National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for increased cooling load

  1. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    May 27-30, 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR12048 May 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FORfor increases in the building cooling load resulting from

  2. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  3. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofInc, Altanta,GA, 2009. Cooling load differences betweensurface level 24-hour total cooling energy between radiant

  4. Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  5. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  6. Experimental comparison of zone cooling load between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    be used for radiant system cooling load, which should beKeyword Radiant Cooling System, Cooling load, Air system,guidance on radiant system cooling load prediction and

  7. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08proc.pdf More Documents & Publications CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab...

  8. CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  9. Auxiliary Cooling Loads in Passively Cooled Buildings: An Experimental Research Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairey, P.; Vieira, R.; Chandra, S.; Kerestecioglu, A.; Kalaghchy, S.

    1984-01-01

    Currently accepted methods of passive cooling offset only sensible building loads. In the warm, humid southeastern gulf coast climates the latent building load can comprise 35% of the building load in the typical residence. As the sensible load...

  10. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  11. Cooling load calculations for radiant systems: are they the same traditional methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    of Radiant vs. Air System Cooling Loads Recent simulationsystem, the radiant system cooling Advertisement formerly inthe mea- sured radiant system cooling load. The RTS method

  12. Wind Concurrent Cooling Could Increase Power Transmission Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concurrent Cooling Could Increase Power Transmission Potential by as Much as 40% Wind Concurrent Cooling Could Increase Power Transmission Potential by as Much as 40% May 18, 2015...

  13. Impact of Different Glazing Systems on Cooling Load of a Detached Residential Building at Bhubaneswar, India 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, R.

    2010-01-01

    on solar heat gain and cooling load. The simulation results show reductions in solar heat gain, cooling load and better thermal comfort can be achieved using proper glazing systems for a specific orientation of the building. The significance...

  14. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Olesen, B. (2012). "surface heating and cooling systems: . Brussels, EuropeanIn the case of the all-air system, cooling load matches the

  15. Laser cooling of a trapped particle with increased Rabi frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tony Blake; Andreas Kurcz; Norah S. Saleem; Almut Beige

    2011-10-14

    This paper analyses the cooling of a single particle in a harmonic trap with red-detuned laser light with fewer approximations than previously done in the literature. We avoid the adiabatic elimination of the excited atomic state but are still interested in Lamb-Dicke parameters $\\eta \\ll 1$. Our results show that the Rabi frequency of the cooling laser can be chosen higher than previously assumed, thereby increasing the effective cooling rate but {\\em not} affecting the final outcome of the cooling process. Since laser cooling is already a well established experimental technique, the main aim of this paper is to present a model which can be extended to more complex scenarios, like cavity-mediated laser cooling.

  16. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofSizing of the radiant system cooling equipment is highlycooling rate and air system cooling rate in this section. To

  17. Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY

    2011-06-10

    Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).

  18. Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

  19. A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

    2008-01-01

    the cooling load using chiller models based on the instantaneous chiller electrical power input and condition measured variables. The control performance of the proposed scheme is validated in this paper....

  20. Wind Concurrent Cooling Could Increase Power Transmission Potential...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    couple transmission systems with concurrent cooling processes. In areas where wind farms are being developed, there is potential to take advantage of concurrent...

  1. Overall U-values and heating/cooling loads: Manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, C.C.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1992-02-01

    This manual specifies a method for calculating the overall thermal transmittance (also referred to as the overall U-value or U{sub o}), heating load, and cooling load of a manufactured (mobile) home. Rules, examples, and data required by the method are also presented. Compliance with the Department of Housing and Urban Development`s (HUD) U{sub o} and load calculation regulations contained in Sections 3280.506, 3280.510 and 3280.511 of the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards must be demonstrated through the application of the method provided herein.

  2. Daylighting Design Tools in Atria for Minimum Cooling Loads in Atrium Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atif, M. R.; Boyer, L. L.; Degelman, L. O.; Claridge, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    floor, so that the cooling loads could be minimized. Illumination measurements were collected in physical scale models of two and four-story atria in a sky simulator. The two key variables of the study were: a) horizontal and vertical south-facing top-glazing...

  3. 514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    their energy consumption and life-cycle cost. Accordingly, engi- neers must be able to place a high degree on computer implementation than annual energy calculation codes. For this reason system- atic validation514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are

  4. Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Nanxi 1986-

    2012-12-05

    studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low...

  5. Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosar, D.

    1998-01-01

    for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality", that has cascaded into building codes over the early to mid 1990's. There has been a twofold to fourfold increase in outside air requirements for many commercial building applications, compared to the 1981 version...

  6. The Heat Balance Method (HBM) is used for estimating the heating and cooling loads encountered in a vehicle cabin. A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    is a critical system for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs), as it is the second most of AC systems of vehicle. A clear understanding of the heating and cooling loads, encounteredABSTRACT The Heat Balance Method (HBM) is used for estimating the heating and cooling loads

  7. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-05-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describes the CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  8. Overview of Existing Literature On Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J.S.; Claridge, D.E

    2004-01-01

    on monitored data collected for PG&E and the California Energy Commission (CEC). Noren (1997) and Noren and Pyrko (1998a and b) described a typical load shape technique used with data collected from 13 schools and nine hotels in Sweden. Major sources of data... Literature on Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations (1093-RP) Bass Abushakra, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E. Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE ABSTRACT This paper provides...

  9. Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions Nakul Sathaye, Arpad emissions, raising the question of whether increased vehicle weights may cause unintended environmental consequences. This paper presents scenarios with estimated emissions resulting from load consolidation

  10. Increase Energy Efficiency by Analyzing Cooling Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps, P.

    2015-01-01

    ) causes hydraulic imbalance as they foul and the ?p’s fluctuate 9 ESL-IE-15-06-37 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 Case Study: Vacuum Tower vs. Overhead and Jet Condensers Cooling... water is critical to the efficient operation of the vacuum tower and overall energy efficiency of the refinery. 10 ESL-IE-15-06-37 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 11 Typical...

  11. Promising Technology: Cool Roofs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A cool roof increases the solar reflectance of the roof surface. By reflecting more sunlight, the roof surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the roof into the building below. During the cooling season, the addition of a cool roof can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Moisture Transport Through Walls and Associated Cooling Loads in the Hot/Humid Climate of Florianopolis, Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F. C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P. C.; Da Cunha, Neto, J. A. B.

    1996-01-01

    . The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials. and the influence of solar radiation...

  13. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1996-03-26

    A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

  14. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, Therese K. (Knoxville, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

  15. Wind Concurrent Cooling Could Increase Power Transmission Potential by as

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReport FY2014 -Energy Costs by IncreasingWhole AlgaeServicesMuch as 40%

  16. Cooling load calculations for radiant systems: are they the same traditional methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    B. 2008. “Radiant floor cooling systems. ” ASHRAE Journal 4.embedded radiant heating and cooling. Geneva: InternationalM. Deru. 2010. “Radiant slab cooling for retail. ” ASHRAE

  17. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    cooling resource, and energy efficiency in transporting heatcooling resource, and energy efficiency in transporting heat

  18. Promising Technology: Cool Paints for Exterior Walls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cool Paints increase the solar reflectance of exterior walls. By reflecting more sunlight, the wall surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the walls into the building. During the cooling season, the addition of cool paints can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  19. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized.more »Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.« less

  20. Towards Increased Waste Loading in High Level Waste Glasses: Developing a Better Understanding of Crystallization Behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.

  1. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  2. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glasses and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulationsmore »have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentration of Fe2O3. Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste group.« less

  3. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glasses and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentration of Fe2O3. Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste group.

  4. Evaluation on Cooling Energy Load with Varied Envelope Design for High-Rise Residential Buildings in Malaysia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Tamimi, N.; Fadzil, S.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of the economy in the recent years, Malaysia is maintaining a high economic growth and therefore, its energy consumption increases dramatically. Residential buildings are characterized by being envelope-load dominated buildings...

  5. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Load for Radiant and Air Conditioning Systems. ProceedingsRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. Babiak,of European Heating ahd Air-Conditioning Associations. CEN (

  6. Influence of raised floor on zone design cooling load in commercial buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Floor and Ceiling Plenum Energy Model Parameters, American Society of Heating,heating and cooling systems were not modelled because the simulation aim was to investigate the influence of the raised floor

  7. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  8. Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations

  9. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  10. The impact of different weather data on simulated residential heating and cooling load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Since 1995, two major new sources of typical year weather data--ASHRAE`s Weather Year for Energy Calculations, Version 2 (WYEC2), for 59 US and Canadian locations and NREL`s Typical Meteorological Year, Version 2 (TMY2), for 239 US locations--have become available for use in building energy simulations. Both of these data sets represent several years of effort in correcting data anomalies and adding improved solar models to the earlier WYEC and TMY weather sets. Although it is straightforward to tabulate and compare the changes in climate statistics, e.g., degree-days, wind speed, average solar heat gain, etc., the impact that such changes have on the simulated energy consumption of a building is less clear. The purpose of this study is to use DOE-2 simulations of prototypical residential buildings to (1) determine the ability of various typical year weather data such as TMY2, TMY, WYEC2, WYEC, and TRY to reproduce the long-term average heating and cooling energy consumption when simulated using 30 years of historical weather data and (2) compare the simulated energy consumption from different typical year data and determine if there are systematic differences due to the type of weather data.

  11. Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X.; Hong, J.; Deying, L.

    2006-01-01

    With the development of wall reforms, the production scale and engineering applications of energy savings are increasing daily. It is inevitable to aggressively extend production of new energy-saving walls. Based on the thermal instantaneous...

  12. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  13. Increased sediment loads over coral reefs in Saint Lucia in relation to land use change in contributing watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajeunesse, Marc J.

    Increased sediment loads over coral reefs in Saint Lucia in relation to land use change Article history: Available online a b s t r a c t Increased sedimentation is widely acknowledged records of changes in sediment accumu- lation rates over reefs as well as a quantitative link between land

  14. Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, ASHRAE Research Project 1093, Preliminary Report, Literature Review and Database Search 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    -05-01 COMPILATION OF DIVERSITY FACTORS AND SCHEDULES FOR ENERGY AND COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS ASHRAE Research Project 1093 Preliminary Report LITERATURE REVIEW AND DATABASE SEARCH Bass Abushakra Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. David E. Claridge..., Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, Texas, 77843-3581 May 1999 ASHRAE RP-1093 page i May 1999, Preliminary Report Energy...

  15. Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question ŤWhat are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  16. INCREASE

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22

    The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

  17. Critical review of water based radiant cooling system design methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    shown that radiant system cooling capacity could be enhancedof trends regarding radiant system cooling load analysis andEmbedded Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems, International

  18. In hot and dry weather such as Phoenix summers, Air Conditioning (AC) and cooling becomes a large percentage of the power load on the grid. In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS) is modeled and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In hot and dry weather such as Phoenix summers, Air Conditioning (AC) and cooling becomes a large percentage of the power load on the grid. In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS, especially during peak hours. In addition to solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, the system includes an ice

  19. Increased

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218in a V2O5 BatteryIncreased confinement

  20. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

  1. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2010-01-01

    cooling load from cool roofs. While important, the annual CO2008. Evolution of cool roof standards in the United States.2005. “Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air

  2. Cooling our Communities. A Guidebook on Tree Planting and Light-Colored Surfacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, H.

    2009-01-01

    Huang. 1988. "Residential Cooling Loads and the Urban Heaton Energy Efficient Cooling (San Jose, CA). Akbari, H. ,mer Heat Islands on Residential Cooling Energy Consumption."

  3. Assessment of Energy Use and Comfort in Buildings Utilizing Mixed-Mode Controls with Radiant Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borgeson, Samuel Dalton

    2010-01-01

    Conditioning and the Low Carbon Cooling Challenge. Windsor,Conditioning and the Low Carbon Cooling Challenge. Windsor,occupant comfort and cooling loads in naturally ventilated

  4. Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

    2014-03-01

    This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

  5. Cooling Dry Cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    2000-07-17

    in the summer causes sig- nificant economic losses in the dairy industry. That decrease in production is brought on by heat stress, and studies have documented that cooling lactat- ing cows increases their milk pro- duction. Although little research has been... produc- tion. yeast, etc.). Management consid- erations include installing cool- ing systems. Although much of the diet adjustment is made with a nutritional consultant, it is typ- ically the dairy producer who decides on the cooling system. Cooling...

  6. STOCHASTIC COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisognano, J.

    2010-01-01

    L. Thorndahl, Stochastic Cooling o f Momentum Spread by F ion Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. Sand S. A. Kheifhets', On Stochastic Cooling, P a r t i c l e

  7. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1981-01-01

    dampened. A presentation was made at the 1940 semi-annual meeting of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers entitled 'Summer Cooling Load as Affected by Heat Gain Through Dry, Sprinkled and Water Covered Roofs.' Solar evaporative roof...

  8. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

  10. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  11. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  12. Superfast Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Machnes; M. B. Plenio; B. Reznik; A. M. Steane; A. Retzker

    2010-01-15

    Currently laser cooling schemes are fundamentally based on the weak coupling regime. This requirement sets the trap frequency as an upper bound to the cooling rate. In this work we present a numerical study that shows the feasibility of cooling in the strong coupling regime which then allows cooling rates that are faster than the trap frequency with state of the art experimental parameters. The scheme we present can work for trapped atoms or ions as well as mechanical oscillators. It can also cool medium size ions chains close to the ground state.

  13. Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01

    For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

  14. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  15. The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    applications for superconductivity have low heat loads in aTransactions on Applied Superconductivity t I, P 2615, (Cooling Systems With Superconducting Electronic Systems M.

  16. Effects of cooling time on a closed LWR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, R. P.; Forsberg, C. W.; Shwageraus, E.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the effects of cooling time prior to reprocessing spent LWR fuel has on the reactor physics characteristics of a PWR fully loaded with homogeneously mixed U-Pu or U-TRU oxide (MOX) fuel is examined. A reactor physics analysis was completed using the CASM04e code. A void reactivity feedback coefficient analysis was also completed for an infinite lattice of fresh fuel assemblies. Some useful conclusions can be made regarding the effect that cooling time prior to reprocessing spent LWR fuel has on a closed homogeneous MOX fuel cycle. The computational analysis shows that it is more neutronically efficient to reprocess cooled spent fuel into homogeneous MOX fuel rods earlier rather than later as the fissile fuel content decreases with time. Also, the number of spent fuel rods needed to fabricate one MOX fuel rod increases as cooling time increases. In the case of TRU MOX fuel, with time, there is an economic tradeoff between fuel handling difficulty and higher throughput of fuel to be reprocessed. The void coefficient analysis shows that the void coefficient becomes progressively more restrictive on fuel Pu content with increasing spent fuel cooling time before reprocessing. (authors)

  17. Cooled railplug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  18. Ventilative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

  19. Space Cooling in North America: Market Overview and Future Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D; Khowailed, Gannate; Sikes, Karen; Grubbs, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The North American space cooling market, particularly in the United States, is experiencing shifts in regulatory regimes, population patterns, economic conditions, and consumer preferences-all catalyzed further by rapid technological innovation. Taken together these factors may result in a slight reduction in air conditioning shipments in the short term, however the longer term trends indicate a continuing increase in the number of air conditioning systems in the U.S. markets. These increases will be greatest in the warmer and more humid (e.g. higher load demand) regions. This will result in increasing pressure on the U.S. electricity supply system to meet the energy peak and consumption demands for building space cooling.

  20. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

  1. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

    1998-12-15

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

  2. Variable area fuel cell cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

  3. Cooled railplug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weldon, W.F.

    1996-05-07

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

  4. Cool Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsClusterInformationContract Management Princeton16,558.1Cool Links Cool

  5. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  6. Guide to Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb sunlight, making them warm in the sun and increasing the need for air conditioning. White or special "cool color" roofs absorb less sunlight, stay cooler in the sun and transmit less heat into the building.

  7. Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1998-01-01

    and procedures to upgrade the large industrial cross-flow cooling towers to increase their performance, or to overcome poor operational deficiencies. One of the earlier methods was to introduce slabs of highl)(. .efficient counter-flow celIular filI packs...

  8. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  9. United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor...

  10. Mixed-mode cooling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail

    2006-01-01

    ASHRAE’s permission. Mixed-Mode Cooling Photo Credit: Paulnatural ventilation for cooling. Buildings typically had1950s of large-scale mechanical cooling, along with other

  11. Methods of Beam Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    of Optical Stochastic Cooling", presented at PAC, (1995).1991). Hangst, J. , "Laser Cooling of a Stored Ion Beam - ATheorem and Phase Space Cooling", Proceedings of the

  12. An Analysis of Dual Zone Loading for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, William Christopher; Yim, Man-Sung

    2007-07-01

    The bumps current fuel assembly designs can achieve exceeds the fuel assembly burnups the current fleet of shipping casks can ship. One method of handling this situation which has been proposed is regionalized loading. This concept involves administratively separating the fuel basket of a shipping cask into two or more regions and loading fuel with different burnup, cooling times and enrichments into these regions. To evaluate how regionalized loading patterns might affect shipping spent nuclear fuel in comparison to uniform loading, a test case study was performed using fuel assemblies discharged from an actual nuclear plant and a shipping cask licensed by the NRC. Using the same fuel assemblies and shipping cask, results were obtained assuming a uniform loading pattern and compared to the results obtained assuming a dual zone loading pattern. Source terms for the analysis were generated using SAS2 and the dose levels were calculated using MCNPS. The analysis showed that the dual zone loading reduced the amount of time required to ship the given quantity of fuel by roughly thirty percent compared to the uniform loading. The average dose rate to the transportation workers and the public due to the implementation of dual zone loading increased. Implications of these increases are discussed. (authors)

  13. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  14. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  15. Office Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  16. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  17. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  18. Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

    2003-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

  19. Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-06-29

    There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

  20. The Analysis of Dynamic Thermal Performance of Insulated Wall and Building Cooling Energy Consumption in Guangzhou 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, L.; Li, X.; Li, L.; Gao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    ST. The simulation predictions indicate that reductions in the cooling load and maximum cooling demand are obtained when the insulation is added in the wall, but the potential of energy saving is quite limited when the wall only is insulated....

  1. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuffer, David

    2015-01-01

    A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  2. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    M. Filippi, B.W. Olesen, Solar radiation and cooling loadY. Chen, The effect of solar radiation on dynamic thermaldependant upon solar radiation, ASHRAE Transactions, (2006)

  3. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve...

  4. Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

    2015-08-05

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase qubit purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of $^{13}$C$_2$-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. In particular, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  5. Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

    2015-11-08

    Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase qubit purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of $^{13}$C$_2$-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. In particular, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  6. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  7. Cool and Save: Cooling Aware Dynamic Workload Scheduling in Multi-socket CPU Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Cool and Save: Cooling Aware Dynamic Workload Scheduling in Multi-socket CPU Systems Raid Ayoub, dissipating the high temper- ature requires a large and energy hungry cooling system which increases the cost and fan control in multi-socket systems have been designed sep- arately leading to less efficient

  8. Introducing an Online Cooling Tower Performance Analysis Tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.; Rao, P.

    2012-01-01

    and variable nature of all of the factors that can influence performance; fan speed, wind speed, sump temperature, heat load, ambient temperature, relative humidity, etc. This can be overwhelming for a regular operator resulting in many cooling towers being set...

  9. RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Radiative and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin andof the Second Nation- al Passive Solar Conference (owned rights. ,I I RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING* LAIVRENCE

  10. Cooling using complimentary tapered plenums

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY)

    2006-08-01

    Where a fluid cooling medium cools a plurality of heat-producing devices arranged in a row along a generalized coordinate direction, with a space between each adjacent pair of devices, each space may have a partition that defines a boundary between a first plenum and a second plenum. The first plenum carries cooling medium across an entrance and thence into a first heat-producing device located on a first side of the partition facing the first plenum. The second plenum carries cooling medium away from a second heat-producing device located on a second side of the partition facing the second plenum and thence across an exit. The partition is disposed so that the first plenum becomes smaller in cross-sectional area as distance increases from the entrance, and the second plenum becomes larger in cross sectional area as distance decreases toward the exit.

  11. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Todd A; Hill, Dallas D

    2014-12-02

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  12. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  13. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  14. CBEI - Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (system definition) Accomplishments - Water-Side Load Metering Swope School of Music Cooling Season Results (AHU-7) July15 - July 21, 2014 (Period 2) Daily -2.6% 2.0%...

  15. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1980-01-01

    payback of 18 to 24 months. As one prominence in recent years, due to the energy plant manager said, "I pay more than that shortage and the increased cost of electricity each year, just to sweep my floors." -- Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation....

  16. Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dakin, James T. (Schenectady, NY)

    1982-09-21

    Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

  17. Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    2000. “Closed Circuit Cooling Tower Selection Program”S R. Lay, 2003 “Radiant Cooling Systems – A Solution forH. 1994. “Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems. ” Center for

  18. Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

    2010-10-05

    The running costs of data centers are dominated by the need to dissipate heat generated by thousands of server machines. Higher temperatures are undesirable as they lead to premature silicon wear-out; in fact, mean time to failure has been shown to decrease exponentially with temperature (Black's law). Although other server components also generate heat, microprocessors still dominate in most server configurations and are also the most vulnerable to wearout as the feature sizes shrink. Even as processor complexity and technology scaling have increased the average energy density inside a processor to maximally tolerable levels, modern microprocessors make extensive use of hardware structures such as the load-store queue and other CAM-based units, and the peak temperatures on chip can be much worse than even the average temperature of the chip. In recent studies, it has been shown that hot-spots inside a processor can generate {approx} 800W/cm{sup 2} heat flux whereas the average heat flux is only 10-50W/cm{sup 2}, and due to this disparity in heat generation, the temperature in hot spots may be up to 30 C more than average chip temperature. The key problem processor hot-spots create is that in order to prevent some critical hardware structures from wearing out faster, the air conditioners in a data center have to be provisioned for worst case requirements. Worse yet, air conditioner efficiencies decrease exponentially as the desired ambient temperature decreases relative to the air outside. As a result, the global cooling costs in data centers, which nearly equals the IT equipment power consumption, are directly correlated with the maximum hot spot temperatures of processors, and there is a distinct requirement for a cooling technique to mitigate hot-spots selectively so that the global air conditioners can operate at higher, more efficient, temperatures. We observe that localized cooling via superlattice microrefrigeration presents exactly this opportunity whereby hot-spots can be cooled selectively and allow global coolers to operate at much more efficient temperatures. Recent advances in processor cooling technologies have demonstrated that thermoelectric coolers (TEC), which use a Peltier effect to form heat pumps, can be used to reduce the temperature of hot spots. By applying a thermoelectric cooler between the heat spreader and the processor die and applying current selectively at the hot spots, heat from the hot-spots can be spread much more efficiently. The ability to implement such thermoelectric coolers on a real silicon device has been demonstrated recently, albeit for small prototype chips. The key question then, that needs to be answered before such thermoelectric coolers can be integrated in commodity server processors, is 'What is the potential for superlattice microrefrigeration to reduce global cooling costs in data centers?'. In order to answer this question, we present a comprehensive analysis of the impact of thermoelectric coolers on global cooling costs. Our thermal analysis covers all aspects of cooling a server in a data center, and integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources with a detailed heat diffusion model of a processor (that models the silicon to the thermoelectric cooler to the heat spreader and the heat sink) and finally the computer room air conditioner (CRAC) efficiency, as shown in Figure 1. In Section II, we present the components of the system model.

  19. I. IONIZATION COOLING A. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    I. IONIZATION COOLING A. Introduction The muon beam at the end of the decay channel is very intense for beam cooling. Cooling by synchrotron radiation, conventional stochastic cooling and conventional electron cooling are all too slow. Optical stochastic cooling [1], electron cooling in a plasma discharge

  20. Cool Roof Systems; What is the Condensation Risk?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A white roof, or cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with a mechanically attached membrane have shown a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparison with similar constructions with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in northern U.S. climate zones.

  1. Cooling Water System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2005-01-01

    During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

  2. Guide to Cool Roofs

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    beautify your home. The immediate and long-term benefits of roofs that stay cool in the sun have made cool roofing the fastest growing sector of the building industry. Studies...

  3. Radiant cooling research scoping study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    www.Zurn.com PAGE 35 Radiant Cooling Research Scoping Study1988. “Radiant Heating and Cooling, Displacement VentilationHeat Recovery and Storm Water Cooling: An Environmentally

  4. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01

    C: DIRECT LIQUID AND AIR COOLING COMPONENT TCASE FORECASTGRAPHICS Direct Liquid Cooling Thermal Components andThermal Design Margins Air Cooling Thermal Components and

  5. Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamato, H.

    2008-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling H. Okamoto, A.M. Sessler,effective transverse laser cooling simultaneously withlongitudinal laser cooling, two possibilities are

  6. Data center cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  7. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of Secretary Chu's favorites techniques, cool roofs mean energy savings through use of reflective materials to regulate building temperatures.

  8. Earth coupled cooling techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grondzik, W.T.; Boyer, L.L.; Johnston, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    Earth coupled cooling is an important consideration for residential and commercial designers, owners, and builders in many regions of the country. The potential benefits which can be expected from passive earth contact cooling are reviewed. Recommendations for the design of earth sheltered structures incorporating earth coupled cooling strategies are also presented.

  9. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  10. Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon

    2014-01-29

    Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.

  11. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  12. Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

    2008-06-18

    The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

  13. Micro-scale heat-exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Andrew John

    2014-01-01

    This project focused on developing a micro-scale counter flow heat exchangers for Joule-Thomson cooling with the potential for both chip and wafer scale integration. This project is differentiated from previous work by focusing on planar, thin film micromachining instead of bulk materials. A process will be developed for fabricating all the devices mentioned above, allowing for highly integrated micro heat exchangers. The use of thin film dielectrics provides thermal isolation, increasing efficiency of the coolers compared to designs based on bulk materials, and it will allow for wafer-scale fabrication and integration. The process is intended to implement a CFHX as part of a Joule-Thomson cooling system for applications with heat loads less than 1mW. This report presents simulation results and investigation of a fabrication process for such devices.

  14. Cooling the dark energy camera instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, R.L.; Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Kuhlmann, S.; Onal, Birce; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    DECam, camera for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is undergoing general design and component testing. For an overview see DePoy, et al in these proceedings. For a description of the imager, see Cease, et al in these proceedings. The CCD instrument will be mounted at the prime focus of the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. The instrument temperature will be 173K with a heat load of 113W. In similar applications, cooling CCD instruments at the prime focus has been accomplished by three general methods. Liquid nitrogen reservoirs have been constructed to operate in any orientation, pulse tube cryocoolers have been used when tilt angles are limited and Joule-Thompson or Stirling cryocoolers have been used with smaller heat loads. Gifford-MacMahon cooling has been used at the Cassegrain but not at the prime focus. For DES, the combined requirements of high heat load, temperature stability, low vibration, operation in any orientation, liquid nitrogen cost and limited space available led to the design of a pumped, closed loop, circulating nitrogen system. At zenith the instrument will be twelve meters above the pump/cryocooler station. This cooling system expected to have a 10,000 hour maintenance interval. This paper will describe the engineering basis including the thermal model, unbalanced forces, cooldown time, the single and two-phase flow model.

  15. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2008-07-11

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

  16. Cool Storage Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppelheimer, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    . This article covers three thermal storage topics. The first section catalogs various thermal storage systems and applications. Included are: load shifting and load leveling, chilled water storage systems, and ice storage systems using Refrigerant 22 or ethylene...

  17. Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    Afforestation in China cools local land surface temperature Shu-Shi Penga , Shilong Piaoa,b,1) and to increase nighttime LST by about 0.2 ± 0.5 °C, on aver- age. The observed daytime cooling is a result of increased evapo- transpiration. The nighttime warming is found to increase with latitude and decrease

  18. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

  19. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

  20. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

  1. Jefferson Lab - COOL Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COOL'15 Privacy and Security Notice PREX - Credit:NASA LINKS Welcome International Program Committee Registration Abstract Submission Program Lodging Travel Visa Participants List...

  2. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  3. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu’s favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs.

  4. Cool Roofs: An Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar.

  5. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  6. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  7. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    an increment of 1 ft to a passive building in each of the 25Passive and Hybrid Division, of the Office of Solar Applica- tions for Buildings,building thermal dynamics including features of particular interest, such as passive

  8. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Denmark, 2007. [31] DOE, EnergyPlus Engineering Reference, (2011). [32] DOE, EnergyPlus Energy Simulation Software,system were developed in EnergyPlus v7.1 for comparison. All

  9. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    can properly model radiation heat transfer are used at thelongwave and shortwave radiation heat transfer and has beenenhanced the radiation heat transfer between the window

  10. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment TopMetathesis and Oxidation of MetalStrategic

  11. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartment ofof Energy Test and

  12. Cooling trapped atoms in optical resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Zippilli; Giovanna Morigi

    2007-03-20

    We derive an equation for the cooling dynamics of the quantum motion of an atom trapped by an external potential inside an optical resonator. This equation has broad validity and allows us to identify novel regimes where the motion can be efficiently cooled to the potential ground state. Our result shows that the motion is critically affected by quantum correlations induced by the mechanical coupling with the resonator, which may lead to selective suppression of certain transitions for the appropriate parameters regimes, thereby increasing the cooling efficiency.

  13. Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A.

    2013-06-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

  14. Coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  15. Why Cool Roofs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2010-01-01

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  16. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  17. Process Cooling Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCann, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Cooling towers have been on the scene for more than 50 years. It is because they have proven to be an economic choice for waste heat dissipation. But it seems, for some reason, that after installation very little attention is paid to the cooling...

  18. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  19. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2014-02-26

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  20. One Cool Roof

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a "Cool Roof" -- making it energy efficient in ways that darker roofs are not. Cool roofs are light in color, and therefore, reflect rather than absorb sunlight.

  1. Rotary engine cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1988-07-26

    A rotary internal combustion engine is described comprising: a rotor housing forming a trochoidal cavity therein; an insert of refractory material received in the recess, an element of a fuel injection and ignition system extending through the housing and insert bores, and the housing having cooling passages extending therethrough. The cooling passages are comprised of drilled holes.

  2. Optimizing the Low Temperature Cooling Energy Supply: Experimental Performance of an Absorption Chiller, a Compression Refrigeration Machine and Direct Cooling - a Comparison 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhrhan, S.; Gerber, A.

    2012-01-01

    Machine or the Absorption Chiller provided with heat from Combined Heat and Power Plants - has the lowest primary energy consumption at what load level. For low levels this is direct cooling. If demand exceeds the capacity of direct cooling, the absorption...

  3. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  4. Turbine blade cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  5. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  6. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  7. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  9. Coherent Electron Cooling: JLab Effort Helps to Cool Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    labmanager.com?articles.viewarticleNo7392titleCoherent-Electron-Cooling--Combining-Methods-to-Cool-Parti... Submitted: Friday, April 13...

  10. STOCHASTIC COOLING OF BUNCHED BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisognano, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    March 11-13, 1981 STOCHASTIC COOLING OF BUNCHED BEAMS J.J.W-7406-BW-48 STOCHASTIC COOLING OF BUNCHED BEAMS* J.J.longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched particle beams.

  11. The Cooling of Particle Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    67, 15. Hangst, J "Laser Cooling of a Stored Ion Beam - ATheorem an.d Phase Space Cooling", Proceedings of theWorkshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, Montreaux, CERN

  12. Stochastic Cooling in Muon Colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barletta, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Research Division Stochastic Cooling in Muon Colliders W.A.AC03-76SFOOO98. STOCHASTIC COOLING IN MUON COLLIDERS Williamcan consider the stochastic cooling option as more than a

  13. Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Saver Heating & Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 48% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for...

  14. MEIC electron cooling program

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is amore »high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.« less

  15. Energy saving and improved comfort by increased air movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2008-01-01

    Energy saving and improved comfort by increased air movementIn this study, the potential saving of cooling energy bysystem. A cooling energy saving between 17% and 48% and a

  16. Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    latent heat, they normally are used in conjunction with an independent ventilation system, which is capable of decoupling the space sensible and latent loads. Condensation concerns limit the application of radiant cooling. This paper studies...

  17. Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting in a Hot and Humid Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, D.; Johnson, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Connell, D.

    1985-01-01

    Fenestration performance in nonresidential buildings in hot climates is often a large cooling load liability. Proper fenestration design and the use of daylight-responsive dimming controls on electric lights can, in addition to drastically reducing...

  18. Use of Plant Toom Logbook Data to Establish Performance of a Cooling Production System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajiah, A. E.; Maheshwari, G. P.; ElSherbini, A. I.

    2006-01-01

    and applies the same for an office building in Kuwait. Data collected between March and October 2004 were analyzed. Inadequate control of supply water temperature and low chiller loading were identified as the key parameters leading to inefficiency of cooling...

  19. Multiphase cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Thomas

    1996-08-20

    I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

  20. An analysis of electrothermodynamic heating and cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honea, Mark Stephen

    1998-01-01

    as the cold junction of a thermocouple. By way of the Peltier effect, then, heat could be added or removed at the interfaces at a rate proportional to the current density and local temperature; by increasing the current, the rate of cooling would be increased...

  1. Home Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans,...

  2. Radiant Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cooling is appropriate for homes, particularly in the arid Southwest. Radiant cooling systems have been embedded in the ceilings of adobe homes, taking advantage of the thermal...

  3. Radiant Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a steady cooling effect. Homes built on concrete slabs are prime candidates for radiant heating systems, and radiant floor cooling takes advantage of the same principle using...

  4. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  5. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  6. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis

  7. Global Cool Cities Alliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

  8. Optimization of Cooling Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    1985-01-01

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

  9. Why Cool Roofs?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple,...

  10. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  11. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  12. Marketing Cool Storage Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCannon, L.

    1987-01-01

    -09-74 Proceedings from the Ninth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, September 16-18, 1987 Utility Cool Storage Inducement Progra~ ,.,.. ?? ,.. ,., Utilities With Inducement~ CA -- Southern California Edison San Diego Gas &Electric..., electric utilities have been faced with risin~ construction costs, more strin~ent re~ulations, and increasin~ environmental constraints re~ardin~ development of new generatin~ facilities. As the viability of cool storage has been substantiated. bv...

  13. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  14. CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartment ofof Energy Test and EvaluationDepartment

  15. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abreu, Mario E. (Poway, CA); Kielczyk, Janusz J. (Escondido, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  16. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical Benjamin K cooling of neutral hydroxyl (OH. ) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high challenged it23­25 . Hydroxyl (OH. , referred to here as OH) would not, at first glance, seem

  17. COMPACT THERMAL MODEL FOR THE TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE PREDICTION OF A WATER-COOLED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    heating application (process indus- try, district heating, etc.). After this, the resulting lower cooled with a heat sink, exploring the concept of hot water cooled electronics as a strategy to reduce as the heat sink outlet water tem- peratures during transient heat loads. The model is validated

  18. Load Management for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    categories: Thermal Energy Storage, Communication and Load Control, Interconnection and Operation of Power Systems, and Selective Load Promotions. The endeavors of the utility industry and Ohio Edison Company in three of the four categories are described...

  19. Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Robin

    Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION Laser cooling of neutral atoms in the past decades has been a breakthrough in the understanding of their dy- namics and led to the seminal proposals of laser cooling-Doppler and subrecoil cooling, as well as new technologies, such as semiconductor diode lasers. Most of those

  20. Muon Cooling Channels Eberhard Keil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keil, Eberhard

    Muon Cooling Channels Eberhard Keil Katharinenstr. 17, DE-10711 Berlin, Germany Abstract Parameters of muon cooling channels are discussed that achieve cooling of a muon beam from initial to final emittances in all three degrees of freedom in a given length. Published theories of ionisation cooling yield

  1. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  2. The ages of very cool hydrogen-rich white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Salaris; E. Garcia-Berro; M. Hernanz; J. Isern; D. Saumon

    2000-07-04

    The evolution of white dwarfs is essentially a cooling process that depends primarily on the energy stored in their degenerate cores and on the transparency of their envelopes. In this paper we compute accurate cooling sequences for carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with hydrogen dominated atmospheres for the full range of masses of interest. For this purpose we use the most accurate available physical inputs for both the equation of state and opacities of the envelope and for the thermodynamic quantities of the degenerate core. We also investigate the role of the latent heat in the computed cooling sequences. We present separately cooling sequences in which the effects of phase separation of the carbon-oxygen binary mixture upon crystallization have been neglected, and the delay introduced in the cooling times when this mechanism is properly taken into account, in order to compare our results with other published cooling sequences which do not include a treatment of this phenomenon. We find that the cooling ages of very cool white dwarfs with pure hydrogen atmospheres have been systematically underestimated by roughly 1.5 Gyr at log(L/Lo)=-4.5 for an otherwise typical 0.6 Mo white dwarf, when phase separation is neglected. If phase separation of the binary mixture is included then the cooling ages are further increased by roughly 10%. Cooling tracks and cooling isochrones in several color-magnitude diagrams are presented as well.

  3. Integrating district cooling with cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spurr, M.

    1996-11-01

    Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

  4. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  5. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  6. Recovery Act: Federspiel Controls (now Vigilent) and State of California Department of General Services Data Center Energy Efficient Cooling Control Demonstration. Final technical project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford; Evers, Myah

    2011-09-30

    Eight State of California data centers were equipped with an intelligent energy management system to evaluate the effectiveness, energy savings, dollar savings and benefits that arise when powerful artificial intelligence-based technology measures, monitors and actively controls cooling operations. Control software, wireless sensors and mesh networks were used at all sites. Most sites used variable frequency drives as well. The system dynamically adjusts temperature and airflow on the fly by analyzing real-time demands, thermal behavior and historical data collected on site. Taking into account the chaotic interrelationships of hundreds to thousands of variables in a data center, the system optimizes the temperature distribution across a facility while also intelligently balancing loads, outputs, and airflow. The overall project will provide a reduction in energy consumption of more than 2.3 million kWh each year, which translates to $240,000 saved and a reduction of 1.58 million pounds of carbon emissions. Across all sites, the cooling energy consumption was reduced by 41%. The average reduction in energy savings across all the sites that use VFDs is higher at 58%. Before this case study, all eight data centers ran the cooling fans at 100% capacity all of the time. Because of the new technology, cooling fans run at the optimum fan speed maintaining stable air equilibrium while also expending the least amount of electricity. With lower fan speeds, the life of the capital investment made on cooling equipment improves, and the cooling capacity of the data center increases. This case study depicts a rare technological feat: The same process and technology worked cost effectively in eight very different environments. The results show that savings were achieved in centers with diverse specifications for the sizes, ages and types of cooling equipment. The percentage of cooling energy reduction ranged from 19% to 78% while keeping temperatures substantially within the limits recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) for data center facilities.

  7. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  8. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  9. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  10. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  11. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  12. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool Magnetic Molecules Print CertainCool

  13. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool Magnetic Molecules PrintCool Magnetic

  14. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool Magnetic Molecules PrintCool

  15. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsClusterInformationContract Management Princeton16,558.1Cool LinksCool

  16. Optimized core design of a supercritical carbon dioxide-cooled fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handwerk, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanley), 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Spurred by the renewed interest in nuclear power, Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFRs) have received increasing attention in the past decade. Motivated by the goals of the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF), a GFR cooled ...

  17. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  18. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  19. Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abernethy, D.

    1986-01-01

    in the Since the "Energy Cris is" Evaporat ive Roof process of producing fabrics. In the fifties ~nd Coo 1ing Sys terns have gained increased acceptance sixties, air conditioning became commonplace as as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost.... An ingenious irrigation engineer des igned the load on existing air conditioning systems by and ins ta lled a "sys tern" to coo1 the roof of a 25% or more and save a comparab Ie amount in new "high-rise", three-story apartment building in construction. Yet...

  20. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  1. Ground Water Cooling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    has a total shop area of 128,000 square feet and the majority of the machine tools are equipped with computerized numerical controls. The cooling system was designed around five (5) floor mounted, 50,000 CFM, air handling units which had been...

  2. Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, M.

    1991-01-01

    Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

  3. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elpern, David G. (Los Angeles, CA); McCabe, Niall (Torrance, CA); Gee, Mark (South Pasadena, CA)

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  4. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  5. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...

  6. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  7. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  8. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Increase...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Energy Partnership Department of Energy to Award 16 Million for GNEP Studies United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes...

  9. ALP hints from cooling anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We review the current status of the anomalies in stellar cooling and argue that, among the new physics candidates, an axion-like particle would represent the best option to account for the hinted additional cooling.

  10. ALP hints from cooling anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurizio Giannotti

    2015-08-30

    We review the current status of the anomalies in stellar cooling and argue that, among the new physics candidates, an axion-like particle would represent the best option to account for the hinted additional cooling.

  11. Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The evaporative cooling principle applies to all equipment that exchanges sensible heat for latent heat. Equipment of this type falls into two general categories: (1) equipment for heat rejection, such as cooling towers and (2) equipment for air...

  12. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1983-01-01

    Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating ...

  13. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    overlapping panels made from a variety of materials such as fiberglass asphalt, wood, polymers, or metals. How they can be made cool: Buy cool asphalt shingles, which use specially...

  14. Natural vs. mechanical ventilation and cooling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Alspach, Peter; Nall, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    both the ventila- tion and cooling effects of outdoorair exchange, including coolingpeople, cooling the space during the day, or cooling the

  15. Cooling airflow design calculations for UFAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    written permission. Cooling Airflow Design Calculations form) height. Table 2: Design cooling airflow performance fortool predictions of UFAD cooling airflow rates and associ-

  16. Drop Impact Behaviors for Cooling Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajawara, Cynthia Ogechi

    2015-01-01

    1992). Liquid Immersion Cooling of a Longitudinal Array ofNext generation spray cooling: high heat flux management inS. (2002). Cryogen spray cooling efficiency: Improvement of

  17. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dols, C.

    2010-01-01

    operating solar heating and cooling systems covering a widepractical heating and cooling system configurations andexperimental heating and cooling system, the main purpose of

  18. Diesel lubrication and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The film describes the parts of diesel lubricating and cooling systems and how they work in relation to each other.

  19. Diesel lubrication and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film describes the parts of diesel lubricating and cooling systems and how they work in relation to each other.

  20. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  1. Cooled particle accelerator target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  2. Empirical Modeling of a Rolling-Piston Compressor Heat Pump for Predictive Control in Low-Lift Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayeski, Nicholas

    Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

  3. Retrofitting unreinforced concrete masonry to resist tornado loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorshorst, Evan G. (Evan Gregory)

    2013-01-01

    Advances in structural design and building materials have significantly increased the performance of many structures under the extreme loading conditions associated with natural disasters such as earthquakes. However, ...

  4. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  5. Understanding and reducing energy and costs in industrial cooling systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    demonstrates the large amount of increased saving from a critical review of plant chilled water systems with both hardware and operational improvements. After showing several reasons why cooling systems are often ignored during plant energy surveys (their...

  6. A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Chen; L. Hsu; X. Wei

    2008-01-07

    This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

  7. Thermodynamics of quantum feedback cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liuzzo-Scorpo, Pietro; Schmidt, Rebecca; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    The ability to initialize quantum registers in pure states lies at the core of many applications of quantum technologies, from sensing to quantum information processing and computation. In this paper we tackle the problem of increasing the polarization bias of an ensemble of two-level register spins by means of joint coherent manipulations, involving a second ensemble of ancillary spins, and energy dissipation into an external heat bath. We formulate this spin refrigeration protocol, akin to algorithmic cooling, in the general language of quantum feedback control, and identify the relevant thermodynamic variables involved. Our analysis is twofold: On the one hand, we assess the optimality of the protocol by means of suitable figures of merit, accounting for both its work cost and effectiveness. On the other hand, we characterise the nature of correlations built up between the register and the ancilla. In particular, we observe that neither the amount of classical correlations nor the quantum entanglement seem...

  8. Evaluation of the cooling trend in the ionosphere using functional regression with incomplete curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokoszka, Piotr

    Evaluation of the cooling trend in the ionosphere using functional regression with incomplete the operation of space­based civil- ian and defense systems. The ionospheric cooling trend studied in this paper the increased concentration of greenhouse gasses. The hypothesis that a cooling trend in the ionosphere exists

  9. Characterization of Engine Control Authority on HCCI Combustion as the High Load Limit is Approached

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi

    2013-01-01

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on characterizing the authority of the available engine controls as the high load limit of HCCI combustion is approached. The experimental work is performed on a boosted single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train to enable the negative valve overlap (NVO) breathing strategy. Valve lift and duration are held constant while phasing is varied in an effort to make the results as relevant as possible to production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) systems on multi-cylinder engines. Results presented include engine loads from 350 to 650 kPa IMEPnet and manifold pressure from 98 to 190 kPaa at 2000 rpm. It is found that in order to increase engine load to 650 kPa IMEPnet, it is necessary to increase manifold pressure and external EGR while reducing the NVO duration. Both NVO duration and fuel injection timing are effective means of controlling combustion phasing, with NVO duration being a coarse control and fuel injection timing being a fine control. NOX emissions are low throughout the study, with emissions below 0.1 g/kW-h at all boosted HCCI conditions, while good combustion efficiency is maintained (>96.5%). Net indicated thermal efficiency increases with load up to 600 kPa IMEPnet, where a peak efficiency of 41% is achieved. Results of independent parametric investigations are presented on the effect of external EGR, intake effect of manifold pressure, and the effect of NVO duration. It is found that increasing EGR at a constant manifold pressure and increasing manifold pressure at a constant EGR rate both have the effect of retarding combustion phasing. It is also found that combustion phasing becomes increasingly sensitive to NVO duration as engine load increases. Finally, comparisons are made between three commonly used noise metrics (AVL noise meter, ringing intensity (RI), and maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR)). It is found that compared to the AVL noise meter, RI significantly underestimates combustion noise under boosted conditions.

  10. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The City of San José is considering the installation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system on the roof of the San José Convention Center. The installation would be on a lower section of the roof covering approximately 21,000 ft2. To assist city staff in making a decision on the PV installation, the Department of Energy Tiger Team has investigated potential indirect benefits of installing a solar PV system on the Convention Center roof. The indirect benefits include potential increase in roof life, as well as potential reduced heating and cooling load in the building due to roof shading from the PV system.

  11. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  12. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  13. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  14. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  15. Natural Cooling Retrofit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    bulb teMperature drops below a predeterMined point, usually 45 - 50 degrees F. Since --"--'~---~--'-------------~------------the??? c:litl1e-i"-i-~:;-n ()'r -op,~r a t inq ~_. elit.~I'" g'y is" sa ved -and ch :i.l1ei' "'11 fe'---'i t~-'ex:';:' tended... ambient wet bulb can be achieved on a 48 degree F dry bulb day with l~n% relative humidity or a 72 rlegree F dry bulb with 1n% relative humidity. Oesign Considerations The design of a heat exchanger system of Nat ural Cool ing is straight forward...

  16. Cooling apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayes, James C. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2009-05-05

    A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

  17. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain

  18. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortalCool Magnetic Molecules Print

  19. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsClusterInformationContract Management Princeton16,558.1Cool Links

  20. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsClusterInformationContract Management Princeton16,558.1Cool

  1. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  2. NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    the hours of 9 PM and 7 AM when night sky radiation could greatly reduce space cooling. A large problem with previous night sky radiation cooling concepts have been that they have typically required exotic building configurations (e.g. Hay, 1978... RESIDENTIAL NOCTURNAL RADIATION COOLING CONCEPT Danny S. Parker John Sherwin Principal Research Scientist Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Cocoa, FL ABSTRACT Using a building’s roof to take advantage...

  3. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

    2002-01-01

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  4. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  5. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  6. Parametric Study of Turbine Blade Internal Cooling and Film Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rallabandi, Akhilesh P.

    2010-10-12

    -1 PARAMETRIC STUDY OF TURBINE BLADE INTERNAL COOLING AND FILM COOLING A Dissertation by AKHILESH PRABHAKAR RALLABANDI Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... OF PHILOSOPHY August 2010 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering PARAMETRIC STUDY OF TURBINE BLADE INTERNAL COOLING AND FILM COOLING A Dissertation by AKHILESH PRABHAKAR RALLABANDI Submitted to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  7. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van [Sidmar N.V., Gent (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  8. Optimal cooling of a driven artificial atom in dissipative environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingjie Du; Yang Yu

    2013-06-02

    We study microwave-driven cooling in a superconducting flux qubit subjected to environment noises. For the weak decoherence, our analytical results agree well with the experimental observations near the degeneracy point and show that the microwave amplitude for optimal cooling should depend linearly on the dc flux detuning. With the decoherence increasing, more vibrational degrees of freedom couple in, making the ordinary cooling method less effective or even fail. We propose an improved cooling method, which can eliminate the perturbation of additional vibrational degrees of freedom hence keep high efficiency even under the strong decoherence. Furthermore, we point out that the decoherence will modulate the frequency where microwave-driven Landau-Zener transition reaches maximum in both methods, displaying the feature of incoherent dynamics which is important for the optimal cooling of qubits and other quantum systems.

  9. 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling load is due to people, lights, and heat transfer through the walls and the windows. The number of 5-kW window air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    3-19 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling.17 3-51 The lighting energy consumption of a storage room is to be reduced by installing motion sensors lamps)(60 W/lamp )(3285 hours/year) = 4730 kWh/year Cost Savings = (Energy Savings)(Unit cost of energy

  10. Emergency core cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  11. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  12. Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemova, Galina [Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada); Kashyap, Raman [Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada); Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    We present a theoretical scheme for laser cooling of rare-earth-doped solids with optical superradiance (SR), which is the coherent, sharply directed spontaneous emission of photons by a system of laser-excited rare-earth ions in the solid-state host (glass or crystal). We consider an Yb{sup +}-doped ZnF{sub 4}-BaF{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3}-AlF{sub 3}-NaF (ZBLAN) sample pumped at a wavelength 1015 nm, with a rectangular pulsed source with a power of {approx}433 W and a duration of 10 ns. The intensity of the SR is proportional to the square of the number of excited ions. This unique feature of SR permits an increase in the rate of the cooling process in comparison with the traditional laser cooling of the rare-earth-doped solids with anti-Stokes spontaneous incoherent radiation (fluorescence). This scheme overcomes the limitation of using only low phonon energy glasses for laser cooling.

  13. Dynamic Transfer Capability Analysis with Wind Farms and Dynamic Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    . An investigation on the effect of dynamics loads, wind farms and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices capability unnecessarily limits the power transfers and is a costly and inefficient use of a network with increasing loads, the need to transfer power over long transmission lines increases. Deregulation

  14. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01

    be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transitionone half of an air-cooled datacenter's energy consumption isof time if desired by the datacenter owner. If the building

  15. Radiant cooling research scoping study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    recognition of ground-source heat pumps as an option? DesignOmicron A ground source heat pump & radiant heating cooling

  16. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  17. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  18. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  19. Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance Computing Center Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance Computing Center Study evaluates the...

  20. Advanced Refrigerant-Based Cooling Technologies for Information and Communication Infrastructure (ARCTIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Salamon

    2012-12-13

    Faster, more powerful and dense computing hardware generates significant heat and imposes considerable data center cooling requirements. Traditional computer room air conditioning (CRAC) cooling methods are proving increasingly cost-ineffective and inefficient. Studies show that using the volume of room air as a heat exchange medium is wasteful and allows for substantial mixing of hot and cold air. Further, it limits cabinet/frame/rack density because it cannot effectively cool high heat density equipment that is spaced closely together. A more cost-effective, efficient solution for maximizing heat transfer and enabling higher heat density equipment frames can be accomplished by utilizing properly positioned �¢����phase change�¢��� or �¢����two-phase�¢��� pumped refrigerant cooling methods. Pumping low pressure, oil-free phase changing refrigerant through microchannel heat exchangers can provide up to 90% less energy consumption for the primary cooling loop within the room. The primary benefits of such a solution include reduced energy requirements, optimized utilization of data center space, and lower OPEX and CAPEX. Alcatel-Lucent recently developed a modular cooling technology based on a pumped two-phase refrigerant that removes heat directly at the shelf level of equipment racks. The key elements that comprise the modular cooling technology consist of the following. A pump delivers liquid refrigerant to finned microchannel heat exchangers mounted on the back of equipment racks. Fans drive air through the equipment shelf, where the air gains heat dissipated by the electronic components therein. Prior to exiting the rack, the heated air passes through the heat exchangers, where it is cooled back down to the temperature level of the air entering the frame by vaporization of the refrigerant, which is subsequently returned to a condenser where it is liquefied and recirculated by the pump. All the cooling air enters and leaves the shelves/racks at nominally the same temperature. Results of a 100 kW prototype data center installation of the refrigerant-based modular cooling technology were dramatic in terms of energy efficiency and the ability to cool high-heat-density equipment. The prototype data center installation consisted of 10 racks each loaded with 10 kW of high-heat-density IT equipment with the racks arranged in a standard hot-aisle/cold-aisle configuration with standard cabinet spacing. A typical chilled-water CRAC unit would require approximately 16 kW to cool such a heat load. In contrast, the refrigerant-based modular cooling technology required only 2.3 kW of power for the refrigerant pump and shelf-level fans, a reduction of 85 percent. Differences in hot-aisle and cold-aisle temperature were also substantially reduced, mitigating many issues that arise in purely air-based cooling systems, such as mixing of hot and cold air streams, or from placing high-heat-density equipment in close proximity. The technology is also such that it is able to retro-fit live equipment without service interruption, which is particularly important to the large installed ICT customer base, thereby providing a means of mitigating reliability and performance concerns during the installation, training and validation phases of product integration. Moreover, the refrigerant used in our approach, R134a, is a widely-used, non-toxic dielectric liquid which, unlike water, is non-conducting and non-corrosive and will not damage electronics in the case of a leak�¢����a triple-play win over alternative water-based liquid coolant technologies. Finally, through use of a pumped refrigerant, pressures are modest (~60 psi), and toxic lubricants and oils are not required, in contrast to compressorized refrigerant systems�¢����another environmental win. Project Activities - The ARCTIC project goal was to further develop an

  1. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  2. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  3. Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Building America Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings, Ithaca, New York; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  5. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1982-01-01

    Evaporation is nature's way of cooling. By the application of a thin film of water, in the form of a mist, on the roof of the building, roof temperatures can be reduced from as high as 165o to a cool 86oF. Thus, under-roof ...

  6. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  7. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  8. No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coke, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    BLEED COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT PROCESS ALDEN L. COKE, CWS IV, PRESIDENT, AQUA-FLO, INC., BALTIMORE, MARYLAND ABSTRACT This paper describes a process to treat cooling tower water by means of a fully automated and chemical free mechanical water... treatment process. This is an alternative to conventional chemical treatment. Beginning with a suction pump to draw water out of the tower sump, water goes through a permanent magnetic descaler to increase the water solubility and begin the scale...

  9. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  10. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  11. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  12. Predictive pre-cooling control for low lift radiant cooling using building thermal mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayeski, Nicholas (Nicholas Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    Low lift cooling systems (LLCS) hold the potential for significant energy savings relative to conventional cooling systems. An LLCS is a cooling system which leverages existing HVAC technologies to provide low energy cooling ...

  13. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  14. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  15. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  16. Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J

    2014-11-25

    Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.

  17. Load Management Made Simple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.

    1985-01-01

    Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

  18. Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

  19. Helium cooled Flibe blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.

    1984-10-01

    The blanket design uses a pressure vessel to contain the 50 atmosphere helium gas. Helium cools the first wall and blanket internals. The internals consist of a bed of beryllium balls nominally 1 cm diameter in which neutrons are multiplied and later captured, breeding adequate (even excess) amounts of tritium and releasing energy in exothermic nuclear reactions. Tritium is bred in the molten flibe salt which flows slowly (0.1m/sec) in steel tubes. The salt is kept reducing by periodic reacting with beryllium so the tritium will be in the T/sub 2/ form, however with somewhat enhanced corrosion rate the salt could be kept oxidizing in which case the tritium would be in the TF form. To prevent the tritium from permitting too much into the helium stream, a tungsten coating on the inside of the tubes is proposed. Tritium is removed from the salt and helium by processing both. Because the solubility of tritium in Flibe is so low, there will be a strong driving force for tritium permeation and this places a great burden on a high integrity tungsten permeation barrier. The tritium in the helium is prevented from permeating excessively into the steam system by jacketing the steel steam generator tubes with a 1 mm aluminum jacket. Clearly, tritium containment and barrier development are the most important feasibility issues for this design.

  20. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  1. High field solenoids for muon cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Field Solenoids for Muon Cooling M. A. Green a , Y. EyssaField Solenoids for Muon Cooling · M. A. Green a, Y. EyssaABSTRA CT The proposed cooling system for the muon collider

  2. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  3. Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fans In many climates, you can use a whole-house fan to meet all or most of your home cooling needs. Evaporative Cooling For homes in dry climates, evaporative cooling or...

  4. Cool Stars in Hot Places

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. T. Megeath; E. Gaidos; J. J. Hester; F. C. Adams; J. Bally; J. -E. Lee; S. Wolk

    2007-04-08

    During the last three decades, evidence has mounted that star and planet formation is not an isolated process, but is influenced by current and previous generations of stars. Although cool stars form in a range of environments, from isolated globules to rich embedded clusters, the influences of other stars on cool star and planet formation may be most significant in embedded clusters, where hundreds to thousands of cool stars form in close proximity to OB stars. At the cool stars 14 meeting, a splinter session was convened to discuss the role of environment in the formation of cool stars and planetary systems; with an emphasis on the ``hot'' environment found in rich clusters. We review here the basic results, ideas and questions presented at the session. We have organized this contribution into five basic questions: what is the typical environment of cool star formation, what role do hot star play in cool star formation, what role does environment play in planet formation, what is the role of hot star winds and supernovae, and what was the formation environment of the Sun? The intention is to review progress made in addressing each question, and to underscore areas of agreement and contention.

  5. Non-intrusive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

    2001-05-22

    A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

  6. Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

    2011-04-28

    Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

  7. Direct-Cooled Power Electronic Substrate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    70C standalone cooling loop * Three dimensional inverter packaging and eliminating the heat exchanger volume by directly cooling the DBC result in compact, light weight design...

  8. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Cooling Equipment

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Packaged air conditioning units were the main cooling system for 20,504 million square feet of cooled floorspace, more than twice the...

  9. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  10. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

  11. Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home cooling accounts for 6 percent of the average household's energy use. To help you save money by saving energy, our experts are answering your home cooling questions. |...

  12. Component having cooling channel with hourglass cross section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X; Lee, Ching-Pang

    2015-04-28

    A cooling channel (36, 36B, 63-66) cools inner surfaces (48, 50) of exterior walls (41, 43) of a component (20, 60). Interior side surfaces (52, 54) of the channel converge to a waist (W2), forming an hourglass shaped transverse profile (46). The inner surfaces (48, 50) may have fins (44) aligned with the coolant flow (22). The fins may have a transverse profile (56A, 56B) highest at mid-width of the inner surfaces (48, 50). Turbulators (92) may be provided on the side surfaces (52, 54) of the channel, and may urge the coolant flow toward the inner surfaces (48, 50). Each turbulator (92) may have a peak (97) that defines the waist of the cooling channel. Each turbulator may have a convex upstream side (93). These elements increase coolant flow in the corners (C) of the channel to more uniformly and efficiently cool the exterior walls (41, 43).

  13. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  14. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01

    and medium size dairy operations unless the pro- cess can be made more efficient or some other economic benefit can be derived from the manure. A recent study indicated that a batch load process might be more efficient in waste stabilization and biogas... rate of biogas production was 0. 69 liters biogas/liter digester/ day. This volumetric biogas production increased with increasing influent total solids concentration. Influent concentration had little effect on other biogas production parameters...

  15. Qantum theory of optomechanical cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Marquardt; A. A. Clerk; S. M. Girvin

    2008-03-07

    We review the quantum theory of cooling of a mechanical oscillator subject to the radiation pressure force due to light circulating inside a driven optical cavity. Such optomechanical setups have been used recently in a series of experiments by various groups to cool mechanical oscillators (such as cantilevers) by factors reaching $10^{5}$, and they may soon go to the ground state of mechanical motion. We emphasize the importance of the sideband-resolved regime for ground state cooling, where the cavity ring-down rate is smaller than the mechanical frequency. Moreover, we illustrate the strong coupling regime, where the cooling rate exceeds the cavity ring-down rate and where the driven cavity resonance and the mechanical oscillation hybridize.

  16. Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas...

  17. Energy Savers: Cool Summer Tips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.

    2001-06-18

    A tri-fold brochure addressing energy-saving tips for homeowners ranging from low- or no-cost suggestions to higher cost suggestions for longer-term savings. Cooling, windows, weatherizing, and landscaping are addressed.

  18. A Successful Cool Storage Rate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    local natural gas distribution company. The end result is a very successful cool storage program with 52 projects and 31 megawatts of demand reduction in the first three and one-half years of program implementation....

  19. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1980-01-01

    Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water...

  20. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  1. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  2. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  3. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  4. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  5. Turbine airfoil with controlled area cooling arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George

    2010-04-27

    A gas turbine airfoil (10) includes a serpentine cooling path (32) with a plurality of channels (34,42,44) fluidly interconnected by a plurality of turns (38,40) for cooling the airfoil wall material. A splitter component (50) is positioned within at least one of the channels to bifurcate the channel into a pressure-side channel (46) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the pressure side (24) and a suction-side channel (48) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the suction side (26) longitudinally downstream of an intermediate height (52). The cross-sectional area of the pressure-side channel (46) and suction-side channel (48) are thereby controlled in spite of an increasing cross-sectional area of the airfoil along its longitudinal length, ensuring a sufficiently high mach number to provide a desired degree of cooling throughout the entire length of the airfoil.

  6. Cool Roofs: Your Questions Answered

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When Secretary Chu announced that the Department of Energy had installed a “cool roof” atop the west building of our Washington, DC headquarters, it elicited a fair number of questions from his Facebook fans. We decided to reach out to the people behind the project for their insight on the specific benefits of switching to a cool roof, and the process that went into making that choice.

  7. Quantum limit of photothermal cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone De Liberato; Neill Lambert; Franco Nori

    2010-11-30

    We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

  8. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  9. Stopping Cooling Flows with Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio Brighenti; William G. Mathews

    2006-01-24

    We describe 2D gasdynamical models of jets that carry mass as well as energy to the hot gas in galaxy clusters. These flows have many attractive attributes for solving the galaxy cluster cooling flow problem: Why the hot gas temperature and density profiles resemble cooling flows but show no spectral evidence of cooling to low temperatures. Using an approximate model for the cluster A1795, we show that mass-carrying jets can reduce the overall cooling rate to or below the low values implied by X-ray spectra. Biconical subrelativistic jets, described with several ad hoc parameters, are assumed to be activated when gas flows toward or cools near a central supermassive black hole. As the jets proceed out from the center they entrain more and more ambient gas. The jets lose internal pressure by expansion and are compressed by the ambient cluster gas, becoming rather difficult to observe. For a wide variety of initial jet parameters and several feedback scenarios the global cooling can be suppressed for many Gyrs while maintaining cluster temperature profiles similar to those observed. The intermittancy of the feedback generates multiple generations of X-ray cavities similar to those observed in the Perseus Cluster and elsewhere.

  10. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  11. Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

  12. Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Males, R.; Hassig, N.

    1981-01-01

    larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

  13. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  14. JETC: Joint Energy, Thermal and Cooling Management for CPU and Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    JETC: Joint Energy, Thermal and Cooling Management for CPU and Memory Subsystems in Servers Raid Ayoub, Rajib Nath, Tajana Rosing, UCSD 2052.002 Observation Model of Thermal Coupling Between CPU: No Memory Management NCM: No CPU Migration DLB: Dynamic Load Balancing DTM-CM+PI: Dynamic Thermal Management

  15. 192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

  16. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock sequence above the mines. Utilizing pumping strategy No.1 (two mines) capital costs were 25 percent lower a

  17. Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K.; Fox, K.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Aloy, A.; Trofimenko, A.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gerdes, K.D. [EM-21, Office of Waste Processing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Recent tank retrieval, blending, and treatment strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled-melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and Savannah River Site. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and glass durability. This paper summarizes the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in glass. In summary: Glasses with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading ranging from 25 to 27 wt% were formulated and tested at a crucible scale. Successful glass formulations with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that do not precipitate nepheline during CCC treatment and had spinel crystals 1 vol% or less after 24 hr heat treatment at 950 deg. C were obtained. The selected glass, HAL-17 with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, had viscosity and electrical conductivity within the boundaries for adequate processing in the Joule heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. This HAL-17 glass was successfully processed using small-scale (SMK) and larger scale (EP-5) melters. There was no indication of spinel settling during processing. The product glass samples from these melter tests contained 1 to 4 vol% spinel crystals that are likely formed during cooling. The PCT tests on the product glasses are underway. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to formulate the glasses with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that satisfy the property requirements and is processable with Joule-heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. The 'nepheline discriminator' for HAL-17 glass is 0.45, which supports that claim that the current rule ('nepheline discriminator' < 0.62) is too restrictive. Considering that the cost of HLW treatment is highly dependent on loading of waste in glass, this result provides a potential for significant cost saving for Hanford. The maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading that can be achieved will also depend on concentrations of other components in wastes. For example, the loading of waste used in this study was also limited by the spinel crystallization after 950 deg. C 24 hr heat treatment, which suggests that the concentrations of spinel-forming components such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, and MnO would be critical in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading achievable. The observed glass production rate per unit melter surface area of 0.75 MT/(d.m{sup 2}) for SMK test is comparable to the design capacity of WTP HLW melters at 0.8 MT/(d.m{sup 2}). However, the test with EP-5 melter achieved 0.38 MT/(d.m{sup 2}), which is roughly a half of the WTP design capacity. This result may imply that the glass with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may not achieve the WTP design production rate. However, this hypothesis is not conclusive because of unknown effects of melter size and operation

  18. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  19. Simulation of cooling and solidification of three-dimensional bulk borosilicate glass: effect of structural relaxations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, N.; George, D.; Ahzi, Said; Remond, Y.; Joulaee, N.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Bouyer, F.

    2014-02-28

    Abstract The modeling of the viscoelastic stress evolution and specific volume relaxation of a bulky glass cast is presented in this article and is applied to the experimental cooling process of an inactive nuclear waste vitrification process. The concerned borosilicate glass is solidified and cooled down to ambient temperature in a stainless steel canister, and the thermomechanical response of the package is simulated. There exists a deviant compression of the liquid core due to the large glass package compared to standard tempered glass plates. The stress load development of the glass cast is finally studied for different thermal load scenarios, where the cooling process parameters or the final cooldown rates were changed, and we found a great influence of the studied cooldown rates on the maximum stress buildup at ambient temperature.

  20. Leafy Green Preparation and Cooling Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leafy Green Preparation and Cooling Study Dominique N. Bibbins #12;Background : Leafy Greens z. #12;Background: Cooling Study z This study observes how restaurants keep their food cooled Food-borne illnesses may result when foods are improperly cooled or stored. #12;My Contribution z

  1. Muon Cooling via Ionization Andrea Kay Forget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    1 Muon Cooling via Ionization Andrea Kay Forget Department of Physics, Wayne State University decay, as a result of their short lives many of the known cooling techniques (electron, stochastic, and laser cooling) cannot be used to properly cool muons that are being used in proposed accelerators

  2. Introduction Final Cooling Channel -High Frequency RF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Outline Introduction Final Cooling Channel - High Frequency RF Muon Collider Final Cooling Hisham Sayed February 27, 2014 1 / 10 #12;Outline Introduction Final Cooling Channel - High Frequency RF Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Final Cooling Channel - High Frequency RF 2 / 10 #12;Outline Introduction Final

  3. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  4. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  5. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  6. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  7. System and method for regulating EGR cooling using a rankine cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Morris, Dave

    2015-12-22

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and method for regulating exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling, and more particularly, to a Rankine cycle WHR system and method, including a recuperator bypass arrangement to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling for engine efficiency improvement and thermal management. This disclosure describes other unique bypass arrangements for increased flexibility in the ability to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling.

  8. Metal Cooling in Simulations of Cosmic Structure Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Britton D. Smith; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

    2008-01-03

    The addition of metals to any gas can significantly alter its evolution by increasing the rate of radiative cooling. In star-forming environments, enhanced cooling can potentially lead to fragmentation and the formation of low-mass stars, where metal-free gas-clouds have been shown not to fragment. Adding metal cooling to numerical simulations has traditionally required a choice between speed and accuracy. We introduce a method that uses the sophisticated chemical network of the photoionization software, Cloudy, to include radiative cooling from a complete set of metals up to atomic number 30 (Zn) that can be used with large-scale three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Our method is valid over an extremely large temperature range (10 K 10^-4 Zsun, regions of density and temperature exist where gas is both thermally unstable and has a cooling time less than its dynamical time. We identify these doubly unstable regions as the most inducive to fragmentation. At high redshifts, the CMB inhibits efficient cooling at low temperatures and, thus, reduces the size of the doubly unstable regions, making fragmentation more difficult.

  9. Personal cooling apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

  10. EHS-Net Cooling Study EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHS-Net Cooling Study 1 EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol 1. Title EHS-Net Cooling Study 2. Research of foodborne illness in foodservice establishments. Improper cooling significantly contributes to the overall temperature abuse opportunities. The purpose of this study is to collect descriptive data on cooling policies

  11. Energy and economic implications of combining district cooling with cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spurr, M.; Larsson, I.

    1995-12-31

    Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation. The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. The economics of alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration depend on many variables, including cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, value of electricity, value and temperature of heat recovered and other factors.

  12. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  13. CFD ANALYSES ON THE COOLING FOR SCQ MAGNETS IN BEPC II UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HE,Z.H.WANG,L.TANK,H.M.ZHANG,X.B.JIA,L.X.

    2003-09-22

    A pair of superconducting interaction region quadrupole magnets in Beijing Electron-Positron Collider Upgrade (BEPCII) are to be cooled by supercritical helium in order to eliminate the flow instabilities in the constrained cooling channels. The fluid flow is simulated by the commercial computational dynamics fluid software. The heat loads to the superconducting quadrupole (SCQ) magnets from the radiation shields at 80 K and from the thermal conduction of mechanical supports are considered. The temperature distribution of the fluid in the liquid helium cooling channels, and the heat transfer in the SCQ magnet and by its supports are presented. The influence of mass flow rate on pressure drop in the cooling passage is analyzed.

  14. Unparticle effects in Supernovae cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanta Kumar Das

    2007-11-08

    Recently H. Georgi suggested that a scale invariant unparticle ${\\mathcal{U}}$ sector with an infrared fixed point at high energy can couple with the SM matter via a higher-dimensional operator suppressed by a high cut-off scale. Intense phenomenological search of this unparticle sector in the collider and flavour physics context has already been made. Here we explore it's impact in cosmology, particularly it's possible role in the supernovae cooling. We found that the energy-loss rate (and thus the cooling) is strongly dependent on the effective scale \\LdaU and the anomalous dimension \\dU of this unparticle theory.

  15. Single-Photon Molecular Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edvardas Narevicius; S. Travis Bannerman; Mark G. Raizen

    2009-01-04

    We propose a general method to cool the translational motion of molecules. Our method is an extension of single photon atomic cooling which was successfully implemented in our laboratory. Requiring a single event of absorption followed by a spontaneous emission, this method circumvents the need for a cycling transition and can be applied to any paramagnetic or polar molecule. In our approach, trapped molecules would be captured near their classical turning points in an optical dipole or RF-trap following an irreversible transition process.

  16. Cooling assembly for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Werth, John (Princeton, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet.

  17. Lamination cooling system formation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

    2012-06-19

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  18. Lamination cooling system formation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

    2009-05-12

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  19. Advanced low noise cooling fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spek, H.F. van der; Nelissen, P.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The results from an intensive research program show that it is possible to reduce the sound power level of cooling fans by 15 dB(A) by altering blade cord width and swept leading and trailing edge lines. Combination with the reduction of the pressure drop can result in a step of 20 dB(A) and a reduction with 25 percent of the absorbed power. Testing was conducted in accordance with recognized international measuring standards and the results will be presented, including consequences for cooling tower and condenser design.

  20. Improving Process Cooling Tower Eddiciency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turpish, W.

    2013-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-13-05-08.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7120 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-13-05-08.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Cooling Towers... in Process Applications Improving Process Cooling Tower Efficiency By: William (Bill) Turpish, PE, CEM, PEM, CEA W J Turpish and Associates, PC Shelby, North Carolina Rev 1.10 ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy...

  1. Quantum noise in photothermal cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Liberato, Simone [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Lambert, Neill [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. We achieve this by developing a Langevin formalism for the motion of the cantilever, valid in the bad-cavity limit, which includes both photon absorption shot noise and the noise due to radiation pressure. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise-dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

  2. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  3. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  4. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  5. Improving Durability of Turbine Components Through Trenched Film Cooling and Contoured Endwalls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, David G.; Thole, Karen A.

    2014-09-30

    The experimental and computational studies of the turbine endwall and vane models completed in this research program have provided a comprehensive understanding of turbine cooling with combined film cooling and TBC. To correctly simulate the cooling effects of TBC requires the use of matched Biot number models, a technique developed in our laboratories. This technique allows for the measurement of the overall cooling effectiveness which is a measure of the combined internal and external cooling for a turbine component. The overall cooling effectiveness provides an indication of the actual metal temperature that would occur at engine conditions, and is hence a more powerful performance indicator than the film effectiveness parameter that is commonly used for film cooling studies. Furthermore these studies include the effects of contaminant depositions which are expected to occur when gas turbines are operated with syngas fuels. Results from the endwall studies performed at Penn State University and the vane model studies performed at the University of Texas are the first direct measurements of the combined effects of film cooling and TBC. These results show that TBC has a dominating effect on the overall cooling effectiveness, which enhances the importance of the internal cooling mechanisms, and downplays the importance of the film cooling of the external surface. The TBC was found to increase overall cooling effectiveness by a factor of two to four. When combined with TBC, the primary cooling from film cooling holes was found to be due to the convective cooling within the holes, not from the film effectiveness on the surface of the TBC. Simulations of the deposition of contaminants on the endwall and vane surfaces showed that these depositions caused a large increase in surface roughness and significant degradation of film effectiveness. However, despite these negative factors, the depositions caused only a slight decrease in the overall cooling effectiveness on the endwall, and in some cases a slight increase in overall cooling effectiveness on the vane model. This was attributed to the insulating effects of the depositions which compensated for the negative factors.

  6. Thermosiphon Cooling of a Large Office /Laboratory Complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    and cold cooling tower water is used to chill water. This system has operated an average of 3000 hours each winter and has saved over $60,000 per year in electrical costs. Because of increased system demand a third 2000 ton chiller was installed which...

  7. Influence of hole shape on the performance of a turbine vane endwall film-cooling scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    Rising combustor exit temperatures in gas turbine engines necessitate active cooling for the downstream industrial gas turbine engines. One means of achieving this goal is to increase the combustion temper- ature are so high in today's gas turbine engines that in the absence of complex cooling schemes the turbine

  8. Reducing Air Compressor Work by Using Inlet Air Cooling and Dehumidification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Mark James

    2011-02-22

    both vapor compression and absorption cycle chillers to cool and dehumidify the inlet air. The results show that the performance increases as much as 8 percent for the compressor system with absorption inlet cooling and as much as 5 percent when using...

  9. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  10. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  11. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors for each shift... The purpose of this paper is to analyze operating hours of small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in the United States and develop ranges of load factors for use as diagnostic tools for effective energy management. Load factor is defined...

  12. Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2011-06-28

    An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.

  13. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  14. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

  15. Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Sexton, Brendan Francis (Simpsonville, SC); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

  16. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  17. Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet are optional. Size range is 1,000 - 70,000 cfm. Note: Under LEED, this unit may qualify for innovation points qualify for innovation points. Trane Climate ChangerTM air handler with CDQ dehumidification Trane Climate

  18. Engineering Design Cooling flow design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    · Moderators 2 x H2O (0.5 L) Gd poison + Boral decoupler CH4 (0.5 L) Gd poison + Boral decoupler H2 (0.8 L) no poison + Boral decoupler · Reflector - Rods of Beryllium (D2O cooled) · 17 Neutron Beam lines Upgrade

  19. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  20. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2012-11-06

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  1. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2010-09-28

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  2. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Rubbia; A. Ferrari; Y. Kadi; V. Vlachoudis

    2006-02-03

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more favourably exploited with the heavier ion colliding against a gas-jet D2 target. Kinematics is generally very favourable, with emission angles in a narrow angular cone and a relatively concentrated outgoing energy spectrum which allows an efficient collection as a neutral gas in a tiny volume with a technology at high temperatures perfected at ISOLDE. It is however of a much more general applicability. The method appears capable of producing a "table top" storage ring with an accumulation rate in excess of 10**14 Li-8 radioactive ion/s for possible use for radioactive beams for physics studies (for example for beta-beams) or for therapy.

  3. Rapid heating and cooling in two-dimensional Yukawa systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Feng; Bin Liu; J. Goree

    2011-04-19

    Simulations are reported to investigate solid superheating and liquid supercooling of two-dimensional (2D) systems with a Yukawa interparticle potential. Motivated by experiments where a dusty plasma is heated and then cooled suddenly, we track particle motion using a simulation with Langevin dynamics. Hysteresis is observed when the temperature is varied rapidly in a heating and cooling cycle. As in the experiment, transient solid superheating, but not liquid supercooling, is observed. Solid superheating, which is characterized by solid structure above the melting point, is found to be promoted by a higher rate of temperature increase.

  4. Adaptive Environmentally Contained Power and Cooling IT Infrastructure for the Data Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Ron; Chavez, Miguel, E.

    2012-06-27

    The objectives of this program were to research and develop a fully enclosed Information Technology (IT) rack system for 100 kilowatts (KW) of IT load that provides its own internal power and cooling with High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC defined as 480 volt) and chilled water as the primary inputs into the system and accepts alternative energy power sources such as wind and solar. For maximum efficiency, internal power to the IT equipment uses distributed High Voltage Direct Current power (HVDC defined as 360-380 volt) from the power source to the IT loads. The management scheme aggressively controls energy use to insure the best utilization of available power and cooling resources. The solution incorporates internal active management controls that not only optimizes the system environment for the given dynamic IT loads and changing system conditions, but also interfaces with data center Building Management Systems (BMS) to provide a complete end-to-end view of power and cooling chain. This technology achieves the goal of a Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) of 1.25, resulting in a 38% reduction in the total amount of energy needed to support a 100KW IT load compared to current data center designs.

  5. Sympathetic Cooling of Lithium by Laser-cooled Cesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Kraft; M. Mudrich; K. Singer; R. Grimm; A. Mosk; M. Weidemueller

    2001-09-27

    We present first indications of sympathetic cooling between two neutral, optically trapped atomic species. Lithium and cesium atoms are simultaneously stored in an optical dipole trap formed by the focus of a CO$_2$ laser, and allowed to interact for a given period of time. The temperature of the lithium gas is found to decrease when in thermal contact with cold cesium. The timescale of thermalization yields an estimate for the Li-Cs cross-section.

  6. New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIXConcentratingInstitutionalEnergyNew CleanNew Cool Roof

  7. Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieninger, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    simple thermal energy storage system that already exists in almost every structure - concrete. Thermal storage calculations simulate sub-cooling of a building's structure during unoccupied times. During occupied times, the sub-cooled concrete reduces peak...

  8. High temperature cooling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loewen, Eric P.

    2006-12-12

    A method for cooling a heat source, a method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition therein, and a cooling system. The method for cooling employs a containment vessel with an oxidizable interior wall. The interior wall is oxidized to form an oxide barrier layer thereon, the cooling composition is monitored for excess oxidizing agent, and a reducing agent is provided to eliminate excess oxidation. The method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition involves introducing a sufficient quantity of a reactant which is reactive with the vessel in order to produce a barrier layer therein that is non-reactive with the cooling composition. The cooling system includes a containment vessel with oxidizing agent and reducing agent delivery conveyances and a monitor of oxidation and reduction states so that proper maintenance of a vessel wall oxidation layer occurs.

  9. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Glossary--Cooling...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of cooling equipment in which there are four basic parts: (1) a condensing unit, (2) a cooling coil, (3) ductwork, and (4) a control mechanism, such as a thermostat. There are...

  10. Sympathetic cooling in a large ion crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guin-Dar Lin; L. -M. Duan

    2015-11-08

    We analyze the dynamics and steady state of a linear ion array when some of the ions are continuously laser cooled. We calculate the ions' local temperature measured by its position fluctuation under various trapping and cooling configurations, taking into account background heating due to the noisy environment. For a large system, we demonstrate that by arranging the cooling ions evenly in the array, one can suppress the overall heating considerably. We also investigate the effect of different cooling rates and find that the optimal cooling efficiency is achieved by an intermediate cooling rate. We discuss the relaxation time for the ions to approach the steady state, and show that with periodic arrangement of the cooling ions, the cooling efficiency does not scale down with the system size.

  11. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an...

  12. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    1991-01-01

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

  13. Enhancing trappable antiproton populations through deceleration and frictional cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zolotorev, Max

    2013-01-01

    Wojciechowski, “Frictional cooling: Experimental re- sults,”and status of frictional cooling,” Nu- clear Physics B 149,through deceleration and frictional cooling M. Zolotorev, A.

  14. Effects of Cooling on the Overall Power Consumption of Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Ho

    2012-01-01

    Copeland, “64-bit Server Cooling Requirements,” IEEE SEMI-Chiu, and G. Ghrysler, “Cooling a Microprocessor Chip,” insystem in electronics cooling,” Applied Thermal

  15. Guide to Minimizing Compressor-Based Cooling | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressor-Based Cooling Guide to Minimizing Compressor-Based Cooling Guide describes best practices for reducing energy use and total cost of ownership for data center cooling...

  16. Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan

    2014-01-01

    embedded heating and cooling systems. Brussels, Belgium,radiant heating and cooling systems. Proceedings of Climaradiant heating and cooling systems: integration with a

  17. Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove

    2014-01-01

    embedded heating and cooling systems. Brussels, Belgium,radiant heating and cooling systems. Proceedings of Climaof Slab Heating and Cooling Systems Studied by Dynamic

  18. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

  19. Load Balancing Scientific Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, Olga

    2014-12-08

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced...

  20. Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, H.

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings: International Load Management Conference, pp.Proceedings: International Load Management Conference, pp.International Load Management Conference, Research Institute

  1. Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

  2. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  3. Load Management - A Better Way 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows...

  4. Engineered design of SSC cooling ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bear, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    The cooling requirements of the SSC are significant and adequate cooling water systems to meet these requirements are critical to the project`s successful operation. The use of adequately designed cooling ponds will provide reliable cooling for operation while also meeting environmental goals of the project to maintain streamflow and flood peaks to preconstruction levels as well as other streamflow and water quality requirements of the Texas Water Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Berkeley Lab's Cool Your School Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ivan Berry

    2013-06-24

    Cool Your School is a series of 6th-grade, classroom-based, science activities rooted in Berkeley Lab's cool-surface and cool materials research and aligned with California science content standards. The activities are designed to build knowledge, stimulate curiosity, and carry the conversation about human-induced climate change, and what can be done about it, into the community.

  6. Algorithmic cooling and scalable NMR quantum computers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mor, Tal

    Algorithmic cooling and scalable NMR quantum computers P. Oscar Boykin*, Tal Mor§ , Vwani cooling (via polarization heat bath)--a powerful method for obtaining a large number of highly polarized (quantum) bits, algorithmic cooling cleans dirty bits beyond the Shannon's bound on data compression

  7. Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Assistant Professor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Diagrams R. Manna Assistant Professor Centre of Advanced.ac.uk #12;Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram There are two types of CCT diagrams I) Plot and transformation finish temperature against transformation time on each cooling curve II) Plot of (for each type

  8. LASER COOLING AND TRAPPING OF NEUTRAL ATOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orozco, Luis A.

    LASER COOLING AND TRAPPING OF NEUTRAL ATOMS Luis A. Orozco Department of Physics and Astronomy. Laser cooling and trapping is now an important tool for many spectroscopic studies. It enhances, 4]. In these notes I treat only very general aspects of laser cooling and trapping without

  9. Optomechanical laser cooling with mechanical modulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Bienert; Pablo Barberis-Blostein

    2014-12-15

    We theoretically study the laser cooling of cavity optomechanics when the mechanical resonance frequency and damping depend on time. In the regime of weak optomechanical coupling we extend the theory of laser cooling using an adiabatic approximation. We discuss the modifications of the cooling dynamics and compare it with numerical simulations in a wide range of modulation frequencies.

  10. A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUNGUARD: A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING Prepared For: California Energy Commission Energy (FAR) SUNGUARD: A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING EISG AWARDEE PowerLight Corporation 2954 San Pablo://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Sunguard: A Roofing Tile For Natural Cooling EISG Grant # 99-07 Awardee: Power

  11. Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    and high temperature cooling_REHVA Guidebook, Federation ofEvaluation of cooling performance of thermally activatedsystem with evaporative cooling source for typical United

  12. Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    embedded surface cooling system and TABS systems THERMALwas simulated. The radiant cooling system was an exposedcooling + radiant cooling system alone may not be able to

  13. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  14. Air cooling for Vertex Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arantza Oyanguren

    2012-02-28

    The vertex detectors are crucial detectors for future linear e+e- colliders since they must give the most accurate location of any outgoing charged particles originating from the interaction point. The DEPFET collaboration is developing a new type of pixel sensors which provide very low noise and high spatial resolution. In order to precisely determine the track and vertex positions, multiple scattering in the detector has to be reduced by minimizing the material in the sensors, cooling, and support structures. A new method of cooling by blowing air over the sensors has been developed and tested. It is applied in the design and construction of the Belle-II detector and may be used in the new generation of vertex detectors for linear colliders.

  15. Information technology equipment cooling method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  16. A New Ventilation System Integrates Total Energy Recovery, Conventional Cooling and a Novel 'Passive' Dehumidification Wheel to Mitigate the Energy, Humidity Control and First Cost Concerns Often Raised when Designing for ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 Compliance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    to very low dewpoints unattainable with conventional cooling approaches. The system allows for precise control of the indoor space humidity while delivering high quantities of outdoor air, at both peak and part load conditions, and during both occupied...

  17. Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light and then trapped in a bottle whose "walls" are magnetic fields. Cooled atoms are ideal for exploring basic. Atoms can now be cooled by shining laser light directly on them. The radiation pres sure exerted

  18. Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices Jeremy B, TN 37932 Abstract This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature

  19. Cool roof Q+A 011.doc 29 July 2009 Cool Roof Q & A (draft)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cool roof Q+A 011.doc 29 July 2009 Cool Roof Q & A (draft) Ronnen Levinson Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory RML27@cornell.edu July 29, 2009 The following information is intended for use in cool-roof brochures issued by the California Air Resources Board and/or the Cool Roof Rating Council. See also http

  20. GentleCool: Cooling Aware Proactive Workload Scheduling in Multi-Machine Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    GentleCool: Cooling Aware Proactive Workload Scheduling in Multi-Machine Systems Raid Ayoub characteristics of the workload running on the system. We propose a scheduling framework called GentleCool, a proactive multi-tier approach for significantly lowering the fan cooling costs in highly utilized systems

  1. Coherent electron cooling demonstration experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, R.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Poelker, M.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.; Kholopov M.; Shevchenko, O.; McIntosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-09-04

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  2. Gas cooled traction drive inverter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

  3. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  4. Cooling system for electronic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  5. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, Mark P. (Knoxville, TN); Kedl, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  6. Home Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancial OpportunitiesDepartment ofScience & HistoryAboutCooling

  7. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort to identify and catalog those plants that are using reclaimed water for cooling.

  8. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  9. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  10. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  11. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, TengFang T.

    2009-01-01

    overhead cooling system Cooling system. The cooling systemTHE CHARACTERISTICS OF MODULAR, SCALABLE COOLING SYSTEMS ANDmodular, scalable cooling systems and servers 3.1 Modular,

  13. Massively-Parallel Direct Numerical Simulation of Gas Turbine Endwall Film-Cooling Conjugate Heat Transfer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meador, Charles Michael

    2011-02-22

    Improvements to gas turbine efficiency depend closely on cooling technologies, as efficiency increases with turbine inlet temperature. To aid in this process, simulations that consider real engine conditions need to be ...

  14. Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    As a comfortable and energy-efficient air conditioning system, the application of floor radiant heating system is used increasingly greatly in the north of China. As a result, the feasibility of floor radiant cooling has gained more attention...

  15. Simulated energy savings of cool roofs applied to industrial premises in the Mediterranean Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Carli, Michele; Scarpa, Massimiliano; Schiavon, Stefano; Zecchin, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    solar radiation periods. As regards the energy aspect, the heating energy consumptionsolar radiation are prevailing, so an increase in thermal insulation implies the reduction of sensible cooling energy consumption.

  16. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  17. Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  18. Applying risk informed methodologies to improve the economics of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitta, Christopher C

    2010-01-01

    In order to support the increasing demand for clean sustainable electricity production and for nuclear waste management, the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is being developed. The main drawback has been its high capital ...

  19. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  20. Passive containment cooling water distribution device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E. (Hookstown, PA); Fanto, Susan V. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

  1. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  2. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  3. Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

  4. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  5. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  6. Time variability of AGN and heating of cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Nipoti; James Binney

    2005-05-03

    There is increasing evidence that AGN mechanical feedback is important in the energetics of cooling flows in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We investigate the implications of the variability of AGN mechanical luminosity L_m on observations of cooling flows and radio galaxies in general. It is natural to assume that l=ln(L_m/L_x) is a Gaussian process. Then L_m will be log-normally distributed at fixed cooling luminosity L_x, and the variance in a measure of L_m will increase with the time-resolution of the measure. We test the consistency of these predictions with existing data. These tests hinge on the power spectrum of l(t). Monitoring of Seyfert galaxies combined with estimates of the duty cycle of quasars imply flicker noise spectra, similar to those of microquasars. We combine a sample of sources in cooling flows that have cavities with the assumption that the average mechanical luminosity of the AGN equals L_x. Given that the mechanical luminosities are characterized by flicker noise, we find that their spectral amplitudes lie between the estimated amplitudes of quasars and the measured values for the radio luminosities of microquasars. The model together with the observation that powerful radio galaxies lie within a narrow range in optical luminosity, predicts the luminosity function of radio galaxies, in agreement with observations. Forthcoming radio surveys will test the prediction that the luminosity function turns over at about the smallest luminosities so far probed. [Abridged

  7. Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove

    2014-01-01

    installed to block solar gain, ISO 11855 cooling capacityinstalled to block solar gain, ISO 11855 cooling capacity

  8. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guggemos, M; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  9. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Guggemos; D. Heinrich; O. A. Herrera-Sancho; R. Blatt; C. F. Roos

    2015-08-11

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  10. Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptive requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

    2002-12-15

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability to reflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiate heat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittance roofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, cooling power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower the ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of a cool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energy savings of approximately 300 kWh/1000 ft2 [3.2 kWh/m2], average annual natural gas deficits of 4.9 therm/1000 ft2 [5.6 MJ/m2], average source energy savings of 2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2 [30 MJ/m2], and average peak power demand savings of 0. 19 kW/1000 ft2 [2.1 W/m2]. The 15-year net present value (NPV) of energy savings averages $450/1000 ft2 [$4.90/m2] with time dependent valuation (TDV), and $370/1000 ft2 [$4.00/m2] without TDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included, the average total savings (15-year NPV + equipment savings) rises to $550/1000 ft2 [$5.90/m2] with TDV, and to $470/1000 ft2 [$5.00/m2] without TDV. Total savings range from 0.18 to 0.77 $/ft2 [1.90 to 8.30 $/m2] with TDV, and from 0.16 to 0.66 $/ft2 [1.70 to 7.10 $/m2] without TDV, across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a cool roof is 0.00 to 0.20 $/ft2 [0.00 to 2.20 $/m2]. Cool roofs with premiums up to $0.20/ft2 [$2.20/m2] are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 2 through 16; those with premiums not exceeding $0.18/ft2 [$1.90/m2] are expected to be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommends that the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24, Pa rt 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for nonresidential buildings with low-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in all California climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meet prescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an ''overall-envelope'' approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performance approach (all roof types).

  11. T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType Library Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote user can create a specially crafted PDF file that, when loaded by the target user, will trigger a memory corruption error in the CoolType library and execute arbitrary code on the target system. The code will run with the privileges of the target user.

  12. Restoration and repair of 30-year old cooling towers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Phase I. Draft 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Early in 1980, a comprehensive reliability study was made to ascertain the ability of the present 30-year old recirculating water system to meet the anticipated load demand through the year 2000. The findings and recommendations of this study were used as a guide to schedule uprating and repairs. This paper deals with the underground distribution system and cooling tower repairs.

  13. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  14. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  15. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  16. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  17. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  18. Spanish courtyards: High mass cooling in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.S. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Several courtyards (patios) in Andalucia were monitored for air temperature, relative humidity and daylight in July-august of 1994. Two patios are described here. Locations above and within these patios as well as adjacent rooms were included. The patios are from one to two stories deep, with rather small floor areas, so relatively little direct sun falls on these patio floors, in a season mid-way between the summer solstice and the fall equinox. Neither patio had a toldo, or movable canvas cover, that would provide shade by day, but exposure to the night sky. The cooling strategy here is mostly a reliance on high mass, with no evidence (exhaust fans or stacks) of deliberate night ventilation. Occasional evaporative cooling is likely, due to the watering of the plants within these patios. There is potential for considerable evaporative cooling, due to relative humidities averaging about 32%. The temperatures within the adjacent spaces were quite stable, just above the summer comfort zone for still air. Night ventilation might provide somewhat more cooling than high mass. Measured temperatures at sunny locations in and above the patios were higher than the official readings, at both maximum and minimum times. Sky conditions were generally clear, and almost no rain fell. The strategy of high mass cooling, typical of indigenous housing in hot arid areas, was demonstrated to be effective in these case. Although the highest interior temperatures pushed the upper limits of the summer comfort zone for still air, they were well below the exterior maximum. With a slight increase in air motion (the well-known hand held fans of Spain, for example), comfort is readily attained. An even greater degree of psychological cooling is attained through visual, audial and olfactory stimuli associated with shading plants and water.

  19. Longitudinal magnetohydrodynamics oscillations in dissipative, cooling coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Ghafri, K. S.; Ruderman, M. S.; Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R., E-mail: app08ksa@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: m.s.ruderman@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: app09aw@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of cooling on standing slow magnetosonic waves in coronal magnetic loops. The damping mechanism taken into account is thermal conduction that is a viable candidate for dissipation of slow magnetosonic waves in coronal loops. In contrast to earlier studies, here we assume that the characteristic damping time due to thermal conduction is not small, but arbitrary, and can be of the order of the oscillation period, i.e., a temporally varying plasma is considered. The approximation of low-beta plasma enables us to neglect the magnetic field perturbation when studying longitudinal waves and consider, instead, a one-dimensional motion that allows a reliable first insight into the problem. The background plasma temperature is assumed to be decaying exponentially with time, with the characteristic cooling timescale much larger than the oscillation period. This assumption enables us to use the WKB method to study the evolution of the oscillation amplitude analytically. Using this method we obtain the equation governing the oscillation amplitude. The analytical expressions determining the wave properties are evaluated numerically to investigate the evolution of the oscillation frequency and amplitude with time. The results show that the oscillation period increases with time due to the effect of plasma cooling. The plasma cooling also amplifies the amplitude of oscillations in relatively cool coronal loops, whereas, for very hot coronal loop oscillations the damping rate is enhanced by the cooling. We find that the critical point for which the amplification becomes dominant over the damping is in the region of 4 MK. These theoretical results may serve as impetus for developing the tools of solar magneto-seismology in dynamic plasmas.

  20. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Cherry, Nigel J [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Berhahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01

    Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the counter battens, providing a nailing surface for the concrete tile. This double batten construction forms an inclined air channel running from the soffit to the ridge. The bottom surface of the channel is formed by the roof decking and is relatively flat and smooth. The top surface is created by the underside of the roofing tiles, and is designed to be an air permeable covering to alleviate the underside air pressure and minimize wind uplift on the tiles. The resulting air flows also have a cooling influence which further complicates prediction of the heat penetrating through the deck because an accurate measure of the airflow is required to predict the heat transfer. Measured temperatures and heat flows at the roof surface, within the attic and at the ceiling of the houses are discussed as well as the power usage to help gauge the benefit of cool-pigmented reflective roof products fitted with and without ventilation above the roof deck. Ventilation occurring above the deck is an inherent feature for tile roof assemblies, and is formed by an air space between the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile s profile the greater is the effect of the ventilation which herein is termed above-sheathing ventilation (ASV). However, because of the complexity of the thermally induced flow, little credit is allowed by state and federal building codes. ASHRAE (2005) provides empirical data for the effective thermal resistance of plane air spaces. A -in. (0.0191-m) plane air space inclined at 45 with the horizontal has an RUS-0.85 (RSI-0.15) . Our intent is to help further deploy cool color pigments in roofs by conducting field experiments to evaluate the new cool-colored roofing materials in the hot climate of Southern California. The collected data will be used to showcase and market the performance of new cool-roof products and also to help formulate and validate computer codes capable of calculating the heat transfer occurring within the attic and the whole building. Field measures and computer predictions showed that the d

  1. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  2. Magnetic cooling at Risoe DTU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, K K; Jensen, J B; Bahl, C R H; Pryds, N; Smith, A; Nordentoft, A; Hattel, J

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration at room temperature is of great interest due to a long-term goal of making refrigeration more energy-efficient, less noisy and free of any environmentally hostile materials. A refrigerator utilizing an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which manifests itself as a temperature change in magnetic materials when subjected to a varying magnetic field. In this work we present the current state of magnetic refrigeration research at Risoe DTU with emphasis on the numerical modeling of an existing AMR test machine. A 2D numerical heat-transfer and fluid-flow model that represents the experimental setup is presented. Experimental data of both no-heat load and heat load situations are compared to the model. Moreover, results from the numerical modeling of the permanent magnet design used in the system are presented.

  3. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  4. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProvedTravel TravelChallenges |1-01ConcentratingDesign » Design for Efficiency » Cool Roofs

  5. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsClusterInformationContract Management Princeton16,558.1CoolDesign »

  6. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, Alfred [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Parker, Matthew J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  7. A simplified methodology for sizing ground coupled heat pump heat exchangers in cooling dominated climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Jose Antonio

    1993-01-01

    produced a ground coupled heat pump simulation (GSIM) which modeled ground coupled systems using soil properties, weather data, building load and ground coil properties. This model has been validated in cooling [Dobson, 1991] and heating [Margo, 1992... U-tube ground coupled heat pump heat exchangers for Texas climates is presented. Weather and soil data for Texas were gathered and presented using topographical charts. GSIM, the ground coupled heat pump simulation model, was utilized to provide...

  8. Analysis of Cooling Regression Models for Hot and Humid Climates Based on "Operational Effective Enthalpy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Baltazar, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    determination for energy efficiency projects is based on procedures established in the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP, 2012), specifically Option C. Energy use baseline models are developed from a regression analysis... constitute a smaller fraction of total cooling load show a more modest improvement using OEE instead of OAT. INTRODUCTION The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP, 2012) Option C provides procedures to determine...

  9. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  10. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  11. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  12. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  13. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  14. Plug-Load Control and Behavioral Change Research in GSA Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Sheppy, M.

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) owns and leases over 354 million square feet (ft2) of space in over 9,600 buildings [1]. GSA is a leader among federal agencies in aggressively pursuing energy efficiency (EE) opportunities for its facilities and installing renewable energy (RE) systems to provide heating, cooling, and power to these facilities. According to several energy assessments of GSA's buildings conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), plug-loads account for approximately 21% of the total electricity consumed within a standard GSA Region 3 office building. This study aims to provide insight on how to effectively manage plug-load energy consumption and attain higher energy and cost savings for plug-loads. As GSA improves the efficiency of its building stock, plug-loads will become an even greater portion of its energy footprint.

  15. The impact of summer heat islands on cooling energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Huang, J.; Martien, P.; Rainer, L.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1988-08-01

    It has been well documented that summer heat islands increase the demand for air conditioning. Several studies have suggested developing guidelines to mitigate this negative effect, on both micro- and meso-scales. Reducing summer heat islands saves cooling energy, reduces peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants. This paper summarizes some of the efforts to quantify the effects of techniques to reduce heat islands. In particular, the authors summarize simulations they have made on the effects of plating trees and switching to light colored surfaces in cities. The results indicate that these techniques effectively reduce building cooling loads and peak power in selected US cities, and are the cheapest way to save energy and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper compares the economics of technologies to mitigate summer heat islands with other types of conservation measures. The authors estimate the cost of energy conserved by planting trees and recoating surfaces on a national level and compare it with the cost of energy conserved by increasing efficiencies in electrical appliances and cars. Early results indicate that the cost of energy saved by controlling heat islands is less than 1{cents}/kWh, more attractive than efficient electric appliances ({approximately} 2{cents}/kWh), and far more attractive than new electric supplies ({approximately}10{cents}/kWh). In transportation, the cost of conserving a gallon of gasoline, though far more attractive than buying gasoline at current prices, is again more expensive than controlling heat islands. By accounting for the carbon content of the fuels used for power generation and transportation, the authors restate these comparisons in terms of cents per avoided pound of carbon emitted as CO{sub 2}. The results show that the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} from planting trees/increasing albedo is about 0.3--1.3{cents}/lb. of carbon; for buying efficient electric appliances, 2.5{cents}/lb. of carbon; and for efficient cars, 10{cents}/lb. of carbon.

  16. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauser, Aaron D. (Washington, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB); Coldren, Dana R. (Fairbury, IL)

    2009-04-28

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  17. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  18. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  19. Development and Validation of Aggregated Models for Thermostatic Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Chassin, David P.

    2012-01-04

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated control models for a population of thermostatically controlled loads. The effects of demand response on the load population dynamics are investigated.

  20. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

  1. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  2. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  3. MEIC Electron Cooling Simulation Using Betacool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He [JLAB; Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    Electron cooling of ion beams is the most critical R&D issue in Jefferson Lab's MEIC design. In the ion collider ring, a bunched electron beam driven by an energy-recovery SRF linac assisted by a circulate ring will be employed to cool protons or ions with energies up to 100 GeV/u, a parameter regime that electron cooling has never been applied. It is essential to understand how efficient the electron cooling is, particularly in the high energy range, to confirm the feasibility of the design. Electron cooling is also important in LEIC design although the ion energy is 25 GeV/u, lower than MEIC. In this paper, we will present first results of the simulation studies of electron cooling processes in the collider ring of both MEIC and LEIC using BETACOOL code.

  4. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  5. {Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, William Jerome

    2010-01-01

    modeling and control of load management. Further, withoutA profit-based load management using linear programming”.with applica- tions to load management assessment and load

  6. Staying FIT: Efficient Load Shedding Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bottlenecks slow down processing and network transmission, and cause delayed outputs. Load management has been. Common load management techniques include adaptive load distribution, admis- sion control, and load

  7. Mechanically-reattachable liquid-cooled cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arney, Susanne; Cheng, Jen-Hau; Kolodner, Paul R; Kota-Venkata, Krishna-Murty; Scofield, William; Salamon, Todd R; Simon, Maria E

    2013-09-24

    An apparatus comprising a rack having a row of shelves, each shelf supporting an electronics circuit board, each one of the circuit boards being manually removable from the shelve supporting the one of the circuit boards and having a local heat source thereon. The apparatus also comprises a cooler attached to the rack and being able to circulate a cooling fluid around a channel forming a closed loop. The apparatus further comprises a plurality of heat conduits, each heat conduit being located over a corresponding one of the circuit boards and forming a path to transport heat from the local heat source of the corresponding one of the circuit boards to the cooler. Each heat conduit is configured to be manually detachable from the cooler or the circuit board, without breaking a circulation pathway of the fluid through the cooler.

  8. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  9. Phonon cooling by an optomechanical heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Dong; F. Bariani; P. Meystre

    2015-07-27

    We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single pre-cooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.

  10. Phonon cooling by an optomechanical heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Dong; F. Bariani; P. Meystre

    2015-12-04

    We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single pre-cooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.

  11. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  12. Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1987-01-01

    -effective rapid dollar return for cooling tower upgrading expenditures. Whether it be heat rejection from compressors, electric motor, or chemical . process equipment, the cost of "hotter" cooling water is expensive in requiring additional energy to run... elements of the typical types of cooling towers currently used, delineates their functions and shows how to upgrade them in the real world for energy savings and profitability of operation. Hard before and after statistics of costs and profits...

  13. China Cools with Tighter RAC Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang; Rosenquist, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    J. Chinese Room Air-Conditioning Heat Pumps: An Engineeringsuch shortage, incremental air-conditioning load is also asuch as Shanghai, air-conditioning load accounts for 40% of

  14. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  15. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    conditions, therefore, no heat transmission through buildingto the conductive heat transmission through the building3-5. Table 3 compares the heat transmission through building

  16. Field Validation of the ASHRAI Transfer Function Method for Calculating Cooling Load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Quille, T.; Shih, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Transfer Function Method (TFM) was validated using two identical wood frame residential-type structures, each containing an east and west-facing room. Each room...

  17. Improving energy efficiency in a pharmaceutical manufacturing environment : analysis of EUI and cooling load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Haoyu

    2009-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption without compromising the quality of products and the comfort of occupants is important in maintaining the competence of a pharmaceutical company. An energy management tool is developed to monitor ...

  18. Influence of raised floor on zone design cooling load in commercial buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01

    for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2006. EnergyPlus.2009. EnergyPlus Input Output Reference.The Encyclopedic Reference to EnergyPlus Input and output.

  19. Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01

    and P.L. Linden, The EnergyPlus UFAD module. Proceedings ofUS, (2008) 23-28. EnergyPlus, Engineering Reference. U.S.uc/item/7gr8r3d3 EnergyPlus. Testing and Validation. http://

  20. Thermal Stratification- A Means to Reduce Cooling Loads in High Bay Industrial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivieri, J. B.; Singh, T.

    1988-01-01

    did not work. They will also report on studies of the location of supply and return devices and their effect on stratification. These studies were done in a one third scale test chamber. The greatest stratification occurred when a combination supply...