National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for indicators rse column

  1. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  2. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  4. " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 29,"Petroleum and Coal Products ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  5. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Oxy - Fuel Firing Computer Control of Building Wide Evironment(c Computer Control of ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ...

  6. " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  7. " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 29,"Petroleum and Coal Products ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  9. " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 29,"Petroleum and Coal ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products",41280,"Q",17503,4123,54688,1.9 324110," Petroleum Refineries",38603,"Q...

  11. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Vehicle Types

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    or More ... 19.1 13.0 12.3 0.7 1.0 1.7 Q 2.7 Q 21.8 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 12.4 9.5 8.9 0.5 Q Q Q 1.8 Q...

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products",3622,126,72,23,1006,39,"*",0,2355,5.9 324110," Petroleum Refineries",3477,11...

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products",34347.3,116.3,26.7,3.3 324110," Petroleum Refineries",55014,151.2,...

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products",3622,37059,11,4,980,10,"*",0,2355,5.9 324110," Petroleum Refineries",3477,34...

  15. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Model Years Model Year

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 19.1 1.4 2.0 2.2 5.0 4.4 2.1 0.6 Q 0.9 14.3 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 12.4 Q Q 0.6 2.1 2.1 2.4 1.7...

  16. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Households with Children Households...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 7.6 2.1 3.3 2.2 11.5 Q Q Q 1.4 6.9 2.8 18.8 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 6.6 1.6 3.6 1.3 5.8 0.3 0.7...

  17. Re: NBP RFI: CommunicationRse quirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CommunicationRse quirements Re: NBP RFI: CommunicationRse quirements Pepco Holdings, Inc. (PHI) is pleased to respond to the U.S Department of Energy request for comments regarding the communications requirements of electric utilities deploying the Smart Grid. Re: NBP RFI: CommunicationRse quirements (589.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Re: NBP RFI: Communications Requirements Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric

  18. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... that respondents indicated could have been consumed in place of residual fuel oil. ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  19. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... that respondents indicated could have been consumed in place of distillate fuel oil. ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  20. RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) A fact sheet detailling a proposal of a biorefinery facility in an existing pulp mill to demonstrate the production of cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic (wood) extract. RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) (19.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Pacific Ethanol, Inc EA-1888:

  1. " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," ","

  2. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " ","

  3. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " ","

  4. file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\VM3\My%20Documents\hc6-10a

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Midwest Census Region | | |___________________________________| | | | | | | | Census Division | | | |_______________________| | | | | | | Total | | East North| West North| Usage Indicators | U.S. | Total | Central | Central | |___________|___________|___________|___________| RSE | | | | | Row RSE Column Factor: | 0.5 |

  5. file://C:\MyFiles\TeamWorks%20Website\index.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0a. Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Midwest Census Region | | |___________________________________| | | | | | | | Census Division | | | |_______________________| | | | | | | Total | | East North| West North| Usage Indicators | U.S. | Total | Central | Central | |___________|___________|___________|___________| RSE | | | | | Row RSE Column Factor: | 0.5 |

  6. h:prjq496 ext intext.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0a. Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Midwest Census Region | | |___________________________________| | | | | | | | Census Division | | | |_______________________| | | | | | | Total | | East North| West North| Usage Indicators | U.S. | Total | Central | Central | |___________|___________|___________|___________| RSE | | | | | Row RSE Column Factor: | 0.5 |

  7. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C3.1. Number of Establishments by Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any",,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS","

  9. PULSE COLUMN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... " NFNo applicable RSE rowcolumn factor." " * Estimate less than 0.5." " ... of a purchase or transfer and consumed onsite for the" "production of heat and power. ...

  11. " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... " NFNo applicable RSE rowcolumn factor." " * Estimate less than 0.5." " ... of a purchase or transfer and consumed onsite for the" "production of heat and power. ...

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324110," Petroleum Refineries",44,240,337696.4,4578,2... ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ...

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," ","Any "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Combustible",,,,,,,,"RSE"

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per

  15. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    reported for fewer than 20 buildings. Notes: * To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. * See Glossary for...

  16. 1995 CECS C&E Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    reported for fewer than 20 buildings. Notes: * To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. * See Glossary for...

  17. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... has already been included as generating fuel (for example, coal). (d) 'Distillate Fuel ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  18. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures RSE Row Factor per...

  19. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  20. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  1. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  2. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Gas(e) NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1 1.2 1.8 1 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.4 311 Food 1,123 67,521 2 3 567 1 8 * 89 0 311221 Wet

  3. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  4. file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\VM3\My%20Documents\hc6-12a

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Usage Indicators by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | West Census Region | | |___________________________________| | | | | | | | Census Division | | | |_______________________| | Total | | | | Usage Indicators | U.S. | Total | Mountain | Pacific | |___________|___________|___________|___________| RSE | | | | | Row RSE Column Factor: | 0.5 | 1.0 | 1.6 | 1.2 |Factors

  5. file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\VM3\My%20Documents\hc6-8a_

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Urban/Rural Location 1 | | |_______________________________________| | | | | | | Usage Indicators | Total | City | Town | Suburbs | Rural | |_________|_________|_________|_________|_________| RSE | | | | | | Row RSE Column Factor: | 0.5 | 0.8 | 1.4 | 1.3 | 1.4 |Factors

  6. file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\VM3\My%20Documents\hc6-9a_

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Northeast Census Region | | |___________________________________| | | | | | | | Census Division | | | |_______________________| | | | | | | Total | | Middle | | Usage Indicators | U.S. | Total | Atlantic |New England| |___________|___________|___________|___________| RSE | | | | | Row RSE Column Factor: | 0.5 | 1.0 |

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324110," Petroleum Refineries",46,152,42,126,78,35,14... ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ...

  8. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... products (e.g., crude oil converted to residual and distillate fuel oils) are excluded. ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  9. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Survey of Manufactures.' (d) 'Distillate Fuel Oil' includes Nos. 1, 2, and 4 fuel oils ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  10. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... products (e.g., crude oil converted to residual and distillate fuel oils) are excluded. ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  11. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ... Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Other(f) Coal(b) ...

  12. 2003 CBECS RSE Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dec 2006 Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007 Standard error is a measure of the reliability or precision of the survey statistic. The value for the standard error can be used...

  13. file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\VM3\My%20Documents\hc6-7a_

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Million U.S. Households, 2001 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Four Most Populated States | | |_______________________________________| | Total | | | | | Usage Indicators | U.S. |New York| California | Texas | Florida| |________|________|____________|________|________| RSE | | | | | | Row RSE Column Factor: | 0.4 | 1.1 | 1.0 | 1.3 | 1.6 |Factors

  14. Microfabricated packed gas chromatographic column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kottenstette, Richard; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-16

    A new class of miniaturized gas chromatographic columns has been invented. These chromatographic columns are formed using conventional micromachining techniques, and allow packed columns having lengths on the order of a meter to be fabricated with a footprint on the order of a square centimeter.

  15. Operation Periods: Single Column Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled- down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve

  16. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  17. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... by" "petroleum refineries, rather than purchased ... ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal ...

  18. 1995 CECS C&E Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Major Fuel, 1995 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu) Primary Electricity (trillion Btu) RSE Row Factor Number of...

  19. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3.2. Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu) RSE Row Factor Number of...

  20. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... for any table cell, multiply the cel corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ... Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006 Level: National and ...

  1. Table N1.1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... oil converted to residual and distillate" "fuel oils) are excluded." " NFNo applicable ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ...

  2. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Consumption for Sum of Major Fuels, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings Sum of Major Fuel Consumption RSE Row Factor Number of Buildings (thousand)...

  3. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Expenditures for Sum of Major Fuels, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings Sum of Major Fuel Expenditures RSE Row Factor Number of Buildings (thousand)...

  4. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu) RSE Row Factor Number of Buildings...

  5. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Woo K.

    1995-05-30

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

  6. Two-Column Aerosol Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Column Aerosol Project Tiny particles in the sky known as "aerosols" come in many forms-dust, soot, and sea salt, for example. Depending on the type of aerosol, it can either...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Ozone Column Abundance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Column Abundance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ozone Column Abundance The vertically integrated amount of ozone (commonly measured in Dobson Unit, 1 DU = 134 mmol/m^2) Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  9. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scmforcing) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scmforcing) The constrained variational ...

  10. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    A project to evaluate the performance of the Virginia Tech Microbubble Column Flotation (MCF) process in an operating coal preparation plant was initiated during this past quarter. The project is concerned with the collection of process operating data using a 30-inch diameter column, and using this data to scale-up to a prototype, full-scale plant column. The work is being carried out at the Marrowbone Preparation Plant owned by the Shell Mining Corporation. Work has primarily concentrated on finalizing the project work plan (Task 2.1 -- Project Planning), instrumenting the 30-inch diameter column (Task 2.2 -- Advanced Instrumentation) and conducting a preliminary parametric study to evaluate the performance of the column (Task 2.3 -- Detailed Testing). To date, the column has been consistently capable of producing a 9.5% ash product at a 61% combustible recovery from a -150 mesh classifying cyclone overflow containing 55--60% ash at 3--5% solids. Tests conducted over an extended period of time indicate that the column consistently maintains grade in spite of fluctuations in the feed characteristics. 12 figs.

  11. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  12. Method for packed column separations and purifications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, David A.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2006-08-15

    The invention encompasses a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber. A mixture of a fluid and a matrix material are introduced through a column chamber inlet so that the matrix material is packed within a column chamber to form a packed column. The column chamber having the column chamber inlet or first port for receiving the mixture further has an outlet port and an actuator port. The outlet port is partially closed for capturing the matrix material and permitting the fluid to flow therepast by rotating relative one to the other of a rod placed in the actuator port. Further rotation relative one to the other of the rod and the column chamber opens the outlet and permits the matrix material and the fluid to flow therethrough thereby unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber.

  13. Temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-23

    A temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by the integration of a resistive heating element and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Additionally, means are provided to thermally isolate the heated column from their surroundings. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  14. Position indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  15. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  16. KDP Columns: Characterizing Deep Thunderstorm Updrafts Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are usually only detectable by non-attenuating profiling radars, or derivable by multi-Doppler radar networks. Here we objectively identify KDP columns using a simple, but...

  17. Floating Oscillating Water Column Reference Model Completed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Floating Oscillating Water Column Reference Model Completed - Sandia Energy Energy Search ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  18. housingunit_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  19. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  20. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  1. Table HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  2. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 1997 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 1997 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  3. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  4. Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

    1990-08-15

    Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity for Buildings Cooled with Electricity, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Electricity Consumption...

  6. Table E2.1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... by petroleum" "refineries (e.g., crude oil ... ,"Total United States" "RSE Column ... Examples of Liquefied Petroleum Gases '(LPG)' are ...

  7. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Prev Next Title: Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 ...

  8. External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site Full ...

  9. Small Column Ion Exchange at Savannah River Site Technology Readiness...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site Compilation of TRA Summaries External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River ...

  10. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems This project ...

  11. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Substitute, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price ... Substitute, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price ...

  12. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. ... National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. ...

  13. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Combustible Energy, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; ... Combustible Energy, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; ...

  14. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Technologies, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within ... Technologies, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within ...

  15. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources ... (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources ...

  16. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Buildings, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and ... Buildings, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and ...

  17. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; ... Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; ...

  18. Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Patrick R.; Wheeler, David R.

    2007-09-25

    A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.

  19. Neutron camera employing row and column summations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clonts, Lloyd G.; Diawara, Yacouba; Donahue, Jr, Cornelius; Montcalm, Christopher A.; Riedel, Richard A.; Visscher, Theodore

    2016-06-14

    For each photomultiplier tube in an Anger camera, an R.times.S array of preamplifiers is provided to detect electrons generated within the photomultiplier tube. The outputs of the preamplifiers are digitized to measure the magnitude of the signals from each preamplifier. For each photomultiplier tube, a corresponding summation circuitry including R row summation circuits and S column summation circuits numerically add the magnitudes of the signals from preamplifiers for each row and for each column to generate histograms. For a P.times.Q array of photomultiplier tubes, P.times.Q summation circuitries generate P.times.Q row histograms including R entries and P.times.Q column histograms including S entries. The total set of histograms include P.times.Q.times.(R+S) entries, which can be analyzed by a position calculation circuit to determine the locations of events (detection of a neutron).

  20. EVIDENCE OF CONTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING CLOUDS TO GAMMA-RAY BURST'S X-RAY COLUMN DENSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.

    2013-10-20

    The origin of excess of X-ray column density with respect to optical extinction in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still a puzzle. A proposed explanation of the excess is the photoelectric absorption due to the intervening clouds along a GRB's line of sight. Here, we test this scenario by using the intervening Mg II absorption as a tracer of the neutral hydrogen column density of the intervening clouds. We identify a connection between the large X-ray column density (and large column density ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})?0.5) and large neutral hydrogen column density probed by the Mg II doublet ratio (DR). In addition, GRBs with large X-ray column density (and large ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})>0) tend to have multiple saturated intervening absorbers with DR < 1.2. These results therefore indicate an additional contribution from the intervening system to the observed X-ray column density in some GRBs, although the contribution from the host galaxy alone cannot be excluded based on this study.

  1. Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2006-02-21

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  2. Systems for column-based separations, methods of forming packed columns, and methods of purifying sample components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  3. Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.; Chandler, Darrell P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2004-08-24

    The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

  4. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ... "Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: ...

  5. Table N1.3. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... It is the total amount of first use of energy" "for all (fuel and nonfuel) purposes." " ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ...

  6. 1992 CBECS C&E Table 3.29

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Square Foot and Load Factors, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Demand-Metered Buildings Peak Watts per Square Foot Load Factor RSE Row Factor Number of...

  7. Table 5.8. U.S. Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family Income, 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  8. Table 5.10. U.S. Average Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  9. Table 5.9. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Family Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  10. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2010-11-01

    immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed (a primary heat transfer mechanism), inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The calculation results showed that for a wet CST column with active cooling through one central and four outer tubes and 35 C ambient external air, the peak temperature for the fully-loaded column is about 63 C under the loss of fluid flow accident, which is well below the supernate boiling point. The peak temperature for the naturally-cooled (no active, engineered cooling) wet column is 156 C under fully-loaded conditions, exceeding the 130 C boiling point. Under these conditions, supernate boiling would maintain the column temperature near 130 C until all supernate was vaporized. Without active engineered cooling and assuming a dry column suspended in unventilated air at 35 C, the fully-loaded column is expected to rise to a maximum of about 258 C due to the combined loss-of coolant and column drainage accidents. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. Results for the in-tank modeling calculations clearly indicate that when realistic heat transfer boundary conditions are imposed on the bottom surface of the tank wall, as much as 450 gallons of ground CST (a volume equivalent to two ion exchange processing cycles) in an ideal hemispherical shape (the most conservative geometry) can be placed in the tank without exceeding the 100 C wall temperature limit. Furthermore, in the case of an evenly-distributed flat layer, the tank wall reaches the temperature limit after the ground CST material reaches a height of approximately 8 inches.

  11. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-03-09

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports.

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2013.04.15, Scott, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter ...

  13. Method to fabricate silicon chromatographic column comprising fluid ports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Adkins, Douglas R.

    2004-03-02

    A new method for fabricating a silicon chromatographic column comprising through-substrate fluid ports has been developed. This new method enables the fabrication of multi-layer interconnected stacks of silicon chromatographic columns.

  14. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Ralph W.; Patton, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

  15. PULSE COLUMN DESIGN (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... EQUATIONS; EQUILIBRIUM; EXTRACTION COLUMNS; FREQUENCY; ISOMERS; KETONES; LABORATORY EQUIPMENT; LIQUID FLOW; MATHEMATICS; MEASURED VALUES; METHYL RADICALS; MIXING; OPERATION; ...

  16. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C.; Foschini, C.R.; Simes, A.Z.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 C for 8 min.

  17. S:\VM3\RX97\TBL_LIST.WPD [PFP#201331587]

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 Usage Indicators RSE Column Factor: Total Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.5 Total .............................................................. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 Weekday Home Activities Home Used for Business Yes ............................................................ 7.2 7.4 7.5 6.0 6.4 13.5 No

  18. S:\VM3\RX97\TBL_LIST.WPD [PFP#201331587]

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Million U.S. Households, 1997 Usage Indicators RSE Column Factor: Total Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.5 Total .............................................................. 101.5 6.8 11.5 7.0 5.9 NF Weekday Home Activities Home Used for Business Yes ............................................................ 7.4 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.4 13.5 No .............................................................. 94.1 6.3 10.6 6.5 5.6 2.2

  19. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V{sub b}) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel`s color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber.

  20. Materials performance in prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-11-21

    Two prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns have been metallurgically examined after retirement, to determine the causes of failure and to evaluate the performance of the column container materials in this application. Leaking of the fluid heating and cooling subsystems caused retirement of both TCAP columns, not leaking of the main hydrogen-containing column. The aluminum block design TCAP column (ABL block TCAP) used in the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, Building 773-A, failed in one nitrogen inlet tube that was crimped during fabrication, which lead to fatigue crack growth in the tube and subsequent leaking of nitrogen from this tube. The Third Generation stainless steel design TCAP column (Third generation TCAP), operated in 773-A room C-061, failed in a braze joint between the freon heating and cooling tubes (made of copper) and the main stainless steel column. In both cases, stresses from thermal cycling and local constraint likely caused the nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks. No materials compatibility problems between palladium coated kieselguhr (the material contained in the TCAP column) and either aluminum or stainless steel column materials were observed. The aluminum-stainless steel transition junction appeared to be unaffected by service in the AHL block TCAP. Also, no evidence of cracking was observed in the AHL block TCAP in a location expected to experience the highest thermal shock fatigue in this design. It is important to limit thermal stresses caused by constraint in hydride systems designed to work by temperature variation, such as hydride storage beds and TCAP columns.

  1. Materials performance in prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-11-21

    Two prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns have been metallurgically examined after retirement, to determine the causes of failure and to evaluate the performance of the column container materials in this application. Leaking of the fluid heating and cooling subsystems caused retirement of both TCAP columns, not leaking of the main hydrogen-containing column. The aluminum block design TCAP column (AHL block TCAP) used in the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, Building 773-A, failed in one nitrogen inlet tube that was crimped during fabrication, which lead to fatigue crack growth in the tube and subsequent leaking of nitrogen from this tube. The Third Generation stainless steel design TCAP column (Third generation TCAP), operated in 773-A room C-061, failed in a braze joint between the freon heating and cooling tubes (made of copper) and the main stainless steel column. In both cases, stresses from thermal cycling and local constraint likely caused the nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks. No materials compatibility problems between palladium coated kieselguhr (the material contained in the TCAP column) and either aluminum or stainless steel column materials were observed. The aluminum-stainless steel transition junction appeared to be unaffected by service in the AHL block TCAP. Also, no evidence of cracking was observed in the AHL block TCAP in a location expected to experience the highest thermal shock fatigue in this design. It is important to limit thermal stresses caused by constraint in hydride systems designed to work by temperature variation, such as hydride storage beds and TCAP columns.

  2. Micro-column plasma emission liquid chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D.

    1984-01-01

    In a direct current plasma emission spectrometer for use in combination with a micro-column liquid chromatograph, an improved plasma source unit. The plasma source unit includes a quartz capillary tube having an inlet means, outlet off gas means and a pair of spaced electrodes defining a plasma region in the tube. The inlet means is connected to and adapted to receive eluant of the liquid chromatograph along with a stream of plasma-forming gas. There is an opening through the wall of the capillary tube penetrating into the plasma region. A soft glass capillary light pipe is disposed at the opening, is connected to the spectrometer, and is adapted to transmit light passing from the plasma region to the spectrometer. There is also a source of electromotive force connected to the electrodes sufficient to initiate and sustain a plasma in the plasma region of the tube.

  3. Parallel array of independent thermostats for column separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foret, Frantisek; Karger, Barry L.

    2005-08-16

    A thermostat array including an array of two or more capillary columns (10) or two or more channels in a microfabricated device is disclosed. A heat conductive material (12) surrounded each individual column or channel in array, each individual column or channel being thermally insulated from every other individual column or channel. One or more independently controlled heating or cooling elements (14) is positioned adjacent to individual columns or channels within the heat conductive material, each heating or cooling element being connected to a source of heating or cooling, and one or more independently controlled temperature sensing elements (16) is positioned adjacent to the individual columns or channels within the heat conductive material. Each temperature sensing element is connected to a temperature controller.

  4. Wall-Friction Support of Vertical Loads in Submerged Sand and Gravel Columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, O. R.; Vollmer, H. J.; Hepa, V. S.

    2015-08-25

    Laboratory studies of the ‘floor-loads’ under submerged vertical columns of sand and/or gravel indicate that such loads can be approximated by a buoyancy-corrected Janssen-silo-theory-like relationship. Similar to conditions in storage silos filled with dry granular solids, most of the weight of the sand or gravel is supported by wall friction forces. Laboratory measurements of the loads on the floor at the base of the water-filled columns (up to 25-diameters tall) indicate that the extra floor-load from the addition of the granular solid never exceeded the load that would exist under an unsupported (wide) bed of submerged sand or gravel that has a total depth corresponding to only two column-diameters. The measured floorloads reached an asymptotic maximum value when the depth of granular material in the columns was only three or four pipe-diameters, and never increased further as the columns were filled to the top (e.g. up to heights of 10 to 25 diameters). The floor-loads were stable and remained the same for days after filling. Aggressive tapping (e.g. hitting the containing pipe on the outside, manually with a wrench up and down the height and around the circumference) could increase (and occasionally decrease) the floor load substantially, but there was no sudden collapse or slumping to a state without significant wall friction effects. Considerable effort was required, repeatedly tapping over almost the entire column wall periphery, in order to produce floor-loads that corresponded to the total buoyancy-corrected weight of granular material added to the columns. Projecting the observed laboratory behavior to field conditions would imply that a stable floor-load condition, with only a slightly higher total floor pressure than the preexisting hydrostatic-head, would exist after a water-filled bore-hole is filled with sand or gravel. Significant seismic vibration (either a large nearby event or many micro-seismic events over an extended period) would likely

  5. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. ...

  6. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil ...

  7. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel ...

  8. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate ...

  9. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. ...

  10. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. ...

  11. Effect of Aerosol Humidification on the Column Aerosol Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Aerosol Humidification on the Column Aerosol Optical Thickness over the ARM Southern Great Plains Site Li, Zhanqing University of Maryland Jeong, Myeong-Jae University of...

  12. Mini-columns for Conducting Breakthrough Experiments. Design and Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul William; Ware, Stuart Douglas

    2015-06-11

    Experiments with moderately and strongly sorbing radionuclides (i.e., U, Cs, Am) have shown that sorption between experimental solutions and traditional column materials must be accounted for to accurately determine stationary phase or porous media sorption properties (i.e., sorption site density, sorption site reaction rate coefficients, and partition coefficients or Kd values). This report details the materials and construction of mini-columns for use in breakthrough columns to allow for accurate measurement and modeling of sorption parameters. Material selection, construction techniques, wet packing of columns, tubing connections, and lessons learned are addressed.

  13. ARM: AOS: Dual Column Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AOS: Dual Column Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Authors: Derek Hageman ; Bill Behrens ; Scott Smith ; Janek Uin ; Janek Uin ; Cynthia Salwen ; Cynthia Salwen ; Annette Koontz ; ...

  14. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity ...

  15. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Technologies, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within ... Estimate less than 0.5. WWithheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments. ...

  16. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  17. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-10-01

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Spring 1994 Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSpring 1994 Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Spring 1994 Single Column Model IOP 1994.04.01 - 1994.04.30

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Summer 1994 Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSummer 1994 Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Summer 1994 Single Column Model IOP 1994.07.01 - 1994.07.31

  20. Ultrasonic testing device having an adjustable water column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Dennis P.; Neidigk, Stephen O.; Rackow, Kirk A.; Duvall, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    An ultrasonic testing device having a variable fluid column height is disclosed. An operator is able to adjust the fluid column height in real time during an inspection to to produce optimum ultrasonic focus and separate extraneous, unwanted UT signals from those stemming from the area of interest.

  1. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-05-23

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed, inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature.

  2. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  3. Biodegradation of jet fuel in vented columns of water-unsaturated sandy soil. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coho, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of soil water content on the rate of jet fuel (JP-4) biodegradation in air-vented, water-unsaturated columns of sandy soil was investigated. The contaminated soil was obtained from a spill site located on Tyndall AFB, Fla. The initial soil loading was 4590 mg of JP-4/kg of dry soil. Three laboratory columns were packed with the contaminated soil, saturated and drained for periods of 81-89 days. Two columns were continuously vented with air, and the third, intended to provide an anaerobic control, was vented with nitrogen. The venting gas flows were maintained between 1 and 2.5 soil pore volume changeouts per day. The total JP-4 removal in the air-vented columns averaged 44% of the mass originally present. Biodegradation and volatilization accounted for 93% and 7% of the total removal, respectively. A maximum biodegradation rate of 14.3 mg of JP-4/kg of moist soil per day was observed at a soil water content of approximately 72% saturation. Soil drainage characteristics indicated that this water content may have corresponded to 100% of the in situ field capacity water content. Theses.

  4. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity for Buildings Heated with Electricity, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Electricity Consumption...

  5. table10.1_021.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Consumption Consumption(a) Consumption(b) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1 1 1 Electricity ... of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Consumption ...

  6. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Building Size for Sum of Major Fuels, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu)...

  7. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels for Mercantile and Office Buildings, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total...

  8. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Intensity for Sum of Major Fuels in Older Buildings by Year Constructed, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total...

  9. CBECS Buildings Characteristics --Revised Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation, 1995 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million...

  10. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Census Region for Sum of Major Fuels, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total...

  11. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Expenditures by Census Region for Sum of Major Fuels, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Sum of Major Fuel Expenditures (million dollars) Sum of Major Fuel...

  12. Buildings and Energy in the 1980's (TABLES)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    than 10 households were sampled. Notes: * To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding column and row factors. * Because of rounding, data may...

  13. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Season of Peak Electricity Demand, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million...

  14. Table N13.2. Electricity: Components of Onsite Generation, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... *",48.4 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products",17078,15985,0,1093,5.7 324110," Petroleum Refineries"," ...

  15. Table N5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ","FurnaceCoke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood ... ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324110," Petroleum Refineries",1983,0,1390,592,0,0,1,...

  16. Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood ... ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324110," Petroleum Refineries",1946,0,1388,558,0,0,"*...

  17. Table 11.3 Electricity: Components of Onsite Generation, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products",17503,16868,0,635,1.3 324110," Petroleum Refineries",16273,15709,0...

  18. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT COLUMN DEGRADATION ANALYSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.

    2014-10-28

    PORFLOW related analyses supporting a Sensitivity Analysis for Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) column degradation were performed. Previous analyses, Flach and Taylor 2014, used a model in which the SDU columns degraded in a piecewise manner from the top and bottom simultaneously. The current analyses employs a model in which all pieces of the column degrade at the same time. Information was extracted from the analyses which may be useful in determining the distribution of Tc-99 in the various SDUs throughout time and in determining flow balances for the SDUs.

  19. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SOLID FLUIDIZATION IN A RESIN COLUMN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-24

    The objective of the present work is to model the resin particles within the column during fluidization and sedimentation processes using computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The calculated results will help interpret experimental results, and they will assist in providing guidance on specific details of testing design and establishing a basic understanding of particle’s hydraulic characteristics within the column. The model is benchmarked against the literature data and the test data (2003) conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS). The paper presents the benchmarking results and the modeling predictions of the SRS resin column using the improved literature correlations applicable for liquid-solid granular flow.

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Summer Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSummer Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Summer Single Column Model IOP 1997.06.18 - 1997.07.18 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive IOP Server Cloud and Radiation Products Derived from Satellite Data Colorado State's Single Column Modeling Home Page For data

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Sizer govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic Particle Sizer ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic Particle Sizer 2012.07.01 - 2013.02.28 Lead Scientist : Larry Berg For data sets, see below. Abstract A TSI model 3321 APS was deployed at the

  2. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2010 Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: ...

  3. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: ...

  4. METHOD TO TEST ISOTOPIC SEPARATION EFFICIENCY OF PALLADIUM PACKED COLUMNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; Gregory Staack, G; James Klein, J; William Jacobs, W

    2007-06-27

    The isotopic effect of palladium has been applied in different ways to separate hydrogen isotopes for many years. At Savannah River Site palladium deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) is used in a thermal cycling absorption process (TCAP) to purify tritium for over ten years. The need to design columns for different throughputs and the desire to advance the performance of TCAP created the need to evaluate different column designs and packing materials for their separation efficiency. In this work, columns with variations in length, diameter and metal foam use, were tested using an isotope displacement method. A simple computer model was also developed to calculate the number of theoretical separation stages using the test results. The effects of column diameter, metal foam and gas flow rate were identified.

  5. Tests of isotopic separation efficiency of palladium packed columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L. K.; Staack, G. C.; Klein, J. E.; Jacobs, W. D.

    2008-07-15

    The isotopic effect of palladium has been applied in different ways to separate hydrogen isotopes for many years. At Savannah River Site palladium deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) is used in a thermal cycling absorption process (TCAP) to purify tritium for over ten years. The need to design columns for different throughputs and the desire to advance the performance of TCAP created the need to evaluate different column designs and packing materials for their separation efficiency. In this work, columns with variations in length, diameter and metal foam presence were tested using an isotope displacement method. A simple computer model was also developed to calculate the number of theoretical separation stages based on the test results. The effects of column diameter, metal foam presence and gas flow rate were identified. (authors)

  6. Microsoft Word - SAND Rpt Experimental Confimation of Water Column...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cambridge University Press, 2002. 5 C. H. Lee and F. G. Nielsen, "Analysis of oscillating-water column device using a panel method," presented at the 11th International Workshop ...

  7. Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system being developed for deployment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a supplementary salt waste processing technology that, if implemented, will augment...

  8. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. ...

  9. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios Unit: Varies. ...

  10. A mobile computed tomographic unit for inspecting reinforced concrete columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumitra, T.; Srisatit, S.; Pattarasumunt, A.

    1994-12-31

    A mobile computed tomographic unit applicable in the inspection of reinforced concrete columns was designed, constructed and tested. A CT image reconstruction programme written in Quick Basic was first developed to be used on an IBM PC/AT microcomputer. It provided user friendly menus for data processing and displaying CT image. The prototype of a gamma-ray scanning system using a 1.11 GBq Cs-137 source and a NaI(T1) scintillation detector was also designed and constructed. The system was a microcomputer controlled, single-beam rotate-translate scanner used for collecting transmitted gamma-ray data in different angles. The CT unit was finally tested with a standard column and a column of an existing building. The cross sectional images of the columns could be clearly seen. The positions and sizes of the reinforced bars could be estimated.

  11. TCAP HYDROGEN ISOTOPE SEPARATION USING PALLADIUM AND INVERSE COLUMNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L.; Sessions, H.; Xiao, S.

    2010-08-31

    The Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) was further studied with a new configuration. Previous configuration used a palladium packed column and a plug flow reverser (PFR). This new configuration uses an inverse column to replace the PFR. The goal was to further improve performance. Both configurations were experimentally tested. The results showed that the new configuration increased the throughput by a factor of more than 2.

  12. Modelling aging effects on a thermal cycling absorption process column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laquerbe, C.; Contreras, S.; Demoment, J.

    2008-07-15

    Palladium coated on alumina is used in hydrogen separation systems operated at CEA/Valduc, and more particularly in Thermal Cycling Absorption Process columns. With such materials, tritium decay is known to induce aging effects which have direct side effects on hydrogen isotopes absorption isotherms. Furthermore in a TCAP column, aging occurs in an heterogeneous way. The possible impacts of these intrinsic material evolutions on the separation performances are investigated here through a numerical approach. (authors)

  13. Evaluating Single Column Models using an ensemble approach

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluating Single Column Models using an ensemble approach Hume, Timothy Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Jakob, Christian BMRC Category: Modeling Single Column Models are a valuable tool for evaluating and improving parameterizations for climate and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. Their drawback is that they can usually only be applied if sufficient data to derive their boundary conditions (the so-called model forcing) is available. We have developed an ensemble technique that

  14. Generator for ionic gallium-68 based on column chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 fluorides, having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of solution is provided. The solution is obtained from a generator comprising germanium-68 hexafluoride bound to a column of an anion exchange resin which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with an acid solution to form a solution containing .sup.68 Ga-fluorides. The solution then is neutralized prior to administration.

  15. Single Column Model Simulations of Cloud Sensitivity to Forcing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single-Column Model Simulations of Cloud Sensitivity to Forcing A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. B. Wolf National Aeronautics and Space Administration SGT, Inc., Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program single-column modeling (SCM) framework has to date used several fairly brief intensive observing periods (IOPs) to evaluate the

  16. Tamper indicating bolt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blagin, Sergei V.; Barkanov, Boris P.

    2004-09-14

    A tamper-indicating fastener has a cylindrical body with threads extending from one end along a portion of the body, and a tamper indicating having a transducer for converting physical properties of the body into electronic data; electronics for recording the electronic data; and means for communicating the recorded information to a remote location from said fastener. The electronics includes a capacitor that varies as a function of force applied by the fastener, and non-volatile memory for recording instances when the capacitance varies, providing an indication of unauthorized access.

  17. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  18. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  19. Triboluminescent indicator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goods, Steven H.; Dentinger, Paul M.; Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.

    2003-06-24

    There is provided a light emitting device comprising a plurality of triboluminescent particles dispersed throughout a low density, frangible body and activated by rapidly crushing the body in order to transfer mechanical energy to some portion of the particles. The light emitted by these mechanically excited particles is collected and directed into a light conduit and transmitted to a detector/indicator means.

  20. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, H.H.

    1960-08-30

    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  1. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  2. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiarman, Sidney; Degen, Michael F.; Peters, Henry F.

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over the item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection.

  3. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toseland, B.A.

    1998-10-29

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  4. Simple methods solve vacuum column problems using plant data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, S.W.; Sloley, A.W. )

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that simple methods can be used to evaluate common vacuum column problems using actual field measurements. All that is required is an enthalpy table, a calculator, and an absolute pressure manometer, which can be purchased for about $100. The key to troubleshooting refinery crude or lube vacuum columns is basic plant data. Although many techniques may be used to increase cutpoint, many times the largest yield improvements can be achieved on existing units simply by eliminating such problems, as leaking collector trays or overflowing liquid distributors.

  5. Model studies of oscillating water column wave-energy device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koola, P.M.; Ravindran, M.; Narayana, P.A.A.

    1995-04-01

    A harbor oscillating water column wave-energy device has been selected for the Indian pilot wave-energy program. The site has a water depth of about 12 m and an average annual wave-power potential of 13 kW/m. Such sites are attractive locations for fishing breakwaters. Due to the relatively low power potential, these oscillating water column devices arc intended to be modules of a multifunctional breakwater. The present paper highlights the results of the scale-model experiments carried out on a prototype wave-energy caisson.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1994 Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsFall 1994 Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1994 Single Column Model IOP 1994.10.01 - 1994.10.31 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Data Plots from Colorado State University Data Plots from Livermore National Laboratory Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive. For data sets, see below. Abstract

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1995 Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1995 Single Column Model IOP 1995.09.01 - 1995.10.31 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Data Plots from Colorado State University Data Plots from Livermore National Laboratory Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive. For data sets, see below. Abstract These seasonal SCM

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Spring 1995 Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSpring 1995 Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Spring 1995 Single Column Model IOP 1995.04.01 - 1995.04.30 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Data Plots from Colorado State University Data Plots from Livermore National Laboratory Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive. For data sets, see below.

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Spring Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSpring Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Spring Single Column Model IOP 1999.03.01 - 1999.03.22 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive IOP Server Sonde Soundings from the IOP For data sets, see below. Abstract An SCM IOP was conducted at the SGP March 1-22, 1999.

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Summer 1995 Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSummer 1995 Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Summer 1995 Single Column Model IOP 1995.07.01 - 1995.07.31 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Data Plots from Colorado State University Data Plots from Livermore National Laboratory Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive. For data sets, see below.

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Summer Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSummer Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Summer Single Column Model IOP 1999.07.12 - 1999.07.22 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Data Plots from Colorado State University Data Plots from Livermore National Laboratory Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive IOP Server For data sets, see below.

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Winter 1994 Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsWinter 1994 Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Winter 1994 Single Column Model IOP 1994.01.01 - 1994.01.31 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Data Plots from Colorado State University Data Plots from Livermore National Laboratory Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive. For data sets, see below.

  13. DOE/SC0001389 Final technical report: Investigation of uranium attenuation and release at column and pore scales in response to advective geochemical gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, Kaye S.; Zhu, Wenyi; Barnett, Mark O.

    2013-05-13

    , bicarbonate, and pH columns while only U(VI) was observed in the control and acetate columns. In the soil layer, the acetate and bicarbonate columns both indicate minor reduction to U(IV), but U(VI) predominated in all columns. In the ORIFC soils, U was consistently present as U(VI); sorption appears to be the main mechanism of association for U present with Fe and/or Mn, while U occurring with P appears in discrete particles consistent with a U mineral phase. U in soil locations with no other elemental associations shown by XRF are likely uranium oxide phases.

  14. Instrument for the measurement and determination of chemical pulse column parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, Norman J.; Morgan, John P.

    1990-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring and measuring pneumatic driving force pulse parameters applied to chemical separation pulse columns obtains real time pulse frequency and root mean square amplitude values, calculates column inch values and compares these values against preset limits to alert column operators to the variations of pulse column operational parameters beyond desired limits.

  15. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiarman, S.; Degen, M.F.; Peters, H.F.

    1982-08-13

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over th item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection. The seal is particularly applicable to UF/sub 6/ cylinder valves.

  16. Enhanced tamper indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.

    2003-07-08

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method whereby the reliability and tamper-resistance of tamper indicators can be improved. A flexible connector may be routed through a latch for an enclosure such as a door or container, and the free ends of the flexible connector may be passed through a first locking member and firmly attached to an insert through the use of one or more attachment members such as set screws. A second locking member may then be assembled in interlocking relation with the first locking member to form an interlocked assembly around the insert. The insert may have one or more sharp projections extending toward the first or second locking member so that any compressive force applied in an attempt to disassemble the interlocked assembly results in permanent, visible damage to the first or second locking member.

  17. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  18. International energy indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, E.K.

    1981-02-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data are indicated from the date given and into 1980 as far as available. Data are given for the international scene on: world crude oil production, 1975-to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974-to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974-to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974-to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973-to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973-to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974-to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973-to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973-to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973-to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976-to date; and energy/GNP ratio.

  19. Multiphase Carbon-14 Transport in a Near-Field-Scale Unsaturated Column of Natural Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. T. Fox; Mitchell A. Plummer; Larry C. Hull; D. Craig Cooper

    2004-03-01

    Wastes buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory include activated metals that release radioactive carbon-14 (14C) as they corrode. To better understand 14C phase partitioning and transport in the SDA sediments, we conducted a series of transport experiments using 14C (radio-labeled sodium carbonate) and nonreactive gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and aqueous (bromide and tritiated water) tracers in a large (2.6-m high by 0.9-m diameter) column of sediments similar to those used as cover material at the SDA. We established steady-state unsaturated flow prior to injecting tracers into the column. Tracer migration was monitored using pore-water and pore-gas samples taken from co-located suction lysimeters and gas ports inserted at ~0.3-m intervals along the columns length. Measurements of 14C discharged from the sediment to the atmosphere (i.e., 14CO2 flux) indicate a positive correlation between CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the column and changes in 14CO2 flux. Though 14CO2 diffusion is expected to be independent of pCO2, changes of pCO2 affect pore water chemistry sufficiently to affect aqueous/gas phase 14C partitioning and consequently 14C2 flux. Pore-water and -gas 14C activity measurements provide an average aqueous/gas partitioning ratio, Kag, of 4.5 (0.3). This value is consistent with that calculated using standard carbonate equilibrium expressions with measured pH, suggesting the ability to estimate Kag from carbonate equilibrium. One year after the 14C injection, the column was cored and solid-phase 14C activity was measured. The average aqueous/solid partition coefficient, Kd, (1.6 L kg-1) was consistent with those derived from small-scale and short-term batch and column experiments using SDA sediments, suggesting that bench-scale measurements are a valid means of estimating aqueous/solid partitioning at the much larger spatial scale considered in these meso-scale experiments. However

  20. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  1. Sustenance of inhomogeneous electron temperature in a magnetized plasma column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karkari, S. K. Mishra, S. K.; Kaw, P. K.

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the equilibrium properties of a magnetized plasma column sustained by direct-current (dc) operated hollow cathode discharge in conjunction with a conducting end-plate, acting as the anode. The survey of radial plasma characteristics, performed in argon plasma, shows hotter plasma in the periphery as compared to the central plasma region; whereas the plasma density peaks at the center. The off-centered peak in radial temperature is attributed due to inhomogeneous power deposition in the discharge volume in conjunction with short-circuiting effect by the conducting end plate. A theoretical model based on particle flux and energy balance is given to explain the observed characteristics of the plasma column.

  2. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkholder, H.R.; Fanslow, G.E.

    1983-12-20

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed. 8 figs.

  3. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  4. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  5. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkholder, Harvey R.; Fanslow, Glenn E.

    1983-01-01

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed.

  6. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any Combustible" "NAICS","

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." "NAICS",,,,,,"Residual","Distillate",,,"LPG and",,,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Electricity(b)",,"Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any Combustible" "NAICS","

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.4 Number of Establishments by Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS","

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,,,,,,,"Coke" ,,,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(d)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze" "NAICS",,"Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  11. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." "NAICS",,,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any" "NAICS","

  13. " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," ","

  14. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.5 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Residual Fuel Oil(b) Alternative Energy Sources(c) Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Natural Distillate and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming Residual Fuel Oil(d Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food

  15. The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation Model Intercomparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project (McMIP) The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation Model Intercomparison Project (McMIP) Barker, Howard Meteorological Service of Canada Cole, Jason Meteorological Service of Canada Raisanen, Petri Finnish Meteorological Institute Pincus, Robert NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center Morcrette, Jean-Jacques European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Li, Jiangnan Canadian Center for Climate Modelling Stephens, Graeme Colorado State University Vaillancourt, Paul

  16. Column Sorption Uptake and Regeneration Study; Rare Earth Element Sorbent Uptake and Sorbent Stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Lanyk

    2015-12-18

    Study of rare earth element (REE) uptake from geothermal brine simulant by column loading, metal recovery through stripping, and regeneration of column for re-loading. Simulated brine testing.

  17. Full-Column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 Final Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Full-Column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Full-Column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 Final Campaign Report ...

  18. Coal desulfurization by bacterial treatment and column flotation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.

    1994-06-01

    A review of the literature showed that bacterial leaching, using the microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, was a very effective technique for removing pyrite from coal, as it could dissolve even the finest pyrite particles without the need for expensive reagents or extreme processing conditions. Unfortunately, bacterial leaching is also rather slow, and so the initial goal of this research was to decrease the leaching time as much as possible. However, this still left the bacteria needing approximately a week to remove half of the pyritic sulfur, and so a faster technique was sought. Since it had been reported in the literature that T. ferrooxidans could be used to depress the flotation of pyrite during froth flotation of coal, this was investigated further. By studying the recovery mechanisms of coal-pyrite in froth flotation, it was found that pyrite was being recovered by entrainment and by locking to coal particles, not by true flotation of hydrophobic pyrite. Therefore, no pyrite depressant could be of any significant benefit for keeping pyrite out of the coal froth product, and it was much more important to prevent entrainment from occurring. Countercurrent flotation columns were invented to essentially eliminate entrainment effects, by washing the froth and reducing mixing of the froth and tailings products. Existing flotation columns tend to be quite simple, and in order to give reasonable product quality they must be very tall (typically 30--45 feet). As a result, they have difficulty in handling the high froth volumes which occur in coal flotation, and are awkward to install in existing plants. The bulk of this project therefore concentrated on developing an improved coal flotation column, and testing it under actual plant conditions.

  19. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural

  20. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic

  1. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic

  2. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate","Natural

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," " "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," "

  4. " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor","

  5. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming LPG(d) Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 4,039 600 2,860 356 221 Q W 0 0 16 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling

  6. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Natural Gas(b) Alternative Energy Sources(c) Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming Natural Gas(d Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 10,373 1,667

  7. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Natural Distillate Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry with Electricity Receipts(d Switchable Switchable Gas Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 13,265 765 11,829 482 292 Q Q 51 Q Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed

  8. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Coal Coke NAICS Total Establishments Not Electricity Natural Residual and Code(a) Selected Subsectors and Industry Consuming Distillate Fuel Oil(d Switchable Switchable Receipts(e) Gas Fuel Oil Coal LPG Breeze Other(f) Total United States 311 Food 2,416 221 2,115 82 160 Q 0 Q 0 30 3112 Grain and

  9. Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators for Major Sectors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy for Major Sectors Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators for Major Sectors This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors - transportation, industry, commercial, and residential, as well as the electric power sector. These sectors are shown in Figure 1. Please go to the menu below the figure to see a more detailed discussion of historical trends in the energy intensity indicator for a particular sector.

  10. R93HC.PDF

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a. Usage Indicators by Census Region and Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 1993 Usage Indicators RSE Column Factor: Total Census Region Climate Zone RSE Row Factors Northeast Midwest South West Fewer than 2,000 CDD and -- More than 2,000 CDD and Few- er than 4,000 HDD More than 7,000 HDD 5,500 to 7,000 HDD 4,000 to 5,499 HDD Few- er than 4,000 HDD 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 2.5 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.2 Total ..................................................... 96.6 19.5 23.3 33.5 20.4 8.7 26.5 22.5 17.8

  11. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puneet Gupta

    2002-07-31

    This report summarizes the procedures used and results obtained in determining radial gas holdup profiles, via gamma ray scanning, and in assessing liquid and gas mixing parameters, via radioactive liquid and gas tracers, during Fischer Tropsch synthesis. The objectives of the study were (i) to develop a procedure for detection of gas holdup radial profiles in operating reactors and (ii) to test the ability of the developed, previously described, engineering models to predict the observed liquid and gas mixing patterns. It was shown that the current scanning procedures were not precise enough to obtain an accurate estimate of the gas radial holdup profile and an improved protocol for future use was developed. The previously developed physically based model for liquid mixing was adapted to account for liquid withdrawal from the mid section of the column. The ability of our engineering mixing models for liquid and gas phase to predict both liquid and gas phase tracer response was established and illustrated.

  12. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A68. Principal Building Activity, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) RSE Row Factor 0.9 1.1 All Buildings ........................................................ 4,806 67,876 3.7 Principal Building Activity Education ............................................................ 301 8,470 7.5 Food Sales ......................................................... 130 757 14.5 Food

  13. Method for making a non-extractable stationary phase of polymer within a capillary column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springston, S.R.

    1990-10-30

    A method is described for coating interior capillary column surfaces, or packing material of a packed column, used for gas chromatography, with a stationary polymer phase that is cross-linked by exposing it to a low-temperature plasma that is uniformly distributed over the column or packing material for a predetermined period of time to effect the desired degree of cross-linking of the coating. 7 figs.

  14. Method for making a non-extractable stationary phase of polymer within a capillary column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springston, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    A method for coating interior capillary column surfaces, or packing material of a packed column, used for gas chromatography, with a stationary polymer phase that is cross-linked by exposing it to a low-temperature plasma that is uniformly distributed over the column or packing material for a predetermined period of time to effect the desired degree of cross-linking of the coating.

  15. Repetitive Regeneration of Media #1 in a Dynamic Column Extraction using Brine #1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Garland

    2015-10-14

    This data is from a regeneration study from a dynamic column extraction experiment where we ran a solution of REE's through a column of media #1 then stripped the REE's off the media using 2M HNO3 solution. We then re-equilibrated the media and repeated the process of running a REE solution through the column and stripping the REE's off the media and comparing the two runs.

  16. Influence of a transverse magnetic field on arc root movements in a dc plasma torch: Diamagnetic effect of arc column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Keun Su

    2009-03-23

    The effect of a transverse magnetic field on the anodic arc root movement inside a dc plasma torch has been investigated. The arc voltage fluctuation, which represents the degree of the arc instability, was reduced to 28.6% of the original value and the high frequency components in the voltage signal also decreased in their magnitudes. The inherent arc instability in a dc thermal plasma torch seems to be suppressed by a diamagnetic effect of the arc column. Furthermore, the measured voltage wave forms indicated that the arc root attachment mode would be controllable by a transverse magnetic field.

  17. Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators Data The files listed below contain energy intensity data and documentation that supports the information presented on this website. The files are in Microsoft® Excel® format (2007 and later versions) and are available to view and/or download. The entire set of files is also available for download as a zipped* (compressed) file. Economywide Transportation Sector Industrial Sector Residential Buildings Sector Commercial Buildings Sector Electricity

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Beam to Diamond Box Column Connection with Through Plate in Moment Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keshavarzi, Farhad; Torabian, Shahabeddin; Imanpour, Ali; Mirghaderi, Rasoul

    2008-07-08

    Moment resisting frames with built up section have very enhanced features due to high bending stiffness and strength characteristics in two principal axes and access to column faces for beam to column easy connections. But due to proper transfer of beam stresses to column faces there were always some specific controvertibly issues that how to make the load transfer through and in plane manner in order to mobilize the forces in column faces. Using diamond column instead of box column provide possibility to mobilize the load transfer mechanism in column faces. This section as a column has considerable benefit such as high plastic to elastic section modulus ratio which is an effective factor for force controlled components. Typical connection has no chance to be applied with diamond column.This paper elucidates the seismic behavior of through-plates moment connections to diamond box columns for use in steel moment resisting frames. This connection has a lot of economical benefits such as no need to horizontal continuity plates and satisfying the weak beam--strong column criteria in the connection region. They might serve as panel zone plates as well. According to high shear demand in panel zone of beam to column joint one should use the doublers plates in order to decrease the shear strength demand in this sensitive part of structure but these plates have no possibility to mobilize the load transfer mechanism in column web and transfer them to column flanges. In this type of connection, column faces have effective role in order to decrease the demands on through plate and they are impressive factors for improving the performance of the connection.Experimental analysis was conducted to elucidate the seismic behavior of this connection. The results of Experimental analysis established the effectiveness of the through plate in mitigating local stress concentrations and forming the plastic hinge zone in the beam away from the beam to column interface. The moment

  19. Multi-EM27/SUN Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pollution. Due to the homogeneity of the region surrounding Lamont, Oklahoma, portable FTS measurements were less effectedmore by large changes in column GHG abundances from air ...

  20. Multi-EM27/SUN Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... pollution. Due to the homogeneity of the region surrounding Lamont, Oklahoma, portable FTS measurements were less effected by large changes in column GHG abundances from air mass ...

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Full-column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsFull-column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 Campaign Links Final Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Full-column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2015-2017 2015.03.01, Fischer, SGP Balloon-Borne Full-column Greenhouse Gas Profiling 2014.03.01, Fischer, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Full-column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 2012.01.13 - 2014.02.28 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer

  2. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan (Program Document...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan Citation Details ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  3. Amazon Column CO2 and CO Observations to Elucidate Tropical Ecosystem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Amazon Column CO2 and CO Observations to Elucidate Tropical Ecosystem Processes Authors: Dubey, Manvendra Krishna 1 ; Parker, Harrison Alexander 1 ; Myers, Katherine ...

  4. 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption - What is an RSE

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the estimates differ from the true population values. However, the sample design permits us to estimate the sampling error in each value. It is important to...

  5. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-17

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5's prescribedmore » aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm−3, which is much lower than observed. This finding

  6. DUST EXTINCTION BIAS IN THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: HIGH COLUMN DENSITY, LOW-REDSHIFT GRBs ARE MORE HEAVILY OBSCURED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Darach [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jakobsson, Pall, E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: pja@raunvis.hi.is [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-08-01

    The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft-X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N{sub H{sub X}}) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low-to-moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low-to-moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars that the increase in column density with redshift is unlikely to be related to metals in the intergalactic medium or intervening absorbers. Instead we show that the origin of the apparent increase with redshift is primarily due to dust extinction bias: GRBs with high X-ray absorption column densities found at z {approx}< 4 typically have very high dust extinction column densities, while those found at the highest redshifts do not. It is unclear how such a strongly evolving N{sub H{sub X}}/A{sub V} ratio would arise, and based on current data, remains a puzzle.

  7. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  8. Micro-miniature gas chromatograph column disposed in silicon wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2000-01-01

    A micro-miniature gas chromatograph column is fabricated by forming matching halves of a circular cross-section spiral microcapillary in two silicon wafers and then bonding the two wafers together using visual or physical alignment methods. Heating wires are deposited on the outside surfaces of each wafer in a spiral or serpentine pattern large enough in area to cover the whole microcapillary area inside the joined wafers. The visual alignment method includes etching through an alignment window in one wafer and a precision-matching alignment target in the other wafer. The two wafers are then bonded together using the window and target. The physical alignment methods include etching through vertical alignment holes in both wafers and then using pins or posts through corresponding vertical alignment holes to force precision alignment during bonding. The pins or posts may be withdrawn after curing of the bond. Once the wafers are bonded together, a solid phase of very pure silicone is injected in a solution of very pure chloroform into one end of the microcapillary. The chloroform lowers the viscosity of the silicone enough that a high pressure hypodermic needle with a thumbscrew plunger can force the solution into the whole length of the spiral microcapillary. The chloroform is then evaporated out slowly to leave the silicone behind in a deposit.

  9. Dynamic Column Extraction for Europium on Media #1 at Ambient Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Garland

    2015-04-07

    This is a dataset for a 200ppm europium solution sent through a column with 12g of media #1 at pH of 3.2. This column experiment was run at ambient temperature at a flow rate of 2mL/min.

  10. VELOCITY INDICATOR FOR EXTRUSION PRESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Digney, F.J. Jr.; Bevilacqua, F.

    1959-04-01

    An indicator is presented for measuring the lowspeed velocity of an object in one direction where the object returns in the opposite direction at a high speed. The indicator comprises a drum having its axis of rotation transverse to the linear movement of the object and a tape wound upon the drum with its free end extending therefrom and adapted to be connected to the object. A constant torque is applied to the drum in a direction to wind the tape on the drum. The speed of the tape in the unwinding direction is indicated on a tachometer which is coupled through a shaft and clutch means to the drum only when the tape is unwinding.

  11. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldn, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin

    2015-01-26

    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.

  12. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry; Welty, Amy Keil; Lyon, Kevin Lawrence; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-08-31

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both

  13. Covariance propagation in spectral indices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Griffin, P. J.

    2015-01-09

    In this study, the dosimetry community has a history of using spectral indices to support neutron spectrum characterization and cross section validation efforts. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the spectrum uncertainty to the total uncertainty in calculated spectral indices (SIs). This study identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment of the SI uncertainty, provides simple bounds to the spectral component in the SI uncertainty estimates, verifies that these estimates are reflected in actual applications, details a methodology that rigorously captures the spectral contribution to the uncertainty in the SI, andmore » provides quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment the spectral contribution to the uncertainty in the SI.« less

  14. Covariance propagation in spectral indices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P. J.

    2015-01-09

    In this study, the dosimetry community has a history of using spectral indices to support neutron spectrum characterization and cross section validation efforts. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the spectrum uncertainty to the total uncertainty in calculated spectral indices (SIs). This study identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment of the SI uncertainty, provides simple bounds to the spectral component in the SI uncertainty estimates, verifies that these estimates are reflected in actual applications, details a methodology that rigorously captures the spectral contribution to the uncertainty in the SI, and provides quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment the spectral contribution to the uncertainty in the SI.

  15. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-03-27

    Single-column model (SCM) capability is an important tool for general circulation model development. In this study, the SCM mode of version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is shown to handle aerosol initialization and advection improperly, resulting in aerosol, cloud-droplet, and ice crystal concentrations which are typically much lower than observed or simulated by CAM5 in global mode. This deficiency has a major impact on stratiform cloud simulations but has little impact on convective case studies because aerosol is currently not used by CAM5 convective schemes and convective cases are typically longer in duration (so initialization is less important).more » By imposing fixed aerosol or cloud-droplet and crystal number concentrations, the aerosol issues described above can be avoided. Sensitivity studies using these idealizations suggest that the Meyers et al. (1992) ice nucleation scheme prevents mixed-phase cloud from existing by producing too many ice crystals. Microphysics is shown to strongly deplete cloud water in stratiform cases, indicating problems with sequential splitting in CAM5 and the need for careful interpretation of output from sequentially split climate models. Droplet concentration in the general circulation model (GCM) version of CAM5 is also shown to be far too low (~ 25 cm−3) at the southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site.« less

  16. ROTARY FILTER FINES TESTING FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.

    2011-08-03

    SRNL was requested to quantify the amount of 'fines passage' through the 0.5 micron membranes currently used for the rotary microfilter (RMF). Testing was also completed to determine if there is any additional benefit to utilizing a 0.1 micron filter to reduce the amount of fines that could pass through the filter. Quantifying of the amount of fines that passed through the two sets of membranes that were tested was accomplished by analyzing the filtrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for titanium. Even with preparations to isolate the titanium, all samples returned results of less than the instrument's detection limit of 0.184 mg/L. Test results show that the 0.5 micron filters produced a significantly higher flux while showing a negligible difference in filtrate clarity measured by turbidity. The first targeted deployment of the RMF is with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). SCIX uses crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to sorb cesium to decontaminate a clarified salt solution. The passage of fine particles through the filter membranes in sufficient quantities has the potential to impact the downstream facilities. To determine the amount of fines passage, a contract was established with SpinTek Filtration to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disk and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of 0.1 micron filter disks to determine the amount of fine particles that would pass the membrane and to determine the flux each set produced. The membrane on both disk sets is manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with three feed combinations: prototypically ground CST, CST plus monosodium titanate (MST), and CST, MST, plus Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) simulant. Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected, measured for turbidity, and sent back

  17. A STUDY OF MULTISTAGE/MULTIFUNCTION COLUMN FOR FINE PARTICLE SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Shiao-Hung Chiang

    1999-10-01

    A non-agitated multi-stage column was constructed and applied to wastewater treatment. Preliminary oil/water separation tests were performed. Excellent separation results verifies the multi-function feature of the multi-stage column. Hydrodynamic behavior is considered as the underlying cause for the separation performance. Therefore, a series of experiments were carried out to investigate the hydrodynamic parameters, including gas holdups and liquid circulating velocities. The experimental data will be used to create a mathematical model to simulate the multi-stage column process. The model will further shed light on the future scale-up of the MSTLFLO process.

  18. A Study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Particle Separation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, S.

    1997-09-15

    A non-agitated multi-stage column was constructed and applied to wastewater treatment. Preliminary oil/water separation tests were performed. Excellent separation results verifies the multi-function feature of the multi-stage column. Hydrodynamic behavior is considered as the underlying cause for the separation performance. Therefore, a series of experiments were carried out to investigate the hydrodynamic parameters, including gas holdups and liquid circulating velocities. The experimental data will be used to create a mathematical model to simulate the multi-stage column process. The model will further shed light on the future scale-up of the MSTLFLO process.

  19. Influence of the gas-flow Reynolds number on a plasma column in a glass tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Dong Jun; Uhm, Han S.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric-plasma generation inside a glass tube is influenced by gas stream behavior as described by the Reynolds number (Rn). In experiments with He, Ne, and Ar, the plasma column length increases with an increase in the gas flow rate under laminar flow characterized by Rn < 2000. The length of the plasma column decreases as the flow rate increases in the transition region of 2000 < Rn < 4000. For a turbulent flow beyond Rn > 4000, the length of the plasma column is short in front of the electrode, eventually leading to a shutdown.

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial Campaign 2012.07.07 - 2013.02.28 Lead Scientist : Larry Berg For data sets, see below. Abstract This campaign is designed to provide a detailed set of observations with which to 1)

  1. Process for the production of ultrahigh purity silane with recycle from separation columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Larry M.

    1982-07-20

    Tri- and dichlorosilanes formed by hydrogenation in the course of the reaction of metallurgical silicon, hydrogen and recycle silicon tetrachloride are employed as feed into a separation column arrangement of sequential separation columns and redistribution reactors which processes the feed into ultrahigh purity silane and recycle silicon tetrachloride. A slip stream is removed from the bottom of two sequential columns and added to the recycle silicon tetrachloride process stream causing impurities in the slip streams to be subjected to reactions in the hydrogenation step whereby waste materials can be formed and readily separated.

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Balloon-Borne Full-column Greenhouse Gas Profiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBalloon-Borne Full-column Greenhouse Gas Profiling ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Full-column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 2012.01.13, Fischer, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Balloon-Borne Full-column Greenhouse Gas Profiling 2014.03.01 - 2015.02.28 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract In this DOE-NOAA collaboration, we produced vertically resolved

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne HSRL and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RSP Measurements govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne HSRL and RSP Measurements ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne HSRL and RSP Measurements 2012.07.01 - 2012.07.31 Lead Scientist : Chris Hostetler For data sets, see below. Abstract The deployment of the

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD measurements ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD measurements 2012.05.20 - 2012.07.30 Lead Scientist : Phil Russell For data sets, see below. Abstract To anchor aerosol optical depth (AOD)

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP):

  6. Plant-Scale Concentration Column Designs for SHINE Target Solution Utilizing AG 1 Anion Exchange Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepinski, Dominique C.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    2015-09-30

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) in their efforts to develop SHINE, an accelerator-driven process that will utilize a uranyl-sulfate solution for the production of fission product Mo-99. An integral part of the process is the development of a column for the separation and recovery of Mo-99, followed by a concentration column to reduce the product volume from 15-25 L to <1 L. Argonne has collected data from batch studies and breakthrough column experiments to utilize the VERSE (Versatile Reaction Separation) simulation program (Purdue University) to design plant-scale product recovery and concentration processes.

  7. Sub-to super-ambient temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex L.; Anderson, Lawrence F.

    2004-03-16

    A sub- to super-ambient temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by combining a thermoelectric cooler and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Sub-ambient temperature programming enables the efficient separation of volatile organic compounds and super-ambient temperature programming enables the elution of less volatile analytes within a reasonable time. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  8. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks. gshp_spitler_design_tools.html_.pdf (286.01 KB) More Documents & Publications City of Eagan …Civic Ice Arena Renovation

  9. Low latency counter event indication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-08-24

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  10. Low latency counter event indication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2008-09-16

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

  11. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Peak Electricity Demand Category, Number of Buildings, 1992 (Thousand) Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Demand- Metered Buildings 10 kW or Less 11 to 25 kW 26 to 50 kW...

  12. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,"(gallon)","(gallon)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallon)","(short ton)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.7,1.2,1.1,0.8,1.2,1 "Value of Shipments and Receipts " ...

  13. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...allons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallons)","(short tons)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.6,0.8,1.2,0.7,2.5,0.9 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" ...

  14. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.8,1.2,1.2,0.9,1.3,0.8 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" ...

  15. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...cs(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.3,1.6,1.5,1.3 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" "(million ...

  16. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.6,0.8,1.2,0.7,2.5,0.9 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" ...

  17. "Table A48. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...teristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Pipelines","Supplier(d)","Factors"," " ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.4,2.7,1.5...

  18. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 29.1 5.3 22.7 3.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  19. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 13.2 1.8 Q ...

  20. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Home Office Equipment Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 1997 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 32.3 39.0 2.7 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State income. ...

  1. Table 4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    112 70 83 98 99 117 150 5.89 Notes: -- To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding column and row factors. -- Because of rounding, data may...

  2. Table 4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    125 43 101 95 99 130 149 8.25 Notes: -- To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding column and row factors. -- Because of rounding, data may...

  3. Table 4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    125 69 112 131 137 158 7.36 Notes: -- To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding column and row factors. -- Because of rounding, data may...

  4. Table A1. Total First Use (formerly Primary Consumption) of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Manufacturing Industries"," W ",2,0," W ",2," W ",0,0," W ",0,28.1 ,"Total",1947,337,14,14,515,26,320,40,728,48,8.3 ,,"West South Central Census Division" ,"RSE Column ...

  5. Table 5.1. U.S. Number of Vehicles, Vehicle-Miles, Motor Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 5.1. U.S. Number of Vehicles, Vehicle-Miles, Motor Fuel Consumption and Expenditures, 1994 (Continued) 1993 Household and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor:...

  6. Triboluminescent tamper-indicating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.

    2002-01-01

    A tamper-indicating device is described. The device has a transparent or translucent cylindrical body that includes triboluminescent material, and an outer opaque layer that prevents ambient light from entering. A chamber in the body holds an undeveloped piece of photographic film bearing an image. The device is assembled from two body members. One of the body members includes a recess for storing film and an optical assembly that can be adjusted to prevent light from passing through the assembly and exposing the film. To use the device with a hasp, the body members are positioned on opposite sides of a hasp, inserted through the hasp, and attached. The optical assembly is then manipulated to allow any light generated from the triboluminescent materials during a tampering activity that damages the device to reach the film and destroy the image on the film.

  7. INTEGRAL POSITIONING AND INDICATING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.; Warnick, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A variable capacitor which may be used as an integral positioning and indicating device is descried. The apparatus comprises a hollow metal cylinder with a metal rod mounted fixedly along the axis thereof and insulated therefrom. A hollow shaft is slidably mounted between the cylinder and the rod in electrical connection with the cylinder and insulated from the rod. One end of the shaft is disposed between the cylinder and the rod and the other end extends therefrom and may be connected to an object whose position is to be monitored. Means are provided to move the hollow shaft by pressure fluid in the cylinder whereby the capacitance between the rod and the cylinder is varied and measurement of which is a function of the position of the hollow shaft.

  8. INDICATING, RECORDING, AND CONTROLLING APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, C.H.; Hall, J.

    1950-12-26

    An accurate and sensitive apparatus for indicating the difference between two fluid pressures is described. The specific device suspended from flexible strip type springs to control the fluid pressure in a main line. The mechanical linkage is biased in a position by the pressure from the two sources under measurement, the pressures acting in opposite directions on the linkage. A second pressure acts on the linkage derived from the main line, such that a change in the pressure differential between the two measured lines will move the linkage to change the valve flow, altering the main line pressure which in turn repositions the linkage. By metering the main line pressure, the pressure differential between the two lines is continuously monitored and measured.

  9. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Watson, Tony

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40 C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  10. Hydrogen production in the K-Basin ion exchange columns, modules and cartridge filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-21

    K-Basin uses ion exchange modules and ion exchange (IX) columns for removing radionuclides from the basin water. When the columns and modules are loaded, they are removed from service, drained and stored. After a few IX columns accumulate in storage, they are moved to a burial box. One of the burial box contains 33 columns and the other, six. The radionuclides act on the liquid left within and adhering to the beads to produce hydrogen. This report describes the generation rate, accumulation rate and significance of that accumulation. This summary also highlights those major areas of concern to the external (to Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC]) reviewers. Appendix H presents the comments made by the external reviewers and, on a separate sheet, the responses to those comments. The concerns regarding the details of the analytical approach, are addressed in Appendix H and in the appropriate section.

  11. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    km, within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. ...

  12. One ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols One ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols July 25, 2012 - 5:49pm Addthis This observatory is part of an air particles research initiative at Cape Cod National Seashore in Massachusetts, and includes dozens of sophisticated instruments that take continuous ground-based measurements of clouds, aerosols, and other atmospheric properties. | Photo courtesy of the ARM Climate Research Facility. This observatory is part of an air particles research

  13. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Reasons that Made Natural Gas Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Billion cubic feet. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Natural Gas Unswitchable Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a FueNatural Gas Fuel Use Another Fuel the

  14. Posters Single-Column Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites: Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Single-Column Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites: Model Development and Sensitivity Test Q. Xu and M. Dong Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma A single-column model (SCM) is constructed by extracting the physical subroutines from the community climate model (CCM1) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Using observational data obtained from the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site

  15. Reusable, tamper-indicating seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    A reusable, tamper-indicating seal comprises a drum confined within a fixed body and rotatable in one direction therewithin, the top of the drum constituting a tray carrying a large number of small balls of several different colors. The fixed body contains parallel holes for looping a seal wire therethrough. The base of the drums carries cams adapted to coact with cam followers to lock the wire within the seal at one angular position of the drum. A channel in the fixed body -- visible from outside the seal -- adjacent the tray constitutes a segregated location for a small plurality of the colored balls. A spring in the tray forces colored balls into the segregated location at one angular position of the drum, further rotation securing the balls in position and the wires in the seal. A wedge-shaped plough removes the balls from the segregated location, at a different angular position of the drum, the wire being unlocked at the same position. A new pattern of colored balls will appear in the segregated location when the seal is relocked.

  16. Table 10.1 Nonswitchable Minimum and Maximum Consumption, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonswitchable Minimum and Maximum Consumption, 2002; " " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: Energy Sources;" " Column: Consumption Potential;" " Unit: Physical Units." ,,,,"RSE" ,"Actual","Minimum","Maximum","Row" "Energy Sources","Consumption","Consumption(a)","Consumption(b)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column

  17. RHEOLOGY OF SETTLED SOLIDS IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, C.; Prior, M.; Koopman, D.; Edwards, T.

    2011-06-20

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank as process housing. This method includes the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution and entrained sludge solids, followed by tank mixing and filtration. The filtrate is then processed through in-tank ion exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) media. While the process is operating, it is known that solid particles begin to settle in the tank and temperatures may reach beyond 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods at elevated temperatures can develop large shear strengths, making them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors conducted rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge simulant, MST, and CST (three preparations) that were aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally maintained to 30, 45, or 60 C. Two types of grinding methodologies were employed to prepare CST for this testing, herein called Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) ground materials. Unground CST particles were also tested. A small number of samples were irradiated prior to 4 week settling and 60 C temperature treatment, with exposures ranging from 0 to 100 MRad. Additional tests are also being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of feed composition, settling time, and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This

  18. Leachate concentrations from water leach and column leach tests on fly ash-stabilized soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bin-Shafique, S.; Benson, C.H.; Edil, T.B.; Hwang, K.

    2006-01-15

    Batch water leaching tests (WLTs) and column leaching tests (CLTs) were conducted on coal-combustion fly ashes, soil, and soil-fly ash mixtures to characterize leaching of Cd, Cr, Se, and Ag. The concentrations of these metals were also measured in the field at two sites where soft fine-grained soils were mechanically stabilized with fly ash. Concentrations in leachate from the WLTs on soil-fly ash mixtures are different from those on fly ash alone and cannot be accurately estimated based on linear dilution calculations using concentrations from WLTs on fly ash alone. The concentration varies nonlinearly with fly ash content due to the variation in pH with fly ash content. Leachate concentrations are low when the pH of the leachate or the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil is high. Initial concentrations from CLTs are higher than concentrations from WLTs due to differences in solid-liquid ratio, pH, and solid-liquid contact. However, both exhibit similar trends with fly ash content, leachate pH, and soil properties. Scaling factors can be applied to WLT concentrations (50 for Ag and Cd, 10 for Cr and Se) to estimate initial concentrations for CLTs. Concentrations in leachate collected from the field sites were generally similar or slightly lower than concentrations measured in CLTs on the same materials. Thus, CLTs appear to provide a good indication of conditions that occur in the field provided that the test conditions mimic the field conditions. In addition, initial concentrations in the field can be conservatively estimated from WLT concentrations using the aforementioned scaling factors provided that the pH of the infiltrating water is near neutral.

  19. NGC 1365: A low column density state unveiling a low ionization disk wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E.; Porquet, D.; Risaliti, G.

    2014-11-01

    We present the time-resolved spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of NGC 1365 collected during one XMM-Newton observation, which caught this 'changing-look' active galactic nucleus in a high flux state characterized also by a low column density (N {sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}) of the X-ray absorber. During this observation, the low-energy photoelectric cut-off is at about ?1 keV and the primary continuum can be investigated with the XMM-Newton-RGS data, which show strong spectral variability that can be explained as a variable low N {sub H} that decreased from N {sub H} ? 10{sup 23} cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} in a 100 ks timescale. The spectral analysis of the last segment of the observation revealed the presence of several absorption features that can be associated with an ionized (log ? ? 2 erg cm s{sup 1}) outflowing wind (v {sub out} ? 2000 km s{sup 1}). We detected for the first time a possible P-Cygni profile of the Mg XII Ly? line associated with this mildly ionized absorber indicative of a wide angle outflowing wind. We suggest that this wind is a low ionization zone of the highly ionized wind present in NGC 1365, which is responsible for the iron K absorption lines and is located within the variable X-ray absorber. At the end of the observation, we detected a strong absorption line at E ? 0.76 keV most likely associated with a lower ionization zone of the absorber (log ? ? 0.2 erg cm s{sup 1}, N {sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}), which suggests that the variable absorber in NGC 1365 could be a low ionization zone of the disk wind.

  20. Tamper-indicating barcode and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cummings, Eric B.; Even, Jr., William R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Dentinger, Paul Michael

    2005-03-22

    A novel tamper-indicating barcode methodology is disclosed that allows for detection of alteration to the barcode. The tamper-indicating methodology makes use of a tamper-indicating means that may be comprised of a particulate indicator, an optical indicator, a deformable substrate, and/or may be an integrated aspect of the barcode itself. This tamper-indicating information provides greater security for the contents of containers sealed with the tamper-indicating barcodes.

  1. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF THREE-PHASE SLURRY-BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    1999-09-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding three-phase reactors from the point of view of kinetic theory. In a paper in press for publication in Chemical Engineering Science (Wu and Gidaspow, 1999) we have obtained a complete numerical solution of bubble column reactors. In view of the complexity of the simulation a better understanding of the processes using simplified analytical solutions is required. Such analytical solutions are presented in the attached paper, Large Scale Oscillations or Gravity Waves in Risers and Bubbling Beds. This paper presents analytical solutions for bubbling frequencies and standing wave flow patterns. The flow patterns in operating slurry bubble column reactors are not optimum. They involve upflow in the center and downflow at the walls. It may be possible to control flow patterns by proper redistribution of heat exchangers in slurry bubble column reactors. We also believe that the catalyst size in operating slurry bubble column reactors is not optimum. To obtain an optimum size we are following up on the observation of George Cody of Exxon who reported a maximum granular temperature (random particle kinetic energy) for a particle size of 90 microns. The attached paper, Turbulence of Particles in a CFB and Slurry Bubble Columns Using Kinetic Theory, supports George Cody's observations. However, our explanation for the existence of the maximum in granular temperature differs from that proposed by George Cody. Further computer simulations and experiments involving measurements of granular temperature are needed to obtain a sound theoretical explanation for the possible existence of an optimum catalyst size.

  2. IRENA Renewable Energy Indicators | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indicators Jump to: navigation, search Name Developing the IRENA Renewable Energy Indicators (Phase I) AgencyCompany Organization Worldwatch Institute Partner International...

  3. Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Guidelines and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Some indicators focus on the delivery of essential energy services for reducing poverty and improving living conditions, while other indicators focus on environmental...

  4. A New Kind of Column Materials for Gas Chromatographic Hydrogen Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, M.; Shima, H.; Akamaru, S.; Abe, T.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2005-07-15

    A new kind of materials that can be applied to a gas chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation system was developed to reduce the amount of Pd-Pt alloy required for making the column and to improve the separation efficiency. Pd and Pt were deposited on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder by using a barrel sputtering system. Prepared sample powder was characterized from surface morphology, element distributions on the surface, composition and crystallinity. The characterization showed that a uniform layer of Pd-Pt alloy with expected composition was formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The crystallinity, however, was poor, but improved after annealing at 1073 K for 2 hours. The hydrogen absorbing behavior was also improved by the annealing. A separation column was prepared from the annealed powder and was subjected to experiments on hydrogen isotope separation. The column of annealed powder gave considerably good separation efficiency around room temperature, in spite that only 0.35 g of Pd-Pt was used for the column. The amount of Pd-Pt alloy used here should be compared to previous results, where 1.5 g of Pd-Pt powder was required for high separation efficiency. The new material was quite effective to reduce the amount of Pd-Pt alloy without compromising the separation efficiency and can give further improvement.

  5. Liquid-phase thermal diffusion isotope separation apparatus and method having tapered column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rutherford, William M.

    1988-05-24

    A thermal diffusion counterflow method and apparatus for separating isotopes in solution in which the solution is confined in a long, narrow, vertical slit which tapers from bottom to top. The variation in the width of the slit permits maintenance of a stable concentration distribution with relatively long columns, thus permitting isotopic separation superior to that obtainable in the prior art.

  6. Liquid-phase thermal diffusion isotope separation apparatus and method having tapered column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rutherford, W.M.

    1985-12-04

    A thermal diffusion counterflow method and apparatus for separating isotopes in solution in which the solution is confined in a long, narrow, vertical slit which tapers from bottom to top. The variation in the width of the slit permits maintenance of a stable concentration distribution with relatively long columns, thus permitting isotopic separation superior to that obtained in the prior art.

  7. Nonlinear process model based control of a propylene sidestream draw column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    While sidestream draw columns offer the incentives of reduced capital and operating expenses, they also pose more challenging control problems than ordinary distillation columns. This paper describes the application of nonlinear process model based control (PMBC) for composition control of all product streams for a simulation of a distillation column with a liquid sidestream draw. A tray-to-tray simulator of an industrial propylene/propane column that considers 5-min composition analyzer dead time was used to test the nonlinear PMBC controller for setpoint changes, a feed flow rate change, and feed composition changes. The nonlinear PMBC controller used an approximate model based upon the Smoker equation directly to make control decisions. The nonlinear PMBC controller exhibits excellent control performance for all test cases with a maximum relative deviation of the impurity from setpoint of about 10% for the two product streams. The nonlinear PMBC controller provides significantly improved control performance over a conventional single loop control scheme that is currently in industrial use.

  8. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS (SBCR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.H. Al-Dahhan; M.P. Dudukovic; L.S. Fan

    2001-07-25

    This report summarizes the accomplishment made during the second year of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Air Products and Chemicals. The technical difficulties that were encountered in implementing Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) in high pressure SBCR have been successfully resolved. New strategies for data acquisition and calibration procedure have been implemented. These have been performed as a part of other projects supported by Industrial Consortium and DOE via contract DE-2295PC95051 which are executed in parallel with this grant. CARPT and Computed Tomography (CT) experiments have been performed using air-water-glass beads in 6 inch high pressure stainless steel slurry bubble column reactor at selected conditions. Data processing of this work is in progress. The overall gas holdup and the hydrodynamic parameters are measured by Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in 2 inch slurry bubble column using Norpar 15 that mimic at room temperature the Fischer Tropsch wax at FT reaction conditions of high pressure and temperature. To improve the design and scale-up of bubble column, new correlations have been developed to predict the radial gas holdup and the time averaged axial liquid recirculation velocity profiles in bubble columns.

  9. Uranium Immobilization through Fe(II) bio-oxidation: A Column study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, John D.

    2009-09-14

    Current research on the bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides is focused on the ability of reducing organisms to use these metals as alternative electron acceptors in the absence of oxygen and thus precipitate them out of solution. However, many aspects of this proposed scheme need to be resolved, not the least of which is the time frame of the treatment process. Once treatment is complete and the electron donor addition is halted, the system will ultimately revert back to an oxic state and potentially result in the abiotic reoxidation and remobilization of the immobilized metals. In addition, the possibility exists that the presence of more electropositive electron acceptors such as nitrate or oxygen will also stimulate the biological oxidation and remobilization of these contaminants. The selective nitrate-dependent biooxidation of added Fe(II) may offer an effective means of capping off and completing the attenuation of these contaminants in a reducing environment making the contaminants less accessible to abiotic and biotic reactions and allowing the system to naturally revert to an oxic state. Our previous DOE-NABIR funded studies demonstrated that radionuclides such as uranium and cobalt are rapidly removed from solution during the biogenic formation of Fe(III)-oxides. In the case of uranium, X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicated that the uranium was in the hexavalent form (normally soluble) and was bound to the precipitated Fe(III)-oxides thus demonstrating the bioremediative potential of this process. We also demonstrated that nitrate-dependent Fe(II)- oxidizing bacteria are prevalent in the sediment and groundwater samples collected from sites 1 and 2 and the background site of the NABIR FRC in Oakridge, TN. However, all of these studies were performed in batch experiments in the laboratory with pure cultures and although a significant amount was learned about the microbiology of nitrate-dependent bio-oxidation of Fe(II), the effects of

  10. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  11. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 2: Determination of Cesium Exchange Capacity and Effective Mass Transfer Coefficient from a 500-cm3 Column Experiement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    A semi-scale column test was performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution, which represents liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtmIE-911 (UOP, Mt. Laurel,NJ, USA), was tested in a 500-cm3 column to obtain a cesium breakthrough curve. The cesium exchange capacity of this column matched that obtained from previous testing with a 15-mc3 column. A numerical algorithm using implicit finite difference approximations was developed to solve the governing mass transport equations for the CST columns. An effective mass transfer coefficient was derived from solving these equations for previously reported 15 cm3 tests. The effective mass transfer coefficient was then used to predict the cesium breakthrough curve for the 500-cm3 column and compared to the experimental data reported in this paper. The calculated breakthrough curve showed excellent agreement with the data from the 500-cm3 column even though the interstitial velocity was a factor of two greater. Thus, this approach should provide a reasonable method for scale up to larger columns for treating actual tank waste.

  12. Hydrogeochemical Indicators for Great Basin Geothemal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogeochemical Indicators for Great Basin Geothemal Resources presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  13. Wave forces on an array of oscillating water column type free standing wave energy caissons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neelamani, S.; Thiruvenkatasamy, K.

    1995-12-31

    The wave induced in-line forces on a 1:50 scale model of an array of Multi resonant Oscillating Water Column (MOWC) type free standing wave energy caisson were experimentally investigated. A range of hydrodynamic parameters with different damping of oscillating water column (OWC) chamber and various center to center spacings between the caissons were used. In general, the force on the MOWC caisson array is two times that of a vertical wall, for maximum damping of OWC chamber. Reduction of damping of the OWC air chamber reduces the force on the array of caissons. With reduced damping, forces on OWC array can even be smaller than that the ones on a vertical wall. For smaller center to center (C/C) spacing between the caissons with respect to its harbor width, OWC array acts like a perforated breakwater, attracting smaller wave forces and for higher C/C spacing, it behaves like a vertical wall.

  14. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for onsite Transfer of plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchange columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-09-11

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the use of three U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 7A, Type A metal boxes (Capital Industries Part No. S 0600-0600-1080- 0104) to package 12 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange columns as low-level waste (LLW). The packages will be transferred from the 309 Building in the 300 Area to low level waste burial in the 200 West Area. Revision 1 of WHC-SD-TP-SEP-035 (per ECN No. 621467) documents that the boxes containing ion exchange columns and grout will maintain the payload under normal conditions of transport if transferred without the box lids

  15. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films as Stationary Phases in Microfabricated Gas-Chromatography Columns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Read, Douglas; Sillerud, Colin Halliday

    2016-01-01

    The overarching goal of this project is to integrate Sandia's microfabricated gas-chromatography ( GC) columns with a stationary phase material that is capable of retaining high-volatility chemicals and permanent gases. The successful integration of such a material with GCs would dramatically expand the repertoire of detectable compounds for Sandia's various microanalysis systems. One such promising class of candidate materials is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this report we detail our methods for controlled deposition of HKUST-1 MOF stationary phases within GC columns. We demonstrate: the chromatographic separation of natural gas; a method for determining MOF film thickness from chromatography alone; and the first-reported GC x GC separation of natural gas -- in general -- let alone for two disparate MOF stationary phases. In addition we determine the fundamental thermodynamic constant for mass sorption, the partition coefficient, for HKUST-1 and several light hydrocarbons and select toxic industrial chemicals.

  16. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " ","

  17. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " ","

  18. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " ","

  19. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ","Coal"," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" " ","

  20. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Any",,,,,,,,,"Shipments" "NAICS",,"Energy","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and",,"of Energy Sources"

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,"Any",,,,,,,,,"Shipments" "NAICS",,"Energy","Net","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke and",,"of Energy Sources"

  2. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price Difference;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Percent of Establishments by Levels of Price Difference that Would Cause Fuel Switching from Coal to a Less Expensive Substitute, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price Difference; Unit: Establishment Counts. Would Switch Would Not Estimate to More NAICS Establishments Switch Due 1 to 10 11 to 25 26 to 50 Over 50 Cannot Expensive Code(a) Subsector and Industry Able to Switch(b) to Price Percent Percent Percent Percent Be Provided Substitute Total United States

  3. Processes and catalysts for conducting fischer-tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided.

  4. Anthropogenic NO2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anthropogenic NO 2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing A. N. Rublev Institution of Molecular Physics Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia N Chubarova Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University Moscow, Russia G. Gorchakov Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction The work summarizes the different methodical aspects, firstly, the use of atmosphere optical depths presented in

  5. Experimental Ion Exchange Column With SuperLig 639 And Simulant Formulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Megan; Nash, C.

    2013-08-26

    SuperLig639 ion exchange resin was tested as a retrieval mechanism for pertechnetate, through decontamination of a perrhenate spiked 5M Simple Average Na{sup +} Mass Based Simulant. Testing included batch contacts and a three-column ion exchange campaign. A decontamination of perrhenate exceeding 99% from the liquid feed was demonstrated. Analysis of the first formulation of a SBS/WESP simulant found unexpectedly low concentrations of soluble aluminum. Follow-on work will complete the formulation.

  6. Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, A.H.; Oukaci, R.; Goodwin, J.G.

    1999-08-17

    Processes and catalysts are disclosed for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided. 1 fig.

  7. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources

  8. Hydrodynamics of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in slurry bubble column reactors: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukur, D.B.; Daly, J.G.; Patel, S.A.; Raphael, M.L.; Tatterson, G.B.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes studies on hydrodynamics of bubble columns for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These studies were carried out in columns of 0.051 m and 0.229 m in diameter and 3 m tall to determine effects of operating conditions (temperature and gas flow rate), distributor type (sintered metal plate and single and multi-hole perforated plates) and liquid media (paraffin and reactor waxes) on gas hold-up and bubble size distribution. In experiments with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) derived paraffin wax (FT-300) for temperatures between 230 and 280/sup 0/C there is a range of gas velocities (transition region) where two values of gas hold-up (i.e., two flow regimes) are possible. Higher hold-ups were accompanied by the presence of foam (''foamy'' regime) whereas lower values were obtained in the absence of foam (''slug flow'' in the 0.051 m column, or ''churn-turbulent'' flow regime in the 0.229 m column). This type of behavior has been observed for the first time in a system with molten paraffin wax as the liquid medium. Several factors which have significant effect on foaming characteristics of this system were identified. Reactor waxes have much smaller tendency to foam and produce lower hold-ups due to the presence of larger bubbles. Finally, new correlations for prediction of the gas hold-up and the specific gas-liquid interfacial area were developed on the basis of results obtained in the present study. 49 refs., 99 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  10. High resolution capillary column development for selective separations in gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybyciel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of techniques for the preparation of high resolution capillary columns for gas chromatography is presented. Surface roughing, surface deactivation, stationary phase coating, and stationary phase crosslinking are discussed. Criteria for the selection of GC stationary phases and procedures for column evaluation are presented. A method is proposed for the isolation and determination of crude oil contamination in tropical plants and sediments. The method uses Florisil (TM) chromatography for the simultaneous clean-up and fractionation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Crosslinked SE-54 fused silica capillary columns prepared in our laboratory were employed for all GC separations. Mass spectrometry was used to help locate and identify specific oil components despite the intense background of the chromatogram. Crude oil components were identified in extracts of mangrove plant samples collected from the Peck Slip oil spill site at Media Munda, Puerto Rico. Crude oil components were also identified in sediment samples from controlled oil spill of Prudhoe Bay oil at Laguna de Chiriqui, Panama.

  11. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

    2009-06-01

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  12. Plasma column and nano-powder generation from solid titanium by localized microwaves in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popescu, Simona; Jerby, Eli Meir, Yehuda; Ashkenazi, Dana; Barkay, Zahava; Mitchell, J. Brian A.; Le Garrec, Jean-Luc; Narayanan, Theyencheri

    2015-07-14

    This paper studies the effect of a plasma column ejected from solid titanium by localized microwaves in an ambient air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (titania) are found to be directly synthesized in this plasma column maintained by the microwave energy in the cavity. The process is initiated by a hotspot induced by localized microwaves, which melts the titanium substrate locally. The molten hotspot emits ionized titanium vapors continuously into the stable plasma column, which may last for more than a minute duration. The characterization of the dusty plasma obtained is performed in-situ by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), optical spectroscopy, and microwave reflection analyses. The deposited titania nanoparticles are structurally and morphologically analyzed by ex-situ optical and scanning-electron microscope observations, and also by X-ray diffraction. Using the Boltzmann plot method combined with the SAXS results, the electron temperature and density in the dusty plasma are estimated as ∼0.4 eV and ∼10{sup 19 }m{sup −3}, respectively. The analysis of the plasma product reveals nanoparticles of titania in crystalline phases of anatase, brookite, and rutile. These are spatially arranged in various spherical, cubic, lamellar, and network forms. Several applications are considered for this process of titania nano-powder production.

  13. Energy Intensity Indicators | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data & Tools » Energy Intensity Indicators Energy Intensity Indicators Energy efficiency is a vital part of the nation's energy strategy and has been since the first oil crisis in 1973. As part of a national priority for improving energy efficiency, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has established a national system of indicators to track changes in the energy intensity of our economy and economic sectors over time. This system of

  14. An efficient compression scheme for bitmap indices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2004-04-13

    When using an out-of-core indexing method to answer a query, it is generally assumed that the I/O cost dominates the overall query response time. Because of this, most research on indexing methods concentrate on reducing the sizes of indices. For bitmap indices, compression has been used for this purpose. However, in most cases, operations on these compressed bitmaps, mostly bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, and NOT, spend more time in CPU than in I/O. To speedup these operations, a number of specialized bitmap compression schemes have been developed; the best known of which is the byte-aligned bitmap code (BBC). They are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose compression schemes, but, the time spent in CPU still dominates the total query response time. To reduce the query response time, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme named the word-aligned hybrid (WAH) code. In this paper, we prove that the sizes of WAH compressed bitmap indices are about two words per row for large range of attributes. This size is smaller than typical sizes of commonly used indices, such as a B-tree. Therefore, WAH compressed indices are not only appropriate for low cardinality attributes but also for high cardinality attributes.In the worst case, the time to operate on compressed bitmaps is proportional to the total size of the bitmaps involved. The total size of the bitmaps required to answer a query on one attribute is proportional to the number of hits. These indicate that WAH compressed bitmap indices are optimal. To verify their effectiveness, we generated bitmap indices for four different datasets and measured the response time of many range queries. Tests confirm that sizes of compressed bitmap indices are indeed smaller than B-tree indices, and query processing with WAH compressed indices is much faster than with BBC compressed indices, projection indices and B-tree indices. In addition, we also verified that the average query response time

  15. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Appliances by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.7 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 22.1 6.6 15.5 1.1 1

  16. Table A20. Components of Onsite Electricity Generation by Census Region and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Onsite Electricity Generation by Census Region and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" ,,,,,"RSE" " "," "," "," "," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total","Cogeneration","Renewables","Other(b)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column

  17. This publication is available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Governm

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.8 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 -- -- -- NF New England

  18. S:\VM3\RX97\TBL_LIST.WPD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Million U.S. Households, 1997 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.7 Total .............................................................. 101.5 6.8 11.5 7.0 5.9 NF Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 19.7 6.8 -- -- -- NF New England ............................................. 5.3 Q -- -- -- NF Middle Atlantic

  19. S:\VM3\RX97\TBL_LIST.WPD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.7 Total .............................................................. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 19.4 100.0 -- -- -- NF New England

  20. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruch, Jeffrey F.; Urban, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated.

  1. Existence of a return direction for plasma escaping from a pinched column in a plasma focus discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubes, P.; Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Rezac, K.; Kortanek, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2015-05-15

    The use of multi-frame interferometry used on the PF-1000 device with the deuterium filling showed the existence of a return motion of the top of several lobules of the pinched column formed at the pinched plasma column. This phenomenon was observed in the presence of an over-optimal mass in front of the anode, which depressed the intensity of the implosion and the smooth surface of the pinched plasma column. The observed evolution was explored through the use of closed poloidal currents transmitted outside the pinched plasma. This interpretation complements the scenario of the closed currents flowing within the structures inside the pinched column, which has been published recently on the basis of observations from interferometry, neutron, and magnetic probe diagnostics on this device.

  2. Energy Intensity Indicators: Caveats and Cautions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This website contains a diverse collection of indicators that track changes in energy intensity at the national and end-use sector levels (after taking into account other explanatory factors)....

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... commitment to quantity reduction FWD Stormwater 9.3.1 Runoff generated for a 30- min- ... Percent of rainfall that runs off as stormwater Indicates amount of rainfall runoff ...

  4. Energy Intensity Indicators: Highlights | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highlights Energy Intensity Indicators: Highlights This page highlights the major changes in the overall energy intensity for the United States, as well as summarizing changes in energy intensity for major sectors. Economywide Energy Intensity Figure H1 below reports total energy use, GDP, and two alternative indexes to reflect overall changes in U.S. energy intensity, the first based on the energy-GDP ratio, and the second built up as part of the DOE-EERE system of energy intensity indicators.

  5. Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methodology Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology The files listed below contain methodology documentation and related studies that support the information presented on this website. The files are available to view and/or download as Adobe Acrobat PDF files. 2003. Energy Indicators System: Index Construction Methodology 2004. Changing the Base Year for the Index Boyd GA, and JM Roop. 2004. "A Note on the Fisher Ideal Index Decomposition for Structural Change in Energy Intensity."

  6. FTCP Quarterly Indicator Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quarterly Indicator Reports FTCP Quarterly Indicator Reports July 29, 2016 FTCP Quarterly Report on Federal Technical Capability, July 29, 2016 This Quarterly Report on the Federal Technical Capability Program (FTCP) contains information on the status of qualifications in the Technical Qualification Program (TQP) and technical skill gaps, on a quarterly basis. Report also displays trend data for overall TQP qualification and staffing shortfalls. May 13, 2016 FTCP Quarterly Report on Federal

  7. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  8. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  9. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1996-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  10. Heavy Oil Process Monitor: Automated On-Column Asphaltene Precipitation and Re-Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2007-03-31

    An automated separation technique was developed that provides a new approach to measuring the distribution profiles of the most polar, or asphaltenic components of an oil, using a continuous flow system to precipitate and re-dissolve asphaltenes from the oil. Methods of analysis based on this new technique were explored. One method based on the new technique involves precipitation of a portion of residua sample in heptane on a polytetrafluoroethylene-packed (PTFE) column. The precipitated material is re-dissolved in three steps using solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, toluene, and methylene chloride. The amount of asphaltenes that dissolve in cyclohexane is a useful diagnostic of the thermal history of oil, and its proximity to coke formation. For example, about 40 % (w/w) of the heptane asphaltenes from unpyrolyzed residua dissolves in cyclohexane. As pyrolysis progresses, this number decrease to below 15% as coke and toluene insoluble pre-coke materials appear. Currently, the procedure for the isolation of heptane asphaltenes and the determination of the amount of asphaltenes soluble in cyclohexane spans three days. The automated procedure takes one hour. Another method uses a single solvent, methylene chloride, to re-dissolve the material that precipitates on heptane on the PTFE-packed column. The area of this second peak can be used to calculate a value which correlates with gravimetric asphaltene content. Currently the gravimetric procedure to determine asphaltenes takes about 24 hours. The automated procedure takes 30 minutes. Results for four series of original and pyrolyzed residua were compared with data from the gravimetric methods. Methods based on the new on-column precipitation and re-dissolution technique provide significantly more detail about the polar constituent's oils than the gravimetric determination of asphaltenes.

  11. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG

  12. " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .1. Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any",," "," ",,"

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million

  15. " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," ","

  16. " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ",,"

  17. Summary - Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX)Technology at the SRS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ETR R Un Baseline The Sm being The SC operat which Sr, and waste critical the SC deploy Specif exchan [CST]) CST, a (mono and so (RMF) maturi readin design moving The pu techni projec Site: S roject: S E Report Date: F ited States Sma Why DOE e SCIX System Pr mall Column Io developed at S CIX system is tions (ion excha function to rem d actinides) fro and prepare th l technology ele CIX system tha yment and thes fically the critica nge on a selec ) housed in an actinide and Sr osodium titanat

  18. Comparator circuits with local ramp buffering for a column-parallel single slope ADC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milkov, Mihail M.

    2016-04-26

    A comparator circuit suitable for use in a column-parallel single-slope analog-to-digital converter comprises a comparator, an input voltage sampling switch, a sampling capacitor arranged to store a voltage which varies with an input voltage when the sampling switch is closed, and a local ramp buffer arranged to buffer a global voltage ramp applied at an input. The comparator circuit is arranged such that its output toggles when the buffered global voltage ramp exceeds the stored voltage. Both DC- and AC-coupled comparator embodiments are disclosed.

  19. The Plasma Column Evolution in Gas-Puff Z-Pinches on the Yang Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng Jianjun; Yang Libing; Gu Yuanchao; Huang Xianbing; Li Fengping; Xv Zeping; Ye Shican; Cheng Guanghua; Chang Lihua; Zhou Shaotong; Zhang Siqun; Xie Weiping; Ding Bonan; Peng Xianjue

    2006-01-05

    The plasma column evolution in gas-puff z-pinch was investigated on the Yang accelerator. The pinch process was significantly influenced by the initial gas distribution. Uniformity of the gas-puff distribution resulted in the asymmetry of the initially load current through the main channels of the plasma layer. The zipper velocity and implosion speed under 'trumpet' distribution was given, it was observed the pinch speed and the temperature of the plasma near cathode increased when the rise time of the load current was shortened.

  20. DOE/SC-ARM-11-017 The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan CM Berkowitz Principal Investigator LK Berg RA Zaveri DJ Cziczo A Zelenyuk CJ Flynn RA Ferrare EI Kassianov CA Hostetler JD Fast B Cairns PJ Rasch PB Russell JE Shilling B Ervens July 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility

  1. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  2. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  3. Energy Intensity Indicators: Coverage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coverage Energy Intensity Indicators: Coverage This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors-transportation, industry, commercial, and residential, as well as the electric power sector. These sectors are shown in Figure 1. More detail for some of these sectors can be obtained by accessing the file "End-Use Sector Flowchart" below Figure 1. Five boxes are shown connected by lines. At the top of a vertical

  4. Energy Performance Indicator Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Performance Indicator Tool Energy Performance Indicator Tool October 22, 2014 - 10:57am Addthis The EnPI V4.0 is a regression analysis based tool developed by the U.S. Department of Energy to help plant and corporate managers establish a normalized baseline of energy consumption, track annual progress of intensity improvements, energy savings, Superior Energy Performance (SEP) EnPIs, and other EnPIs that account for variations due to weather, production, and other variables. The tool is

  5. Solids mass flow indication with radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.; Estriplet, Isnard

    1985-06-04

    Method and apparatus for indicating mass flow of a solid particulate material through a rotary feeder. A radiation source and detector are positioned in a manner whereby radiation flux is directed through, and attenuated by, particulate material contained in rotating pockets. A Cesium-137 gamma source can be mounted within the shaft of the feeder, and one or more detectors can be mounted outside of the feeder housing. The detected signal is indicative of the mass of particulate material contained within a given pocket rotating within the feeder.

  6. Multiplexed Oversampling Digitizer in 65 nm CMOS for Column-Parallel CCD Readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, Carl; Walder, Jean-Pierre; von der Lippe, Henrik

    2012-04-10

    A digitizer designed to read out column-parallel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for high-speed X-ray imaging is presented. The digitizer is included as part of the High-Speed Image Preprocessor with Oversampling (HIPPO) integrated circuit. The digitizer module comprises a multiplexed, oversampling, 12-bit, 80 MS/s pipelined Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) and a bank of four fast-settling sample-and-hold amplifiers to instrument four analog channels. The ADC multiplexes and oversamples to reduce its area to allow integration that is pitch-matched to the columns of the CCD. Novel design techniques are used to enable oversampling and multiplexing with a reduced power penalty. The ADC exhibits 188 ?V-rms noise which is less than 1 LSB at a 12-bit level. The prototype is implemented in a commercially available 65 nm CMOS process. The digitizer will lead to a proof-of-principle 2D 10 Gigapixel/s X-ray detector.

  7. In-place stabilization of pond ash deposits by hydrated lime columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chand, S.K.; Subbarao, C.

    2007-12-15

    Abandoned coal ash ponds cover up vast stretches of precious land and cause environmental problems. Application of suitable in situ stabilization methods may bring about improvement in the geotechnical properties of the ash deposit as a whole, converting it to a usable site. In this study, a technique of in-place stabilization by hydrated lime columns was applied to large-scale laboratory models of ash ponds. Samples collected from different radial distances and different depths of the ash deposit were tested to study the improvements in the water content, dry density, particle size distribution, unconfined compressive strength, pH, hydraulic conductivity, and leachate characteristics over a period of one year. The in-place stabilization by lime column technique has been found effective in increasing the unconfined compressive strength and reducing hydraulic conductivity of pond ash deposits in addition to modifying other geotechnical parameters. The method has also proved to be useful in reducing the contamination potential of the ash leachates, thus mitigating the adverse environmental effects of ash deposits.

  8. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  9. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  10. Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains an overview of the aggregate transportation sector, combining both passenger and freight segments of this sector. The specific energy intensity indicators for passenger and freight can be obtained from the links, passenger transportation, or freight transportation. For further detail within the transportation sector, download the appropriate Trend Data worksheet containing detailed data and graphics for specific transportation modes.

  11. Risk-based plant performance indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boccio, J.L.; Azarm, M.A.; Vesely, W.E.; Hall, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Tasked by the 1979 President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, the US nuclear power industry has put into place a performance indicator program as one means for showing a demonstrable record of achievement.'' Largely through the efforts of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), plant performance data has, since 1983, been collected and analyzed to aid utility management in measuring their plants' performance progress. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has also developed a set of performance indicators. This program, conducted by NRC's Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), is structured to present information on plant operational performance in a manner that could enhance the staff's ability to recognize changes in the safety performance. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  13. Experiment Indicates Sound Waves Can Trigger Quakes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'memory' could spur aftershocks January 3, 2008 Experiment Indicates Sound Waves Can Trigger Quakes LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, January 3, 2008-Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher and his colleagues have shown that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. In a letter

  14. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  15. The EMAP: Ecological indicators of condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    In 1988, the Science Advisory Board to the EPA recommended a program to monitor ecological status and trends, as well as the development of innovative methods, for anticipating emerging environmental problems before a crisis. The multi-agency Environmental Monitoring And Assessment Program (EMAP) evolved with the following program elements: (1) a focus on environmental values and policy-relevant questions; (2) an activity that monitors indicators of ecological condition rather than individual stressors or pollutants; (3) an assessment-driven approach that provides probability-based, scientific results with known certainty; and (4) an activity that translates results into information useful to environmental policy makers and managers. Establishing baseline environmental conditions has received increasing attention with the growing awareness of impacts on human health and environmental integrity from global atmospheric change, acidic deposition, the loss of wetland habitats, and decreasing biodiversity. Monitoring programs can provide critical, quantitative results for scientific assessments of the complex effects of pollutants and natural changes on ecosystems. The goal of the EPA component of EMAP is to conduct research to develop place-based (e.g., large and small geographic scales) ecological monitoring and assessment. EPA/EMAP conducts research to develop and evaluate indicators of ecological condition and to detect in the long-term changes and trends in indicators and associated stresses and develops monitoring strategies to identify conditions of ecological resources in larger, high priority regions or in smaller, regional studies, such as watersheds. With its focus on long-term monitoring and assessment research and research on indicators of ecological condition, the EPA/EMAP can better determine where environmental programs are working to protect, improve, and maintain the quality of our nation`s ecological resources.

  16. Hydrogeochemical Indicators for Great Basin Geothemal Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogeochemical Indicators for Great Basin Geothermal Resources Project Officer: Eric Hass Total Project Funding: $1.2 million April 24, 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Principal Investigator Stuart F Simmons Colorado School of Mines 2 | US DOE Geothermal Office eere.energy.gov Relevance/Impact of Research * Determine fundamental controls on fluid-mineral equilibria in six geothermal systems across the Great Basin to

  17. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O'Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  18. Two-dimensional positive column structure in a discharge tube with radius discontinuity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zobnin, A. V. Usachev, A. D.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    The low-pressure (40 and 90?Pa) low-current (4 and 10?mA) direct current discharge in a tube with a sharp change of its radius is studied both numerically and experimentally. A fully self-consistent hybrid numerical model of a two-dimensional non-uniform positive column in neon is developed using a nonlocal approach. The model combines kinetic simulation of the electrons (under two-terms approach) and fluid description of the neon ions and permits to calculate the distribution of all plasma parameters in the direct current discharges in the cameras with cylindrical geometry and radius discontinuity. The simulation results are compared with the measured 585.3?nm neon spectral line absolute intensities and excited 1s{sub 3} metastable neon atom number densities. Non-local electron kinetics in the transition region and formation of standing strata are discussed.

  19. Direct extraction of coherent mode properties from imaging measurements in a linear plasma column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Light, A. D.; Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 ; Thakur, S. C.; Brandt, C.; Tynan, G. R.; Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093

    2013-08-15

    Spectral properties of coherent waves in an argon plasma column are examined using fluctuation data from fast imaging. Visible light from ArII line emission is collected at high frame rates using a high-speed digital camera. A cross-spectral phase technique allows direct visualization of dominant phase structures as a function of frequency, as well as identification of azimuthal asymmetries present in the system. Experimental dispersion estimates are constructed from imaging data alone. Drift-like waves are identified by comparison with theoretical dispersion curves, and a tentative match of a low-frequency spectral feature to Kelvin-Helmholtz-driven waves is presented. Imaging measurements are consistent with previous results, and provide non-invasive, single-shot measurements across the entire plasma cross-section. Implications of the measured spectral properties for imaging measurements of mode dynamics are explored.

  20. Effect of irradiation on bone remodelling and the structural integrity of the vertebral column. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic levels of radiation on the axial properties of the primate vertebral column were studied. Seven male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were irradiated with a single does of 1300 cGy to the specific lumbar vertebrae of L2, L3, and L4. Three additional animals served as controls. Radiographs were taken before the radiation treatment and just prior to sacrifice to determine density changes in the bone. The animal subjects were sacrificed 105 days following the radiation exposure. Biomechanical testing was completed on lumbar levels 2 and 3 to identify changes in strength characteristics following radiation treatment. Histomorphometric analysis of lumbar vertebrae level 4 was completed to identify volume and surface density changes as well as cellular changes. Tetracycline, dicarbomethylaminomethyl fluorescein (DCAF), and xylenol orange were used as bone labeling agents to aid in the histomorphometry and to obtain dynamic parameter changes.

  1. Boron isotope fractionation in liquid chromatography with boron-specific resins as column packing material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oi, Takao; Shimazaki, Hiromi; Ishii, Reiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    1997-07-01

    Boron-specific resins with n-methyl glucamine as the functional group were used as column packing material of liquid chromatography for boron isotope separation. The shapes of chromatograms in reverse breakthrough experiments were heavily dependent on the pH of the eluents, and there existed a pH value at which a chromatogram of the displacement type was realized nearly ideally. The value of the single-stage separation factor for the boron isotopes varied between 1.010 and 1.022, depending on the temperature and the form of the resins. The existence of the three-coordinate boron species in addition to the four-coordinate species in the resin phase is suggested.

  2. A BLAS-3 version of the QR factorization with column pivoting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintana-Orti, G.; Sun, X.; Bischof, C.H.

    1998-09-01

    The QR factorization with column pivoting (QRP), originally suggested by Golub is a popular approach to computing rank-revealing factorizations. Using Level 1 BLAS, it was implemented in LINPACK, and, using Level 2 BLAS, in LAPACK. While the Level 2 BLAS version delivers superior performance in general, it may result in worse performance for large matrix sizes due to cache effects. The authors introduce a modification of the QRP algorithm which allows the use of Level 3 BLAs kernels while maintaining the numerical behavior of the LINPACK and LAPACK implementations. Experimental comparisons of this approach with the LINPACK and LAPACK implementations on IBM RS/6000, SGI R8000, and DEC AXP platforms show considerable performance improvements.

  3. Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klunder, Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-08-09

    The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

  4. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    2012-10-25

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  5. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVE SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE 105 K EAST ION EXCHANGE COLUMN MONOLITH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOCHEN, R.M.

    2007-08-02

    The 105-K East (KE) Basin Ion Exchange Column (IXC) cells, lead caves, and the surrounding vault are to be removed as necessary components in implementing ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (Ecology et al. 2003) milestone M-034-32 (Complete Removal of the K East Basin Structure). The IXCs consist of six units located in the KE Basin, three in operating positions in cells and three stored in a lead cave. Methods to remove the IXCs from the KE Basin were evaluated in KBC-28343, ''Disposal of K East Basin Ion Exchange Column Evaluation''. The method selected for removal was grouting the six IXCs into a single monolith for disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Grout will be added to the IXC cells, IXC lead caves containing spent IXCs, and in the spaces between the lead cave walls and metal skin, to immobilize the contaminants, provide self-shielding, minimize void space, and provide a structurally stable waste form. The waste to be offered for disposal is the encapsulated monolith defined by the exterior surfaces of the vault and the lower surface of the underlying slab. This document presents summary of the data quality objective (DQO) process establishing the decisions and data required to support decision-making activities for the disposition of the IXC monolith. The DQO process is completed in accordance with the seven-step planning process described in EPA QA/G-4, ''Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process'', which is used to clarify and study objectives; define the appropriate type, quantity, and quality of data; and support defensible decision-making. The DQO process involves the following steps: (1) state the problem; (2) identify the decision; (3) identify the inputs to the decision; (4) define the boundaries of the study; (5) develop a decision rule (DR); (6) specify tolerable limits on decision errors; and (7) optimize the design for obtaining data.

  6. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

  7. Cadmium, copper, cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc in the water column of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerlund, S.; Oehman, P. Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg )

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents results from the first complete investigation of the dissolved and suspended trace metals cadmium, copper, cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc in the water column of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. A total of 35 stations was covered in the central Weddell Sea and the shelf areas around the Filchner Depression and Dronning Mauds Land. Snow samples were collected from the sea ice and from the Antarctic continent to evaluate the importance of the fresh water influence on the Weddell Sea. Oceanographic data, i.e., salinity, temperature, and nutrients, are used to link the trace metal results to the different water masses. The general range found is for cadmium, 0.5-0.8 nM; copper, 2.0-2.9 nM; cobalt, 20-40 nM; nickel, 6-7 nM; lead, 10 pM; zinc, 3-7 nM. The suspended trace metals are a small fraction, but considerably higher than in other oceans. The lowest concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc are found in the surface layer and in the whole water column at the Filchner Depression. Cobalt shows an increase in the surface water compared to the deep water. This is suggested to be generated by the terrogent material from the Antarctic continent from the melting of the ice. No evidence of anthropogenic lead can be seen in the lead profile. Nutrient trace metal relations found show poor statistical correlation in contrast to what is found in other oceans. This assumes that cadmium, copper, and zinc are not directly linked to the bioproduction cycle. However, the nutrient trace metal ratios found support the theory that the Weddell Sea is the ultimate source for generation of the nutrient trace metal ratios in the Pacific Ocean.

  8. The advanced flame quality indicator system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oman, R.; Rossi, M.J.; Calia, V.S.; Davis, F.L.; Rudin, A.

    1997-09-01

    By combining oil tank monitoring, systems diagnostics and flame quality monitoring in an affordable system that communicates directly with dealers by telephone modem, Insight Technologies offers new revenue opportunities and the capability for a new order of customer relations to oil dealers. With co-sponsorship from New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, we have incorporated several valuable functions to a new product based on the original Flame Quality Indicator concept licensed from the US DOE`s Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new system is the Advanced Flame Quality Indicator, or AFQI. As before, the AFQI monitors and reports the intensity of the burner flame relative to a calibration established when the burner is set up at AFQI installation. Repairs or adjustments are summoned by late-night outgoing telephone calls when limits are exceeded in either direction, indicating an impending contamination or other malfunction. A independently, a pressure transducer for monitoring oil tank level and filter condition, safety lockout alarms and a temperature monitor; all reporting automatically at instructed intervals via an on-board modem to a central station PC computer (CSC). Firmware on each AFQI unit and Insight-supplied software on the CSC automatically interact to maintain a customer database for an oil dealer, an OEM, or a regional service contractor. In addition to ensuring continuously clean and efficient operation, the AFQI offers the oil industry a new set of immediate payoffs, among which are reduced outages and emergency service calls, shorter service calls from cleaner operation, larger oil delivery drops, the opportunity to stretch service intervals to as along as three years in some cases, new selling features to keep and attract customers, and greatly enhanced customer contact, quality and reliability.

  9. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew M. Rudin; Thomas Butcher; Henry Troost

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion chambers, and poor fuel

  10. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  11. Cosmological data and indications for new physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benetti, Micol; Gerbino, Martina; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Kinney, William H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: martina.gerbino@roma1.infn.it E-mail: Rocky.Kolb@uchicago.edu E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it E-mail: antonio.riotto@unige.ch

    2013-10-01

    Data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and the South Pole Telescope (SPT), combined with the nine-year data release from the WMAP satellite, provide very precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular anisotropies down to very small angular scales. Augmented with measurements from Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations surveys and determinations of the Hubble constant, we investigate whether there are indications for new physics beyond a Harrison-Zel'dovich model for primordial perturbations and the standard number of relativistic degrees of freedom at primordial recombination. All combinations of datasets point to physics beyond the minimal Harrison-Zel'dovich model in the form of either a scalar spectral index different from unity or additional relativistic degrees of freedom at recombination (e.g., additional light neutrinos). Beyond that, the extended datasets including either ACT or SPT provide very different indications: while the extended-ACT (eACT) dataset is perfectly consistent with the predictions of standard slow-roll inflation, the extended-SPT (eSPT) dataset prefers a non-power-law scalar spectral index with a very large variation with scale of the spectral index. Both eACT and eSPT favor additional light degrees of freedom on top of the Harrison-Zel'dovich model. eACT is consistent with zero neutrino masses, while eSPT favors nonzero neutrino masses at more than 95% confidence.

  12. Stripper column of Ni-Cr-Mo alloy is inert to ammonia at 270/sup 0/F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, G.; Gaines, A.

    1987-07-01

    The Eastern Steel Division of Armco, Inc., in Ashland, Kentucky performs on-site carbonization of coal to produce coke. The coke oven gas is processed into an acceptable fuel. The final step in the processing of this gas is the stripping of ammonia from methylethylamine by steam distillation at about 270/sup 0/F. The original ammonia stripping column was fabricated in 1978 with the shell, bottom and internals of Type 316L stainless steel. The top portion was made of a high nickel (Ni) wrought alloy containing about 15.5% chromium (Cr), 16% molybdenum (Mo), 4% tungsten, 5.5 % iron and less than 0.01% carbon. The alloy offers outstanding resistance to localized corrosion by both oxidizing and reducing media including ferric and cupric chlorides, formic and acetic acids, acetic anhydride and brine solutions. It is also resistant to pitting and stress corrosion cracking by sulfur compounds and chloride ions, and to oxidizing atmospheres up to 1900/sup 0/F. Severe corrosion of the stainless steel components caused the stripper to fail after only 16 days of operation. The high nickel top of the column, however, was in excellent condition without any evidence of chemical attack. The new column was constructed entirely of the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, based on the superior corrosion resistance exhibited in the original column. The shell of the 20'' diameter, 54' tall column was made from 1/4'' thick sheet. The ammonia stripping column of high nickel alloy has been operating since October 1984 and periodic inspection reveals no signs of pitting or other damage by the hot aggressive media. Consequently, the plant projects a long service life without any maintenance requirements.

  13. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  14. Physical security and tamper-indicating devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.

    1997-02-01

    Computer systems, electronic communications, digital data, and computer storage media are often highly vulnerable to physical tampering. Tamper-indicating devices, also called security seals, are widely used to detect physical tampering or unauthorized access. We studied 94 different security seals, both passive and electronic, developed either commercially or by the US government. Most of these seals are in wide-spread use, including for critical applications. We learned how to defeat all 94 seals using rapid, inexpensive, low-tech methods. Cost was not a good predictor of seal security. It appears to us that many of these seals can be dramatically improved with minor, low-cost modifications to either the seal or the use protocol.

  15. Extracellular Signatures as Indicators of Processing Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Karen L.

    2012-01-09

    As described in other chapters within this volume, many aspects of microbial cells vary with culture conditions and therefore can potentially be analyzed as forensic signatures of growth conditions. In addition to changes or variations in components of the microbes themselves, extracellular materials indicative of production processes may remain associated with the final bacterial product. It is well recognized that even with considerable effort to make pure products such as fine chemicals or pharmaceuticals, trace impurities from components or synthesis steps associated with production processes can be detected in the final product. These impurities can be used as indicators of production source or methods, such as to help connect drugs of abuse to supply chains. Extracellular residue associated with microbial cells could similarly help to characterize production processes. For successful growth of microorganisms on culture media there must be an available source of carbon, nitrogen, inorganic phosphate and sulfur, trace metals, water and vitamins. The pH, temperature, and a supply of oxygen or other gases must also be appropriate for a given organism for successful culture. The sources of these components and the range in temperature, pH and other variables has adapted over the years with currently a wide range of possible combinations of media components, recipes and parameters to choose from for a given organism. Because of this wide variability in components, mixtures of components, and other parameters, there is the potential for differentiation of cultured organisms based on changes in culture conditions. The challenge remains how to narrow the field of potential combinations and be able to attribute variations in the final bacterial product and extracellular signatures associated with the final product to information about the culture conditions or recipe used in the production of that product.

  16. A tamper-indicating quantum seal

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Williams, Brian P.; Britt, Keith A.; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-01-04

    Technical means for identifying when tampering occurs is a critical part of many containment and surveillance technologies. Conventional fiber optic seals provide methods for monitoring enclosed inventories, but they are vulnerable to spoofing attacks based on classical physics. We address these vulnerabilities with the development of a quantum seal that offers the ability to detect the intercept-resend attack using quantum integrity verification. Our approach represents an application of entanglement to provide guarantees in the authenticity of the seal state by verifying it was transmitted coherently. We implement these ideas using polarization-entangled photon pairs that are verified after passing through amore » fiber-optic channel testbed. Using binary detection theory, we find the probability of detecting inauthentic signals is greater than 0.9999 with a false alarm chance of 10–9 for a 10 second sampling interval. In addition, we show how the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect concurrently provides a tight bound on redirection attack, in which tampering modifies the shape of the seal. Our measurements limit the tolerable path length change to sub-millimeter disturbances. As a result, these tamper-indicating features of the quantum seal offer unprecedented security for unattended monitoring systems.« less

  17. High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-08-18

    The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were

  18. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J. D.; Culling, J. R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  19. Separative analyses of a chromatographic column packed with a core-shell adsorbent for lithium isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, T.; Sugura, K.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.

    2015-03-15

    Lithium-6 is used as a blanket material for sufficient tritium production in DT fueled fusion reactors. A core-shell type adsorbent was proposed for lithium isotope separation by chromatography. The mass transfer model in a chromatographic column consisted of 4 steps, such as convection and dispersion in the column, transfer through liquid films, intra-particle diffusion and and adsorption or desorption at the local adsorption sites. A model was developed and concentration profiles and time variation in the column were numerically simulated. It became clear that core-shell type adsorbents with thin porous shell were saturated rapidly relatively to fully porous one and established a sharp edge of adsorption band. This is very important feature because lithium isotope separation requires long-distance development of adsorption band. The values of HETP (Height Equivalent of a Theoretical Plate) for core-shell adsorbent packed column were estimated by statistical moments of the step response curve. The value of HETP decreased with the thickness of the porous shell. A core-shell type adsorbent is, then, useful for lithium isotope separation. (authors)

  20. Tamper-indicating quantum optical seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humble, Travis S; Williams, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Confidence in the means for identifying when tampering occurs is critical for containment and surveillance technologies. Fiber-optic seals have proven especially useful for actively surveying large areas or inventories due to the extended transmission range and flexible layout of fiber. However, it is reasonable to suspect that an intruder could tamper with a fiber-optic sensor by accurately replicating the light transmitted through the fiber. In this contribution, we demonstrate a novel approach to using fiber-optic seals for safeguarding large-scale inventories with increased confidence in the state of the seal. Our approach is based on the use of quantum mechanical phenomena to offer unprecedented surety in the authentication of the seal state. In particular, we show how quantum entangled photons can be used to monitor the integrity of a fiber-optic cable - the entangled photons serve as active sensing elements whose non-local correlations indicate normal seal operation. Moreover, we prove using the quantum no-cloning theorem that attacks against the quantum seal necessarily disturb its state and that these disturbances are immediately detected. Our quantum approach to seal authentication is based on physical principles alone and does not require the use of secret or proprietary information to ensure proper operation. We demonstrate an implementation of the quantum seal using a pair of entangled photons and we summarize our experimental results including the probability of detecting intrusions and the overall stability of the system design. We conclude by discussing the use of both free-space and fiber-based quantum seals for surveying large areas and inventories.

  1. table1.3_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Trillion Btu. Shipments RSE Economic Net Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coke and of Energy Sources Row Characteristic(a) Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal Breeze Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.8 0.9 1.4 2.7 0.8 0.6 2 1.4 1.1

  2. table11.4_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity: Components of Onsite Generation, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Onsite-Generation Components; Unit: Million Kilowatthours. Renewable Energy (excluding Wood RSE Economic Total Onsite and Row Characteristic(a) Generation Cogeneration(b) Other Biomass)(c) Other(d) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.4 Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 609 379 W W 25.2 20-49 4,155 4,071 27

  3. table11.6_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .6 Electricity: Sales to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Utility and Nonutility Purchasers; Unit: Million Kilowatthours. Total of RSE Economic Sales and Utility Nonutility Row Characteristic(a) Transfers Offsite Purchaser(b) Purchaser(c) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1.3 0.9 Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 251 99 152 11.3 20-49 2,975 372 2,602 1.6

  4. table2.3_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. RSE Economic Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coke and Row Characteristic(a) Total Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal Breeze Other(e) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1 0.4 6.4 0.6 0.5 1.1 1.7 0.8 Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 94 * 6 19 W W W W 9 20-49 135 19 3 8 W W

  5. table7.4_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Residual Distillate Natural LPG and RSE Economic Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal Row Characteristic(a) (kWh) (gallons) (gallons) (1000 cu ft) (gallons) (short tons) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.7 1.2 2.2 0.7 0.5 1.6 Value of Shipments and Receipts

  6. table8.1_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments by Participation in Energy-Management Activity, 2002 Level: National Data; Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes; Column: Participation and Source of Financial Support for Activity; Unit: Establishment Counts. RSE NAICS Row Code(a) Energy-Management Activity No Participation Participation(b) In-house Other Don't Know Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1.4 0.9 0.9 1 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Participation in One or More of

  7. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

    1991-11-01

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H[sub 2]O[sub 2], and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H[sub 2]O[sub 2] injection as an oxygenation technique.

  8. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

    1991-11-01

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injection as an oxygenation technique.

  9. Full-Column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, M. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2016-01-01

    The vertical distributions of CO2, CH4, and other gases provide important constraints when determining terrestrial and ocean sources and sinks of carbon and other biogeochemical processes in the Earth system. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Earth System Research Laboratory to quantify the vertically resolved distribution of atmospheric carbon-cycle gases(CO2, CH4 ) within approximately 99% of the atmospheric column at the DOE ’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma . During the 2012 to 2014 campaign period, 12 successful Air C ore flights were conducted from the SGP site . In addition to providing critical data for evaluating remote sensing and earth system models, valuable lessons were learned that motivate improvements to the sampling and recovery systems and campaign logistics . With the launch of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 (OCO - 2) and Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite ( GOSAT ) satellites, we look forward to proposing additional sampling and analysis efforts at the SGP site and at other sites to characterize the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4 over time and space.

  10. A Single Column Model Ensemble Approach Applied to the TWP-ICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Laura; Jakob, Christian; Cheung, K.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Hill, Adrian; Hume, Timothy; Keane, R. J.; Komori, T.; Larson, Vincent E.; Lin, Yanluan; Liu, Xiaohong; Nielsen, Brandon J.; Petch, Jon C.; Plant, R. S.; Singh, M. S.; Shi, Xiangjun; Song, X.; Wang, Weiguo; Whitall, M. A.; Wolf, A.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Guang J.

    2013-06-27

    Single column models (SCM) are useful testbeds for investigating the parameterisation schemes of numerical weather prediction and climate models. The usefulness of SCM simulations are limited, however, by the accuracy of the best-estimate large-scale data prescribed. One method to address this uncertainty is to perform ensemble simulations of the SCM. This study first derives an ensemble of large-scale data for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) based on an estimate of a possible source of error in the best-estimate product. This data is then used to carry out simulations with 11 SCM and 2 cloud-resolving models (CRM). Best-estimate simulations are also performed. All models show that moisture related variables are close to observations and there are limited differences between the best-estimate and ensemble mean values. The models, however, show different sensitivities to changes in the forcing particularly when weakly forced. The ensemble simulations highlight important differences in the moisture budget between the SCM and CRM. Systematic differences are also apparent in the ensemble mean vertical structure of cloud variables. The ensemble is further used to investigate relations between cloud variables and precipitation identifying large differences between CRM and SCM. This study highlights that additional information can be gained by performing ensemble simulations enhancing the information derived from models using the more traditional single best-estimate simulation.

  11. HEAVY OIL PROCESS MONITOR: AUTOMATED ON-COLUMN ASPHALTENE PRECIPITATION AND RE-DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr; Mark Sanderson

    2006-06-01

    About 37-50% (w/w) of the heptane asphaltenes from unpyrolyzed residua dissolve in cyclohexane. As pyrolysis progresses, this number decrease to below 15% as coke and toluene insoluble pre-coke materials appear. This solubility measurement can be used after coke begins to form, unlike the flocculation titration, which cannot be applied to multi-phase systems. Currently, the procedure for the isolation of heptane asphaltenes and the determination of the amount of asphaltenes soluble in cyclohexane spans three days. A more rapid method to measure asphaltene solubility was explored using a novel on-column asphaltene precipitation and re-dissolution technique. This was automated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment with a step gradient sequence using the solvents: heptane, cyclohexane, toluene:methanol (98:2). Results for four series of original and pyrolyzed residua were compared with data from the gravimetric method. The measurement time was reduced from three days to forty minutes. The separation was expanded further with the use of four solvents: heptane, cyclohexane, toluene, and cyclohexanone or methylene chloride. This provides a fourth peak which represents the most polar components, in the oil.

  12. Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Abdikian, Alireza

    2014-04-15

    We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined.

  13. Rapid Column Extraction Method for Actinides and Sr-89/90 in Water Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAXWELL III, SHERROD L.

    2005-06-15

    The SRS Environmental Laboratory analyzes water samples for environmental monitoring, including river water and ground water samples. A new, faster actinide and strontium 89/90 separation method has been developed and implemented to improve productivity, reduce labor costs and add capacity to this laboratory. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and Sr-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), curium (Cm) and thorium (Th) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized. The method can be used for routine analysis or as a rapid method for emergency preparedness. Thorium and curium are often analyzed separately due to the interference of the daughter of Th-229 tracer, actinium (Ac)-225, on curium isotopes when measured by alpha spectrometry. This new method also adds a separation step using DGA Resin{reg_sign}, (Diglycolamide Resin, Eichrom Technologies) to remove Ac-225 and allow the separation and analysis of thorium isotopes and curium isotopes at the same time.

  14. Review of sustainability indices and indicators: Towards a new City Sustainability Index (CSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mori, Koichiro; Christodoulou, Aris

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss conceptual requirements for a City Sustainability Index (CSI) and to review existing major sustainability indices/indicators in terms of the requirements. The following indices are reviewed: Ecological Footprint (EF), Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), Dashboard of Sustainability (DS), Welfare Index, Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, City Development Index, emergy/exergy, Human Development Index (HDI), Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI), Environmental Policy Index (EPI), Living Planet Index (LPI), Environmentally-adjusted Domestic Product (EDP), Genuine Saving (GS), and some applications of composite indices or/and multivariate indicators to local or regional context as case studies. The key conceptual requirements for an adequate CSI are: (i) to consider environmental, economic and social aspects (the triple bottom line of sustainability) from the viewpoint of strong sustainability; (ii) to capture external impacts (leakage effects) of city on other areas beyond the city boundaries particularly in terms of environmental aspects; (iii) to create indices/indicators originally for the purpose of assessing city sustainability; and (iv) to be able to assess world cities in both developed and developing countries using common axes of evaluation. Based on the review, we conclude that it is necessary to create a new CSI that enables us to assess and compare cities' sustainability performance in order to understand the global impact of cities on the environment and human life as compared with their economic contribution. In the future, the CSI will be able to provide local authorities with guidance toward sustainable paths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We derive the four key requirements for a new City Sustainability Index (CSI) system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First, the triple bottom line must be considered in terms of strong sustainability. Black

  15. "RSE Table C10.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table C10.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Know" ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",3,1,4,2,1,2... 324110," Petroleum Refineries",15,10,36,15,25,44,15,3... Know" ,,"Total United States" , ...

  16. "RSE Table N5.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ","FurnaceCoke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood ... ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",2,0,1,0,0,0... 324110," Petroleum Refineries",4,0,3,6,0,0,24 ...

  17. "RSE Table N7.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N7.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shipments" ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",1,1,1 311221," ... Printing",4,5,4 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products",4,3,3 324110," Petroleum Refineries",3,3,3 ...

  18. "RSE Table C2.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table C2.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",4,0,3,0,1,0... 324,"Petroleum and Coal Products ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  19. "RSE Table E2.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table E2.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by petroleum" "refineries (e.g., crude oil ... ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and ... Examples of Liquefied Petroleum Gases '(LPG)' are ...

  20. "RSE Table N11.2. Relative Standard Errors for Table N11.2;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... by" "petroleum refineries, rather than purchased ... ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",1,1,3,3,1,1... 324,"Petroleum and Coal ...

  1. "RSE Table C12.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table C12.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",2,0,2,1,1 ... 324110," Petroleum Refineries",4,0,15,5,12 ... Establishment" ,,"Total United States" , ...

  2. "RSE Table C4.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table C4.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"Total United States" , 311,"Food",0,0,3,4,1,3... 324,"Petroleum and Coal ... "produced at refineries or natural gas ...

  3. RSE Table 1.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",4,5,25,20,5,27,6,0,10,0 311221," Wet Corn ...

  4. RSE Table 1.2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",4,5,25,20,5,27,6,0,10,0 311221," Wet Corn ...

  5. RSE Table 4.2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corn Milling",1,0,0,1,3,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ... Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ...

  6. RSE Table 7.10 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.10

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corn Milling",1,1,0,3,0,4,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ... Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ...

  7. RSE Table 7.7 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.7

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corn Milling",0,0,0,3,0,3,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ... Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ...

  8. RSE Table 7.3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.3

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corn Milling",0,0,0,3,0,3,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ... Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ...

  9. RSE Table 3.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corn Milling",1,2,0,1,3,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ... Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ...

  10. RSE Table 3.2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corn Milling",1,2,0,1,3,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ... Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ...

  11. RSE Table 4.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 4.1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corn Milling",1,0,0,1,3,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ... Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 31131," Sugar ",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 311421," Fruit and ...

  12. "RSE Table C10.3. Relative Standard Errors for Table C10.3;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ," Membrane Hyperfiltration to Separate Water from Food Products",4,1,3 311221," Wet ... ," Membrane Hyperfiltration to Separate Water from Food Products",0,0,0 312,"BEVERAGE ...

  13. "RSE Table C3.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table C3.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... and Office of Oil and Gas, Petroleum" "Supply Division, Form EIA-810, 'Monthly Refinery Report' for 1998." ... and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and ...

  14. "RSE Table E13.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table E13.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which" "payment was not made, quantities purchased centrally within the company but separate" "from the reporting establishment, and quantities for which payment was made ...

  15. "RSE Table N11.3. Relative Standard Errors for Table N11.3;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which" "payment was not made, quantities purchased centrally within the company but separate" "from the reporting establishment, and quantities for which payment was made ...

  16. "RSE Table C11.3. Relative Standard Errors for Table C11.3;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which" "payment was not made, quantities purchased centrally within the company but separate" "from the reporting establishment, and quantities for which payment was made ...

  17. "RSE Table N11.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N11.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... office offsite, and quantities for which payment" "is made in-kind." " Source: Energy ... by a central purchasing office offsite, and quantities for which payment" "is made in-kind

  18. "RSE Table N11.4. Relative Standard Errors for Table N11.4;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which" "payment was not made, quantities purchased centrally within the company but separate" "from the reporting establishment, and quantities for which payment was made ...

  19. "RSE Table N8.3. Relative Standard Errors for Table N8.3;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which" "payment was not made, quantities purchased centrally within the company but separate" "from the reporting establishment, and quantities for which payment was made ...

  20. "RSE Table N13.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N13.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which" "payment was not made, quantities purchased centrally within the company but separate" "from the reporting establishment, and quantities for which payment was made ...

  1. RSE Table 10.10 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.10

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.10;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Coal",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(c)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(d)","Gas","Fuel

  2. RSE Table 10.11 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.11

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.11;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Coal(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(d)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel

  3. RSE Table 10.12 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.12

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.12;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  4. RSE Table 10.13 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.13

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.13;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"LPG(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate","Residual",,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  5. RSE Table 2.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 2.1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 2.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," " " "," " "NAICS"," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","and

  6. RSE Table 3.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," ","

  7. RSE Table 5.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," " " "," "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," "

  8. RSE Table 5.2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "Code(a)","End

  9. RSE Table 5.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," " " "," ","Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," ","for ","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Electricity(b)","Fuel

  10. RSE Table 5.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.5

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ",," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Distillate" " "," ",,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal"," " " ",,"Net","Residual","and","Natural","LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel

  11. RSE Table 5.6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.6

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.6;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel

  12. RSE Table 5.7 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.7

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.7;" " Unit: Percents." " ",,,"Distillate" " ","Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " ","for ","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)"

  13. RSE Table 5.8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.8

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.8;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," ","Distillate"," "," " " ","Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " ","for ","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel

  14. RSE Table 7.4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.4;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and Receipts"

  15. RSE Table 7.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.5

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.5;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" ,"Total United States" "Value of Shipments and Receipts"

  16. RSE Table 7.6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.6

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.6;" " Unit: Percents." " "," " " "," ",,,,,,,,," " "NAICS"," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  17. RSE Table 7.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.9

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.9;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," " "NAICS"," "," ",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and

  18. RSE Table 8.2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.2;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,"Computer Control of Building Wide Evironment(c)",,,"Computer Control of Processes or Major Energy-Using Equipment(d)",,,"Waste Heat Recovery",,,"Adjustable - Speed Motors",,,"Oxy - Fuel Firing" " "," " "NAICS"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and

  19. "RSE Table C9.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table C9.1;...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star Program",1,10,0,0,0,0 ," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights Program",1,9,0,0,0,0 ," U.S. Department of ...

  20. Guidelineless system for riser entry/reentry that permits quick release of a riser column from a subsea installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConaughy, R.C.; Wright, J.W.

    1983-08-23

    A guidelineless riser entry/reentry system is disclosed which permits a safe and quick release of riser column from a subsea installation. The system includes two guide funnels mounted on opposite sides of the subsea installation at the upper end thereof for the purpose of engaging respective telescopic posts mounted at the lower end of the riser column. With the posts in an extended position the riser may be appropriately maneuvered to position the posts in their respective guide funnels. This way, the riser is properly positioned on and orientated with respect to the subsea installation. The riser may then be disconnected or connected to the subsea installation and the posts moved into retracted position so that the riser may be rapidly removed from the subsea installation.

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Number of Establishments by Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,,"Natural","Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components"

  2. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," ",,"Computer Control of Building Wide Evironment(c)",,,"Computer Control of Processes or Major Energy-Using Equipment(d)",,,"Waste Heat Recovery",,,"Adjustable - Speed

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Computer Control of Building Wide Evironment(c)",,,"Computer Control of Processes or Major Energy-Using Equipment(d)",,,"Waste Heat Recovery",,,"Adjustable - Speed Motors",,,"Oxy - Fuel

  4. " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Computer Control of Building Wide Evironment(c)",,,"Computer Control of Processes or Major Energy-Using Equipment(d)",,,"Waste Heat Recovery",,,"Adjustable - Speed Motors",,,"Oxy - Fuel

  5. Diagnosis of Differences Between Stratiform Clouds Simulated by Large-Eddy Simulation and Single-Column Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diagnosis of Differences Between Stratiform Clouds and Simulated by Large-Eddy Simulation and Single-Column Models S. J. Ghan and M. Ovtchinnikov Climate Physics Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction An adequate parameterization of cloud microphysics is essential for estimating the indirect aerosol effect in large-scale models. Such a parameterization must rely on a physically sound treatment of spatial variability that affects many microphysical processes in a

  6. Removal of pollutant compounds from water supplies using ozone, ultraviolet light, and a counter, current packed column. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Many water pollutants are determined to be carcinogenic and often appear in very low concentrations and still pose a health risk. Conventional water treatment processes cannot remove these contaminants and there is a great demand for the development of alternative removal technologies. The use of ozone and ultraviolet light in a counter current packed column could prove to be an effective treatment process to remove these contaminants.

  7. Salt Processing Through Ion Exchange at the Savannah River Site Selection of Exchange Media and Column Configuration - 9198

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, Renee; Punch, Timothy; McCabe, Daniel

    2009-02-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed, modeled, and tested several different ion exchange media and column designs for cesium removal. One elutable resin and one non-elutable resin were considered for this salt processing application. Deployment of non-elutable Crystalline Silicotitanate and elutable Resorcinol Formaldehyde in several different column configurations were assessed in a formal Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE). Salt solutions were selected that would allow a grouping of non-compliant tanks to be closed. Tests were run with the elutable resin to determine compatibility with the resin configuration required for an in-tank ion exchange system. Models were run to estimate the ion exchange cycles required with the two resins in several column configurations. Material balance calculations were performed to estimate the impact on the High Level Waste (HLW) system at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Conceptual process diagrams were used to support the hazard analysis. Data from the hazard analysis was used to determine the relative impact on safety. This report will discuss the technical inputs, SEE methods, results and path forward to complete the technical maturation of ion exchange.

  8. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  9. PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-11-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The

  10. Mobility of heavy metals through granitic soils using mini column infiltration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarime, Nur 'Aishah; Yaacob, W. Z.W.

    2014-09-03

    This study is about the mobility of cadmium through compacted granitic soils. Two granitic soils namely the Broga (BGR) and Kajang (KGR) granitic soils were collected in Selangor, Malaysia. Physical and chemical tests were applied for both granitic soils to determine the physical and chemical properties of soil materials. Physical test results shows granitic soils (BGR and KGR) have high percentage of sand ranging between 54%–63% and 46%–54% respectively, an intermediate and intermediate to high plasticity index as well as high specific gravity ie; 2.50–2.59 and 2.45–2.66 respectively. For chemical test, granitic soils shows acidic pH values ranged from 5.35–5.85 for BGR and pH 5.32–5.54 for KGR. For organic matter, SSA and CEC test, it shows low values ranged from 0.22%–0.34% and 0.39%– 0.50% respectively for organic matter test, 17.96 m{sup 2}/g–21.93 m{sup 2}/g and 25.76 m{sup 2}/g–26.83 m{sup 2}/g respectively for SSA test and 0.79 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g and 1.31 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g respectively for CEC test. Mini column infiltration test was conducted to determine the retention of cadmium while flowing through granite soils. This test conducted based on the falling head permeability concepts. Different G-force ranging from 231G to 1442G was used in this test. The breakthrough curves show the concentration of Cd becomes higher with the increasing of G-force for both granitic samples (BGR and KGR). The selectivity sorption for both granites ranked in the following decreasing order of; 231G>519G>923G>1442G. Results demonstrated that granitic soils also have low buffering capacity due to low resist of pH changes.

  11. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  12. TRIPLICATE SODIUM IODIDE GAMMA RAY MONITORS FOR THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couture, A.

    2011-09-20

    This technical report contains recommendations from the Analytical Development (AD) organization of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for a system of triplicate Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors to be used to monitor Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) content of the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) output of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process. These detectors need to be gain stabilized with respect to temperature shifts since they will be installed on top of Tank 41 at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This will be accomplished using NaI crystals doped with the alpha-emitting isotope, Americium-241({sup 241}Am). Two energy regions of the detector output will be monitored using single-channel analyzers (SCAs), the {sup 137}Cs full-energy {gamma}-ray peak and the {sup 241}Am alpha peak. The count rate in the gamma peak region will be proportional to the {sup 137}Cs content in the DSS output. The constant rate of alpha decay in the NaI crystal will be monitored and used as feedback to adjust the high voltage supply to the detector in response to temperature variation. An analysis of theoretical {sup 137}Cs breakthrough curves was used to estimate the gamma activity expected in the DSS output during a single iteration of the process. Count rates arising from the DSS and background sources were predicted using Microshield modeling software. The current plan for shielding the detectors within an enclosure with four-inch thick steel walls should allow the detectors to operate with the sensitivity required to perform these measurements. Calibration, testing, and maintenance requirements for the detector system are outlined as well. The purpose of SCIX is to remove and concentrate high-level radioisotopes from SRS salt waste resulting in two waste streams. The concentrated high-level waste containing {sup 137}Cs will be sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification and the low-level DSS will be sent to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF

  13. SUMMARY REPORT ON POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Johnson, F.

    2011-04-27

    This report summarizes a large amount of experimental work completed to identify the potential impacts of material from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) on glass formulation at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The results show no significant issues with the predicted values of chemical durability and viscosity using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models when the SCIX components are added to projected DWPF glass compositions. No modifications to the viscosity and durability models appear to be necessary at this time in order to incorporate the SCIX streams at DWPF. It is recommended that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) continue to verify the durability and viscosity models as the projected compositions for DWPF processing evolve. It is also recommended that the data generated thus far be reviewed and a determination be made as to how best to extend the validation ranges of the durability and viscosity models. The liquidus temperatures for the experimental glasses are also reported and discussed in this report. The results show that the measured or estimated (based on measured data) liquidus temperature values for the glasses with SCIX components added are consistently higher than those predicted by the current model. Therefore, the PCCS liquidus temperature model will need to be modified in order to incorporate the SCIX streams at DWPF. It is recommended that SRNL carry out full measurements of the liquidus temperatures for those KT-series glasses where estimates have been made. These data should then be used to support an evaluation of whether a refitting of the liquidus temperature model coefficients will be sufficient to correctly predict the liquidus temperature of glasses containing the SCIX components (particularly higher TiO{sub 2} concentrations), or whether additional modifications to the model are required. While there are prediction issues with the current liquidus temperature model, they are not at this

  14. Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

  15. Insertion of operation-and-indicate instructions for optimized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Insertion of operation-and-indicate instructions for optimized SIMD code Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Insertion of operation-and-indicate instructions for optimized ...

  16. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: WRI Climate Analysis Indicators Tool AgencyCompany Organization: World...

  17. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) (Redirected from WRI Climate Analysis Indicators Tool) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: WRI Climate Analysis...

  18. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) (Redirected from Climate Analysis Indicators Tool) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: WRI Climate Analysis...

  19. IMPACT OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION MELT RATE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-04-26

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential impacts of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) streams - particularly the addition of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) - on the melt rate of simulated feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additional MST was added to account for contributions from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to evaluate four melter feed compositions: two with simulated SCIX and SWPF material and two without. The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was then used to compare two different feeds: one with and one without bounding concentrations of simulated SCIX and SWPF material. Analyses of the melter feed materials confirmed that they met their targeted compositions. Four feeds were tested in triplicate in the MRF. The linear melt rates were determined by using X-ray computed tomography to measure the height of the glass formed along the bottom of the beakers. The addition of the SCIX and SWPF material reduced the average measured melt rate by about 10% in MRF testing, although there was significant scatter in the data. Two feeds were tested in the SMRF. It was noted that the ground CST alone (ground CST with liquid in a bucket) was extremely difficult to resuspend during preparation of the feed with material from SCIX and SWPF. This feed was also more difficult to pump than the material without MST and CST due to settling occurring in the melter feed line, although the yield stress of both feeds was high relative to the DWPF design basis. Steady state feeding conditions were maintained for about five hours for each feed. There was a reduction in the feed and pour rates of approximately 15% when CST and MST were added to the feed, although there was significant scatter in the data. Analysis of samples collected from the SMRF pour stream showed that the composition of the glass changed as expected when MST and

  20. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

    2013-05-01

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  1. Pore-Scale and Multiscale Numerical Simulation of Flow and Transport in a Laboratory-Scale Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; McKinley, Matthey I.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Serkowski, John A.; Zachara, John M.

    2015-02-01

    Pore-scale models are useful for studying relationships between fundamental processes and phenomena at larger (i.e., Darcy) scales. However, the size of domains that can be simulated with explicit pore-scale resolution is limited by computational and observational constraints. Direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow and transport is typically performed on millimeter-scale volumes at which X-ray computed tomography (XCT), often used to characterize pore geometry, can achieve micrometer resolution. In contrast, the scale at which a continuum approximation of a porous medium is valid is usually larger, on the order of centimeters to decimeters. Furthermore, laboratory experiments that measure continuum properties are typically performed on decimeter-scale columns. At this scale, XCT resolution is coarse (tens to hundreds of micrometers) and prohibits characterization of small pores and grains. We performed simulations of pore-scale processes over a decimeter-scale volume of natural porous media with a wide range of grain sizes, and compared to results of column experiments using the same sample. Simulations were conducted using high-performance codes executed on a supercomputer. Two approaches to XCT image segmentation were evaluated, a binary (pores and solids) segmentation and a ternary segmentation that resolved a third category (porous solids with pores smaller than the imaged resolution). We used a mixed Stokes-Darcy simulation method to simulate the combination of Stokes flow in large open pores and Darcy-like flow in porous solid regions. Simulations based on the ternary segmentation provided results that were consistent with experimental observations, demonstrating our ability to successfully model pore-scale flow over a column-scale domain.

  2. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  3. Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

    2010-03-01

    Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

  4. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.9,0.9,1.2,1,1.4,1,1.2,0.6,1.2 , 311,"Food","W",0.054,"W",4.5,4.81,4.27,4.07,3.99,4.12,11.1 311221," Wet Corn Milling","W",0.036,"W",3.99,4.5...

  5. Table 7.7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    States" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.9,0.9,1.3,0.9,1.4,0.9,1.2,0.6,1.2 , 311,"Food","W",63907,"W",566,237,329,33153,11705,21447,10.9 311221," Wet Corn Milling","W",6254,"W",59,5,54,...

  6. table11.3_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.3 311 Food 5,622 ... W 0 * 3.7 324 Petroleum and Coal Products 17,503 16,868 0 635 1.3 324110 Petroleum Refineries 16,273 15,709 ...

  7. table2.1_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1.4 0.4 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.7 1.2 ... 0 0 0 0 * 324 Petroleum and Coal Products 3,689 * * * 0 Q * 3,407 324110 Petroleum Refineries 3,307 0 0 0 0 ...

  8. table11.5_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1 0.9 1 311 Food 708 380 328 31 ... W W 0 1 324 Petroleum and Coal Products 4,123 2,744 1,379 1 324110 Petroleum Refineries 3,148 2,574 574 ...

  9. table2.2_02.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1.4 0.4 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.7 1.2 ... 0 0 * 0 324 Petroleum and Coal Products 3,689 * 2 * 0 Q 2 3,407 4.4 324110 Petroleum Refineries 3,307 0 0 0 ...

  10. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 29.1 5.3 22.7 3.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State income

  11. Table 4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10.8 0.3 0.8 1.6 2.0 2.2 4.0 11.94 Notes: -- To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding column and row factors. -- Because of rounding, data may...

  12. Table 4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10.8 0.9 2.9 1.9 2.8 2.3 9.84 Notes: -- To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding column and row factors. -- Because of rounding, data may...

  13. Table 4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 0.8 0.6 1.4 2.3 1.9 2.5 12.69 Notes: -- To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the corresponding column and row factors. -- Because of rounding, data may...

  14. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is

  15. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  16. 1Q CY2000 (PDF), Facility Representative Program Performance Indicators

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quarterly Report | Department of Energy Q CY2000 (PDF), Facility Representative Program Performance Indicators Quarterly Report 1Q CY2000 (PDF), Facility Representative Program Performance Indicators Quarterly Report "The Facility Representative Program Performance Indicators (PIs) Quarterly Report is attached, covering the period from January 2000 to March 2000. Data for these indicators are gathered by the Field elements quarterly per the Facility Representatives Standard, DOE-STD-1

  17. Organic Matter Transformation in the Peat Column at Marcell Experimental Forest: Humification and Vertical Stratification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tfaily, Malak; Cooper, Bill; Kostka,; Chanton, Patrick R; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Hanson, Paul J; Iversen, Colleen M; Chanton, Jeff P

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale ecosystem manipulation (Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change, SPRUCE) is being constructed in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA, to determine the effects of climatic forcing on ecosystem processes in northern peatlands. Prior to the initiation of the manipulation, we characterized the solid-phase peat to a depth of 2 meters using a variety of techniques, including peat C:N ratios, 13C and 15N isotopic composition, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT IR), and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR). FT IR determined peat humification-levels increased rapidly between and 75 cm, indicating a highly reactive zone. We observed a rapid drop in the abundance of O-alkyl-C, carboxyl-C, and other oxygenated functionalities within this zone and a concomitant increase in the abundance of alkyl- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Below 75-cm, minimal change was observed except that aromatic functionalities accumulated with depth. Incubation studies revealed the highest methane production rates and greatest CH4:CO2 ratios within this and 75 cm zone. Hydrology and surface vegetation played a role in belowground carbon cycling. Radiocarbon signatures of microbial respiration products in deeper porewaters resembled the signatures of dissolved organic carbon rather than solid phase peat, indicating that more recently photosynthesized organic matter fueled the bulk of subsurface microbial respiration. Oxygen-containing functionalities, especially O-alkyl-C, appear to serve as an excellent proxy for soil decomposition rate, and in addition should be a sensitive indicator of the response of the solid phase peat to the climatic manipulation.

  18. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. Annual technical progress report No. 1, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudukovic, M.P.; Fan, L.S.; Chang, Min

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research and Engineering Company is to improve the basis for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. The first year of this three year program was spent on developing and tuning the experimental tools that can provide accurate measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field and holdup distribution, for validation of hydrodynamic models. Advances made in preparing the unique Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracing (CARPT) technique for use in high pressure systems are described in this report The work done on developing a reliable beat transfer coefficient measurement probe at operating conditions of interest is also described. Finally, the work done in preparing the Exxon pilot plant facilities for high pressure runs and pertinent hydrodynamic measurements is outlined together with preliminary studies of matching the fluid dynamics program predictions and data in a two dimensional column.

  19. The physical nature of the phenomenon of positive column plasma constriction in low-pressure noble gas direct current discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurbatov, P. F.

    2014-02-15

    The essence of the positive-column plasma constriction for static (the diffusion mode) and dynamic ionization equilibrium (the stratificated and constricted modes) is analyzed. Two physical parameters, namely, the effective ionization rate of gas atoms and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions, determine the transverse distribution of discharge species and affect the current states of plasma. Transverse constriction of the positive column takes place as the gas ionization level (discharge current) and pressure increase. The stratified mode (including the constricted one) is observed between the two adjacent types of self-sustained discharge phases when they coexist together at the same time or in the same place as a coherent binary mixture. In the case, a occurrence of the discharge phase with more high electron density presently involve a great decrease in the cross-section of the current channel for d.c. discharges. Additional physical factors, such as cataphoresis and electrophoresis phenomena and spatial gas density inhomogeneity correlated with a circulatory flow in d.c. discharges, are mainly responsible for the current hysteresis and partially constricted discharge.

  20. A method for evaluating bias in global measurements of CO{sub 2} total columns from space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.; Connor, B. J.; Fisher, B.; Osterman, G. B.; Frankenberg, C.; Mandrake, L.; O?Dell, C.; Ahonen, P.; Biraud, S. C.; Castano, R.; Cressie, N.; Crisp, D.; Deutscher, N. M.; Eldering, A.; Fisher, M. L.; Griffith, D. W.T.; Gunson, M.; Heikkinen, P.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Kyro, E.; Lindenmaier, R.; Macatangay, R.; Mendonca, J.; Messerschmidt, J.; Miller, C. E.; Morino, I.; Notholt, J.; Oyafuso, F. A.; Rettinger, M.; Robinson, J.; Roehl, C. M.; Salawitch, R. J.; Sherlock, V.; Strong, K.; Sussmann, R.; Tanaka, T.; Thompson, D. R.; Uchino, O.; Warneke, T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2011-08-01

    We describe a method of evaluating systematic errors in measurements of total column dry-air mole fractions of CO{sub 2} (X{sub CO{sub 2}} ) from space, and we illustrate the method by applying it to the Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Observations from Space retrievals of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (ACOS-GOSAT) v2.8. The approach exploits the lack of large gradients in X{sub CO{sub 2}} south of 25{degree}#14; S to identify large-scale offsets and other biases in the ACOS-GOSAT data with several retrieval parameters and errors in instrument calibration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by comparing the ACOS-GOSAT data in the Northern Hemisphere with ground truth provided by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We use the correlation between free-tropospheric temperature and X{sub CO{sub 2}} in the Northern Hemisphere to define a dynamically informed coincidence criterion between the ground-based TCCON measurements and the ACOS-GOSAT measurements. We illustrate that this approach provides larger sample sizes, hence giving a more robust comparison than one that simply uses time, latitude and longitude criteria. Our results show that the agreement with the TCCON data improves after accounting for the systematic errors. A preliminary evaluation of the improved v2.9 ACOS-GOSAT data is also discussed.