressing with a drying temperature of 95 C gives increased drying capacity, reduced...

  13. Leaf gas exchange and carbohydrate concentrations in Pinus pinaster plants subjected to elevated CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to elevated CO2 and a soil drying cycle Catherine Picon-Cochard Jean-Marc Guehl Unité de recherches en.) were acclimated for 2 years under ambient (350 ?mol mol-1)and elevated (700 ?mol mol-1) CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). In the summer of the second growing season, the plants were subjected to a soil drying

  14. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes Saves Energy Energy Efficiency Research Office PIER This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device, producing less wastewater and preserving product quality. Infrared drypeeling is expected to reduce

  15. Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas Beans and peas are good for you Beans and peas beans with rice or corn to provide high quality complete protein. If you are on a special diet, remember that beans and peas are low in sodium and fat. How to store dried beans and peas Store beans and peas

  16. Growing Dry Beans for an Emerging Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Growing Dry Beans for an Emerging Market JOIN US FOR AN EVENING WITH JACK LAZOR, OF BUTTERWORKS FARM AND JOE BOSSEN, OF VERMONT BEAN CRAFTERS APRIL 10TH , 2012, 6:15-8PM AT THE KELLOGG-HUBBARD LIBRARY EAST MONTPELIER ROOM 135 MAIN ST., MONTPELIER, VT 05602 Jack Lazor has grown dry beans for local

  17. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  18. An Indirect Search for WIMPs with Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Habig; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A potential source of high energy neutrinos is the annihilation of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) collecting in gravitational potential wells such as the centers of the Earth, the Sun, or the Galaxy. A search for such a WIMP annihilation signal using the Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) detector is presented. Super-K observes 1.1 upward through-going muons per day. These events are caused by high energy (typical E_nu ~ 100 GeV) nu_mu interactions in the rock under the detector, and are generally consistent with the expected flux from atmospheric neutrinos. No enhancement of the neutrino signal due to WIMP annihilation is seen, so upper limits on the possible flux of WIMPS are set. These limits are compared to those from other such indirect searches, and a model-independent method is used to compare the Super-K results with direct-detection WIMP experiments.

  19. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  20. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  1. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  2. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  3. A HYBRID SOLAR LINEAR CONCENTRATOR PROTOTYPE IN INDIA , J. Daniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and community power supply, and grid connected PV generation [1]. The need for heat in applications such as domestic hot water, air conditioning, or air heating for drying cash crops, makes hybrid concentrator PV-grid systems for basic lighting, irrigation pumps, cellular phone towers, urban applications, medical

  4. Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (US)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

  5. Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

    The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

  6. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  7. Dry cooling: Perspectives on future needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guyer, E.C. (Yankee Scientific, Inc., Ashland, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors that can be expected to determine the future role of dry cooling in the United States electric power generation industry are identified and characterized. Focus is primarily on the issues of water availability for the electric power industry and the environmental impacts of evaporative cooling systems. The question of future water availability is addressed in terms of both limitations and opportunities facing the industry. A brief review of the status of dry cooling applications is provided. Included is a summary of an extensive survey of electric utility industry perspectives on the future requirements and role for dry cooling. Some regional assessments of the expected future requirements for this technology are also provided. Conclusions are a qualitative characterization of the expected future role of dry cooling in the electric power industry. 72 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  9. Resuspension and dry deposition research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author concludes that better predictive models are needed for the signifcant health, ecological, and economic impacts of resuspended particles and their subsequent dry deposition. Both chemical and radioactive aerosols are discussed. (PSB)

  10. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  11. Compression of cooked freeze-dried carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macphearson, Bruce Alan

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to precompression characteristics (Brockmann, 1966). Hsmdy (1962) found that acceptable, compressed and freeze-dried spinach could be obtained by plasticizing the product to a moisture content of 9X before compression. Ishler (1962) reported that spraying... the dehydrated food before compression with either water, glycerine or propylene glycol produced bars with excellent rehydra- tion characteristics. He recommended spraying freeze-dried cellu- lar foods to 5-13X moisture, compressing, and redrying to lees than...

  12. Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests. Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests....

  13. Wet-dry cooling demonstration. Test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allemann, R.T.; DeBellis, D.E.; Werry, E.V.; Johnson, B.M.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale test of dry/wet cooling using the ammonia phase-change system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT), has been operated at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield, California. The facility is capable of condensing 60,000 lbs/h of steam from a small house turbine. Two different modes of combining dry and evaporative cooling have been tested. One uses deluge cooling in which water is allowed to flow over the fins of the dry (air-cooled) heat exchanger on hot days; the other uses a separate evaporative condenser in parallel to the dry heat exchanger. A third mode of enhancing the dry cooling system, termed capacitive cooling has been tested. In this system, the ammonia-cooled steam condenser is supplemented by a parallel conventional water-cooled condenser with water supplied from a closed system. This water is cooled during off-peak hours each night by an ammonia heat pump which rejects heat through the ACT Cooling Tower. If operated over the period of a year, each of the wet/dry systems would use only 25% of the water normally required to reject this heat load in an evaporative cooling tower. The third would consume no water, the evaporative cooling being replaced by the delayed cooling of the closed system water supply.

  14. Rate of drying and stresses in the first period of drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, S.J.; Rybicki, A.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents a computer simulated processes and illustrate how the drying induced stresses are influenced by the rate of drying. It is shown that the moisture transport coefficient, and thus the rate of drying, depends on the thermal state of the drying material, defined by the wet-bulb temperature. Through these simulated processes one can observe the evolution of the moisture content and stress distributions during drying at constant, but in each process different, wet-bulb temperatures. A convective drying process of a bar with rectangular cross-section is considered as example, and a two-dimensional initial-boundary value problem is solved numerically with the use of the finite element method. The numerical results are visualized in spatial diagrams.

  15. An evaluation of the relationships between fecal nitrogen and digestibility, crude protein and dry matter intake of forages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngugi, Kinuthia Robinson

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    until residual detergent was removed. The refluxed forage was allowed to air dry then labelled with 1. 2 g (i. e , 3g/ml x 4 ml) of Erbium and again allowed to dry. Labelled forage was then introduced into the goats' rumen through the cannulae... analysis for dry matter (A. O. A. C. 1975) and Erbium content (Telford 1980), the samples were ground through 2 mm screen of a Wiley mill. Concentration of Erbium was plotted against time post dose and the following formula used to estimate retention...

  16. Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JiJi Fan; Andrey Katz; Jessie Shelton

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.

  17. Policy Name: Indirect Costs of Research Originating/Responsible Department: Vice-President (Research and International)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    Policy Name: Indirect Costs of Research Originating/Responsible Department: Vice: Associate Vice-President (Research Planning and Operations Policy: Indirect costs of research are real costs that benefit and support research. These costs must be included in budget requests to external sponsors

  18. THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (INDIRECT) COSTS POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (INDIRECT) COSTS POLICY Facilities and Administrative (Indirect) costs are real costs that provide reimbursement for actual or contract. The costs result from shared services such as libraries, plant operation and maintenance, utility

  19. Lazy learning indirect control for discrete-time non-linear systems Gianluca Bontempi, Mauro Birattari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bontempi, Gianluca

    Lazy learning indirect control for discrete-time non-linear systems Gianluca Bontempi, Mauro propose a hybrid architecture for the indirect control of non linear discrete time plants from of the resulting controller in a simplified case. Experimental results in the control of some non linear benchmarks

  20. Predicted climate change alters the indirect effect of predators on an ecosystem process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Predicted climate change alters the indirect effect of predators on an ecosystem process Janet R to occur with climate change will likely influence how predators indirectly affect an essential ecosystem and severity of droughts (1, 2). Changes in rainfall will likely affect ecosystem processes such as primary

  1. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  2. Creep Compliance Analysis Technique for the Flattened Indirect Tension Test of Asphalt Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Creep Compliance Analysis Technique for the Flattened Indirect Tension Test of Asphalt Concrete: ­ Cored Sample (Cylindrical) Indirect tensile testing (IDT) (Strength/Creep) ­ AASHTO T-322 Damage under and Flattened IDT · 1000-sec creep tests on three replicates · 0, -10, and -20 deg. C · Displacement

  3. Indirect Search of Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino on behalf of the ANTARES Collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    significant high energy neutrino fluxes. Indirect search for Dark Matter looking at such neutrino fluxes for the Cherenkov light induced by high energy muons during their travel in the sea water throughout the detectorIndirect Search of Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope V. Bertin1 on behalf

  4. Expected magnitude of the aerosol shortwave indirect effect in springtime Arctic liquid water clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reflection of photons between the snow or sea ice surface and cloud base, the shortwave first indirect effect of high quality longwave spectral radiation measurements in the Arctic from which the indirect effect can clouds both absorb and scatter radiation. We therefore do not yet have a comparable spectral capability

  5. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  6. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  7. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  8. Aerosol--cloud drop concentration closure in warm cumulus W. C. Conant,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    layer aerosol's effect on cloud microphysics throughout the lowest 1 km of cloud depth. Onboard the radiation balance and hydrological cycle, they are called indirect effects of aerosol on climate, or 4Aerosol--cloud drop concentration closure in warm cumulus W. C. Conant,1 T. M. VanReken,2 T. A

  9. Concentration in Green Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    , energy, infrastructure or transport. Participants in this specialization area work closely with the GreenConcentration in Green Design Research and Education Opportunities Carnegie Mellon University Civil and Environmental Engineering www.ce.cmu.edu M.S. Concentration Green Design - Course Only Track As an extension

  10. COFIN project Concentration Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COFIN project Concentration Fluctuations in Gas Releases by Industrial Accidents Final Summary of random concentration fluctuations in hazardous gas releases and the method was to derive empirical. In each measurement cycle the Lidar emits a short laser light pulse and detects the light Lidar reflected

  11. Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying: drying process and pyrolysis of coal. A heat and mass transfer model was developed to simulate the drying

  12. Method and apparatus for drying web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orloff, David I. (Atlanta, GA); Kloth, Gerald R. (Kennesaw, GA); Rudemiller, Gary R. (Paducah, KY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drying a web of paper utilizing impulse drying techniques. In the method of the invention for drying a paper web, the paper web is transported through a pair of rolls wherein at least one of the rolls has been heated to an elevated temperature. The heated roll is provided with a surface having a low thermal diffusivity of less than about 1.times.10.sup.-6 m.sup.2 /s. The surface material of the roll is preferably prepared from a material selected from the group consisting of ceramics, polymers, glass, inorganic plastics, composite materials and cermets. The heated roll may be constructed entirely from the material having a low thermal diffusivity or the roll may be formed from metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material which is provided with a surface layer of a material having a low thermal diffusivity.

  13. Analysis of wet & dry weather bacterial concentrations within Kranji & Marina Catchments, Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Genevieve Edine

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Singaporean government's Public Utilities Board aims to open Kranji and Marina Reservoirs to the public for recreational use. Thus, the water bodies have to be safe from fecal contamination in order to protect the ...

  14. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  15. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  16. Adsorptive Drying of Organic Liquids- An Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, S.; Humphrey, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

    (which is very heat sensitive and can poly merize in the presence of adsorbents) by freeze drying at -20 0 C and centrifuging the ice crystals. The water oontent was reduced from 700 ppm to 1~0 ppm. Pervaporation One of the recent advances... at The University of Texas at Austin will also be given. INTRODUCTION In the process industries it is often necessary to dry fluids before they can be processed further. For example, if a liquid is to be subjected to cryo genic conditions, its frost point must...

  17. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    complicated and capital intensive drying process, yields a product of approximately 15% moisture, which due to its particle size, may only be burnt in suspension. iii) From an energy standpotnt the processes are inefficient as only a fractton... fuel. TR.e evaporated moisture is sep rated from the dried hog fuel-oil slurry n 768 ESL-IE-84-04-133 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume II, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 l'ltlwr d separate vessel...

  18. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, T.; White, D. A.; Knowles, T. P. J.

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics T. Mu¨ller,1 D. A. White,1 and T. P. J. Knowles1, a) Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom (Dated: 25 November 2014) We present an approach... for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on...

  19. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  20. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the {open_quotes}spent-fuel standard.{close_quotes} The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock.

  1. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  2. Higher surface ozone concentrations over the Chesapeake Bay than over the adjacent land: Observations and models from the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    , in high enough concentrations, is a hazardous secondary air pollutant regulated by the United States t s Observations of ozone are higher over the Chesapeake Bay than areas upwind on land. Dry deposition rates, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over

  3. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  4. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  5. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  6. concentration 2-adrenoceptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    inhibitor concentration agonist acid expressed region isolated treatment 2-adrenoceptor serum stimulation acid product metabolism human treatment analysis new ester metabolites derivatives content isolated expression level binding complex mrna integrin collagen genes form normal synthesis production beta 1

  7. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  8. Joined concentric tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  9. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  10. Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste is a nightmare for any construction engineer of the concrete or cement paste surface. Inspired by the art of molecular cooking a team of TU Delft scientists for instance sodium alginates. When sprayed on the surface of concrete or cement paste, a rapid chemical

  11. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  12. Spent fuel integrity during dry storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information on spent fuel integrity is of interest in evaluating the impact of long-term dry storage on the behavior of spent fuel rods. Spent fuel used during cask performance tests at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offers significant opportunities for confirmation of the benign nature of long-term dry storage. The cask performance tests conducted at INEL included visual observation and ultrasonic examination of the condition of cladding, fuel rods, and fuel assembly hardware before dry storage and consolidation of the fuel; and a qualitative determination of the effect of dry storage and fuel consolidation on fission gas release from the spent fuel rods. A variety of cover gases and cask orientations were used during the cask performance tests. Cover gases included vacuum, nitrogen, and helium. The nitrogen and helium backfills were sampled and analyzed to detect leaking spent fuel rods. At the conclusion of each performance test, periodic gas sampling was conducted on each cask as part of a surveillance and monitoring activity. Continued surveillance and monitoring activities are being conducted for intact fuel in a CASTOR V/21 cask and for consolidated fuel in a VSC-17 cask. The results of the gas sampling activities are reported in this paper.

  13. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

  14. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect radiative effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model investigation of the indirect Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA V. Ramaswamy, Paul A. Ginoux, and Larry W. Horowitz Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New

  15. A New Indirect Adaptive Control Scheme for Time-Varying Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ioannou, Petros

    A New Indirect Adaptive Control Scheme for Time-Varying Plants Absrmcr of the indirectadaptiveschemewhicharemoreappropriatefortime-varying plants that for successful estimation. the oyerall plant is notrestrictedto var?slowl)withtime. The new estimatorandcontrol

  16. Fast prototyping and Indirect Adaptive GPC temperature control of a class of passive HVAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fast prototyping and Indirect Adaptive GPC temperature control of a class of passive HVAC TAWEGOUM (temperature, moisture) is a dominating factor, on the one hand to deal with the market quantitative

  17. Kriging direct and indirect estimates of sulfate deposition: A comparison. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reams, G.A.; Huso, M.M.P.; Vong, R.J.; McCollum, J.M.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to logistical and cost constraints, acidic deposition is rarely measured at forest research or sampling locations. A crucial first step to assessing the effects of acid rain on forests is an accurate estimate of acidic deposition at forest sample sites. The authors examine two methods (direct and indirect) for estimating sulfate deposition at atmospherically unmonitored forest sites. The direct method only uses directly measured deposition data, while the indirect method additionally incorporates precipitation measurements from a spatially denser network of monitoring sites. Sulfate deposition values were estimated by point kriging using both the direct and indirect methods. By using the supplemental data from the precipitation monitoring network, estimates of sulfate deposition improved substantially, particularly at sites that are relatively isolated to the acid deposition monitoring network. Cross-validated procedures indicate that by using the indirect method, a reduction of approximately 20 to 25 percent in the predicted error sum of squares occurred.

  18. Modeling the Direct and Indirect Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Tropical Cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Keun-Hee

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    precipitation even in the weakest hurricane. When comparing the model performance between aerosol indirect and direct effect by ensemble experiments, the adjustment time of the circulation due to modification of the aerosol radiative forcing by aerosol layers...

  19. FY 2011 Third Quarter Report Estimate of Historical Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects estimated from Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations are -0.06 W m-2 and -1.39 W m-2, respectively.

  20. The development of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for Trypanosoma vivax in Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platt, Kenneth Bradley

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST FOR TRYPANOSOMA VIVAX IN COLOMBIA A Thesis KENNETH BRADLEY PLATT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A Es M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTEB OF SCIENCE May 1974 Ma]or Sub]ect: Veterinary Miorobiology THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIRECT FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST FOR TRYPANOSOMA VIVAX IN COLOMBIA A Thesis by KENNETH BRADLEY PLATT Approved as to style end content by: Co-Cha rman...

  1. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  2. Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling with an average diffusion coefficient and with determined viscoelastic parameters from creep tests agreed well compared to the shrinkage data from experiments, indicating that drying shrinkage of cement paste may be considered as a poroviscoelastic...

  3. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  5. 1997 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS MICHIGAN DRY BEAN PRODUCTION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997 DRY BEAN VARIETY CANNING TRIALS MICHIGAN DRY BEAN PRODUCTION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD Rating 1=poor, 2=fair, 3=good, 4=above average, 5=excellent NAVY LIGHT RED KIDNEY BEANS VARIETY GRATIOT HURON 8.4 3.3 ASG96YT8 2.1 1.8 DARK RED KIDNEY BEANS ASG96YT37 3.4 2.1 VARIETY MONTCALM BAY 7 YEAR AVE ASG96YT

  6. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, T; Knowles, T P J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

  7. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  8. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WALL DRYING IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES Kimdolyn Boone Theresa Weston, PhD Xuaco Pascual Product Development Engineer Building Scientist Field Services Engineer E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Richmond, VA ABSTRACT... time based on the varying weather conditions. Constant interior conditions of 70?F and 55% RH were chosen. This corresponds to typical interior temperatures and a high level of moisture production within the house. This was chosen as a worse...

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  10. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  11. Elements of Dry-Grind Corn-Processing Streams 113 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 134, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of ethanol as a fuel additive, ethanol production has increased markedly in the past decade. Ethanol-grind corn process is one of two technologies used to convert corn into ethanol. In this process, all kernel with solubles; ethanol; dry-grind processing; stillage; syrup; element concentrations. #12;114 Belyea et al

  12. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  14. Transfer of hot dry rock technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program has focused worldwide attention on the facts that natural heat in the upper part of the earth's crust is an essentially inexhaustible energy resource which is accessible almost everywhere, and that practical means now exist to extract useful heat from the hot rock and bring it to the earth's surface for beneficial use. The Hot Dry Rock Program has successfully constructed and operated a prototype hot, dry rock energy system that produced heat at the temperatures and rates required for large-scale space heating and many other direct uses of heat. The Program is now in the final stages of constructing a larger, hotter system potentially capable of satisfying the energy requirements of a small, commercial, electrical-generating power plant. To create and understand the behavior of such system, it has been necessary to develop or support the development of a wide variety of equipment, instruments, techniques, and analyses. Much of this innovative technology has already been transferred to the private sector and to other research and development programs, and more is continuously being made available as its usefulness is demonstrated. This report describes some of these developments and indicates where this new technology is being used or can be useful to industry, engineering, and science.

  15. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  16. Roles of Dry Friction in Fluctuating Motion of Adiabatic Piston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomohiko G. Sano; Hisao Hayakawa

    2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The motion of an adiabatic piston under dry friction is investigated to clarify the roles of dry friction in non-equilibrium steady states. We clarify that dry friction can reverse the direction of the piston motion and causes a discontinuity or a cusp-like singularity for velocity distribution functions of the piston. We also show that the heat fluctuation relation is modified under dry friction.

  17. Heat-transfer characteristics of a dry and wet/dry advanced condenser for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, H.D.; McIlroy, K.; Webster, D.J.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An EPRI-funded, experimental evaluation of two types of advanced, air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase-change dry/wet cooling system for electric power plants is described. Condensers of similar design, but much bigger, are being tested in a 15 MWe demonstration plant at the Pacific Gas and Electric Kern Power Station in Bakersfield, California. These condensers, featuring different air-side augmentation, were tested in Union Carbide's ammonia phase-change pilot plant (0.3 MWe). The first unit consisted of the Curtiss-Wright integral shaved-fin extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (600 to 1000 FPM) and initial temperature differences, ITD (20 to 60/sup 0/F). Overall heat transfer coefficients (based on air-side surface), U, ranged between 7.0 to 8.6 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. The second configuration constituted the Hoterv aluminum plate-fin/tube assembly of which two different sizes (5 ft/sup 2/ and 58 ft/sup 2/ frontal area) were performance tested; in both dry and wet modes at 200 to 800 FPM air face velocities, ITD's of 10 to 60/sup 0/F and at water deluge rates up to 3.0 gpm/ft. of core width. In the dry mode, U's ranged from 7.0 to 12.0 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. Increasing water deluge greatly enhanced the heat rejection capacity over dry operation - as high as 4 times, depending on operating conditions. This deluge augmentation was greater for lower air relative humidities and lower ITD's. A brief description of the recently completed ammonia phase-change dry/wet-dry cooling demonstration plant at the Kern Power Station concludes this document.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  19. Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1 John Ferrante,2 and Fredy R and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self in systems presenting stick-slip due to dry friction has been under scrutiny 11 . Experimental evidence

  20. 11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Photodetector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Friction Cantilever Photodetector Laser Beam 11-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 #12;156 11 The Prandtl-Tomlinson Model for Dry Friction model." Prandtl considered properties of dry friction. Actually, we must apply a minimum force to the body so that a mac- roscopic

  1. Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Eugene I. Butikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    by viscous and dry (Coulomb) friction are investigated analytically and with the help of computer simulations-state oscillations. 1. Introduction Mechanical vibration systems with combined viscous and dry (Coulomb) friction. Even the simplest dry friction model, the Coulomb friction, can explain the principal peculiarities

  2. Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Eugene Butikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    at investigation of free oscillations of a torsion spring pendulum damped by dry (Coulomb) friction. An idealizedTorsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Manual Eugene Butikov Annotation. The manual includes as a prerequisite for the virtual lab "Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction." The manual includes also a set

  3. Review of Drying Methods for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Large, W.S.

    1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    SRTC is developing technology for direct disposal of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The development program includes analyses and tests to support design and safe operation of a facility for ''road ready'' dry storage of SNF-filled canisters. The current technology development plan includes review of available SNF drying methods and recommendation of a drying method for aluminum SNF.

  4. Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1 , Kent D. Rausch1 *, Ping Yang2 , Hosein Shapouri3-265-0697). #12;Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process ­ University of Illinois 2 Table of Contents 1. Introductory.....................................................................................................7 3.2. Dry Grind Ethanol

  5. Novel Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: concentrating photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrating photovoltaic Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership,...

  7. Project W-441, cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage.

  8. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy features to the public.

  9. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  10. Lithographic dry development using optical absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate,CobaltCold Vacuum Drying

  12. Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering HowAna MooreDrought-induced treeDry lake

  13. Dry Creek Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict ofDongjin Semichem CoDow CorningDrive5Drum)Dry

  14. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About Us Drew BittnerHomeDry Process

  15. dry-regen | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ .-detonation7 ComparisonDry Regenerable

  16. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SJ Ghan; B Schmid; JM Hubbe; CJ Flynn; A Laskin; AA Zelenyuk; DJ Czizco; CN Long; G McFarquhar; J Verlinde; J Harrington; JW Strapp; P Liu; A Korolev; A McDonald; M Wolde; A Fridlind; T Garrett; G Mace; G Kok; S Brooks; D Collins; D Lubin; P Lawson; M Dubey; C Mazzoleni; M Shupe; S Xie; DD Turner; Q Min; EJ Mlawer; D Mitchell

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARM Climate Research Facility’s (ACRF) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) will deploy an intensive cloud and aerosol observing system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) during period 29 March through 30 April 2008. The deployment period is within the International Polar Year, thus contributing to and benefiting from the many ancillary observing systems collecting data synergistically. We will deploy the Canadian National Research Council Convair 580 aircraft to measure temperature, humidity, total particle number, aerosol size distribution, single particle composition, concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, optical scattering and absorption, updraft velocity, cloud liquid water and ice contents, cloud droplet and crystal size distributions, cloud particle shape, and cloud extinction. In addition to these aircraft measurements, ISDAC will deploy two instruments at the ARM site in Barrow: a spectroradiometer to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius, and a tandem differential mobility analyzer to measure the aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity. By using many of the same instruments used during Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted in October 2004, we will be able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties during the fall and spring transitions. The aerosol measurements can be used in cloud models driven by objectively analyzed boundary conditions to test whether the cloud models can simulate the aerosol influence on the clouds. The influence of aerosol and boundary conditions on the simulated clouds can be separated by running the cloud models with all four combinations of M-PACE and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions: M-PACE aerosol and boundary conditions, M-PACE aerosol and ISDAC boundary conditions, ISDAC aerosol and M-PACE boundary conditions, and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions. ISDAC and M-PACE boundary conditions are likely to be very different because of the much more extensive ocean water during M-PACE. The uniformity of the surface conditions during ISDAC greatly simplifies the objective analysis (surface fluxes and precipitation are very weak), so that it can largely rely on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis. The aerosol measurements can also be used as input to the cloud models and to evaluate the aerosol retrievals. By running the cloud models with and without solar absorption by the aerosols, we can determine the semidirect effect of the aerosol on the clouds.

  17. Deposition and corrosion phenomena on aluminum surfaces under deluged dry cooling-tower condisions. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, K.R.; May, R.P.; Douglas, J.G.; Tylczak, J.H.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deposition and corrosion on aluminum heat exchanger surfaces resulting from deluge in wet/dry cooling towers is simulated in a laboratory Corrosion/Deposition Loop (CDL). Heat exchanger deposition buildup was found to be linearly dependent on concentration factor and number of wet/dry cycles. Deionized water rising after deluge reduced rate of deposition. Laboratory data obtained from CDL relates directly to operation of the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) demonstration cooling tower. Technology transferable to ACT shows that deposition from supersaturated solution can be effectively controlled by attention to water chemistry, pH, water conditioning, and good heat transfer design. The additional mechanism of deposition by water film evaporation is effectively managed by soft water rinsing and uniform surface wetting. Exposure of a model TRANE surface (the ACT wet/dry exchanger) produced short-term deposition extrapolating to 0.011 mm buildup in three years. Studies continue to verify 4X as maximum cycles of concentration through control of water chemistry and rinsing after deluge. Deluge water used at ACT facility is sufficiently aggressive to warrant use of Alclad to extend tube service life.

  18. Freeze crystallization technology for Kraft black liquor concentration. Third report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, W.E.; Rhodes, C.R.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 25% of the purchased energy in the pulp and paper industry is used to concentrate black liquor. The technical feasibility of using freeze concentration to supplement evaporation has been successfully demonstrated, and results indicate that energy consumption can be reduced 45%. After compiling a considerable data base on the characteristics of black liquor at low temperature and after developing a computer program to aid analysis, the process chosen was vacuum freezing-vapor absorption (VFVA). A pilot plant was built and operated; however, due to problems with crystallization of the absorbent and contamination, it was found that maintaining the conditions necessary for a continuous process was not practical at the present state of development. Therefore, indirect freezing was used for all subsequent work. This required the design and fabrication of a simple shuttle crystallizer to replace scraped surface units conventionally used. CSI also developed an integrated ice separation column that combined crystal growth, a concentration gradient, and washing all in one unit. Finally, extensive heat transfer coefficient data were collected so that a preliminary design could be completed for a 350 TPD industrial freeze concentration unit. An economic analysis was calculated in order to compare using evaporation and freeze concentration to process the increased liquor flow from a pulp mill expansion. A 200,000 lb/hr freezing unit used to preconcentrate the mill's entire stream up to 18.7% solids would save $10 to $16 per ton of pulp.

  19. Self drying roofs: What! No dripping!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many roofs are replaced because water accumulates in portions of the roofing system.These accumulations can cause dripping, accelerated membrane failure, poor thermal performance, the threat of structural decay, and the depreciation of building assets. Traditionally, the roofing industry has been concerned with controlling the inflow of water into the roof. An example of this strategy would be the development of a more reliable membrane. However, roof membranes inevitably leak. For this reason, the roof design strategy of the future must be concerned with controlling water outflow. The requirements of this type of roof system are described. Under normal operating conditions (no leaks), the total moisture content of a self-drying roof system shall not increase with time and condensation shall not occur under the membrane during winter uptake. Moisture vapor movement by convection must be eliminated and the flow of water by gravity through imperfections in the roof system must be controlled. After a leak has occurred, no condensation on the upper surface of the deck shall be tolerated and the water introduced by the leak must be dissipated to the building interior in a minimum amount of time. Finite difference computer modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. The impact of deck and insulation permeance, climate, leaks, and wintertime water uptake are simulated. A database of simulations is qualitatively described; this database will be used in future work to produce a simplified means of assessing the design parameters of a self-drying roof system.

  20. Economics of dry FGD by sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulty, D.J.; Hooper, R.G.; McDowell, D.A.; Scheck, R.W.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The body of information in this paper is directed to engineers involved in desulfurization of boiler flue gas. The problems of wet scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from power plant flue gases have been well documented. The utility industry has been interested in developing new processes that would overcome problems associated with wet slurry systems. While spray dryer technology for FGD may alleviate many of these problems, this concept has problems as well. Dry injection FGD takes the development process one step further to a totally dry system, thus eliminating the difficulties of wet slurry handling. The concept of using the fabric filter as a chemical contactor for the SO/sub 2/ absorption was proposed in the late 1960s by Chaffee and Hill. In the early 1970s, Superior Oil Company, Wheelabrator Frye, Carborundum, and others investigated the use of nahcolite for SO/sub 2/ removal. Nahcolite is a natural occurring sodium bicarbonate found in great quantities in the oil shale regions of Colorado. In general, these developments were found viable in certain circumstances, but commercialization was hampered by the lack of nahcolite suppliers.

  1. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  2. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  3. Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an EPRI-funded experimental evaluation of advanced air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase. Change dry/wet cooling system for power plants. Two condenser surfaces with different air-side augmentation were tested in an ammonia...

  4. Pore-scale dynamics of salt transport and distribution in drying porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokri, Nima, E-mail: nima.shokri@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, water quality, and mineral-fluid interactions. We applied synchrotron x-ray micro-tomography to investigate the pore-scale dynamics of dissolved salt distribution in a three dimensional drying saline porous media using a cylindrical plastic column (15 mm in height and 8 mm in diameter) packed with sand particles saturated with CaI{sub 2} solution (5% concentration by mass) with a spatial and temporal resolution of 12 ?m and 30 min, respectively. Every time the drying sand column was set to be imaged, two different images were recorded using distinct synchrotron x-rays energies immediately above and below the K-edge value of Iodine. Taking the difference between pixel gray values enabled us to delineate the spatial and temporal distribution of CaI{sub 2} concentration at pore scale. Results indicate that during early stages of evaporation, air preferentially invades large pores at the surface while finer pores remain saturated and connected to the wet zone at bottom via capillary-induced liquid flow acting as evaporating spots. Consequently, the salt concentration increases preferentially in finer pores where evaporation occurs. Higher salt concentration was observed close to the evaporating surface indicating a convection-driven process. The obtained salt profiles were used to evaluate the numerical solution of the convection-diffusion equation (CDE). Results show that the macro-scale CDE could capture the overall trend of the measured salt profiles but fail to produce the exact slope of the profiles. Our results shed new insight on the physics of salt transport and its complex dynamics in drying porous media and establish synchrotron x-ray tomography as an effective tool to investigate the dynamics of salt transport in porous media at high spatial and temporal resolution.

  5. Mathematical and experimental modelling of heat pump assisted microwave drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiguo Jia (Univ. of Queensland (Australia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying is one of the most energy intensive operations in industry and agriculture. In the quest to increase drying efficiency and product quality, new technologies and methods are constantly being sought. Of these technologies, heat pump assisted drying and microwave drying have proved to be the most promising contenders. In order to achieve a better understanding and provide a computer design tool for heat pump assisted convective and microwave drying, both mathematical modelling and experimental investigations of heat pump assisted microwave dryers have been undertaken in this study. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of a heat pump assisted continuous microwave dryer, with emphasis on the simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the evaporator and drying chamber. The model is intend to serve as a design tool in the study of heat pump dryers. To achieve the optimum design, the influences of the key design and operating parameters, as well as the comparison of different drying configurations, have been examined. Based on investigation results, several methods have been proposed to improve the performance of heat pump assisted microwave drying, such as the use of a recuperator. To validate the above mathematical model, extensive drying tests using foam rubber as the test material have been conducted on a prototype heat pump assisted microwave dryer. The prototype heat pump input power was 5 kW with a maximum microwave input power of 10 kW. The experimental performance data confirmed the veracity of the simulation model. The experimental results on drying test materials indicate that with careful design heat pump assisted microwave drying is comparable to convective drying in energy consumption while with a much higher drying speed.

  6. THE RESIDUAL LIPIDS OF FISH PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the rod was brushed back into the glass-stoppered weighing bottle in which the sample was being dried

  7. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system calcium-based dry sorbent injection. Test report, April 30--November 2, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Company of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the fifth phase of the test program, where the performance of the dry sorbent injection of calcium was evaluated as an SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection with humidification was performed downstream of the air heater (in-duct). Calcium injection before the economizer was also investigated. The in-duct calcium sorbent and humidification retrofit resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 28 to 40 percent, with a Ca/S of 2, and a 25 to 30{degrees}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature. The results of the economizer calcium injection tests were disappointing with less than 10 percent SO{sub 2} removal at a Ca/S of 2. Poor sorbent distribution due to limited access into the injection cavity was partially responsible for the low overall removals. However, even in areas of high sorbent concentration (local Ca/S ratios of approximately 6), SO{sub 2} removals were limited to 30 percent. It is suspected that other factors (sorbent properties and limited residence times) also contributed to the poor performance.

  8. Freeze concentration of dairy products, Phase 1: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luksas, A.; Ahmed, S.; Johnson, T.A.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to explore freeze concentration as a process to replace thermal evaporation in the dairy industry. The goals of the study were to save energy by converting concentration processes to an efficient, electrically powered, refrigeration system, and to create higher quality and innovative products that might bring new life to a nature dairy market. A small freeze concentration pilot plant was used to concentrate products for quality comparisons, for physical and chemical analytical determinations, and to discover any equipment/product attributes or limitations. Data was correlated to compare operating economics of freeze concentrations superior to the fresh feedstock in sensory and functionality tests upon reconstitution. Laboratory testing showed equal or superior quality in resulting spray dried powders from freeze concentrates. Freeze concentration was shown to be economically competitive with thermal processes and second generation freezing technology is projected to produce a substantially less expensive product and offer other advantages over current thermally produced goods. 31 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS YOU KNOW WHAT THE TUITION, STIPEND AND EQUIPMENT COSTS ARE YOU KNOW WHAT THE TOTAL COST IS CALCULATION IS USING THE 2010 FED F&A RATE FOR WSU OF 52% (.52) [ DIRECT COST ­ TUITION ­ STIPEND ­ EQUIPMENT] (.52 ) + DIRECT

  10. POLICY ON INDIRECT COSTS RECOVERY FROM RESEARCH FUNDING AGENCIES NOT ACCREDITED BY SIRU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    POLICY ON INDIRECT COSTS RECOVERY FROM RESEARCH FUNDING AGENCIES NOT ACCREDITED BY SIRU Effective of this policy is to appropriately recognize and recover the costs incurred by the University in supporting research grant activity. DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this policy: Direct costs means costs that can

  11. Impacts of Indirect Blocks on Buffer Cache Energy Efficiency Jianhui Yue, Yifeng Zhu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yifeng

    - ing small but frequently accessed indirected blocks over all memory chips reduce the energy saving new scheme can save memory energy up to 16.8% and 15.4% in the I/O-intensive server workloads TPC in fewer energy saving opportunities through memory chip powerdown and DMA overlapping. · This paper

  12. Inversion in indirect optimal control: constrained and unconstrained F. Chaplais and N. Petit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract-- This paper focuses on using non linear inversion in optimal control problems. This technique, we address the case of linear systems with a control affine cost to be minimized under inputInversion in indirect optimal control: constrained and unconstrained cases F. Chaplais and N. Petit

  13. indirect study, coal was oxidatively de-graded with sodium dichromate and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    indirect study, coal was oxidatively de- graded with sodium dichromate and the esterified products- vestigators concluded (17, p. 380) that "thiophene derivatives must be indige- nous to coal." The direct XANES conmpounds yielded spectra that bore little resemblance to the coal spec- trum. For example, simulations

  14. MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MONITORING AND MODELING NEARSHORE DREDGE DISPOSAL FOR INDIRECT BEACH NOURISHMENT, OCEAN BEACH, SAN FRANCISCO Patrick L. Barnard1 , Daniel M. Hanes1 , Jamie Lescinski1 and Edwin Elias2 Nearshore dredge toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over

  15. Reply to Quaas et al.: Can satellites be used to estimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, J. E.; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Li; Wang, Minghuai

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We welcome the comments by Quaas et al. (1). In our paper (2), we used a model to show that the methods used to estimate indirect aerosol forcing using satellite data, especially those based on relating the slope of present-day (PD) drop number (Nc) to aerosol optical depth (AOD), underestimate the forcing calculated when both PD and preindustrial (PI) data are available.

  16. Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence Energy security) requires 36 billion gallons of ethanol by 2022 to replace about 20 percent of U.S. gasoline consumption. Since 2001 ethanol produc- tion, mainly from corn, has increased dramatically at an annual average

  17. Jasmonate-deficient plants have reduced direct and indirect defences against herbivores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    REPORT Jasmonate-deficient plants have reduced direct and indirect defences against herbivores@botany.utoronto.ca Abstract Plants employ a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which act directly by having a negative defences in plants. We examined the performance of herbivores (direct defence) and the attraction

  18. The fate of technetium in reduced estuarine sediments: Combining direct and indirect analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    - mission electron microscopy and gamma camera imaging) and indirect (incubation experiments and chemical extractions) experimental techniques. When TcO4 À was incubated in sediment microcosms at micro-molar (10À6 days), >99% TcOÀ 4 was removed from solution in under 10 min in both micro- bially active and heat

  19. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Weed Management Practices on Soil Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    : although effective weed management and enhancement of soil quality are necessary components of sustainable275 18 Direct and Indirect Impacts of Weed Management Practices on Soil Quality Richard G. Smith, crop yield, and agricultural sustainability (Kar- len et al., 2001), the impact that weed management

  20. Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Electro-Hydraulic Systems Driven by Single-Rod Hydraulic Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Electro-Hydraulic Systems Driven by Single-Rod Hydraulic) of electro-hydraulic systems driven by single- rod hydraulic actuators. Unlike the tracking that the proposed IARC achieves good tracking performance and accurate parameter estimation. INTRODUCTION Electro-hydraulic

  1. Improving Energy Use Forecast for Campus Micro-grids using Indirect Indicators Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    and institutional campuses can significantly contribute to energy conservation. The rollout of smart grids of occupants, and is a micro-grid test-bed for the DoE sponsored Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration ProjectImproving Energy Use Forecast for Campus Micro-grids using Indirect Indicators Saima Aman

  2. Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regier, Terry

    Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One Stephani Foraker this latter view by showing that a Bayesian model can learn a standard "poverty-of-stimulus" example knowledge may itself be acquired without linguistic constraints. Keywords: language acquisition; poverty

  3. Indirect rotor-position estimation techniques for switched reluctance motors -A review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husain, Iqbal

    motor drives. The sensing schemes are broadly classified into non-intrusive and active probing methods. The methods of indirect position sensing can be broadly classified into two categories: (i) Non-intrusive and associated computations, and (ii) intrusive (or active probing) methods, where low-level, high

  4. CLOUD DROPLET SPECTRAL DISPERSION AND THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT: COMPARISON OF TWO TREATMENTS IN A GCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be a radiative forcing by Forster et al. [2007], but global climate models (GCMs) that include both effects canCLOUD DROPLET SPECTRAL DISPERSION AND THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT: COMPARISON OF TWO TREATMENTS effect are compared in a global climate model. The earlier scheme specifies , the ratio of droplet

  5. Dynamics of Dry Friction: A Numerical Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. F. Lim; Kan Chen

    1998-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform extended numerical simulation of the dynamics of dry friction, based on a model derived from the phenomenological description proposed by T. Baumberger et al.. In the case of small deviation from the steady sliding motion, the model is shown to be equivalent to the state- and rate-dependent friction law which was first introduced by Rice and Ruina on the basis of experiments on rocks. We obtain the dynamical phase diagram that agrees well with the experimental results on the paper-on-paper systems. In particular, the bifurcation between stick-slip and steady sliding are shown to change from a direct (supercritical) Hopf type to an inverted (subcritical) one as the driving velocity increases, in agreement with the experiments.

  6. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  7. Curing and drying effects upon the quality of Spanish peanuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristizabal, Leon

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Treatments . Atmospheric Drying Pr ewa s hing Vacuum Drying Air Separation Roasting Chemical Analyses Moisture Content Oil Content Reducing Sugars Physical Analyses Surface Color Percent Transmittance of the Oil Tenure . Density Organoleptic... PEANUTS 48 Table Pa ge THE EFFECTS OF VACUUM DRYING TREAT- MENTS ON THE ORGANOLEPTIC AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF IMMATURE (I) AND MATURE (M) SPANISH PEANUTS 52 10 SIMPLE CORRELATIONS AMONG THE CHEMICAL, PHYSICA L AND ORGANOLEPTIC ATTRIBUTES...

  8. Concentric tube support assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  9. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potentially significant impact on nuclear plant licensing and operations. While dry storage of lower burnup SNF less than 45 gigawatt days per metric ton uranium (GWD MTU)...

  10. antarctic dry valley: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UK b Department of Geological Sciences and Institute.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Uranium isotopes; Dry Valleys; Antarctica; Weathering; Lake chemistry 1 isotopes. The supply...

  11. antarctic dry valleys: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UK b Department of Geological Sciences and Institute.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Uranium isotopes; Dry Valleys; Antarctica; Weathering; Lake chemistry 1 isotopes. The supply...

  12. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico- Tracer Test Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System,...

  13. aerosol dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    43 Drying and deposition of poly(ethylene oxide) droplets determined by Pclet number Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: We report results of a detailed experimental...

  14. atmospheric dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water vapor, and we confirm such predictions in a numerical model. There have been a number 38 Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  16. Membranes and MEAs for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions - Kick off 4 3...

  17. Water volume okay; early runoff leads to dry year declaration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water-volume-okay-early-runoff-leads-to-dry-year-declaration Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  19. Gas Composition Transients in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations with plotted results presented as confirmation bases for selected problems involving the prediction of transient gas compositions during Cold Vacuum Drying Operations.

  20. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  1. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  2. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  3. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  4. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  5. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  6. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  7. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  8. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  9. Project Approval Form Concentration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Project Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate of Graduation:____________________________ Instructions: Please check one of the following ways in which you Plan to complete the project as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology. Depending upon

  10. Quantifying the Uncertainties of Aerosol Indirect Effects and Impacts on Decadal-Scale Climate Variability in NCAR CAM5 and CESM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sungsu

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project is to systematically quantify the major uncertainties of aerosol indirect effects due to the treatment of moist turbulent processes that drive aerosol activation, cloud macrophysics and microphysics in response to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations using the CAM5/CESM1. To achieve this goal, the P.I. hired a postdoctoral research scientist (Dr. Anna Fitch) who started her work from the Nov.1st.2012. In order to achieve the project goal, the first task that the Postdoc. and the P.I. did was to quantify the role of subgrid vertical velocity variance on the activation and nucleation of cloud liquid droplets and ice crystals and its impact on the aerosol indirect effect in CAM5. First, we analyzed various LES cases (from dry stable to cloud-topped PBL) to check whether this isotropic turbulence assumption used in CAM5 is really valid. It turned out that this isotropic turbulence assumption is not universally valid. Consequently, from the analysis of LES, we derived an empirical formulation relaxing the isotropic turbulence assumption used for the CAM5 aerosol activation and ice nucleation, and implemented the empirical formulation into CAM5/CESM1, and tested in the single-column and global simulation modes, and examined how it changed aerosol indirect effects in the CAM5/CESM1. These results were reported in the poster section in the 18th Annual CESM workshop held in Breckenridge, CO during Jun.17-20.2013. While we derived an empirical formulation from the analysis of couple of LES from the first task, the general applicability of that empirical formulation was questionable, because it was obtained from the limited number of LES simulations. The second task we did was to derive a more fundamental analytical formulation relating vertical velocity variance to TKE using other information starting from basic physical principles. This was a somewhat challenging subject, but if this could be done in a successful way, it could be directly implemented into the CAM5 as a practical parameterization, and substantially contributes to achieving the project goal. Through an intensive research for about one year, we found appropriate mathematical formulation and tried to implement it into the CAM5 PBL and activation routine as a practical parameterized numerical code. During these processes, however, the Postdoc applied for another position in Sweden, Europe, and accepted a job offer there, and left NCAR in August 2014. In Sweden, Dr. Anna Fitch is still working on this subject in a part time, planning to finalize the research and to write the paper in a near future.

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 53, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 41 A High-Performance Sensorless Indirect Stator Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and rotor winding resistance. Ls, Lr Stator and rotor self-inductance. M Mutual inductance. Np Number-Performance Sensorless Indirect Stator Flux Orientation Control of Induction Motor Drive Mohamed Boussak, Member, IEEE, and Kamel Jarray Abstract--A new method for the implementation of a sensorless indirect stator

  12. Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of both a direct and indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The direct supercritical CO2 cycle transferred heat directly from a 600 MWt reactor to the supercritical CO2 working fluid supplied to the turbine generator at approximately 20 MPa. The indirect supercritical CO2 cycle assumed a helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), operating at a primary system pressure of approximately 7.0 MPa, delivered heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to the secondary indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle, again operating at a pressure of about 20 MPa. For both the direct and indirect cycles, sensitivity calculations were performed for reactor outlet temperature between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility General Service Helium System Design Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility general service helium system (GSHe). The GSHe is a general service facility process support system, but does include safety-class systems, structures and components providing protection to the offsite public. The GSHe also performs safety-significant functions that provide protection to onsite workers. The GSHe essential function is to provide helium to support process functions during all phases of facility operations. GSHe helium is used to purge the cask and the MCO in order to maintain their internal atmospheres below hydrogen flammability concentrations. The GSHe also supplies helium to purge the PWC lines and components and the VPS vacuum pump.

  14. Multi-scale mechanical response of freeze-dried collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Offeddu, Giovanni S.; Ashworth, Jennifer C.; Cameron, Ruth E.; Oyen, Michelle L.

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    below 100 nm, did not enclose the pores completely. Theing sufficient time to dry. Colloidal probe AFM on a Veeco Dimension 3100 machine (Bruker, USA) was performed using a 5 ?m diameter borosilicate glass spherical tip (sQube, Germany) to indent... in silicone molds with the same concentration in the slurry. The large variability displayed by the former might result in this dissimilarity. The mechanical response of these materials has been previously shown to resemble that of open-cell foams, in which...

  15. Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a of percussive drilling assuming a dry friction mechanism to explain the experimentally observed drop in pene as a frictional pair, and this can generate the pattern of the impact forces close to reality. Despite quite

  16. Biomass Logistics and Particle Technology Group Purdue Improved Drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    to maintain quality of grain in storage. n Farmers primarily depended on open air solar drying after logistics Grain & pest management Pre-Harvest losses from: Insect, molds and birds Harvesting & handling of PICS, technology Open Air Solar Drying of Maize in Ejura Market, Ashanti Region, Ghana #12;4 Chronology

  17. Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely Choosing a Food Dehydrator Drying is one. The thermostat should go up to 160 degrees F. The unit should have a fan or blower for air circulation. Mesh purposes. Types of Dehydrators There are two main types of dehydrators: those with vertical air flow

  18. How to make dried blood dots for genetic studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Joseph J.

    How to make dried blood dots for genetic studies If a vertebrate is in-hand, and blood being taken, it is easy to make both a blood smear and dried blood dots. Modern research on malaria parasites demands that BOTH a blood smear and blood samples be taken. Blood can be stored in lysis buffers of various kinds

  19. RISO-M-2438 Dry deposition and resuspension of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO RISO-M-2438 2 S Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments N 1984 få #12;RISØ-M-2438 DRY DEPOSITION AND RESUSPENSION OF PARITUCLATE NATTER IN CITY ENVIRONMENTS N.O. Jensen Abstract. The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension

  20. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  1. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  2. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  3. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  4. Heat transfer modeling of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geologic codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geologic repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  5. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  6. The US Hot Dry Rock project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy project began in the early 1970's with the objective of developing a technology to make economically available the large ubiquitous thermal energy of the upper earth crust. The program has been funded by the Department of Energy (and its predecessors) and for a few years with participation by West Germany and Japan. An energy reservoir was accessed by drilling and hydraulically fracturing in the precambrian basement rock outside the Valles Caldera of north-central New Mexico. Water was circulated through the reservoir (Phase I, 1978-1980) producing up to 5 MWt at 132/sup 0/C. A second (Phase II) reservoir has been established with a deeper pair of holes and an initial flow test completed producing about 10 MWt at 190/sup 0/C. These accomplishments have been supported and paralleled by developments in drilling, well completion and instrumentation hardware. Acoustic or microseismic fracture mapping and geochemistry studies in addition to hydraulic and thermal data contribute to reservoir analyses. Studies of some of the estimated 430,000 quads of HDR resources in the United States have been made with special attention focused on sites most advantageous for early development.

  7. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  8. Indirect-direct band gap transition through electric tuning in bilayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Si, M. S., E-mail: sims@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Y. H.; Gao, X. P. [Key laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730 000 (China)] [Key laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730 000 (China); Sung, Dongchul; Hong, Suklyun [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143 747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143 747 (Korea, Republic of); He, Junjie [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411 105 (China)] [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411 105 (China)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the electronic properties of bilayer MoS{sub 2} exposed to an external electric field by using first-principles calculations. It is found that a larger interlayer distance, referring to that by standard density functional theory (DFT) with respect to that by DFT with empirical dispersion corrections, makes indirect-direct band gap transition possible by electric control. We show that external electric field effectively manipulates the valence band contrast between the K- and ?-valleys by forming built-in electric dipole fields, which realizes an indirect-direct transition before a semiconductor-metal transition happens. Our results provide a novel efficient access to tune the electronic properties of two-dimensional layered materials.

  9. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  10. An alternative route for efficient optical indirect-gap excitation in Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Shuhei; Fukatsu, Susumu, E-mail: cfkatz@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Yasutake, Yuhsuke [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We explored optical excitation pathways in the multivalley semiconductor Ge in an attempt to expedite selective electron injection into the indirect L-band-edge. An off-peak resonant excitation route was developed, which offers the pumping efficiency outperforming the phonon-assisted near-indirect-edge absorption by more than six orders of magnitude. The valley selectivity results from the intra-valley relaxation that separates electrons and holes in momentum space following excitation. Fortuitously, the widely used green laser, 532?nm, is found to be nearly ideally suited to the efficient L-valley-selective excitation in Ge. Such valley-specific pumping may help clarify the otherwise complicated electron dynamics involving intervalley processes.

  11. Configuration and performance of the indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural gas, indirect-fired fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) is introduced as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20--200 megawatt (MW) size range. The novel indirect-fired carbonate fuel cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFCFC) power plant system configures the ambient pressure carbonate fuel cell with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations from ASPEN simulations present material and energy balances with expected power output. The results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed carbonate fuel cell steam bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components.

  12. Horizontal Inequity and Vertical Redistribution with Indirect Taxes: the Greek Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplanoglou, G; Newbery, David

    should be treated equally, or whether wealth conveys greater security than work (or vice versa) and whether the pursuit of either is affected differently by the proposed income tax. The treatment of equals by indirect taxes has received much less... of alcohol would reduce drunk driving by 7-8% (more for women than men). Other estimates (surveyed in Cnossen, 2005) suggest that higher alcohol taxes would reduce rapes, assaults (particularly domestic violence) and murder, and reduce sickness...

  13. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest uncertainty in climate forcing and projection. Previous IPCC reported aerosol indirect forcing is negative, which does not account for aerosol-convective cloud interactions because the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead to enhanced regional convergence and a strong top-of atmosphere (TOA) warming. Aerosol invigoration effect on convection can result in a strong radiative warming in the atmosphere (+5.6 W m-2) due to strong night-time warming, a lofted latent heating, and a reduced diurnal temperature difference, all of which could remarkably impact regional circulation and modify weather systems. We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear and cloud base temperature play key roles in determining the significance of aerosol invigoration effect for convective systems.

  14. Lead and other metals in dried fish from Nigerian markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoye, C.O.B. (Univ. of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nigerian economy had remarkable industrial growth between 1970 and 1980 and industrialization and urbanization have been sustained albeit at a slower rate. Nevertheless, waste management remains grossly underdeveloped. Environmental concern is only a recent phenomenon, resulting thus far in the launching of a monthly clean-up campaign in 1984 and the establishment of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) in 1988. The level of public awareness has not been encouraging. The indiscriminate discharge of largely untreated factory and urban effluents has continued. Streets and home surroundings become littered soon after clean-up exercises. Inadequate facilities contribute to the unwholesome situation. Refuse collecting centers are mostly without any holding containers, and solid wastes, the focus of the monthly clean-up, are left on the bare ground. Heavy automobile traffic and high lead content of the local automobile fuels have not helped matters. Heavy metals in the human environment are of global concern. In developed countries, limits of concentrations in fish and other foods have been set to safeguard public health, but Nigeria has yet to set any standards because of lack of baseline data. Within the last decade, scientists have been reporting on heavy metal levels in fish from the aquatic environment of Nigeria. Among the metals, lead was the most prominent, with a mean value comparable to the set limits in Great Britain and New Zealand. The present study was aimed at further establishing the levels of contamination in fish by lead and other metals in the Nigerian aquatic systems. Smoke-dried fish, being the most consumed by the local population, was chosen for the survey on the levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc. Possible surface contamination arising from observed poor handling practices was also investigated. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Combustion of concentrates resulting from ultrafiltration of bleached-kraft effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, K.M. (Div. of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (US))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that closed cycle concentrates were simulated by laboratory-scale ultrafiltration of (C + D) and first E-stage effluents from two bleached-kraft mills. The concentrates were found to be similar to typical kraft black liquor in carbon content, heating value, and density, Viscosities of concentrates were similar to or slightly above the values over which black liquor viscosities commonly range. Burning rates for the dried solids from the concentrates were found to be similar to burning rates reported for black liquor. Volatiles yields (percentage of initial dried solids evolving as pyrolysis gases under pyrolytic conditions) were 46-50% and were not strongly dependent on final heating temperature. Char yields (percentage of initial dried solids gasified by heterogeneous char oxidation reactions) were strongly dependent on final heating temperature, increasing from nearly zero at 600{degrees} C to 42% at 1000{degrees} C. A simplistic combustion rate model was developed to predict the overall burning rates. It should prove useful for approximating the rates of combustion of ultrafiltration concentrates. The model includes a first-order rate expression for volatiles evolution and a pseudo-first order rate expression for char burning.

  16. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis refinements and/or relaxation of conservatisms. However, possible design improvements will be summarized for future application. All assumptions and related design features, while appropriate for conceptual designs, must be technically justified for the final design. The pertinent thermal design requirements and underlying assumptions are summarized in Section 1.3. The majority of the thermal analyses, as described in Sections 4.2 and 4.3, focus on an acceptable conceptual design arrived at by refinement of a preliminary but unacceptable design. The results of the subject thermal analyses, as presented in Section 4.0, satisfy items 3 and 4 above.

  17. Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the material’s effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as raising the drop height or changing the impact angle. The seismic load case was derived from the August 23, 2011 earthquake that affected the North Anna power station. The source of the data was a monitoring station near Charlottesville, Virginia, so the ground motion is not an exact match. Stresses on the containment boundary were so low, even from a fatigue standpoint, that the seismic load case is generally not a concern. Based on this study, it is recommended that high strain rate testing of welded stainless steel test samples be pursued to define the currently unknown material behavior. Additional modeling is recommended to evaluate specific dry storage cask system designs subjected to tip-over loads using a high level of model detail. Additional modeling of the canister interior components (basket, fuel assemblies, etc.) is also recommended, to evaluate the feasibility of fuel retrievability after a tip-over incident. Finally, additional modeling to determine how much degradation a system could undergo and still maintain the integrity of the confinement barrier should be performed.

  18. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs ranging from 2 to above 11) within the buildings.

  19. Kinetics of the clay roofing tile convection drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, S. (Univ. of Osijek (Croatia). Faculty of Food Technology); Skansi, D. (Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology); Sokele, M. (Croatian Post and Telecommunications, Zagreb (Croatia). Telecommunications Center)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetics of the convection drying process of flat tile has been investigated experimentally in an industrial tunnel dryer. Several velocities of wet tile movement through the dryer were tested to obtain maximum allowable drying rate curve. As there are various models to describe the kinetics of convection drying, finding a model that would fairly well approximate the kinetics of the whole drying process was part of the research. Especially the polynomial and exponential models were tested. It was found that exponential model of the type: B(t) = (a[minus]B[sub e])[center dot]EXP([minus]bt[sup 2])+B[sub e], ([minus]dB(t)/dt) = 2bt(B(t)[minus]B[sub e]) significantly correlates the kinetics of the whole tile drying process. Applying the maximum allowable drying rate curve obtained for flat tile in the first period of drying, a grapho-analytic model for the optimal conducting of the process has been developed.

  20. Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL); Grodzka, Philomena G. (Huntsville, AL); McCormick, Paul O. (Athens, AL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

  1. Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate Records:____________________________ Instructions: ENG students declaring a Concentration in Nanotechnology should complete this form, obtain REQUIRED COURSES (Choose 1) 1. ENG EC 481­ Fundamentals of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology 4.0 ELECTIVES

  2. Capture and Concentration of Waterborne Pathogens Using Lectin and Antibody Coupled Magnetic Beads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Alena M.; Ozanich, Rich M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capture and Concentration of Waterborne Pathogens Using Lectin and Antibody Coupled Magnetic Beads. ALENA BENNETT (University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, 98416) RICHARD M. OZANICH, JR. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352). The primary challenge of the surveillance of natural and introduced biological threats in large water samples is the purification and concentration process. A method for simultaneously capturing many types of biological pathogens is desired. Lectins coupled with magnetic beads were studied due to their ability to bind to the carbohydrates on the surfaces of cells. With lectin coupled beads we attempted to trap Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Brevundimonas diminuta. Also E. coli antibody coupled beads were tested for their effectiveness at concentrating E. coli cells. Bench top indirect and direct cell capture methods were studied for both lectins and antibodies. The indirect method was found to be more effective for cell concentration. Experiments are underway to understand the differences in the two approaches and improve the direct capture method for implementation on an online automated system.

  3. Meat Alternate Cookery: Eggs, Nuts, Soybeans, Dried Beans and Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sources of B vitamins . Nuts, because of the high fat content, are more readily digested if eaten in combination with cereals, vegetables or fruits . Dried beans and peas make nourishing dishes which are very filling. These legumes are good sources... . Soybeans are the best vegetable protein source to re place meat. Dry soybeans contain 1 V2 times as much protein as other dried beans and 11 times as much fat. Soybeans are limited in one of the essential amino acids so they must be combined...

  4. Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests: the diversification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Mark

    Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical, Mesoamerica, niche conservatism, seasonally dry tropical forests. Summary · Mesoamerican arid biomes epitomize the vast species richness of Meso- american seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), and to evaluate

  5. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  6. Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first commercial attempt to create a commercial geothermal power plant using hot dry rock technology reached a crucial milestone on January 22, when a production well successfully reached its target depth.

  7. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  8. Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric Grid Workshop, April 19-20, 2011 Before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys...

  9. Disneyland’s Dry Cleaning Gets an Energy Efficient Upgrade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As the provider of laundry and dry cleaning services for Disneyland Resort’s costumes and hospitality supply items, L&N Costume and Linen Service knows a little something about both quantity and quality.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  11. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contains papers on dry deposition and resuspension of airborne pollutants. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  12. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:22:39 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NA1160SNY2"...

  13. Supply chain management in the dry bulk shipping industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bryan E. (Bryan Edward)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is intended to show the importance of supply chain management in the dry-bulk shipping industry. A hypothetical company, the Texas Grain and Bakery Corporation, was created. The values and calculations used are ...

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  16. Drying studies for corroded DOE aluminum plate fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lords, R.E.; Windes, W.E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crepeau, J.C.; Sidwell, R.W. [Idaho Univ., Idaho Falls, ID (United States) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) currently stores a wide variety of spent nuclear fuel. The fuel was originally intended to be stored underwater for a short period of thermal cooling, then removed and reprocessed. However, it has been stored underwater for much longer thank originally anticipated. During this time dust and airborne desert soil have entered the oldest INEL pool, accumulating on the fuel. Also, the aluminum fuel cladding has corroded compromising the exposed surfaces of the fuel. Plans are now underway to move some the the more vulnerable aluminum plate type fuels into dry storage in an existing vented and filtered fuel storage facility. In preparation for dry storage of the fuel a drying and canning station is being built at the INEL. The two primary objectives of this facility are to determine the influence of corrosion products on the drying process and to establish temperature distribution inside the canister during heating.

  17. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  18. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Ford, “Reactive self-tracking solar concentration: designFord, “Reactive self- tracking solar concentration: designAutomated Micro-Tracking Planar Solar Concentrators by

  19. LAMBOT et al. (1979) found comparable results : the optimum crude protein concentration for growth and nitrogen utilisation is about 13.3 -12.2 and 11.4 per cent at body weights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LAMBOT et al. (1979) found comparable results : the optimum crude protein concentration for growth for protein are expressed as digestible crude protein (DCP). #12;Energy value of feeds The content of SFU per= digestible crude protein, per cent of dry matter X! = digestible crude fat, per cent of dry matter X3

  20. GEOLOGY O F THE NORTHERN PCIRT O F DRY MOUNTAXN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    GEOLOGY O F THE NORTHERN PCIRT O F DRY MOUNTAXN, SOUTHERN UASCSTCH H Q - W T A X H E i i - UT&H #12;BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY RESEARCH STUDIES Geology Seri,es Vol. 3 No. 2 April, 1956 GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN Department of Gedogy Provo, Utah #12;GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN PART OF DRY MOUNTAIN, SOUTHERN WASATCH M O U N

  1. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  2. Development of subcontractor indirect cost and other direct cost at the DOE Fernald Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossman, R.L. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) took great strides in the development of cost estimates at Fernald. There have been many opportunities to improve on how the policies and procedures pertaining to cost estimates were to be implemented. As FERMCO took over the existing Fernald facility, the Project Controls Division began to format the estimating procedures and tools to do business at Fernald. The Estimating Department looked at the problems that pre-existed at the site. One of the key problems that FERMCO encountered was how to summarized the direct and indirect accounts of each subcontracted estimate. Direct costs were broken down by prime and sub-prime accounts. This presented a level of detail that had not been experienced at the site before; it also created many issues concerning accounts and definitions to be applied to ``all other accounts associated with a project.`` Existing subcontract indirect cost accounts were reviewed from existing historical estimates. It was found that some were very detailed and some were not. The Estimating Department was given the task of standardizing the accounts and percentages for each of the subcontractor indirect costs. Then, as the project progressed, the percentages could be revised with actual estimates, subcontract comparisons, or with level of effort (LOE) accounts, which would represent qualified people assigned a task for the completion of each project. The approach is to assign particular employees to perform a specific task within a project from start to finish, and then to reassign the individual(s) to a new project (if it was available) integrating the expertise available with the skills required by the other operable units.

  3. A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C.; Page, E.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.

  4. A wedged-peak-pulse design with medium fuel adiabat for indirect-drive fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Ren, Guoli; Liu, Bin; Wu, Junfeng [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, X. T.; Liu, Jie; Wang, L. F.; Ye, Wenhua [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present letter, we propose the design of a wedged-peak pulse at the late stage of indirect drive. Our simulations of one- and two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics show that the wedged-peak-pulse design can raise the drive pressure and capsule implosion velocity without significantly raising the fuel adiabat. It can thus balance the energy requirement and hydrodynamic instability control at both ablator/fuel interface and hot-spot/fuel interface. This investigation has implication in the fusion ignition at current mega-joule laser facilities.

  5. Causation Entropy Identifies Indirect Influences, Dominance of Neighbors and Anticipatory Couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie Sun; Erik M. Bollt

    2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inference of causality is central in nonlinear time series analysis and science in general. A popular approach to infer causality between two processes is to measure the information flow between them in terms of transfer entropy. Using dynamics of coupled oscillator networks, we show that although transfer entropy can successfully detect information flow in two processes, it often results in erroneous identification of network connections under the presence of indirect interactions, dominance of neighbors, or anticipatory couplings. Such effects are found to be profound for time-dependent networks. To overcome these limitations, we develop a measure called causation entropy and show that its application can lead to reliable identification of true couplings.

  6. Indirect searches for dark matter with the Fermi large area telescopestar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes ~ 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce ? rays via annihilation or decay detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A detection of WIMPs would also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We present recent results from the two cleanest indirect WIMP searches by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration: searches for ?-ray spectral lines and ?-ray emission associated with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies.

  7. Indirect Searches for Dark Matter with the Fermi Large Area Telescope1

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Albert, Andrea

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is overwhelming evidence that non-baryonic dark matter constitutes ~ 27% of the energy density of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are promising dark matter candidates that may produce ? rays via annihilation or decay detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). A detection of WIMPs would also indicate the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We present recent results from the two cleanest indirect WIMP searches by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration: searches for ?-ray spectral lines and ?-ray emission associated with Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies.

  8. Fuzzy logic enhanced speed control of an indirect field-oriented induction machine drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heber, B.; Xu, L.; Tang, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field orientation control (FOC) of induction machines has permitted fast transient response by decoupled torque and flux control. However, field orientation detuning caused by parameter variations is a major difficulty for indirect FOC methods. Traditional probability density function (PID) controllers have trouble meeting a wide range of speed tracking performance even when proper field orientation is achieved. PID controller performance is severely degraded when detuning occurs. This paper presents a fuzzy logic design approach that can meet the speed tracking requirements even when detuning occurs. Computer simulations and experimental results obtained via a general-purpose digital signal processor (DSP) system are presented.

  9. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  10. Design of inflatable solar concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasquillo, Omar (Omar Y. Carrasquillo De Armas)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar concentrators improve the performance of solar collection systems by increasing the amount of usable energy available for a given collector size. Unfortunately, they are not known for their light weight and portability, ...

  11. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power...

  12. Physics and Astronomy Geophysics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Geophysics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Dept. to Geophysics 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 CHE 1101 Introductory Chemistry - I 3 CHE 1110 Introductory Chemistry

  13. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Wonjung

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of ...

  14. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  15. Optimal concentrations in nectar feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Wonjung

    Nectar drinkers must feed quickly and efficiently due to the threat of predation. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest energetic rewards, the sharp increase of viscosity with sugar concentration makes it the most ...

  16. Concentrated solar power on demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel Shawn

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new concentrating solar power central receiver system with integral thermal storage. Hillside mounted heliostats direct sunlight into a volumetric absorption molten salt pool, which also functions ...

  17. Examination of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Rods After 15 Years in Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, Robert E. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Tsai Hanchung [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Billone, Michael C. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Hilton, Bruce A. [Argonne National Laboratory-West (United States)

    2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For [approximately equal to]15 yr Dominion Generation's Surry Nuclear Station 15 x 15 Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel was stored in a dry inert-atmosphere Castor V/21 cask at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory at peak cladding temperatures that decreased from {approx}350 to 150 deg. C. Before storage, the loaded cask was subjected to thermal-benchmark tests, during which time the peak temperatures were greater than 400 deg. C. The cask was opened to examine the fuel rods for degradation and to determine if they were suitable for extended storage. No fuel rod breaches and no visible degradation or crud/oxide spallation from the fuel rod surface were observed. The results from profilometry, gas release measurements, metallographic examinations, microhardness determination, and cladding hydrogen behavior are reported in this paper.It appears that little or no fission gas was released from the fuel pellets during either the thermal-benchmark tests or the long-term storage. In the central region of the fuel column, where the axial temperature gradient in storage is small, the measured hydrogen content in the cladding is consistent with the thickness of the oxide layer. At {approx}1 m above the fuel midplane, where a steep temperature gradient existed in the cask, less hydrogen is present than would be expected from the oxide thickness that developed in-reactor. Migration of hydrogen during dry storage probably occurred and may signal a higher-than-expected concentration at the cooler ends of the rod. The volume of hydrides varies azimuthally around the cladding, and at some elevations, the hydrides appear to have segregated somewhat to the inner and outer cladding surfaces. It is, however, impossible to determine if this segregation occurred in-reactor or during transportation, thermal-benchmark tests, or the dry storage period. The hydrides retained the circumferential orientation typical of prestorage PWR fuel rods. Little or no cladding creep occurred during thermal-benchmark testing and dry storage. It is anticipated that the creep would not increase significantly during additional storage because of the lower temperature after 15 yr, continual decrease in temperature from the reduction in decay heat, and concurrent reductions in internal rod pressure and stress. This paper describes the results of the characterization of the fuel and intact cladding, as well as the implications of these results for long-term (i.e., beyond 20 yr) dry-cask storage.

  18. Ozone generation by negative direct current corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yehia, Ashraf [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt and Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies in Alkharj, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 83, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt and Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies in Alkharj, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 83, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Mizuno, Akira [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)] [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical study was made in this paper for calculating the ozone generation by negative dc corona discharges. The corona discharges were formed in a coaxial wire-cylinder reactor. The reactor was fed by dry air flowing with constant rates at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and stressed by a negative dc voltage. The current-voltage characteristics of the negative dc corona discharges formed inside the reactor were measured in parallel with concentration of the generated ozone under different operating conditions. An empirical equation was derived from the experimental results for calculating the ozone concentration generated inside the reactor. The results, that have been recalculated by using the derived equation, have agreed with the experimental results over the whole range of the investigated parameters, except in the saturation range for the ozone concentration. Therefore, the derived equation represents a suitable criterion for expecting the ozone concentration generated by negative dc corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors under any operating conditions in range of the investigated parameters.

  19. Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

  20. Estimates of the Global Indirect Energy-Use Emission Impacts of USA Biofuel Policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper evaluates the indirect energy-use emission implications of increases in the use of biofuels in the USA between 2001 and 2010 as mandates within a dynamic global computable general equilibrium model. The study incorporates explicit markets for biofuels, petroleum and other fossil fuels, and accounts for interactions among all sectors of an 18-region global economy. It considers bilateral trade, as well as the dynamics of capital allocation and investment. Simulation results show that the biofuel mandates in the USA generate an overall reduction in global energy use and emissions over the simulation period from 2001 to 2030. Consequently, the indirect energy-use emission change or emission leakage under the mandate is negative. That is, global emission reductions are larger than the direct emission savings from replacing petroleum with biofuels under the USA RFS2 over the last decade. Under our principal scenario this enhanced the direct emission reduction from biofuels by about 66%. The global change in lifecycle energy-use emissions for this scenario was estimated to be about 93 million tons of CO2e in 2010, 45 million tons of CO2e in 2020, and an increase of 5 million tons of CO2e in 2030, relative to the baseline scenario. Sensitivity results of six alternative scenarios provided additional insights into the pattern of the regional and global effects of biofuel mandates on energy-use emissions.

  1. Optimized analysis method for indirect dark matter searches with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksi?, J.; Martinez, M. [Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Rico, J., E-mail: jelena@ifae.es, E-mail: jrico@ifae.es, E-mail: martinez@ifae.es [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a dedicated analysis approach for indirect Dark Matter searches with Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes. By using the full likelihood analysis, we take complete advantage of the distinct features expected in the gamma ray spectrum of Dark Matter origin, achieving better sensitivity with respect to the standard analysis chains. We describe the method and characterize its general performance. We also compare its sensitivity with that of the current standards for several Dark Matter annihilation models, obtaining gains of up to factors of order of 10. We compute the improved limits that can be reached using this new approach, taking as an example existing estimates for several benchmark models as well as the recent results from VERITAS on observations of the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Segue 1. Furthermore, we estimate the sensitivity of Cherenkov Telescopes for monochromatic line signals. Predictions are made on improvement that can be achieved for MAGIC and CTA. Lastly, we discuss how this method can be applied in a global, sensitivity-optimized indirect Dark Matter search that combines the results of all Cherenkov observatories of the present generation.

  2. Indirect conversion of coal to methanol and gasoline: product price vs product slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wham, R.M.; McCracken, D.J.; Forrester, R.C. III

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts process analysis and engineering evaluation studies for the Department of Energy to provide, on a consistent basis, technical and economic assessments of processes and systems for coal conversion and utilization. Such assessments permit better understanding of the relative technical and economic potential of these processes. The objective of the work described here was to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility, economic competitiveness, and environmental acceptability of selected indirect coal liquefaction processes on a uniform, consistent, and impartial basis. Particular emphasis is placed on production of methanol as a principal product or methanol production for conversion to gasoline. Potential uses for the methanol are combustion in peaking-type turbines or blending with gasoline to yield motor fuel. Conversion of methanol to gasoline is accomplished through the use of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Under the guidance of ORNL, Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Houston Division, prepared four conceptual process designs for indirect conversion of a Western subbituminous coal to either methanol or gasoline. The conceptual designs are based on the use of consistent technology for the core of the plant (gasification through methanol synthesis) with additional processing as necessary for production of different liquid products of interest. The bases for the conceptual designs are given. The case designations are: methanol production for turbine-grade fuel; methanol production for gasoline blending; gasoline production with coproduction of SNG; and gasoline production maximized.

  3. Synchronization in hyperchaotic time-delayed electronic oscillators coupled indirectly via a common environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanmoy Banerjee; Debabrata Biswas

    2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper explores the synchronization scenario of hyperchaotic time-delayed electronic oscillators coupled indirectly via a common environment. We show that depending upon the coupling parameters a hyperchaotic time-delayed system can show in-phase or complete synchronization, and also inverse-phase or anti-synchronization. This paper reports the first experimental confirmation of synchronization of hyperchaos in time-delayed electronic oscillators coupled indirectly through a common environment. We confirm the occurrence of in-phase and inverse-phase synchronization phenomena in the coupled system through the dynamical measures like generalized autocorrelation function, correlation of probability of recurrence, and the concept of localized sets computed directly from the experimental time-series data. We also present a linear stability analysis of the coupled system. The experimental and analytical results are further supported by the detailed numerical analysis of the coupled system. Apart from the above mentioned measures, we numerically compute another quantitative measure, namely, Lyapunov exponent spectrum of the coupled system that confirms the transition from the in-phase (inverse-phase) synchronized state to the complete (anti-) synchronized state with the increasing coupling strength.

  4. Design of a rapid, continuous, small-scale device for creating dry powders from concentrated suspensions containing active pharmaceutical ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correll, Eric Owen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current methods of producing pharmaceutical compounds are large batch processes. The minimum time-to-patient for drug manufacturing is approximately 100 days. Using a continuous manufacturing process, the time-to-patient ...

  5. Concentration, size distribution, and dry deposition rate of particle-associated metals in the Los Angeles region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jeong-Hee H; Sabin, L D; Schiff, K C; Stolzenbach, K D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into clean 15 ml plastic centrifuge tubes and 10 ml of 5%combined into a 50 ml centrifuge tube. The Mylar® pieceswere transferred to a centrifuge tube and analyzed for

  6. Concentration, size distribution, and dry deposition rate of particle-associated metals in the Los Angeles region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jeong-Hee H; Sabin, L D; Schiff, K C; Stolzenbach, K D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    543. South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). (by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD).South Coast Air Quality Management District, which ranged

  7. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  9. Hot-dry-rock geothermal-energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.; Ponder, G.M. (comps.)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During fiscal year 1981, activities of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program were concentrated in four principal areas: (1) data collection to permit improved estimates of the hot dry rock geothermal energy resource base of various regions of the United States and of the United States as a whole, combined with detailed investigations of several areas that appear particularly promising either for further energy extraction experiments or for future commercial development; (2) successful completion of a 9-month, continuous, closed-loop, recirculating flow test in the enlarged Phase I System at Fenton Hill, New Mexico - a pressurized-water heat-extraction loop developed in low-permeability granitic rock by hydraulic fracturing; (3) successful completion at a depth of 4084 m (13,933 ft) of well EE-3, the production well of a larger, deeper, and hotter, Phase II System at Fenton Hill. Well EE-3 was directionally drilled with control of both azimuth and inclination. Its inclined section is about 380 m (1250 ft) vertically above the injection well, EE-2, which was completed in FY80; and (4) supporting activities included new developments in downhole instrumentation and equipment, geochemical and geophysical studies, rock-mechanics and fluid-mechanics investigations, computer analyses and modeling, and overall system design. Under an International Energy Agency agreement, the New Energy Development Organization, representing the Government of Japan has joined Kernforschungsanlage-Juelich GmbH, representing the Federal Republic of Germany, and the US Department of Energy as an active participant in the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Project.

  10. Hot dry rock energy: Hot dry rock geothermal development program. Progress report. Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, J.; Brown, M. [eds.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended flow testing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test facility concluded in Fiscal Year 1993 with the completion of Phase 2 of the long-term flow test (LTFT) program. As is reported in detail in this report, the second phase of the LTFT, although only 55 days in duration, confirmed in every way the encouraging test results of the 112-day Phase I LTFT carried out in Fiscal Year 1992. Interim flow testing was conducted early in FY 1993 during the period between the two LTFT segments. In addition, two brief tests involving operation of the reservoir on a cyclic schedule were run at the end of the Phase 2 LTFT. These interim and cyclic tests provided an opportunity to conduct evaluations and field demonstrations of several reservoir engineering concepts that can now be applied to significantly increase the productivity of HDR systems. The Fenton Hill HDR test facility was shut down and brought into standby status during the last part of FY 1993. Unfortunately, the world`s largest, deepest, and most productive HDR reservoir has gone essentially unused since that time.

  11. Linear Extrusion 400 Tons/Day Dry Solids Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Sprouse; David Matthews

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine experience to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. The PWR gasifier concept uses a compact and highly efficient (>50%) dry solids pump that has excellent availability (>99.5%). PWR is currently developing this dry solids pump under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement. The conceptual design on two dry solids pumps were completed under this agreement and one pump concept was selected for preliminary design. A preliminary design review (PDR) of the selected pump was presented on September 20, 2007 to PWR management and numerous technical specialists. Feedback from the PDR review team has been factored into the design and a Delta-PDR was held on April 9, 2008.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility operations manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  13. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  14. Alternative barrier layers for surface covers in dry climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormont, J.C.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface covers are one of the most widespread remediation and waste management options in all climates. Barrier layers to limit percolation through cover systems are principal features of engineered, multi-component cover designs. Conventional barrier layer components developed for humid climates have limitations in dry climates. One alternative barrier layer is a capillary barrier, which consists of a fine-over-coarse soil arrangement. The capacity of capillary barrier to laterally divert downward moving water is the key to their success. Another alternative is a dry barrier, in which atmospheric air is circulated through a coarse layer within the cover to remove water vapor. Incorporating a coarse layer which stores water for subsequent removal by air flow reduces the requirements for the air flow velocity and increases the applicability of the dry barrier.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRAHN, D.E.

    2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt of multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel. removal of free water from the MCOs using the cold vacuum drying process, and inerting and testing of the MCOs before transport to the Canister Storage Building. Controls required for public safety, significant defense in depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological and toxicological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines are included.

  16. Saving for dry days: Aquifer storage and recovery may help 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 2 Saving for dry days Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 3 Aquifer storage and recovery may help With reoccurring droughts and growing population, Texas will always be looking for better ways to save or use water. Some water... suppliers in Texas are turning to aquifer storage and recovery. During the dry summer of 2008, the San Antonio Water System (SAWS) had enough assets in its ?bank? (of water) to make with- drawals to meet the needs of its customers. The water bank...

  17. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) in DelawareTotal ConsumptionThousand CubicfromDry NaturalDry

  18. Missouri Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,CubicWithdrawals6,992 6,895Vehicle FuelFeet)(Dollars 2012DryDry

  19. Predicting landfalling hurricane numbers from sea surface temperature: a theoretical comparison of direct and indirect methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nzerem, K; Laepple, T; Nzerem, Kechi; Jewson, Stephen; Laepple, Thomas

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider two ways that one might convert a prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) into a prediction of landfalling hurricane numbers. First, one might regress historical numbers of landfalling hurricanes onto historical SSTs, and use the fitted regression relation to predict future landfalling hurricane numbers given predicted SSTs. We call this the direct approach. Second, one might regress \\emph{basin} hurricane numbers onto historical SSTs, estimate the proportion of basin hurricanes that make landfall, and use the fitted regression relation and estimated proportion to predict future landfalling hurricane numbers. We call this the \\emph{indirect} approach. Which of these two methods is likely to work better? We answer this question in the context of a simple abstract model.

  20. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  1. An indirect transmission measurement-based spectrum estimation method for computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Wei; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of an x-ray spectrum can greatly influence imaging and related tasks. In practice, due to the pile-up effect of the detector, it's difficult to directly measure the spectrum of a CT scanner using an energy resolved detector. An alternative solution is to estimate the spectrum using transmission measurements with a step phantom or other CT phantom. In this work, we present a new spectrum estimation method based on indirect transmission measurement and model spectra mixture approach. The estimated x-ray spectrum was expressed as weighted summation of a set of model spectra, which can significantly reduce the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the spectrum estimation problem. Next, an estimated projection can be calculated with the assumed spectrum. By iteratively updating the unknown weights, we minimized the difference between the estimated projection data and the raw projection data. The final spectrum was calculated with these calibrated weights and the model spectra. Both simulation and experim...

  2. Synchronized states in chaotic systems coupled indirectly through a dynamic environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Resmi; G. Ambika; R. E. Amritkar

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider synchronization of chaotic systems coupled indirectly through a common environmnet where the environment has an intrinsic dynmics of its own modulated via feedback from the systems. We find that a rich vareity of synchronization behavior, such as in-phase, anti-phase,complete and anti- synchronization is possible. We present an approximate stability analysis for the different synchronization behaviors. The transitions to different states of synchronous behaviour are analyzed in the parameter plane of coupling strengths by numerical studies for specific cases such as Rossler and Lorenz systems and are characterized using various indices such as correlation, average phase difference and Lyapunov exponents. The threshold condition obtained from numerical analysis is found to agree with that from the stability analysis.

  3. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  4. Diagnosing residual motion via the x-ray self emission from indirectly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, A., E-mail: pak5@llnl.gov; Field, J. E.; Benedetti, L. R.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of the x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.

  5. Indirect Search for Dark Matter in M31 with the CELESTE Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavalle, J; Britto, R; Bruel, P; Bussons-Gordo, J; Dumora, D; Durand, E; Giraud, E; Jacholkowska, A; Lott, B; M"unz, F; Manseri, H; Nuss, E; Piron, Frédéric; Reposeur, T; Smith, D A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If dark matter is made of neutralinos, annihilation of such Majorana particles should produce high energy cosmic rays, especially in galaxy halo high density regions like galaxy centres. M31 (Andromeda) is our nearest neighbour spiral galaxy, and both its high mass and its low distance make it a source of interest for the indirect search for dark matter through gamma-ray detection. The ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope CELESTE observed M31 from 2001 to 2003, in the mostly unexplored energy range 50-500 GeV. These observations provide an upper limit on the flux above 50 GeV around $10^{-10}\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$ in the frame of supersymmetric dark matter, and more generally on any gamma emission from M31.

  6. Indirect Search for Dark Matter in M31 with the CELESTE Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Lavalle; H. Manseri; A. Jacholkowska; E. Brion; R. Britto; P. Bruel; J. Bussons-Gordo; D. Dumora; E. Durand; E. Giraud; B. Lott; F. Münz; E. Nuss; F. Piron; T. Reposeur; D. A. Smith

    2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    If dark matter is made of neutralinos, annihilation of such Majorana particles should produce high energy cosmic rays, especially in galaxy halo high density regions like galaxy centres. M31 (Andromeda) is our nearest neighbour spiral galaxy, and both its high mass and its low distance make it a source of interest for the indirect search for dark matter through gamma-ray detection. The ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope CELESTE observed M31 from 2001 to 2003, in the mostly unexplored energy range 50-500 GeV. These observations provide an upper limit on the flux above 50 GeV around $10^{-10}\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$ in the frame of supersymmetric dark matter, and more generally on any gamma emission from M31.

  7. A comparison of direct and indirect methods of determining tensile strength of concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, James Timon

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -sectional area of the cylinder. Typical failures and close-up of broken aggregate are shown in Figures 12 and 13 respectively, TABLE II RESULTS OP STRENGTH TESTS - BATCH DESIGN "A" greet Tensi1e T. Indi~et ' HochiLus oS Cespress9. ve . . &358. M5 A~v... ~ 2 ' ~8z Av ~ 8 1 ~~8 z8g 263 --? 308 F8~8 1 2e 1800 75 1200 0 %7 Av ~ TABLE III RESULTS OP STHt"NGTH TESTS BATCH DESIGlTT "B" Age oi' Test Avgas A. rect Tensile +3 Indirect Tens e 4. 07 62 282 28 261 2 286 2865 3617 3533...

  8. Engineering direct-indirect band gap transition in wurtzite GaAs nanowires through size and uniaxial strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copple, Andrew; Peng, Xihong; 10.1063/1.4718026

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic structures of wurtzite GaAs nanowires in the [0001] direction were studied using first-principles calculations. It was found that the band gap of GaAs nanowires experience a direct-to-indirect transition when the diameter of the nanowires is smaller than ~28 {\\AA}. For those thin GaAs nanowires with an indirect band gap, it was found that the gap can be tuned to be direct if a moderate external uniaxial strain is applied. Both tensile and compressive strain can trigger the indirect-to-direct gap transition. The critical strains for the gap-transition are determined by the energy crossover of two states in conduction bands.

  9. Final Report, DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER45780, "Indirect Excitons in Coupled Quantum Wells"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snoke, david W. [University of Pittsburgh

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The is the final technical report for this project, which was funded by the DOE from 1999 to 2012. The project focused on experimental studies of spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells, with the aim of understanding the quantum physics of these particles, including such effects as pattern formation due to electron-hole charge separation, the Mott plasma-insulator transition, luminescence up-conversion through field-assisted tunneling, luminescence line shifts due to many-body renormalization and magnetic field effects on tunneling, and proposed effects such as Bose-Einstein condensation of indirect excitons and phase separation of bright and dark indirect excitons. Significant results are summarized here and the relation to other work is discussed.

  10. In Wino Veritas? Indirect Searches Shed Light on Neutralino Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JiJi Fan; Matthew Reece

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Indirect detection constraints on gamma rays (both continuum and lines) have set strong constraints on wino dark matter. By combining results from Fermi-LAT and HESS, we show that: light nonthermal wino dark matter is strongly excluded; thermal wino dark matter is allowed only if the Milky Way dark matter distribution has a significant (>~0.4 kpc) core; and for plausible NFW and Einasto distributions the entire range of wino masses from 100 GeV up to 3 TeV can be excluded. The case of light, nonthermal wino dark matter is particularly interesting in scenarios with decaying moduli that reheat the universe to a low temperature. Typically such models have been discussed for low reheating temperatures, not far above the BBN bound of a few MeV. We show that constraints on the allowed wino relic density push such models to higher reheating temperatures and hence heavier moduli. Even for a flattened halo model consisting of an NFW profile with constant-density core inside 1 kpc and a density near the sun of 0.3 GeV/cm^3, for 150 GeV winos current data constrains the reheat temperature to be above 1.4 GeV. As a result, for models in which the wino mass is a loop factor below the gravitino mass, the data favor moduli that are more than an order of magnitude heavier than the gravitino. We discuss some of the sobering implications of this result for the status of supersymmetry. We also comment on other neutralino dark matter scenarios, in particular the case of mixed bino/higgsino dark matter. We show that in this case, direct and indirect searches are complementary to each other and could potentially cover most of the parameter space.

  11. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide, UO{sub 3}, was used in the testing. Next, NU made up of UO{sub 3} and DU made up of UO{sub 2} was used in the test work. In every test, the blend achieved was characterized by spatial sampling of the ground product and analyzing for {sup 235}U concentration. The test work proved that these uranium oxide materials can be blended successfully. The spatial concentration was found to be uniform. Next, sintered thorium oxide pellets were used as surrogate for light water breeder reactor pellets (LWBR). To simulate LWBR pellet dispositioning, the thorium oxide pellets were first ground to a powder form and then the powder was blended with NU. In these tests also the concentration of {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th in blended products fell within established limits proving the success of RM-2 milling technology. RM-2 milling technology is applicable to any dry radioactive waste, especially brittle solids that can be ground up and mixed with the non-radioactive stock.

  12. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)] [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  13. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  14. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  15. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  16. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiancenumber concentration ARM Data

  18. Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Plan to complete the experiential component as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology to complete the experiential component for the Nanotechnology Concentration by: Research Experience in Lab

  19. Drying of a model soil P. Faure, P. Coussot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    depend on the paste structure. With a kaolin suspension the CRP lasts down to very low water densities plays a critical role in agriculture: an inadequate water supply may limit crop production, and soilDrying of a model soil P. Faure, P. Coussot Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Navier, Champs sur

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRAHN, D.E.

    1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological and toxicological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines are included.

  1. STUDIES OF THE DYNAMICS OF DRY-FRICTION-DAMPED BLADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STUDIES OF THE DYNAMICS OF DRY-FRICTION-DAMPED BLADE ASSEMBLIES by J er^ome Guillen A dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 Multi-DOF systems with a single friction damper . . . . . . . 20 2.3.1 System model with multiple friction dampers . . . . . . 31 2.5 Conclusion

  2. Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- Executive Summary U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board December 2010 #12;U.S.U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Authors This report was prepared for the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board.NWTRB.GOV ii #12;Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical

  3. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  4. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  6. Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Dairy farmers can improve long-term milk production by having a well-managed program for dry cows during the last 3 weeks before calving. This publication explains how an anionic salt program can help control subclinical hypocalcemia and "droopy cow...

  7. Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina J A V I E R H O U S P A N, Argentina, Catedra de Climatologia Agricola, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, Oro Verde, Argentina Abstract Land cover changes may affect climate and the energy balance

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical System Design Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRISBIN, S.A.

    1999-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a technical explanation of the design and operation of the electrical system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document identifies the requirements, and the basis for the requirements and details on how the requirements have been implemented in the design and construction of the facility. This document also provides general guidance for the surveillance, testing, and maintenance of this system.

  9. Photocatalytic properties of titania pillared clays by different drying methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Z.; Zhu, H.Y.; Lu, G.Q.; Greenfield, P.F. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photocatalysts based on titania pillared clays (TiO{sub 2} PILCs) have been prepared through a sol-gel method. Different drying methods, air drying (AD), air drying after ethanol extraction (EAD), and supercritical drying (SCD) have been employed and found to have significant effects on the photocatalytic efficiency of the resultant catalysts for the oxidation of phenol in water. Titania pillared clay (TiO{sub 2} PILC) obtained by SCD has the highest external and micropore surface area, largest amount and smallest crystallite size of anatase, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, silica titania pillared clay (SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC) after SCD, titania coated TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) and SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) were synthesized to study the key factors controlling the photocatalytic activity. It is concluded that the dispersion of nanometer-sized anatase on the surface of the PILC particles and the suspensibility of the particles are the most important factors for high photocatalytic efficiency.

  10. Tropical mountain cradles of dry forest diversity Christopher W. Dick*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    * *Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Panama´; and Department of Ecology radiated at vastly different times, so fo- cus on a single taxon would be mislead- ing. On the side of rain- ple, the dry forest legume clade Leu- caena underwent endemic radiation in southwest Mexico beginning

  11. EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS OF DEHYDRATED LUCERNE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS OF DEHYDRATED LUCERNE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCES OF RABBITS RECEIVING DIETS CONTAINING LUCERNE F. LEBAS, J. DOLZ Annie ESPAIGNET* Marie-Oaude COUSIN e G. SARDI Station de Recherches sur * Station expérimentale de l'I. T. C. F., 91920 Boigneville In 1972, 18 different adjustments of the lucerne

  12. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1. Precipitation scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N. (eds.)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These two volumes contain papers prepared for and presented at the Fourth International Conference on Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension (the Chamberlain Meeting) held during 29 November to 3 December, 1982 in Santa Monica, California. Papers presented are abstracted separately.

  13. Seismic Behavior of Spent Fuel Dry Cask Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaukat, Syed K. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Luk, Vincent K. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0744 (United States)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting a research program to investigate technical issues concerning the dry cask storage systems of spent nuclear fuel by conducting confirmatory research for establishing criteria and review guidelines for the seismic behavior of these systems. The program focuses on developing 3-D finite element analysis models that address the dynamic coupling of a module/cask, a flexible concrete pad, and an underlying soil/rock foundation, in particular, the soil-structure-interaction. Parametric analyses of the coupled models are performed to include variations in module/cask geometry, site seismicity, underlying soil properties, and cask/pad interface friction. The analyses performed include: 1) a rectangular dry cask module typical of Transnuclear West design at a site in Western USA where high seismicity is expected; 2) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Eastern USA where low seismicity is expected; and 3) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Western USA with medium high seismicity. The paper includes assumptions made in seismic analyses performed, results, and conclusions. (authors)

  14. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Practices 24 4.4 4.5 Pollutants 26 4.4.1 Fugitive Dust 26 4.4.2 Commodity Spillage 27 4.4.3 Oil, lubricant#12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR DRY BULK TERMINALS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1996-19 Prepared for: Enviromnent Canada Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Abatement North

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  16. Using HPM-Sampling to Drive Dynamic Compilation Dries Buytaert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eeckhout, Lieven

    Using HPM-Sampling to Drive Dynamic Compilation Dries Buytaert Andy Georges Michael Hind Matthew the frequently executed methods. We de- scribe and comprehensively evaluate HPM-sampling, a sim- ple) that addresses the aforementioned limitations. We show that HPM-sampling is more accurate; has low overhead

  17. Mathematical modeling of impingement drying of corn tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, Louise Marie

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than 50'C) (Pang, 1997). Yoshida and Hyodo (1966) studied the use of superheated steam in drying potato slices. They found that at equivalent flow rates (15 kg/hr) and temperatures (350'C) evaporation was faster with superheated steam than with air...

  18. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System from Concentrix Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics,CPV systems that use arrays of optics and photovoltaics,system so that arrays of paired concentrators and photovoltaics

  19. Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project February 13, 2014 - 5:00am Addthis...

  20. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A.L. Luque, and V.M.in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally movingUsing optics to boost photovoltaics,” Optics and Photonics

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies Photo of a CSP dish glistening in the sun. Multiple solar mirrors reflect...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, News, Renewable Energy, Solar On Thursday, June...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: multiscale concentrated solar power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrated solar power Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States Kick-Off On November 27, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Systems Air Force Research Laboratory Testing On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News,...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Sandia Wins Funding for High-Temperature Falling-Particle Solar-Energy Receiver On August 8, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities,...

  6. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Fisk, William J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Delp, Woody W.; Riley, William J.; Sextro, Richard G.

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of characterizing human exposure to particulate matter requires information on both particle concentrations in microenvironments and the time-specific activity budgets of individuals among these microenvironments. Because the average amount of time spent indoors by individuals in the US is estimated to be greater than 75%, accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments for the US population. In addition, it is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. The spatial and temporal variations of indoor particle concentrations as well as the factors that affect these variations are important to health scientists. For them, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this report, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles in the indoor environment. Concentrations of particles indoors depend upon the fraction of outdoor particles that penetrate through the building shell or are transported via the air handling (HVAC) system, the generation of particles by indoor sources, and the loss mechanisms that occur indoors, such as deposition. To address these issues, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information including the behavior of particles during air leakage, HVAC operations, and particle filtration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.

  7. Integrated Direct/Indirect Adaptive Robust Precision Control of Linear Motor Drive Systems with Accurate Parameter Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    Integrated Direct/Indirect Adaptive Robust Precision Control of Linear Motor Drive Systems The focus of the paper is on the synthesis of nonlinear adaptive robust controllers for precision linear control of linear motor drive systems but with an improved estimation model, in which accurate parameter

  8. Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

  9. Probabilistic evaluation of main coolant pipe break indirectly induced by earthquakes: Savannah River Project L and P Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, S.A.; Wesley, D.A.; Awadalla, N.G.; Kennedy, R.P. (Impell Corp., Mission Viejo, CA (USA); Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA); Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probabilistic evaluation of seismically-induced indirect pipe break for the Savannah River Project (SRP) L- and P-Reactor main coolant (process water) piping has been conducted. Seismically-induced indirect pipe break can result primarily from: (1) failure of the anchorage of one or more of the components to which the pipe is anchored; or (2) failure of the pipe due to collapse of the structure. The potential for both types of seismically-induced indirect failures was identified during a seismic walkdown of the main coolant piping. This work involved: (1) identifying components or structures whose failure could result in pipe failure; (2) developing seismic capacities or fragilities of these components; (3) combining component fragilities to develop plant damage state fragilities; and (4) convolving the plant seismic fragilities with a probabilistic seismic hazard estimate for the site in order to obtain estimates of seismic risk in terms of annual probability of seismic-induced indirect pipe break. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Most impacts on wildlife will likely be indirect as wildlife species respond to slow changes in plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    : status and concerns. Ecological relationships of winter ticks, moose, and climate change. Moose) changes · "moose sickness" · deer keds · forestry impacts ("sprucification") Russia: poaching#12; Most impacts on wildlife will likely be indirect as wildlife species respond to slow changes

  11. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  12. A COMPARISON OF SURFACE OBSERVATIONS AND ECHAM4-GCM EXPERIMENTS AND ITS RELEVANCE TO THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the indirect aerosol effect. The modeled annual cloud cover and solar radiation cycles for the present day at the surface, total cloud cover and precipitation rates have been used to evaluate aerosol. The model correctly predicts the annual mean total cloud cover in Germany and the US, whereas global solar

  13. Aerosol direct, indirect, semidirect, and surface albedo effects from sector contributions based on the IPCC AR5 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    radiation. In addition, atmospheric aerosols alter cloud cover and cloud properties. Historically, aerosols the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only

  14. Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect in marine stratocumulus clouds: Droplet number, size, liquid water path, and radiative impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect in marine stratocumulus clouds: Droplet number, size stratocumulus clouds in the northeastern Pacific Ocean were analyzed to determine the effect of aerosol particles on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. Seven nighttime and two daytime cases were

  15. A study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite data sets of aerosol and cloud parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    regions consistent with the global mean statistics. However, the effective cloud particle radius showedA study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite data sets of aerosol between aerosol and cloud parameters derived from satellite remote sensing for evaluating the radiative

  16. 3476 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 16 Sensitivity of the First Indirect Aerosol Effect to an Increase of Cloud Droplet Spectral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effect, but this is usually not parameterized in global climate models (GCMs). Empirical), and is usually broken down into two compo- nents. The "first indirect effect" refers to the radiative impact of a decrease in cloud droplet effective radius (re> that is associated with increased N. A decrease

  17. Dry Storage of Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel - 13321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.M.; Dunsmuir, M.D.; Leduc, D.R.; Severynse, T.F.; Sindelar, R.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Moore, E.N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)] [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors is received and stored at the Savannah River Site's L Area Material Storage (L Basin) Facility. This DOE-owned fuel consists primarily of highly enriched uranium in metal, oxide or silicide form with aluminum cladding. Upon receipt, the fuel is unloaded and transferred to basin storage awaiting final disposition. Disposition alternatives include processing via the site's H Canyon facility for uranium recovery, or packaging and shipment of the spent fuel to a waste repository. A program has been developed to provide a phased approach for dry storage of the L Basin fuel. The initial phase of the dry storage program will demonstrate loading, drying, and storage of fuel in twelve instrumented canisters to assess fuel performance. After closure, the loaded canisters are transferred to pad-mounted concrete overpacks, similar to those used for dry storage of commercial fuel. Unlike commercial spent fuel, however, the DOE fuel has high enrichment, very low to high burnup, and low decay heat. The aluminum cladding presents unique challenges due to the presence of an oxide layer that forms on the cladding surface, and corrosion degradation resulting from prolonged wet storage. The removal of free and bound water is essential to the prevention of fuel corrosion and radiolytic generation of hydrogen. The demonstration will validate models predicting pressure, temperature, gas generation, and corrosion performance, provide an engineering scale demonstration of fuel handling, drying, leak testing, and canister backfill operations, and establish 'road-ready' storage of fuel that is suitable for offsite repository shipment or retrievable for onsite processing. Implementation of the Phase I demonstration can be completed within three years. Phases II and III, leading to the de-inventory of L Basin, would require an additional 750 canisters and 6-12 years to complete. Transfer of the fuel from basin storage to dry storage requires integration with current facility operations, and selection of equipment that will allow safe operation within the constraints of existing facility conditions. Examples of such constraints that are evaluated and addressed by the dry storage program include limited basin depth, varying fuel lengths up to 4 m, (13 ft), fissile loading limits, canister closure design, post-load drying and closure of the canisters, instrument selection and installation, and movement of the canisters to storage casks. The initial pilot phase restricts the fuels to shorter length fuels that can be loaded to the canister directly underwater; subsequent phases will require use of a shielded transfer system. Removal of the canister from the basin, followed by drying, inerting, closure of the canister, and transfer of the canister to the storage cask are completed with remotely operated equipment and appropriate shielding to reduce personnel radiation exposure. (authors)

  18. Concentrator Optics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text

  19. Indirect fracture delineation in a carbonate reservoir: The Upper Jurassic Hanifa of Abqaiq field, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, D.L. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abqaiq field is a northeast-trending anticline approximately 60 km long and 12 km wide and contains several reservoirs. The Hanifa Reservoir is approximately 100 m thick and consists of fine-grained, muddy limestone with subordinate dolomite and anhydrite. Since discovery of the Hanifa oil pool in 1947, pressure fluctuations have indicated communication with the overlying Arab-D Reservoir. Welltest permeability measurements are approximately 40 times higher than core permeability measurements of the Hanifa. This divergence of Hanifa permeability measurements combined with the indicated Arab-D communication suggests the presence of a natural fracture network. Direct observations of Hanifa cores reveal common, sub-vertical fractures with average apertures <200 microns. With limited core coverage and no oriented cores, a new technique was needed to delineate the areas affected by fractures. A technique combining indirect fracture indicators was devised for Abqaiq field and can be applied to other, similar fields. The actual flow system of the Abqaiq Hanifa is a complex interaction between matrix porosity/permeability and fracture permeability or enhanced permeability. Future development plans allow for low matrix permeability access to much of the Hanifa storage space and high fracture permeability both within the Hanifa and connecting to the Arab-D Reservoir.

  20. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simakov, Andrei N., E-mail: simakov@lanl.gov; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  1. Engineering a 70-percent efficient, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.C.; Micheli, P.L.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors introduce the natural gas, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20 to 200 megawatt (MW) size range. The NG-IFFC system is a new METC-patented system. This power-plant system links the ambient pressure, carbonate fuel cell in tandem with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations based on Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulations show material and energy balances with expected power output. Early results indicated efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed, carbonate fuel-cell steam-bottomed cycles. More recent calculations extended the in-tandem concept to produce near-stoichiometric usage of the oxygen. This is made possible by reforming the anode stream to completion and using all hydrogen fuel in what will need to be a special combustor. The performance increases dramatically to 70%.

  2. Indirect ultraviolet photodesorption from CO:N2 binary ices - an efficient grain-gas process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertin, Mathieu; Romanzin, Claire; Poderoso, Hugo A M; Michaut, Xavier; Philippe, Laurent; Jeseck, Pascal; Öberg, Karin I; Linnartz, Harold; Fillion, Jean-Hugues

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UV ice photodesorption is an important non-thermal desorption pathway in many interstellar environments that has been invoked to explain observations of cold molecules in disks, clouds and cloud cores. Systematic laboratory studies of the photodesorption rates, between 7 and 14 eV, from CO:N2 binary ices, have been performed at the DESIRS vacuum UV beamline of the synchrotron facility SOLEIL. The photodesorption spectral analysis demonstrates that the photodesorption process is indirect, i.e. the desorption is induced by a photon absorption in sub-surface molecular layers, while only surface molecules are actually desorbing. The photodesorption spectra of CO and N2 in binary ices therefore depend on the absorption spectra of the dominant species in the subsurface ice layer, which implies that the photodesorption efficiency and energy dependence are dramatically different for mixed and layered ices compared to pure ices. In particular, a thin (1-2 ML) N2 ice layer on top of CO will effectively quench CO photod...

  3. Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

  4. Dry Friction Avalanches: Experiment and Robin Hood model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey V. Buldyrev; John Ferrante; Fredy R. Zypman

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents experimental evidence and theoretical models supporting that dry friction stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality. We use the data, obtained with a pin-on-disc tribometer set to measure lateral force to examine the variation of the friction force as a function of time. We study nominally flat surfaces of aluminum and steel. The probability distribution of force jumps follows a power law with exponents $\\mu$ in the range 2.2 -- 5.4. The frequency power spectrum follows a $1/{f^\\alpha}$ pattern with $\\alpha$ in the range 1 -- 2.6. In addition, we present an explanation of these power-laws observed in the dry friction experiments based on the Robin Hood model of self organized criticality. We relate the values of the exponents characterizing these power laws to the critical exponents $D$ an $\

  5. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Staley, David J. (Los Lunas, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  6. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  7. Dry Transfer Facility #1 - Ventilation Confinement Zoning Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.D. Draper

    2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the preliminary Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) for the Dry Transfer Facility (DTF). The results of this document is used to determine the air quantities for each VCZ that will eventually be reflected in the development of the Ventilation Flow Diagrams. The calculations contained in this document were developed by D and E/Mechanical-HVAC and are intended solely for the use of the D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department in its work regarding the HVAC system for the Dry Transfer Facility. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department should be consulted before use of the calculation for purposes other than those stated herein or used by individuals other than authorized personnel in D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department.

  8. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

  10. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical System Design Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This system design description (SDD) provides a technical explanation of the design and operation of the electrical system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This SDD also identifies the requirements, and the basis for the requirements and details on how the requirements have been implemented in the design and construction of the facility. This SDD also provides general guidance for the surveillance, testing, and maintenance of this system.

  11. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Hazards Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Hazard Analysis to support the CVDF Final Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports,'' and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.''

  13. 7-forming, superconducting filaments through bicomponent dry spinning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuominen, Olli P. (Ogden, UT); Morgan, Carol W. (Asheville, NC); Burlone, Dominick A. (Asheville, NC); Blankenship, Keith V. (Asheville, NC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fibers which contain potentially superconducting material are dry spun by the steps of preparing a suspension of potentially superconducting powder in a thickened solvent; preparing a solution of fiber-forming polymer; supplying the suspension and the solution to a spinning apparatus; in the spinning apparatus, arranging the solution and the suspension in a bicomponent arrangement; extruding the arranged solution and suspension from a spinneret as a bicomponent filament; and removing the solvent from the filament.

  14. Modeling a Dry Etch Process for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, R.J.; Hebner, G.A.; Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.

    1999-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been considerable interest in developing dry processes which can effectively replace wet processing in the manufacture of large area photovoltaic devices. Environmental and health issues are a driver for this activity because wet processes generally increase worker exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals and generate large volumes of liquid hazardous waste. Our work has been directed toward improving the performance of screen-printed solar cells while using plasma processing to reduce hazardous chemical usage.

  15. Will Amazonia Dry Out? Magnitude and Causes of Change from IPCC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon basin is under the control of subtropical as a result of deforestation and land-use change. Should this direct human impact continue at present rates

  16. The effect of drying on the heating value of biomass fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Pablo Gregorio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been some speculation as to whether or not biomass fuels (such as feedlot manure) may lose volatile matter during the drying process. Since current standards state that heating value analysis may be performed before or after drying...

  17. The effect of drying treatment on the n-alkane analysis M Olivn, K Osoro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    38 and lucerne hay samples (n = 33) were prepared for the alkane analysis by two procedures : freeze-dried faeces and herbage (lucerne hay) samples. Therefore oven-drying would not affect on the estimation

  18. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling, Storage, Transportation, and Disposal in the U.S. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent...

  19. amazon dry-season climate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    should remain largely stable because rainfall in the core of the basin drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon basin is under the control of subtropical...

  20. increased in the case of dry matter or organic matter (apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) 87.3 and 89.o for groups i and 6). The digestibility of nitrogen increased in the same propor-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    increased in the case of dry matter or organic matter (apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) = 87.3 and 89.o for groups i and 6). The digestibility of nitrogen increased in the same propor- tions p. ioo MPC). The maize protein concentrate studied has the advantage of being remarkably digestible

  1. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em S.Paulo, Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  2. Dry Creek salt dome, Mississippi Interior Salt basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Ericksen, R.L.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent drilling of salt dome flanks in the Mississippi Salt basin has resulted in important new discoveries and the opening of a frontier play. This play is focused on gas/condensate reserves in several Cretaceous formations, most notably the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw and lower Tuscaloosa intervals and Lower Cretaceous Paluxy and Hosston formations. As many as eight domes have been drilled thus far; sandstones in the upper Hosston Formation comprise the primary target. Production has been as high as 3-5 Mcf and 500-1200 bbl of condensate per day, with estimated ultimate reserves in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 MBOE (million barrels oil equivalent) per well. As typified by discovery at Dry Creek salt dome, traps are related to faulting, unconformities, and updip loss of permeability. Previous drilling at Dry Creek, and in the basin generally, avoided the flank areas of most domes, due to geologic models that predicted latestage (Tertiary) piercement and breached accumulations. Recent data from Dry Creek and other productive domes suggest that growth was episodic and that piercement of Tertiary strata did not affect deeper reservoirs charged with hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous.

  3. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.

  4. Polices for Controlling Groundwater Pollution from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jingjing

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    price received for dried solid waste [$/kgN] the base pricefrom selling dried solid waste but excess liquid waste muston-site [ha] • sol t,g , solid waste nitrogen generated in

  5. Factors affecting the recovery of bacteria in freeze-dried model systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Custer, Carl Steven

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cellulose, and subsequently freeze-dried. The influences of the rate of freezing, time and atmosphere of storage, position of the bacteria within the model system and condition of incubation upon the survival and metabolic injury of the freeze-dried... storage. The type of atmosphere in which freeze-dried preparations were stored was important to bacterial survival. Nitrogen was less damaging to freeze-dried cells than air. Strata studies indicated that the viable bacterial population density...

  6. The effect of cultivar and maturity on the quality of freeze-dried carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schadle, Edward Richard

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plasticize freeze-dried foods to moisture levels of 5 to $0/: 1. Spraying the freeze-dried product until the desired level of moisture is reached. 2. Stopping the freeze drying operation when the product reaches the desired moisture level. 3. A11owing... freeze-dried foods to equilibrate in a humidified chamber until the material absorbs the desired amount of moisture. Curry (1974) found a significant increase in rehydration using the equilibrium method of plasticization over the spraying method...

  7. Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

  8. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and excessive creep and mechanical property changes. Postulated accident scenarios would be the same for 20-year or 100-year storage, because they are mostly governed by operational or outside events, and not by the cask or fuel. Analyses of accident scenarios during extended dry storage could be impacted by fuel and cask changes that would result from the extended period of storage. Overall, the results of this work indicate that, based on fuel behavior, spent fuel at burnups below {approximately}45 GWd/MTU can be dry stored for 100 years. Long-term storage of higher burnup fuel or fuels with newer cladding will require the determination of temperature limits based on evaluation of stress-driven degradation mechanisms of the cladding.

  9. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  10. Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment S. Troesch.troesch@cemagref.fr, dirk.esser@sint.fr Abstract Sludge drying reed beds have been used for dewatering and mineralization of sludge since the beginning of the 90's, but their insufficient performances in terms of Dry Matter [DM

  11. On the rate-independent limit of systems with dry friction and small viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mielke, Alexander

    On the rate-independent limit of systems with dry friction and small viscosity Messoud A. Efendiev of this work is to present a model which is able to account for viscous as well as for dry-friction effects slow time scale, in which viscous transitions are seen as instantaneous jumps. However, effects of dry

  12. Firstpassage time of Brownian motion with dry friction Yaming Chen 1, # and Wolfram Just 1, +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Just, Wolfram

    First­passage time of Brownian motion with dry friction Yaming Chen 1, # and Wolfram Just 1, + 1­smooth stochastic model, namely Brownian motion with dry friction, using two di#erent but closely related approaches on the other. For the simple case containing only dry friction, a phase transi­ tion phenomenon in the spectrum

  13. An analytical approach to codimension2 sliding bifurcations in the dry friction oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An analytical approach to codimension­2 sliding bifurcations in the dry friction oscillator M In this paper, we consider analytically sliding bifurcations of periodic orbits in the dry friction oscillator] for a detailed account of these bifurcations in the case of periodic orbits. The dry friction oscillator

  14. An analytical approach to codimension-2 sliding bifurcations in the dry friction oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    An analytical approach to codimension-2 sliding bifurcations in the dry friction oscillator M consider analytically sliding bifurcations of periodic orbits in the dry friction oscillator. The system of periodic orbits. The dry friction oscillator is a very good example of a nonsmooth system containing

  15. Dry Friction and Impact Dynamics in Railway Vehicles Dan Erik Petersen Mark Hoffmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dry Friction and Impact Dynamics in Railway Vehicles Dan Erik Petersen Mark Hoffmann c973539 c Piotrowski. This model successfully takes into account damping due to dry friction in the suspension links due to dry friction. The wheelsets are constrained by guidance structures of the freight wagon

  16. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13202 Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineberg, Jay

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13202 Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion Ilya contactsdefiningafrictionalinterface3,4 . Therearea varietyofviews on how best to describe the onset of dry frictional motion the interface. We investigated the onset of dry frictional motion by per- forming simultaneous high

  17. Experimental study of friction noise of dry contact under light load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le-Bot, Alain

    Experimental study of friction noise of dry contact under light load A. Le Bot ­ H. Ben Abdelounis of friction noise radiated from the contact area of two sliding solids. The domain of interest is dry contact, that is the friction sound aris- ing when two dry and rough surfaces are rubbed on each other under light normal load

  18. Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction Summary of the Principal Formulas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    Torsion Spring Oscillator with Dry Friction ­ Problems Summary of the Principal Formulas The differential equation of motion of an oscillator acted upon by dry friction: J ¨ = -D( + m) for > 0, J ¨ = -D cases in which the effects either of viscous friction or of dry friction predominate: a = 4m T = 4 m

  19. Effect of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves on intake and digestion by sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves on intake and digestion by sheep H Abdouli-dried. The aim of the present study was to compare fresh to air-dried leaves for their intake, digestibility to the diets for the first 15 days and intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters were measured

  20. Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J

  1. A first French assessment of population exposure to tetrachloroethylene from small dry cleaning facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as the dry cleaning machine technology (fitted or unfitted with a carbon adsorber) and the ventilation (air that only a few percent of these machines are equipped with a carbon adsorber, CA, to capture PCE vapours buildings housing a dry cleaning facility. These studies involved dry cleaning machines fitted with a Carbon

  2. THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    97505 THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion -- geothermal energy derived from the vast resource of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) in our country, and biomass

  3. TOWARDS OBJECTIVE DESIGN OF DRY DAMS AT WATERSHED SCALE: HOW TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE SPATIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    21 TOWARDS OBJECTIVE DESIGN OF DRY DAMS AT WATERSHED SCALE: HOW TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE SPATIAL, the best location for 1 or 3 dry dams). To take into account the spatial variability of the rainfall, we, following subcatchments delineation. A dry dam can be placed at the outlet of any unit. Such a simple model

  4. Numerical analysis of a one-dimensional elastodynamic model of dry friction and unilateral contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renard, Yves - Pôle de Mathématiques, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon

    .e. hyperbolic) model with dry friction. Since we consider a Coulomb friction law with a slip velocity dependentNumerical analysis of a one-dimensional elastodynamic model of dry friction and unilateral contact in the numerical analysis of more elaborated dynamic purely elastic problems with dry friction. Ó 2001 Elsevier

  5. Preharvest Treatment Options for Dry Edible Beans Christy Sprague, Associate Professor and Weed Extension Specialist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preharvest Treatment Options for Dry Edible Beans Christy Sprague, Associate Professor and Weed by earlier weed management practices and "green" stems or leaves of dry bean plants can be a major problem be used for preharvest treatments in dry beans. These products are Gramoxone Inteon 2SL (paraquat

  6. "Indian Rancherie on Dry Creek": An Early 1850s Indian Village on the Sacramento and San Joaquin County Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farris, Glenn

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I "Indian Rancherie on Dry Creek": An Early 185Ds IndianIndian Rancherie on Dry Creek." Cahfomia Pictorial Letterimage of the rancheria on Dry Creek with a commentary relat-

  7. ASPEN simulation of the SNG production process in an indirect coal-liquefaction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bistline, J E; Shafer, T B

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthetic natural gas (SNG) production process (methanation, CO-shift, and hydrogen removal) in an indirect coal-liquefaction plant was simulated using the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN). The simulation of the methanation unit agreed to within 12% of Fluor's design for converting carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. A parametric study examined the effect of four important operating parameters on product composition, process thermal efficiency, and outlet temperature from the second methanation reactor. The molar split of gas feed to the CO-shift unit before methanation was varied from 0.2 to 0.6; variations of molar recycle ratio (0.01 - 0.67), molar steam-to-feed ratio (0.04 - 0.19), and feed temperature (478 - 533 K, 400-500/sup 0/F) to the first methanation reactor were also studied. A 50%-lower split improved thermal efficiency by 6%, but the mole % hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the product SNG required to meet pipeline-quality standards and temperature constraints were not met. Increasing the steam-to-feed ratio from 0.04 to 0.19 improved product quality but decreased thermal efficiency by 8%. By decreasing the feed temperature from 533 to 477 K (500 to 400/sup 0/F), product specifications and temperature constraints were met with no effect on thermal efficiency. However, it may be impractical to operate the reactor at 477 K (400/sup 0/F) because the kinetics are too slow. Increasing the recycle ratio from 0.4 to 0.67 had no effect on thermal efficiency, and temperature constraints and product specifications were met. The SNG production process should be optimized at recycle ratios above 0.67.

  8. Core science and technology development plan for indirect-drive ICF ignition. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, H.T.; Kilkenny, J.D. [eds.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To define the development work needed to support inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program goals, the authors have assembled this Core Science and Technology (CS and T) Plan that encompasses nearly all science research and technology development in the ICF program. The objective of the CS and T Plan described here is to identify the development work needed to ensure the success of advanced ICF facilities, in particular the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This plan is intended as a framework to facilitate planning and coordination of future ICF programmatic activities. The CS and T Plan covers all elements of the ICF program including laser technology, optic manufacturing, target chamber, target diagnostics, target design and theory, target components and fabrication, and target physics experiments. The CS and T Plan has been divided into these seven different technology development areas, and they are used as level-1 categories in a work breakdown structure (WBS) to facilitate the organization of all activities in this plan. The scope of the CS and T Plan includes all research and development required to support the NIF leading up to the activation and initial operation as an indirect-drive facility. In each of the CS and T main development areas, the authors describe the technology and issues that need to be addressed to achieve NIF performance goals. To resolve all issues and achieve objectives, an extensive assortment of tasks must be performed in a coordinated and timely manner. The authors describe these activities and present planning schedules that detail the flow of work to be performed over a 10-year period corresponding to estimated time needed to demonstrate fusion ignition with the NIF. Besides the benefits to the ICF program, the authors also discuss how the commercial sector and the nuclear weapons science may profit from the proposed research and development program.

  9. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

  10. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different from controls at 1-min post-exposure and for fathead minnows at 1- and 5-min post-exposure. The greatest effects occurred with exposure to the fish anesthetic; in fathead minnows all of the recorded measures were significantly different from controls at 1-min and 5-min post-exposure at the 100 mg/L dose. For striped shiners all recorded behavioral measures were significantly different from controls at 1-min at the 200 and 100 mg/L doses and for selected behavioral measures at 5-min. Turbulence also had significant effects on striped shiner startle responses following 20- and 30-min exposures for all behavioral measures at 1-min. The patterns suggest that any effects on startle response due to turbulence or low doses of anesthetic are short-lived, but can be evaluated using the escape behavior technique. The most useful indication of changes in escape behavior in these tests was the simple reaction/no reaction to the startle stimulus. The startle response occurred reliably among unstressed fish, and was frequently reduced or eliminated in fish exposed to turbulence or anesthesia. The other behavioral parameters observed were often altered by the sublethal stresses as well. A standard predator preference test was also conducted with largemouth bass as the predators and fathead minnows as prey. In this test design, groups of 10 unstressed fish (controls) and 10 stressed fish were put in a tank with a predator. The stressed fathead minnows were exposed to turbulence or fish anesthetic. The predator was allowed to eat half of the prey, and the data were evaluated to determine whether predators consumed greater proportions of stressed minnows than control minnows. The predation test indicated that exposure to MS-222 resulted in significant predation in fathead minnows, but exposure to turbulence did not. This pattern was the same as seen in fathead minnows using the startle response (escape behavior) test. For the sublethal stresses we applied, evaluation of changes in fish escape behavior yielded results comparable to traditional predator preference tests. Because t

  11. Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud microphysics and implications for the aerosol indirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenes, Athanasios

    thought. 1. Introduction Black Carbon (BC) has important effects on climate, owing to its ability of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA Abstract. This work examines the effect of black carbon (BC) radiative heating on cloud droplet formation. Changes in cloud droplet concentration and cloud albedo due

  12. Solid state electron-hopping transport and frozen concentration gradients in a mixed valent viologen-tetraethylene oxide copolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrill, R.H.; Hutchison, J.E.; Murray, R.W. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1997-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes electrochemistry and electron-hopping dynamics for a novel viologen-based redox polymer (poly-V{sup 2+}) formed from the copolymerization of tetraethylene glycol di-p-tosylate and 4,4{prime}-bipyridine. Current-potential responses and electron-hopping (i.e., self-exchange) rates have been measured for mixed valent films of poly-V{sup 2+} on interdigitated array electrodes contacted by tetrahydrofuran/acetonitrile/tetrabutylammonium perchlorate electrolyte solution and as dry mixed valent films in vacuum or dry nitrogen. Electron transfer rates vary with the mixed valency composition of poly-V{sup 2+/+} films (judging film composition from the electrolysis potential with the Nernst equation) according to bimolecular reaction theory for solvent-wetted but less well for dry films. Current-potential characteristics are also reported for mixed valent films that contain concentration gradients of the poly-V{sup 2+} and poly-V{sup +} redox states, which we attempt to freeze into place by drying the film under a gradient-generating potential bias so as to immobilize the film`s counterions. Current transients at room and reduced (-30{degree}C) temperature show that the room-temperature responses of films containing concentration gradients are sensitive to small changes in poly-V{sup 2+/+} oxidation state at the electrode/polymer interfaces. 24 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  14. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  15. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  16. Modelling the settling of suspended sediments for concentrations close to the gelling concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling the settling of suspended sediments for concentrations close to the gelling concentration the sedimentation phase. In the case of cohesive sediments, the estimation of the gelling concentration, although and consolidation behaviour for concentrations close to the gelling concentration. Key words: sedimentation

  17. The Effect of Equilibrating Mounted Dental Stone Casts in Maximum Intercuspation on the Occlusal Harmony of an Indirect Restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Peter Andrew

    2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF EQUILIBRATING MOUNTED DENTAL STONE CASTS IN MAXIMUM INTERCUSPATION ON THE OCCLUSAL HARMONY OF AN INDIRECT RESTORATION A Thesis by PETER ANDREW BENSON Submitted to The Office of Graduate and Professional Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Chair of Committee, William W. Nagy Committee Members, Peter M. Buschang Carl G. Wirth Head of Department, William W. Nagy...

  18. The effectiveness of an indirect control message in decreasing the depreciative behavior of remote camping location users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barget, Robert George

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the number of visitors utilizing these resources and the ever expanding variety of activities in which people participate when they visit a particular natural resource setting. According to vernon D. Dame (Dame 1977), past chief of Interpretation..., a 12% increase over the previous year (Clark et al. 1972). Less tangible, but equally important are the indirect costs of depreciative behaviors (Clark et al. 1971). Cole 10 (1982) concluded that most site impacts do not appear to sharply reduce...

  19. Modeling of concentrating solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng

    The conversion of solar power into electricity is dominated by non-concentrating photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal systems. Recently, it has been shown that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are a viable ...

  20. Assessment of an active dry barrier for a landfill cover system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormont, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ankeny, M.D.; Burkhard, M.E.; Tansey, M.K.; Kelsey, J.A. [Stephens (Daniel B.) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry barrier is a layer of geologic material that is dried by air flow. An active dry barrier system can be designed, installed, and operated as part of a landfill cover system. An active system uses blowers and fans to move air through a high-permeability layer within the cover system. Depending principally on the air-flow rate, it is possible for a dry barrier to remove enough water to substantially reduce the likelihood of water percolating through the cover system. If a material with a relatively great storage capacity, such as processed tuff, is used as the coarse layer, then the efficiency of the dry barrier will be increased.