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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:Load Design Tool for Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. ”for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

4

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Heat Generated Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat Generated Cooling Heat Generated Cooling A counterintuitive but promising path to reducing the loads imposed by automotive air conditioning systems is to use heat-specifically the waste heat generated by engines. This can be an abundant source of energy, since most light-duty vehicles with combustion engines are only about 30% efficient at best. With that degree of thermal efficiency, an engine releases 70% of its fuel energy as waste heat through the coolant, exhaust gases, and engine compartment warm-up. During much of a typical drive cycle, the engine efficiency is even lower than 30%. As efficiency decreases, the amount of waste heat increases, representing a larger potential energy source. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team is investigating a number of heat generated cooling technologies

5

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ratio of time between Fan Coil Units Perimeter Zone Linearand underfloor fan coil units. cooling contribution of

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Cooling and Heating Loads | Building  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling and Heating Loads Cooling and Heating Loads The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on heating and cooling system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems and equipment should be calculated in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks such as ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_cooling_and_heating_loads.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999

7

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide, Americanfor design cooling loads in Underfloor Air Distribution (for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Design of an Experimental Facility for the Validation of Cooling Load Calculation Procedures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Two test cells were constructed to validate the ASHRAE cooling load calculation procedures developed under RP-875 and codified in the ASHRAE Loads Toolkit (RP987). The… (more)

Eldridge, David Stewart

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Laser cooling of a trapped particle with increased Rabi frequencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper analyses the cooling of a single particle in a harmonic trap with red-detuned laser light with fewer approximations than previously done in the literature. We avoid the adiabatic elimination of the excited atomic state but are still interested in Lamb-Dicke parameters $\\eta \\ll 1$. Our results show that the Rabi frequency of the cooling laser can be chosen higher than previously assumed, thereby increasing the effective cooling rate but {\\em not} affecting the final outcome of the cooling process. Since laser cooling is already a well established experimental technique, the main aim of this paper is to present a model which can be extended to more complex scenarios, like cavity-mediated laser cooling.

Tony Blake; Andreas Kurcz; Norah S. Saleem; Almut Beige

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

10

Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Effects of Material Moisture Adsorption and Desorption on Building Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Moisture adsorption and desorption (MAD) by internal building materials and furnishings can be significant in buildings. For many building cooling strategies, MAD may have overriding effects on building cooling loads. For example, natural...

Fairey, P.; Kosar, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide, Atlanta:application and design of underfloor air distributionfor design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Assessment and Improvements of the CBE Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) design guide. AmericanUnderfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Toolload design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD)

Chen, Bin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Sibling competition and hunger increase allostatic load in spotted hyaenas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...probably increasing allostatic load in dominants [3]. Within-brood...competition [11] on allostatic load in twins of a free-ranging...reasons, we expect allostatic load measured by faecal glucocorticoid...males and 19 females). These data (see electronic supplementary...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Chimaeric load among sympatric social bacteria increases with genotype richness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contribute more to chimaeric load during development than...across chimaera treatments (data not shown). In some treatments...and C suffer chimaeric load (data not shown). This result...C to increase chimaeric load in the three-way mix...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the standard. To mitigate or nullify these additional weather loads, outdoor air preconditioning technologies are being promoted in combination with conventional HVAC operations downstream as a means to deliver the required fresh air and control humidity...

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Auxiliary Cooling Loads in Passively Cooled Buildings: An Experimental Research Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is examining the auxiliary cooling requirements of residences in warm, humid climates. The study addresses both the thermal and moisture response of buildings. A total of eight wall systems, three frame wall types and five...

Fairey, P.; Vieira, R.; Chandra, S.; Kerestecioglu, A.; Kalaghchy, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 much on the accuracy of the chiller model. Measurement accuracy and reliability are essential for the accuracy and reliability of chiller sequencing... Central Chilling Plant Monitoring and control Figure 1. Framework of enhancing building cooling load measurements using data fusion 2 ESL-IC-08-10-31 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany...

Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

19

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes February 1, 2008 - 11:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) today expanded cooperation to coordinate Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototype development through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by DOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Dennis R. Spurgeon, CEA Chairman Alain Bugat and JAEA President Toshio Okazaki. The MOU establishes a collaborative framework with the ultimate goal of deploying sodium-cooled fast reactor prototypes. A sodium-cooled fast reactor uses liquid sodium

20

Performance of an optimally contact-cooled high-heat-load mirror at the APS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons facilities use either a monochromator or a mirror as the first optical element. In this paper, the thermal and optical performance of an optimally designed contact-cooled high-heat-load x-ray mirror used as the first optical element on the 2ID undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is reported. It is shown that this simple and economical mirror design can comfortably handle the high heat load of undulator beamlines and provide good performance with long-term reliability and ease of operation. Availability and advantages of such mirrors can make the mirror-first approach to high-heat-load beamline design an attractive alternative to monochromator-first beamlines in many circumstances.

Cai, Z.; Khounsary, A.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Yun, W.

1998-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Analysis of combined cooling, heating, and power systems under a compromised electric–thermal load strategy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Following the electric load (FE) and following the thermal load (FT) strategies both have advantages and disadvantages for combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems. In this paper, the performance of different strategies is evaluated under operation cost (OC), carbon dioxide emission (CDE) and exergy efficiency (EE). Analysis of different loads in one hour is conducted under the assumption that the additional electricity is not allowed to be sold back to the grid. The results show that FE produces less OC, less CDE, and FT produces higher EE when the electric load is larger. However, FE produces less OC, less CDE and higher EE when the thermal load is larger. Based on a hybrid electric–thermal load (HET) strategy, compromised electric–thermal (CET) strategies are innovatively proposed using the efficacy coefficient method. Additional, the CCHP system of a hotel in Tianjin is analyzed for all of the strategies. The results for an entire year indicate the first CET strategy is the optimal one when dealing with OC, CDE and EE. And the second CET is the optimal one when dealing with OC and EE. Moreover, the laws are strictly correct for different buildings in qualitative terms.

Gang Han; Shijun You; Tianzhen Ye; Peng Sun; Huan Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-Chain Emissions Nakul Sathaye, Arpad emissions, raising the question of whether increased vehicle weights may cause unintended environmental consequences. This paper presents scenarios with estimated emissions resulting from load consolidation

California at Berkeley, University of

23

Assembly, Loading, and Cool?down of the FRESCA2 Support Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on the assembly process and cool-down to cryogenic temperature of the support structure of FRESCA2, which is a dipole magnet for upgrading the actual CERN cable test facility FRESCA. The structure of the FRESCA2 magnet is designed to provide the adequate pre-stress, through the use of keys, bladders, and an Al alloy shrinking cylinder. In order to qualify the assembly and loading procedures, the structure was assembled with Al blocks (dummy coils) that replaced the brittle Nb3Sn coils, and then cooled-down to 77 K with liquid nitrogen. The evolution of the mechanical behaviour was monitored via strain gauges located on different components of the structure (shell, rods, yokes and dummy coils). We focus on the expected stresses within the structure after assembly, loading and cool-down. The expected stresses were determined from the 3D finite element model of the structure. A comparison of the 3D model stress predictions with the strain gauge data measurements is made. The coherence between ...

Muñoz Garcia, J E; Ziemianski, D T; Rondeaux, F; de Rijk, G; Bajas, H; Rifflet, J M; Perez, J C; Durante, M; Charrondiere, M; Bajko, M; Devaux, M; Guinchard, M; Ferracin, P; Fessia, P; Manil, P; 10.1109/TASC.2013.2284421

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Dynamic Analysis of Moisture Transport Through Walls and Associated Cooling Loads in the Hot/Humid Climate of Florianopolis, Brazil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials. and the influence of solar radiation...

Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F. C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P. C.; Da Cunha, Neto, J. A. B.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, Phase II Report - Identified Relevant Data Sets, Methods, and Variability Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for classifying the Office building categories; (3) the relevant methods for daytyping necessary for creating the typical load shapes for energy and cooling load calculation; (4) the relevant robust variability (uncertainty) analysis; (5) typical load shapes...

Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF THE DIII-D TOROIDAL FIELD COIL TO INCREASED LATERAL LOADS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Recent calibration shots in which full toroidal field (TF) coil current interacted with the maximum poloidal field coils have produced increased lateral loads on the outer sections of the TF-coil. The increased lateral loads have resulted in deflections that have been sufficient to cause the TF-coil to contact adjacent equipment and produce a transient short to ground within the coil. The six outer turns of each TF-coil bundle are clamped together by insulated preloaded studs to provide increased bending stiffness. These sections of the outer bundles depend on friction to react the lateral loads as a bundle rather than six individual turns. A major concern is that the increased loads will produce slip between turns resulting in excessive lateral deflections and possible damage to the insulating sleeve on the preloaded studs. A finite element structural model of the TF-coil was developed for the calculation of deflections and the shear load distribution throughout the coil for the applied lateral loads from a full current calibration shot. The purpose of the updated structural model is to correlate the applied lateral loads to the total shear force between the unbonded sections of the outer turns. An allowable integrated lateral load applied to the outer turns is established based on the maximum shear force that can be reacted by friction. A program that calculates the magnetic fields and integrated lateral load along the outer turns can be incorporated into the plasma control system. The integrated load can then be compared to the calculated allowable value prior to execution of calibration shots. Calibration shots with a calculated total lateral load greater than the allowable value will be prevented.

REIS,E.E; CHIN,E

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Influence of raised floor on zone design cooling load in commercial buildings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

office”. The equipment loads follow the schedules of theload is 10.8 W/m 2 and it follows the load shown in Table 3.interior zone follows the internal heat load, i.e. people

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments James Cummings BA-PIRC; Florida Solar Energy Center Presented at BA Summer Meeting, July 26, 2012 The gist of my message * Fixed capacity AC systems generally provide good RH control in typical residences. * In low-load homes, they may be less effective in achieving good RH control. * On the other hand, variable capacity AC systems have several characteristics which can provide improved RH control in homes. - Both Nordyne and Carrier have variable capacity units, varying from about 40% to 100% of nominal full capacity. - What is variable capacity? -- condenser fan, compressor speed, and AHU fan speed. The gist, continued

29

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the outlet side of fan coil units (FCU) served by variableunit (AHU) including a return air economizer, chilled water cooling coil, hot water heating coil and supply fan.

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Evaluation on Cooling Energy Load with Varied Envelope Design for High-Rise Residential Buildings in Malaysia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the development of the economy in the recent years, Malaysia is maintaining a high economic growth and therefore, its energy consumption increases dramatically. Residential buildings are characterized by being envelope-load dominated buildings...

Al-Tamimi, N.; Fadzil, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Steam generator air-cooling and ways to increase its effectiveness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To shorten the downtime for repair of steam turbines, various methods for rapid cooling of the turbine can be used. One method is to cool the turbine with free air whose movement is controlled by a standard ejector through the flow passage in sequence of the high-, medium-, and low-pressure zones of the turbine. The effectiveness of air cooling the turbine through use of a counterflow system for controlling air flow through the turbine is discussed.

Kulichikhin, V.V.; Tazhiev, E.I.; Leshchinskii, A.M.; Zubov, P.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Natural light controls and guides in buildings. Energy saving for electrical lighting, reduction of cooling load  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The residential sector is responsible for approximately a quarter of energy consumption in Europe. This consumption, together with that of other buildings, mainly from the tertiary sector, makes up 40% of total energy consumption and 36% of CO2 emissions. Artificial lighting makes up 14% of electrical consumption in the European Union and 19% worldwide. Through the use of well-designed natural lighting, controlled by technologies or systems which guarantee accessibility from all areas inside buildings, energy consumption for lighting and air conditioning can be kept to a minimum. The authors of this article carried out a state of the art on the technologies or control systems of natural light in buildings, concentrating on those control methods which not only protect the occupants from direct solar glare but also maximize natural light penetration in buildings based on the occupants? preferences, whilst allowing for a reduction in electrical consumption for lighting and cooling. All of the control and/or natural light guidance systems and/or strategies guarantee the penetration of daylight into the building, thus reducing the electrical energy consumption for lighting and cooling. At the same time they improve the thermal and visual comfort of the users of the buildings. However various studies have also brought to light certain disadvantages to these systems.

E.J. Gago; T. Muneer; M. Knez; H. Köster

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

35

Identification of the building parameters that influence heating and cooling energy loads for apartment buildings in hot-humid climates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Identifying the building parameters that significantly impact energy performance is an important step for enabling the reduction of the heating and cooling energy loads of apartment buildings in the design stage. Implementing passive design techniques for these buildings is not a simple task in most dense cities; their energy performance usually depends on uncertainties in the local climate and many building parameters, such as window size, zone height, and features of materials. For this paper, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the most significant parameters for buildings in hot-humid climates by considering the design of an existing apartment building in Izmir, Turkey. The Monte Carlo method is selected for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses with the Latin hypercube sampling (LHC) technique. The results show that the sensitivity of parameters in apartment buildings varies based on the purpose of the energy loads and locations in the building, such as the ground, intermediate, and top floors. In addition, the total window area, the heat transfer coefficient (U) and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of the glazing based on the orientation have the most considerable influence on the energy performance of apartment buildings in hot-humid climates.

Yusuf Y?ld?z; Zeynep Durmu? Arsan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the development of wall reforms, the production scale and engineering applications of energy savings are increasing daily. It is inevitable to aggressively extend production of new energy-saving walls. Based on the thermal instantaneous...

Wang, X.; Hong, J.; Deying, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Unintended Impacts of Increased Truck Loads on Pavement Supply-chain Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005) A review of green logistics schemes used in citiesLife-Cycle Assessment, Green Logistics, Load Consolidation,

Sathaye, Nakul; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question What are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

39

Augmented air supply for fuel cell power plant during transient load increases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a fuel cell power plant, a system for supplying air to an oxygen side of the cells in the plant is described comprising: (a) conduit means for feeding air to the oxygen side of the plant; (b) a constant speed blower connected to the conduit means for blowing an air stream into the conduit means at a constant velocity; (c) a motorized control valve in the conduit means between the blower and the oxygen side, the control valve being adjustable to vary the amount of air flowing to the oxygen side; (d) branch conduit means opening into the conduit means for providing an air flow path from the blower to the oxygen side which bypasses the control valve; (e) fast acting valve means in the branch conduit means, the fast acting valve means being relatively instantly transformable from a closed condition to an open condition and return, and the fast acting valve means being normally in the closed condition; (f) flow meter means in the conduit means for measuring amounts of oxygen flowing from the control valve from the control valve and the fast acting valve means to the oxygen side; (g) current monitoring means connected to a loaf line from the power plant for monitoring load changes imposed upon the cells in the power plant; and (h) microprocessor means for controlling operation of the system, the microprocessor means being operably connected to the current monitoring means, to the flow meter means, to the fast acting valve means and to the control valve.

Beal, D.W.; Scheffer, G.W.

1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

40

INCREASE  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

None

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the ice storage system, during direct cooling, thethe building cooling load. In dynamic systems, ice is formedcooling/demand-limited storage / electric load management / full storage / ice

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling provided, inGenerally, total modular cooling power demand was somewhathigher server loads. The cooling power demand decreased when

Adams, Barbara J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Generating super-shedders: co-infection increases bacterial load and egg production of a gastrointestinal helminth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...course of infection in our data, allowing nonlinear...spline to the bacterial load, over time, of the...log-transformed the data and then carried out...Lass 2008, unpublished data), as such, a high bacterial load may translate into higher...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Independent Control of Sensible and Latent Cooling in Small Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

util impact. INTRODUCTION Dehumidification has become an increasingly large fraction of the total cooling load in many new buildings, as heat gains through the envelope have been reduced but internal moisture generation and the need... to be coincident with maximum air-conditioning loads. The possibility was suggested that by independently controlling temperature and humidity ways might be found to ameliorate the peak electrical loads imposed on utilities by the residential and small...

Andrews, J.; Lamontagne, J.; Piraino, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A bottom-up engineering estimate of the aggregate heating and cooling loads of the entire U.S. building stock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the amount of commercial building energy usage, particularlycommercial building sector. To compare the aggregated energy usagecommercial buildings. For the residential sector, the total heating and cooling energy usages

Huang, Yu Joe; Brodrick, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Cool Roof Calculator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator logo. Many reflective roof coatings and membranes are now available for low-slope roofs. These coatings help to reduce summer air-conditioning loads, but can also increase the winter heating load. The Cool Roof Calculator will estimate both how much energy you'll save in the summer and how much extra energy you'll need in the winter. Cool Roof Calculator provides answers on a 'per square foot' basis, so you can then multiply by the area of your roof to find out your net savings each year. Keywords reflective roof, roofing membrane, low-slope roof Validation/Testing The Radiation Control Fact Sheet describes both the analytical and experimental results that went into the calculator's development. Expertise Required

48

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

49

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation period, the sediment load varied from a minimum of 0.96 x 10{sup 6} t y{sup -1} in 1991/92 to a maximum of 3.52 x 10{sup 6} t y{sup -1} in 2006/07, showing an average increase of sediment load of 9.42 x 10{sup 5} t (or 72%) throughout the period.

Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENGAGEN; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO; Van Den Broeke, Michiel [UTRECHT UNIV; Mcgrath, Daniel [UNIV OF COLORADO; Yde, Jacob [UNIV OF AARHUS

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Numerical simulation of transpiration cooling through porous , T. Gotzen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

55, 52056 Aachen SUMMARY Transpiration cooling using ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials rocket engines inevitably entail higher thermal loads on the structure. An improved performance of the rocket engines should not be accomplished though at the expense of an increased weight of the rocket

53

Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondarytreated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, ASHRAE Research Project 1093, Preliminary Report, Literature Review and Database Search  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies about classifications of commercial buildings. In the literature on diversity factors and load shapes, we covered papers reporting the existence of databases of monitored end-uses in commercial building, methods used in developing the daytypes... Report Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University Our review of the literature has indicated that there are several useful studies that present actual diversity factors, and provide the algorithms...

Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

55

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Increase of Integration Events and Infection Loads of Human Papillomavirus Type 52 with Lesion Severity from Low-Grade Cervical Lesion to Invasive Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...12). Infection load and viral integration...HPV-16, whereas data on other HPV types...association of infection load and viral integration...performed by using power Sybr green PCR master...interpreting viral load data for HPV-52, as...

Jo L. K. Cheung; T. H. Cheung; Julian W. T. Tang; Paul K. S. Chan

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

57

Very Cool Close Binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new observations of cool <6000K and low mass <1Msun binary systems that have been discovered by searching several modern stellar photometric databases. The search has led to a factor of 10 increase in the number of known cool close eclipsing binary systems.

J. Scott Shaw; Mercedes Lopez-Morales

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

58

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

An air-cooled pulse tube cryocooler with 50 W cooling capacity at 77 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pulse tube cryocooler with 50 W cooling capacity at 77 K is developed to cool superconducting devices mounted on automobiles. The envisioned cryocooler weight is less than 40 kg and the input electric power is less than 1 kW. To achieve these requirements the working frequency is increased to 75 Hz and the dual-opposed pistons use gas bearings to reduce compressor weight and volume. The heat from the main heat exchanger is rejected by forced convective air instead of water. The compressor and the cold finger are carefully matched to improve the efficiency. The details of these will be presented in this paper. After some adjustment a no load temperature for the pulse tube cryocooler of 40 K was achieved with 1 kW input electric power in surroundings at 298 K. At 77 K the cooling capacity is 50 W. If the main heat exchanger is cooled by water at 293 K the cooling capacity increases to 64 W corresponding to a relative Carnot efficiency of 18%.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha emitters cooled Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

properties help reduce cooling loads by lowering roof... an alternative to meeting solar reflectance and thermal emittance requirements for cool roofs. The SRI allows......

63

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

64

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research Research Search More Search Options Site Map Photo of Advanced Automotive Manikin Reducing fuel consumption by air conditioning systems is the focus of Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) activities at NREL. About 7 billion gallons of fuel-about 5.5% of total national light-duty vehicle fuel use-are used annually just to cool light-duty vehicles in the United States. That's why our VALR team works with industry to help increase fuel economy and reduce tailpipe emissions by reducing the ancillary loads requirements in vehicles while maintaining the thermal comfort of the passengers. Approaches include improved cabin insulation, advanced window systems, advanced cooling and venting systems, and heat generated cooling. Another focus of the VALR project is ADAM, the ADvanced Automotive Manikin

65

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

66

CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

67

CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

68

FOCUS COOLING  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

69

Dr. Cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...replace fossil fuels, and analyses of hydrogen fuel, natural gas...quickly "cut the average rate of global...global cooling effect of large volcanic...dollars—"the price of a Hollywood blockbuster...away from fossil fuels, he concedes...

Eli Kintisch

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

70

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spray cooling has proven to be efficient in managing thermal load in high power applications. Reliability of electronic products relies on the thermal management and understanding of heat transfer mechanisms including those related to spray cooling...

Lin, Yen-Po

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

73

Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

that application as shown below. Table 1. Efficiency Requirements for Federal Purchases: Air-Cooled Electric Chillersa Full-Load Optimized Applications products must meet both...

74

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage. OSTI Homepage Mobile Gallery Subscribe to RSS OSTI Blog Get Widgets Get Alert Services OSTI Facebook OSTI Twitter OSTI Google+ Bookmark and Share (Link will open in a new window) Go to Videos Loading... Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network National Library of Energy OSTIblog Science.gov Science Accelerator

75

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is generally recognized that as much as 60% of the air conditioning load in a building is generated by solar heat from the roof. This paper on SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION is presented in slide form, tracing the history of 'nature's way...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Marketing Cool Storage Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage has been substantiated. bv research conducted by Electric Power Research Institute, and by numerous installations, it has become acknowledged that cool stora~e can provide substantial benefits to utilities and end-users alike. A need was reco...~ned to improve utility load factors, reduce peak electric demands, and other-wise mana~e the demand-side use of electricity. As a result of these many pro~rams, it became apparent that the storage of coolin~, in the form of chilled water, ice, or other phase...

McCannon, L.

77

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Representative dehumidification increase using Trane CDQ dehumidification system Standard HVAC coil - 20% latent dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet, supply fan, cooling coil, optional reheat coil, optional final filters. A CDQ system in a Custom Climate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

80

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D electrothermal model, the cooling power densities of themax , and increasing the cooling power densities 2–24 times.the advantages of high cooling power densities and is less

Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Improved water-cooled cyclone constructions in CFBs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction of CFB boilers has advanced in comparison with early designs. One improvement has been the use of water or steam cooled cyclones, which allows the use of thin refractories and minimizes maintenance needs. Cooled cyclones are also tolerant of wide load variations when the main fuel is biologically based, and coal or some other fuel is used as a back-up. With uncooled cyclones, load changes with high volatile fuels can mean significant temperature transients in the refractory, due to post-combustion phenomena in the cyclone. Kvaerner's development of water-cooled cyclones for CFBs began in the early 1980s. The first boiler with this design was delivered in 1985 in Sweden. Since then, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered over twenty units with cooled cyclones, in capacity ranging from small units up to 400 MW{sub th}. Among these units, Kvaerner has developed unconventional solutions for CFBs, in order to simplify the constructions and to increase the reliability for different applications. The first of them was CYMIC{reg{underscore}sign}, which has its water-cooled cyclone built inside the boiler furnace. There are two commercial CYMIC boilers in operation and one in project stages. The largest CYMIC in operation is a 185 MW{sub th} industrial boiler burning various fuels. For even larger scale units Kvaerner developed the Integrated Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL) assembly. One of these installations is in operation in USA, having steaming capacity of over 500 t/h. The design bases of these new solutions are quite different in comparison with conventional cyclones. Therefore, an important part of the development has been cold model testing and mathematical modeling of the cyclones. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in water-cooled cyclone construction. The new solutions, their full-scale experience, and a comparison of the actual experience with the preliminary modeling work are introduced.

Alliston, M.G.; Luomaharju, T.; Kokko, A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Global cooling updates: Reflective roofs and pavements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With increasing the solar reflectance of urban surfaces, the outflow of short-wave solar radiation increases, less solar heat energy is absorbed leading to lower surface temperatures and reduced outflow of thermal radiation into the atmosphere. This process of “negative radiative forcing” effectively counters global warming. Cool roofs also reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win–win–win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO2 emissions. We review the status of cool roof and cool pavements technologies, policies, and programs in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Hashem Akbari; H. Damon Matthews

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the “Energy Crisis” Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

85

Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool logo The Center for the Built Environment's research team has developed a simplified, practical design procedure and associated software tool to determine cooling load requirements of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems. These are provided to improve the accuracy of airflow, thermal decay data, thermal comfort calculations, system design, and the operation of UFAD buildings. Screen Shots Keywords UFAD, underfloor, Cooling load calculator, cooling, stratification, thermal comfort Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Knowledge about cooling load calculation and UFAD. Users N/A Audience Practicing architects and engineers involved in the design, specification, and analysis of UFADs. Instructional tool in colleges and universities.

87

Electron cooling for positron sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron cooling of positrons should make possible a large increase in the luminosity of future high-energy linear colliders, leading to greatly enhanced event rates at these machines. An evaluation of the electron-cooling-time requirement indicates that a positron-source repetition rate of 100 Hz is possible. Final positron-beam normalized emittances of 10-7 m rad should result, implying a tremendous increase in positron-beam density over that currently obtained.

D. J. Larson

1988-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

88

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Title Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson, Ronnen M., and Hashem Akbari Journal Energy Efficiency Volume 3 Pagination 53-109 Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 1570-646X Keywords cool roof, Heat Island Abstract Cool roofs-roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission-lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes-new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980)-were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from $0.126/m2 in West Virginia to $1.14/m2 in Arizona ($0.356/m2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m2 in New York to 11.7 g/m2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m2 in California to 26.1 g/m2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2.58 billion square meters of commercial building conditioned roof area in the USA would yield an annual cooling energy saving of 10.4 TWh; an annual heating energy penalty of 133 million therms; and an annual energy cost saving of $735 million. It would also offer an annual CO2 reduction of 6.23 Mt, offsetting the annual CO2 emissions of 1.20 million typical cars or 25.4 typical peak power plants; an annual NOx reduction of 9.93 kt, offsetting the annual NOx emissions of 0.57 million cars or 65.7 peak power plants; an annual SO2 reduction of 25.6 kt, offsetting the annual SO2 emissions of 815 peak power plants; and an annual Hg reduction of 126 kg.

89

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

90

Plug Load  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Residential Commercial Commercial Industrial Lighting Energy Smart Grocer Program HVAC Program Shell Measures Commercial Kitchen & Food Service Equipment Plug Load New...

91

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils...

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase the qubits' purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of 13C2-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. For example, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

93

Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 6 Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Cooling residential buildings in milder climates contributes significantly to peak demand mainly because of poor load factors. Peak cooling load determines the size of equipment and the cooling source. Several measures reduce cooling-system size and allow the use of lower-energy cooling sources; they include incorporating exterior walls or other elements that effectively shelter interiors from outside heat and cold, and providing thermal mass, to cool interior spaces during the day by absorbing heat and warm them at night as the mass discharges its heat. Thermal mass features may be used for storage only or serve as structural elements. Concrete, steel, adobe, stone, and brick all satisfy requirements

94

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

95

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Title Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Salamanca, Francisco, Shaheen R. Tonse, Surabi Menon, Vishal Garg, Krishna P. Singh, Manish Naja, and Marc L. Fischer Journal Environmental Research Letters Volume 7 Issue 4 Abstract We evaluate differences in clear-sky upwelling shortwave radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere in response to increasing the albedo of roof surfaces in an area of India with moderately high aerosol loading. Treated (painted white) and untreated (unpainted) roofs on two buildings in northeast India were analyzed on five cloudless days using radiometric imagery from the IKONOS satellite. Comparison of a radiative transfer model (RRTMG) and radiometric satellite observations shows good agreement (R2 = 0.927). Results show a mean increase of ~50 W m-2 outgoing at the top of the atmosphere for each 0.1 increase of the albedo at the time of the observations and a strong dependence on atmospheric transmissivity.

96

Detailed heat balance analysis of the thermal load variations depending on the blind location and glazing type  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays, curtain wall is the norm, due to which there is an increase in direct solar gain and heat loss through the window inside the building, causing massive thermal load. Use of blinds has been one of the best counter measures for this. In this study, EnergyPlus modeling has been used to measure the effect of reflectance of blind on heating and cooling load when the blind is located inside or outside for winter and summer condition. Modeling showed that in summer, as blind reflectance increased, cooling load decreased in case of internal blind and increased in case of external blind whereas in winter, the opposite was true for heating load. However, solar energy transmittance increased proportionately with the increase in reflectance of blind irrespective of position in either season. In addition, the heating load profiles under different window material compositions were determined mainly by the U-value variations, which were directly connected to the infrared and convective heat flows from the window into the space. SHGC also showed effect on the heating load to some extent by affecting the solar transmittance and convective and radiant heat flows from the blind into the space.

Yeo Beom Yoon; Dong Soo Kim; Kwang Ho Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Load Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

98

Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

99

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

MOFs as Adsorbents for Low Temperature Heating and Cooling Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

MOFs as Adsorbents for Low Temperature Heating and Cooling Applications ... Therefore, the loading spread ?X (in g of adsorbed vapor/kg of adsorbent) of the adsorbent over a given cycle is a good first figure of merit. ...

Stefan K. Henninger; Hesham A. Habib; Christoph Janiak

2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level...

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Title Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-19734 Year of Publication 1985 Authors Arasteh, Dariush K., Russell Johnson, Stephen E. Selkowitz, and Deborah J. Connell Conference Name 2nd Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates Date Published 09/1985 Conference Location Texas A&M University Call Number LBL-19734 Abstract Fenestration performance in nonresidentialsbuildings in hot climates is often a large coolingsload liability. Proper fenestration design andsthe use of daylight-responsive dimming controls onselectric lights can, in addition to drasticallysreducing lighting energy, lower cooling loads,speak electrical demand, operating costs, chillerssizes, and first costs. Using the building energyssimulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C , wesfirst discuss lighting energy savings from daylighting.sThe effects of fenestration parametersson cooling loads, total energy use, peak demand,schiller sizes, and initial and operating costs aresalso discussed. The impact of daylighting, asscompared to electric lighting, on cooling requirementssis discussed as a function of glazingscharacteristics, location, and shading systems.

104

An economic comparison between two district cooling systems in Halmstad.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The supply of cooling has increased significantly in recent years, the trend shows that the increase will continue one reason is that the standard… (more)

Le, Alex

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

Jankowski, Todd A; Hill, Dallas D

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

106

Cool Storage Economic Feasibility Analysis for a Large Industrial Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The analysis of economic feasibility for adding a cool storage facility to shift electric demand to off-peak hours for a large industrial facility is presented. DOE-2 is used to generate the necessary cooling load profiles for the analysis...

Fazzolari, R.; Mascorro, J. A.; Ballard, R. H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Macro Data Load: An Efficient Mechanism for Enhancing Loaded Data Reuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Macro Data Load: An Efficient Mechanism for Enhancing Loaded Data Reuse Lei Jin and Sangyeun Cho, Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper presents a study on macro data load, a novel mechanism to increase the amount of loaded data reuse within a processor. A macro data load brings into the processor a maximum

Cho, Sangyeun

108

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

109

Cavity cooling of an atomic array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While cavity cooling of a single trapped emitter was demonstrated, cooling of many particles in an array of harmonic traps needs investigation and poses a question of scalability. This work investigates the cooling of a one dimensional atomic array to the ground state of motion via the interaction with the single mode field of a high-finesse cavity. The key factor ensuring the cooling is found to be the mechanical inhomogeneity of the traps. Furthermore it is shown that the pumped cavity mode does not only mediate the cooling but also provides the necessary inhomogeneity if its periodicity differs from the one of the array. This configuration results in the ground state cooling of several tens of atoms within a few milliseconds, a timescale compatible with current experimental conditions. Moreover, the cooling rate scaling with the atom number reveals a drastic change of the dynamics with the size of the array: atoms are either cooled independently, or via collective modes. In the latter case the cavity mediated atom interaction destructively slows down the cooling as well as increases the mean occupation number, quadratically with the atom number. Finally, an order of magnitude speed up of the cooling is predicted as an outcome the optimization scheme based on the adjustment of the array versus the cavity mode periodicity.

Oxana Mishina

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

110

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

111

Affecting the Gross Cooling Power of a Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Mass Flow Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To increase the cooling capacity of a pulse tube cryocooler the ... For a given pulse tube volume the gross cooling power is limited. Since the cooling effect originates from the phase shift angle ... we present ...

A. Waldauf; T. Schmauder; M. Thürk; P. Seidel

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 9 Chiller Power in Pre-Cooling Tests Chiller powerFigure 10 Supply Fan Power in Pre- Cooling Tests response ofthe extended pre-cooling tests, the power increased at night

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Best Management Practice: Single-Pass Cooling Equipment | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Best Management Practice: Single-Pass Cooling Equipment October 8, 2013 - 9:37am Addthis Single-pass or once-through cooling systems provide an opportunity for significant water savings. In these systems, water is circulated once through a piece of equipment and is then disposed down the drain. Types of equipment that typically use single-pass cooling include CAT scanners, degreasers, hydraulic equipment, condensers, air compressors, welding machines, vacuum pumps, ice machines, x-ray equipment, and air conditioners. To remove the same heat load, single-pass systems use 40 times more water than a cooling tower operated at five cycles of concentration. To maximize water savings, single-pass cooling equipment should be either modified to

114

Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The running costs of data centers are dominated by the need to dissipate heat generated by thousands of server machines. Higher temperatures are undesirable as they lead to premature silicon wear-out; in fact, mean time to failure has been shown to decrease exponentially with temperature (Black's law). Although other server components also generate heat, microprocessors still dominate in most server configurations and are also the most vulnerable to wearout as the feature sizes shrink. Even as processor complexity and technology scaling have increased the average energy density inside a processor to maximally tolerable levels, modern microprocessors make extensive use of hardware structures such as the load-store queue and other CAM-based units, and the peak temperatures on chip can be much worse than even the average temperature of the chip. In recent studies, it has been shown that hot-spots inside a processor can generate {approx} 800W/cm{sup 2} heat flux whereas the average heat flux is only 10-50W/cm{sup 2}, and due to this disparity in heat generation, the temperature in hot spots may be up to 30 C more than average chip temperature. The key problem processor hot-spots create is that in order to prevent some critical hardware structures from wearing out faster, the air conditioners in a data center have to be provisioned for worst case requirements. Worse yet, air conditioner efficiencies decrease exponentially as the desired ambient temperature decreases relative to the air outside. As a result, the global cooling costs in data centers, which nearly equals the IT equipment power consumption, are directly correlated with the maximum hot spot temperatures of processors, and there is a distinct requirement for a cooling technique to mitigate hot-spots selectively so that the global air conditioners can operate at higher, more efficient, temperatures. We observe that localized cooling via superlattice microrefrigeration presents exactly this opportunity whereby hot-spots can be cooled selectively and allow global coolers to operate at much more efficient temperatures. Recent advances in processor cooling technologies have demonstrated that thermoelectric coolers (TEC), which use a Peltier effect to form heat pumps, can be used to reduce the temperature of hot spots. By applying a thermoelectric cooler between the heat spreader and the processor die and applying current selectively at the hot spots, heat from the hot-spots can be spread much more efficiently. The ability to implement such thermoelectric coolers on a real silicon device has been demonstrated recently, albeit for small prototype chips. The key question then, that needs to be answered before such thermoelectric coolers can be integrated in commodity server processors, is 'What is the potential for superlattice microrefrigeration to reduce global cooling costs in data centers?'. In order to answer this question, we present a comprehensive analysis of the impact of thermoelectric coolers on global cooling costs. Our thermal analysis covers all aspects of cooling a server in a data center, and integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources with a detailed heat diffusion model of a processor (that models the silicon to the thermoelectric cooler to the heat spreader and the heat sink) and finally the computer room air conditioner (CRAC) efficiency, as shown in Figure 1. In Section II, we present the components of the system model.

Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

115

Load Management for Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the electric utility industry, load management provides the opportunity to control customer loads to beneficially alter a utility's load curve Load management alternatives are covered. Load management methods can be broadly classified into four...

Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

SPL RF Coupler Cooling Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy saving is an important challenge in accelerator design. In this framework, reduction of heat loads in a cryomodule is of fundamental importance due to the small thermodynamic efficiency of cooling at low temperatures. In particular, care must be taken during the design of its critical components (e.g. RF couplers, coldwarm transitions). In this framework, the main RF coupler of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) cryomodule at CERN will not only be used for RF powering but also as the main mechanical support of the superconducting cavities. These two functions have to be accomplished while ensuring the lowest heat in-leak to the helium bath at 2 K. In the SPL design, the RF coupler outer conductor is composed of two walls and cooled by forced convection with helium gas at 4.5 K. Analytical, semi-analytical and numerical analyses are presented in order to defend the choice of gas cooling. Temperature profiles and thermal performance have been evaluated for different operating conditions; a sensitivit...

Bonomi, R; Montesinos, E; Parma, V; Vande Craen, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

118

Truck loading rack blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

Boubenider, E. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present ThesisLoad Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration Lisa Buth Rasmussen Kongens Lyngby 2013 M.Sc.-2013

120

HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This webinar, presented by IBACOS (a Building America Research Team) will highlight the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations, following the guidelines of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J version 8

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Loading guide for dry-type power transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applicable to naturally cooled dry-type power transformers complying with IEC 60726. Permits the calculation of, and indicates the permissible loading under certain defined conditions in terms of rated current.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

123

Enhanced cooling of atoms within an optical cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study enhanced cooling of atoms within an optical cavity using feedback and a time-dependent pump source. The two approaches operate on the same principle by increasing the modulation of the optical potential induced by atomic motion in the cavity. We show that cooling time can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude over conventional cavity cooling.

Lu, W.; Barker, P.F. [Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Load Data and Load Vector Assembly  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data for loading cases in solid mechanics problems is described. The following external loading factors can be specified: concentrated nodal forces, distributed surface forces, and thermal loading. JavaTM class F...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Pushing high-heat-load optics to the limit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenically cooled silicon monochromator and a water-cooled diamond monochromator have been tested under twice the standard power load conditions at the Advanced Photon Source. Both monochromators performed satisfactorily under these extreme power loads (several hundred watts of incident power and up to 300 W/mm2 of incident normal peak power density). The experimental data and the parameters derived to predict the performance limits of the cryogenic silicon monochromator are presented.

P. B. Fernandez

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.

Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

127

APS high heat load monochromator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers January 16, 2014 - 4:19pm Addthis This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the calculator assumptions and definitions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement How many chillers will you purchase? Performance Factors Existing What is the existing design condition? Full Load Partial Load What is the cooling capacity of the existing chiller? tons What is the full-load efficiency of the existing chiller? EER What is the partial-load efficiency of the existing chiller? EER New What is the new design condition? Full Load Partial Load

129

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas due to extensive changes in the landscape. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent.

130

District cooling gets hot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Logistics: Keeping cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. 10.1038/507S8aLogistics: Keeping cool NeilSavageN

Neil Savage

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

133

Cooling System Analysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??ABSTRACT This master thesis report describes the behavior of a cooling system based on the power consumption and power losses during the velocity range. The… (more)

Cruz, João Pedro Brás da

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

375 16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load Coincidence Factors* Wenyuan Li, Ke Wang, and Wijarn Wangdee 16.1 INTRODUCTION Load curve data refer to power consumptions recorded by meters at certain time intervals at buses of individual substations. Load curve data are one of the most important datasets

Wang, Ke

136

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

138

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

139

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

140

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

142

Cooling of neutron stars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the basis of current physical understanding, it is impossible to predict with confidence the interior constitution of neutron stars. Cooling of neutron stars provides a possible way of discriminating among possible states of matter within them. In the standard picture of cooling by neutrino emission developed over the past quarter of a century, neutron stars are expected to cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and to cool faster if matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been called into question by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

C. J. Pethick

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy December 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Secretary Steven Chu today announced the completion of a new cool roof installation on the Department of Energy's Headquarters West Building. There was no incremental cost to adding the cool roof as part of the roof replacement project and it will save taxpayers $2,000 every year in building energy costs. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency, reduce cooling costs and offset carbon emissions. The cool roof and increased insulation at the facility were

144

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a trade-off between cooling power and faster reaction time,a trade-off between cooling power and faster reaction time,derived potential peak cooling power of 77 W/m 2 (24 Btu/hr-

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Film Cooling Performance in a Transonic High-pressure Vane: Decoupled Simulation and Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The continuous demand for increased performance and reliability of gas turbines leads to the improvement of prediction tools. Having regard to the effects of heat transfer on the residual life of gas turbine components, it is necessary to achieve a high level of accuracy in the evaluation of thermal loads. Computational fluid dynamics is able to provide reliable data in a limited lapse of time. In this paper, the numerical analysis of the cooled vane of the MT1 high-pressure turbine stage is presented. A grid dependence analysis based on the evaluation of the aero-thermal characteristics of the vane has been performed. Turbulence is modeled using the kT-kL-? method whose performance in this kind of configuration is rarely debated in the scientific literature. Model parameters have been tuned to match the experimental data. The final objective of the present activity is to assess the capability of numerical methods to deal with an annular, transonic high-pressure vane with a realistic film cooling configuration. Adiabatic effectiveness, heat transfer coefficient and net heat flux reduction distributions have been evaluated, the latter providing relevant information on the performance of the cooling system. The coupled fluid-solid simulation of the cooled configuration has also been performed to evaluate the impact of conjugate heat transfer on the prediction of thermal loads. Results show a non-negligible difference in the wall temperature evaluation between the decoupled and the coupled approach, mainly caused by the heat conduction in the solid.

Massimiliano Insinna; Duccio Griffini; Simone Salvadori; Francesco Martelli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Development and analysis of a new integrated power and cooling plant using LiBr–H 2 O mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cooling needs are increasing rapidly at hot climatic ... expensive. The concept of a newly proposed cooling cogeneration cycle has been developed by clubbing the power and cooling processes. It consists of charac...

R SHANKAR; T SRINIVAS

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

150

Reducing Cache Traffic and Energy with Macro Data Load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing Cache Traffic and Energy with Macro Data Load Lei Jin Sangyeun Cho Department of Computer data load, an efficient mechanism to enhance loaded value reuse. A macro data load brings (MVRT) shows the significantly increased reuse opportunities provided by macro data load. We also

Cho, Sangyeun

151

Electronic Cooling in Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy transfer to acoustic phonons is the dominant low-temperature cooling channel of electrons in a crystal. For cold neutral graphene we find that the weak cooling power of its acoustic modes relative to their heat capacity leads to a power-law decay of the electronic temperature when far from equilibrium. For heavily doped graphene a high electronic temperature is shown to initially decrease linearly with time at a rate proportional to n3/2 with n being the electronic density. The temperature at which cooling via optical phonon emission begins to dominate depends on graphene carrier density.

R. Bistritzer and A. H. MacDonald

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

152

Multiphase cooling flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

Peter A. Thomas

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

153

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the most important design considerations for any method of Natural Cool ing is the chil led water temperature range selected for use during Natural Cool ing. Figure VI shows that for a hypo thetical Chicago plant, the hours of operation for a Natural..." system on the Natural Cool ing cycle. As the pressures and flow rates of the condenser and chil led water systems are seldom the same, the designer must pay careful attention to the cross over system design to ensure harmonious operations on both...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Heating and cooling performance analysis of a ground source heat pump system in Southern Germany  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper examines thermal performance of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. The GSHP system was installed in an office building in Nuremberg city of Germany. In order to evaluate system performance the GSHP system has been continuously monitored for 4 years. Heating and cooling performance of the GSHP system is analyzed based on the accumulated data. Major findings of this work include: (1) coefficient of performance (COP) is estimated to be 3.9 for a typical winter day and energy efficiency ratio (EER) is assessed to be 8.0 for a typical summer day. These results indicate that the GSHP system has a higher efficiency for building cooling than building heating. (2) For a long-term period, the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of the GSHP system is observed to increase by 8.7% annually, whereas the seasonal COP is decreased by 4.0% over a 4-year period. The heating and cooling performance of the GSHP system migrates in opposite trend is caused by the unevenly distributed heating and cooling load of the building. This phenomenon deserves serious attention in the design of future GSHP systems in order to avoid the reducing of energy efficiency over long-term operation.

Jin Luo; Joachim Rohn; Manfred Bayer; Anna Priess; Lucas Wilkmann; Wei Xiang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Radiant Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

hours, reducing the electrical demand on electric utilities. Learn More Home Cooling Systems References Final Report Compilation for Residential Hydronic Radiant Cooling and...

156

The Promise of Load Balancing the Parameterization of Moist Convection Using a Model Data Load Index  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The parameterization of physical processes in atmospheric general circulation models contributes to load imbalances among individual processors of message-passing distributed-multiprocessor systems. Load imbalances increase the overall time to ...

S. P. Muszala; D. A. Connors; J. J. Hack; G. Alaghband

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Investigation of a Single Stage Four-Valve Pulse Tube Refrigerator for High Cooling Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the optimization of a pulse tube refrigerator for high cooling power. Our approach is to increase the system...

T. Schmauder; A. Waldauf; M. Thürk; R. Wagner; P. Seidel

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

159

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

160

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

162

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Müller

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

163

HomeCooling101  

Energy Savers [EERE]

openings to prevent warm air from leaking into your home. Insulate and seal ducts -- air loss through ducts accounts for about 30 percent of a cooling system's energy consumption....

164

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

165

Rate of cooling and power consumption of farm milk coolers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

milk usinm asit tcr1;. a'. er :;th wit::- out ice bank - mnruier load, i, ". . . rch 20, 196'd. '1'he ac:blent tem; er ature was ~O al ~ 6 & ~ 4 ~ 0 ~ i ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ * ~ ~ ~ I V Typical data sheet for rate of cooling miiir using' crit... VIE Discussion of Resolta , , ~ . ~ . . . 51 VII. Corclusions ~ ~ ~ 55 VIII. sitsrsture Citsrl 55 Page X Typical data sheet for rats of cooling milk usinw agitated water bath with ice bank morning load~ Iarch 80, 195Ri The ambient temperature...

McCardle, Arthur, Jr

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

Electrical and Production Load Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Texas Abstract Load factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors... for each shift classification within major industry groups. The load factor based on billing hours (ELF) increases with operating hours from about 0.4 for a nominal one shift operation, to about 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. On the other hand...

Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

167

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

169

TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

Don B. Shirey, III

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

RHIC stochastic cooling motion control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

171

The Temperature Sensitivity of the Residential Load and Commercial Building Load  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a building modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building heating and cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. A building simulation software are first used to quantify the hourly energy consumption of different building types by end-use and by vintage. Then, the temperature sensitivities are derived based on the climate data inputs.

Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Correia, James; Leung, Lai R.; Wong, Pak C.

2009-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

172

High-heat-load synchrotron tests of room-temperature, silicon crystal monochromators at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This note summarizes the results of the single crystal monochromator high-heat-load tests performed at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station. The results from two different cooling geometries are presented: (1) the ``pin-post`` crystal and (2) the ``criss-cross`` crystal. The data presented were taken in August 1993 (water-cooled pin-post) and in April 1995 (water- and gallium-cooled pin-post crystal and gallium-cooled criss-cross crystal). The motivation for trying these cooling (or heat exchanger) geometries is to improve the heat transfer efficiency over that of the conventional slotted crystals. Calculations suggest that the pin-post or the microchannel design can significantly improve the thermal performance of the crystal. The pin-post crystal used here was fabricated by Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations. From the performance of the conventional slotted crystals, it was thought that increased turbulence in the flow pattern may also enhance the heat transfer. The criss-cross crystal was a simple attempt to achieve the increased flow turbulence. The criss-cross crystal was partly fabricated in-house (cutting, etching and polishing) and bonded by RAO. Finally, a performance comparison among all the different room temperature silicon monochromators that have been tested by the APS is presented. The data includes measurements with the slotted crystal and the core-drilled crystals. Altogether, the data presented here were taken at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station between 1991 and 1995.

Lee, W.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Assoufid, L.

1995-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

173

CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

174

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Numerical Simulation of Transpiration Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen SUMMARY Transpiration cooling using ceramic matrix composite (CMC

176

Field test of liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic power cable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic cable, 66 kV, 100 MVA, 30 m was constructed and tested with loads simulating actual operating loads from October 1970 to December 1971. The successful operation of the cable makes us hopeful it can be used for large capacity transmission. Our test line is composed of aluminium stranded hollow conductor, liquid-nitrogen impregnated polyethylene paper electrical insulation, and polyurethane foam thermal insulation.

H. Nagano; M. Fukasawa; S. Kuma; K. Sugiyama

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

178

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

179

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

180

Integrating district cooling with cogeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

Spurr, M.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Earth Solar Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Cool Earth Solar Name Cool Earth Solar Address 4659 Las Positas Rd, Bldg C Place Livermore, California Zip 94551 Sector Solar Product Electricty from High Concentrating PV Year founded 2007 Number of employees 11-50 Phone number 925.454.8506 Website http://www.coolearthsolar.com/ Coordinates 37.6971629°, -121.7339673° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.6971629,"lon":-121.7339673,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

182

Cool Roof Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roof Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online calculator, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/facts/CoolCalcEnergy.htm Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

183

Taking a Bite out of Lighting Loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Take a Bite Out of Lighting Loads With LEDs Stephen Williams Toshiba Sales Support Manager ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Some LED Advantages • Less electricity ? 18w LED... = 100w PAR38 • No maintenance for years ? 50,000 LED vs.10,000 CFL • Improved light quality ? 80 CRI LED vs. 25 CRI HPS • Reduce HVAC cooling load • Advanced control options ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San...

Williams, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The benefits of combining utility-controlled demand response with residential zoned cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of combining direct load control with a residential zoned-cooling technology in meeting the objectives of reducing peak demand and maintaining home comfort level. In cont...

Wen Zhou; Dean C. Mountain

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fenestration performance in nonresidential buildings in hot climates is often a large cooling load liability. Proper fenestration design and the use of daylight-responsive dimming controls on electric lights can, in addition to drastically reducing...

Arasteh, D.; Johnson, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Connell, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Cooling Towers Make Money  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was hired and wrote specifications for a four cell induced draft counterflow cooling tower to cool 10,000 GPM entering at 95 0 F leaving at 85 0 F during an 80 0 F ambient wet bulb temperature. The specifications required that the bidders project a... F during an ambient wet bulb temperature of 7] OF could not be met The SuperCellular film fill, style] 3] 62 Illustration 3 was selected by the consultant because of its previous highly satisfactory service in sewage treatment trickling filter...

Burger, R.

187

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

188

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

190

Increasing Knowledge Increasing Knowledge 29  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

28 Increasing Knowledge Increasing Knowledge 29 Expanding Leadership 36 Building Partnerships 43 the world. The challenges ahead are large, but WSP is preparing to meet them by increasing knowledge, expanding leadership, building partnerships, and seeking solutions. #12;29 Increasing Knowledge Increasing

Fay, Noah

191

Cool, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool, Texas: Energy Resources Cool, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 32.8001288°, -98.001153° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.8001288,"lon":-98.001153,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

192

Energy consumption and optimization of internally cooled/heated liquid desiccant air-conditioning system: A case study in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract LDAC (liquid desiccant air-conditioning system) is promising for reducing the energy consumption, and improving the indoor air quality. In this paper, the operation performance of LDAC with internally cooled/heated dehumidifier/regenerator was simulated and optimized. The cooling tower and solar collectors were employed as the cooling/heating source. Four nested iteration loops were developed and solved for system modeling. A typical commercial building in Hong Kong was selected as a case study, which air-conditioning load was obtained by Energy-plus. Results show that with the increase of solar collector area, the electricity consumption of AC (air-conditioning systems) system reduced by 11–35% in original system, but only a part of dehumidification demand was handled with liquid desiccant ventilation, which led to a low chiller COP (coefficient of performance). By adding a cooling coil for the solution entering dehumidifier, the electricity saving effectively increased to 22–47%, while the heat demand for regeneration also increased by 17%. So, a heat exchanger between water leaving regenerator and solution leaving dehumidifier was introduced. With the lower thermal requirement (reduced by 20%) and higher solar fraction (increased from 30 to 40%), the saving further increased to 29–49%, and the required collector area obviously reduced by 50–60% for the similar energy saving purpose.

Ronghui Qi; Lin Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

194

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-04-13 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume I, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 COOLING TOWER #3 FROM EAST FROM WEST TOWER TO TO EAST WES TOWER TOW8:R ELEC. #9 2000 TON MOOE, ?YAP. CHILLING LOAD SHAVING Sl...

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Batch-to-batch model improvement for cooling crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge MA 02139, USA c Albemarle Catalysts Company B.V., Nieuwendammerkade 1-3, 1030 consisting of a solute dissolved into a solvent is loaded at high temperature into a vessel called, the desired cooling profile is given as set-point to a feedback temperature control loop. However, even when

Van den Hof, Paul

197

District heating and cooling feasibility study, Dunkirk, New York  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to perform a preliminary investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of implementing a district heating and cooling (DHC) system in the City of Dunkirk, New York. The study was conducted by first defining a heating and cooling (HC) load service area. Then, questionnaires were sent to prospective DHC customers. After reviewing the owners responses, large consumers of energy were interviewed for more detail of their HC systems, including site visits, to determine possibilities of retrofitting their systems to district heating and cooling. Peak HC loads for the buildings were estimated by Burns and Roe's in-house computer programs. Based on the peak loads, certain customers were determined for suitability as anchor customers. Various options using cogeneration were investigated for possible HC sources. Equipment for HC sources and HC loads were sized and their associated costs estimated. Finally, economic analyses were performed. The conclusion is that it is technically and economically feasible to implement a district heating and cooling system in the City of Dunkirk. 14 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen Ho-793, South Korea Abstract Heat transfer analysis on a newly proposed cryogenic cooling system is performed, and over-load operation. One of the key techniques to realize these advantages in practice is the cryogenic

Chang, Ho-Myung

199

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

Smith, M.

200

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: QwickLoad  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

QwickLoad QwickLoad QwickLoad logo QwickLoad uses the ASHRAE TFM (Transfer Function Method) algorithms combined with a screen interface that provides building load calculations. It includes a Duct Sizing Program and supports IP and SI units. QwickLoad Residential 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 10 zones. QwickLoad Commercial 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 500 zones. Zones and plenums can be added or deleted with one button click. Intuitive screens for entering building information. Default is automatically displayed. Construction types for roofs, walls, partitions, windows, shade types, and scheduling control. Complete air-conditioning and heating system control and supply, return, heating and cooling duct static pressure specification. Energy recovery ventilator can

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: CL4M Commercial Cooling and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CL4M Commercial Cooling and Heating Loads CL4M Commercial Cooling and Heating Loads Uses ASHRAE methods and algorithms to calculate cooling loads, heating loads and air requirements for each space, and coil specifications, for commercial buildings. CLTD's, SHGF's, CLF's and almost all other factors in the ASHRAE load calculations for each surface and space are calculated and displayed for the engineer's inspection. Latitude and longitude of building location may be specified to the degree, altitude to the foot, and calculations are made for any range of days of the year, and range of hours desired. Building may be rotated or reflected and construction types easily changed for studies. &nsbsp; Handles variations in sky clarity, ground reflectivity, building shading, humidity and altitude. Almost unlimited flexibility in wall, roof and glass

202

Optimized core design of a supercritical carbon dioxide-cooled fast reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spurred by the renewed interest in nuclear power, Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFRs) have received increasing attention in the past decade. Motivated by the goals of the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF), a GFR cooled ...

Handwerk, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanley), 1974-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

Elpern, David G. (Los Angeles, CA); McCabe, Niall (Torrance, CA); Gee, Mark (South Pasadena, CA)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

204

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

205

Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling...

Brenner, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Cooling power of quenching oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Industrial oils 20 and 20V have the best cooling powers of all quenching oils (used in the USSR). They secure high cooling rates at low temperatures, have a satisfactory...

L. V. Petrash

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by  the  power  distribution  and  cooling  systems.  The  the  power   distribution  and  cooling  infrastructure  IT  power  consumed  along  with   the  cooling  required  

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Figure 3. Fan power versus cooling fan the computer fanparameters (cooling effect, fan power and CFE) involved inthat the typical power consumption of cooling fans is lower

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Cooling by heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

A. Mari; J. Eisert

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heating and cooling of dwelling houses and other confined spaces is facilitated by a system in which thermal energy is transported between an air heating and cooling system in the dwelling and a water heat storage sink or source, preferably in the form of a swimming pool or swimming pool and spa combination. Special reversing valve circuitry and the use of solar collectors and liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers on the liquid side of the system , and special air valves and air modules on the air side of the system, enhance the system's efficiency and make it practical in the sense that systems employing the invention can utilize existing craft skills and building financing arrangements and building codes, and the like, without major modification.

Krumhansl, M.U.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

211

Reservoir compaction loads on casings and liners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure drawdown due to production from a reservoir causes compaction of the reservoir formation which induces axial and radial loads on the wellbore. Reservoir compaction loads increase during the production life of a well, and are greater for deviated wells. Presented here are casing and liner loads at initial and final pressure drawdowns for a particular reservoir and at well deviation angles of 0 to 45 degrees.

Wooley, G.R.; Prachner, W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Monolithically Peltier-cooled laser diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method of cooling a GaAs/GaAlAs laser in an optical integrated circuit or on a discrete chip, by adding an integral thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling and heat spreading device to the laser, is presented. This cooling both reduces and stabilizes the laser junction temperature to minimize such deleterious effects as wavelength drift due to heating. A unified description of the electrical and thermal properties of a monolithic semiconductor mesa structure is given. Here it is shown that an improvement in thermal characteristics is obtained by depositing a relatively thick metallic layer, and by using this layer as a part of an active Peltier structure. Experimental results reveal a 14-percent increase in emitted power (external quantum efficiency) due to passive heat spreading and a further 8-percent if its Peltier cooler is operated. Fabrication techniques used to obtain devices exhibiting the above performance characteristics are given. 21 references.

Hava, S.; Hunsperger, R.G.; Sequeira, H.B.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Turbine cooling waxy oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for pipelining a waxy oil to essentially eliminate deposition of wax on the pipeline wall is described comprising: providing a pressurized mixture of the waxy oil and a gas; effecting a sudden pressure drop of the mixture of the oil and the gas through an expansion turbine, thereby expanding the gas and quickly cooling the oil to below its cloud point in the substantial absence of wax deposition and forming a slurry of wax particles and oil; and pipelining the slurry.

Geer, J.S.

1987-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

215

1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Examining Repository Loading Options to Expand Yucca Mountain Repository Capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Siting a high level nuclear waste repository entails high economic, social, and political costs. Given the difficulty in siting the Yucca Mountain repository and the already identified need for additional capacity, the concept of expanding the capacity of the Yucca Mountain repository is of significant interest to the nuclear industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). As the capacity of the repository is limited by the decay heat inventory of the spent nuclear fuel in relation to the thermal design limits, expanding the capacity requires appropriate schemes for decay heat and spent fuel loading management. The current Yucca Mountain repository is based on a single level, fixed drift spacing design for a fixed area or footprint. Studies performed to date investigating the capacity of Yucca Mountain often assume that the loading of spent fuel is uniform throughout the repository and use the concept of a linear loading or areal power density (APD). However, use of linear loading or APD can be problematic with the various cooling times involved. The temperature within the repository at any point in time is controlled by the integral of the heat deposited in the repository. The integral of the decay heat varies as a function of pre-loading cooling periods even for a fixed linear loading. A meaningful repository capacity analysis requires the use of a computer model that describes the time-dependent temperature distributions of the rock from the dissipation of the heat through the repository system. If variations from the current Yucca Mountain repository design were to be considered, expanding the capacity of the repository would be pursued in several ways including: (1) increase the footprint size; (2) implement multiple-levels in the repository for the given footprint; (3) allow the drift distance to vary within thermal limits; and, (4) allow non-uniform loading of wastes into the drifts within thermal limits. Options (1) and (2) have been investigated by other researchers. This paper investigates options (3) and (4) for possible expansion of the Yucca Mountain repository capacity. To support the work, a thermal analysis model was needed to describe the temperature changes in the rock around the waste packages against the thermal design limits as a function of spent fuel characteristics and composition. Under the high temperature operating mode (HTOM), the relevant thermal design limits are: (1) the rock temperature midway between adjacent drifts must remain below the local boiling point (96 deg. C); and (2) the rock temperature at drift walls must remain below 200 deg. C. As the work involves a large number of calculations, examining the compliance within thermal design limits, the capability to perform efficient mountain-scale heat-transfer analyses was necessary. A related topic of importance in this investigation was also the effect of uncertainty. As the modeling exercise relies on the use of computational models, uncertainties are unavoidable and understanding the uncertainty in the interpretation of the results is important. The concept of variable drift spacing and variable drift thermal loading was investigated with respect to possible capacity expansion of the Yucca Mountain repository. Also, a computer model was developed for efficient repository heat transfer calculations and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to identify key parameters and to estimate the uncertainty in the results and understand how the repository capacity estimation would be affected by the uncertainty. (authors)

Li, Jun; Nicholson, Mark; Proctor, W. Cyrus; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Loading margin Stable operating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linear approximation at p1 Actual loading margin Loadingmargin Parameter p p1 p2 p3 IEEE Transactions collapse. Linear and quadratic estimates to the variation of the loading margin with respect to any sys power support, wheeling, load model param- eters, line susceptance, and generator dispatch. The accuracy

220

NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

Not Available

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Air Cooling R&D  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

operation condition - Conservative power factor * Applied 1.5 safety factor to MOSFET heat loss for heat load target * Used heat load target for all devices Generating Power...

222

Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1—Calculating Loads  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

During this webinar, Building America Research Team IBACOS highlighted the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations. Current industry rules of thumb, perceptions and barriers to right-sizing HVAC were also discussed.

223

Loading a planar RF Paul Trap from a cold Yb? source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we demonstrate a functioning planar radio frequency, three-rod Paul Trap, loaded with Yb+ ions that have been photoionized from a source of neutral atoms, which were cooled in a magneto-optical trap. Planar ...

Shields, Brendan John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device H.C. Coles, S.prototype computer equipment rack-level cooling device withIT equipment cooling, server rack cooling, server cooling,

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling Effect, Fan Power, and Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index?t eq ) °C °F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (The measured cooling effect and fan power and the determined

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Solar Heating and Cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation during good weather are not very high, and...Atmospheric Administration weather ser-vice measures total...largely to experi-mental operation of 3-ton LiBr-H2O...a million solar water heaters are in use in these countries...air House heating load Cold air return 'S T~rgeo...

John A. Duffie; William A. Beckman

1976-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

227

Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

"Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative Cooling" Inventors..--.. Lewis Meixler, Charles Gentile, Patricia Hillyer, Dylan Carpe, Jason Wang, Caroline Brooks...

230

Solar cooling systems for climate change mitigation: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The impact of global warming and an increase in the indoor cooling equipments using energy sources other than conventional energy have become very attractive because they can reduce consumption of fossil fuels as well as harmful emissions in to the environment. The solar energy is one of the readily available forms of renewable energy which can be used to operate the cooling equipments depending on the geographical location of the area where solar cooling system needs to be installed. The effectiveness of solar cooling also needs to be evaluated based on various performance indicating parameters. However, different types of solar collectors also need to be evaluated in order to find out their feasibility for cooling applications. Thus in this article review of different types of solar cooling technologies have been carried out. The study reveals that evacuated tube collectors are best option for solar cooling where as desiccant cooling helps in improving the indoor air quality. Also, thermal energy storage and ejector based solar cooling efficiently improves the performance besides energy saving.

S. Anand; A. Gupta; S.K. Tyagi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Cooling Towers - Energy Conservation and Money Making Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The utilization of colder water conserves energy, creates profits, increases product output. In an effort to obtain greater efficiencies and conserve both energy and dollars, all too many engineers neglect the potential of the cooling tower. Many...

Burger, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gradients between oceanic basins lend additional support for increased...Malone MJ ( 2000 ) Great Australian Bight—Cenozoic cool-water...Tertiary of the Gippsland Basin, Victoria . APEA J...Malone MJ (2000) Great Australian Bight--Cenozoic...

Peter K. Bijl; James A. P. Bendle; Steven M. Bohaty; Jörg Pross; Stefan Schouten; Lisa Tauxe; Catherine E. Stickley; Robert M. McKay; Ursula Röhl; Matthew Olney; Appy Sluijs; Carlota Escutia; Henk Brinkhuis; Expedition 318 Scientists

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Influence of Tropical Tropopause Layer Cooling on Atlantic Hurricane Activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Virtually all metrics of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity show substantial increases over the past two decades. It is argued here that cooling near the tropical tropopause and the associated decrease in tropical cyclone ...

Solomon, Susan

234

Reflective 'cool' roofs under aerosol-burdened skies: radiative benefits across selected Indian cities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of reflective surfaces offers one low-cost solution for reducing solar loading to urban environments and the Earth that should be considered as part of sustainable urban design. Here, we characterize the radiative benefits, i.e. the additional shortwave radiation leaving the atmosphere, from the installation of highly reflective 'cool' roofs in urban areas in India that face relatively large local aerosol burdens. We use a previously tested column radiative transfer model to estimate the energy per unit area reflected to space from increasing the surface albedo at six cities within India. The model is used to characterize radiative transfer each day over five years (2008–2012) based on mid-day satellite retrievals of MODIS aerosol depth, cloud water path, and average surface albedo and MERRA atmospheric profiles of temperature and composition. Compared against ten months of field observations in two cities, the model derived incoming surface shortwave radiation estimates relative to observations show small biases (0.5% and ?2.6%, at Pantnagar and Nainital, respectively). Despite the high levels of local aerosols we found cool roofs provided significant radiative benefits at all locations. Averaged over the five year period we found that increasing the albedo of 1 m2 of roof area by 0.5 would reflect to space 0.9–1.2 kWh daily from 08:30–15:30 LST, depending on location. This is equivalent to a constant forcing of 37–50 W m?2 (equivalent to reducing CO2 emissions by 74 to 101 kg CO2 m?2 roof area). Last, we identify a co-benefit of improving air quality, in that removing aerosols from the atmosphere could increase the radiative benefits from cool roofs by 23–74%, with the largest potential increase found at Delhi and the smallest change found at Nainital.

D E Millstein; M L Fischer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Supercritical Helium Cooling of the LHC Beam Screens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cold mass of the LHC superconducting magnets, operating in pressurised superfluid helium at 1.9 K, must be shielded from the dynamic heat loads induced by the circulating particle beams, by means of beam screens maintained at higher temperature. The beam screens are cooled between 5 and 20 K by forced flow of weakly supercritical helium, a solution which avoids two-phase flow in the long, narr ow cooling channels, but still presents a potential risk of thermohydraulic instabilities. This problem has been studied by theoretical modelling and experiments performed on a full-scale dedicated te st loop.

Hatchadourian, E; Tavian, L

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Spray Cooling Modeling: Droplet Sub-Cooling Effect on Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray cooling has become increasingly popular as a thermal management solution for high-heat flux (>100 W/cm{sup 2}) applications such as laser diodes and radars. Research has shown that using sub-cooled liquid can increase the heat flux from the hot surface. The objective of this study was to use a multi-phase numerical model to simulate the effect of a sub-cooled droplet impacting a growing vapor bubble in a thin (<100 {mu}m) liquid film. The two-phase model captured the liquid-vapor interface using the level set method. The effects of surface tension, viscosity, gravity and phase change were accounted for by using a modification to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, which were solved using the finite difference method. The computed liquid-vapor interface and temperature distributions were visualized for better understanding of the heat removal process. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms of sub-cooled droplet impact on a growing vapor bubble, various initial droplet temperatures were modeled (from 20 deg. C below saturation temperature to saturation temperature). This may provide insights into how to improve the heat transfer in future spray cooling systems.

Johnston, Joseph E.; Selvam, R. P. [Power Electronics Leveling Solutions LLC, 700 Research Boulevard, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Bell 4190 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Silk, Eric A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

237

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Building Load Simulation and Validation of an Office Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the model for electricity use were calibrated to match the actual electricity use for the average year of the available data for years 1998, 1999, and 2000. The monthly and annual cooling loads of the building were calculated by using the DOE2.1E. The extra...

Alghimlas, F.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

242

Space Heating & Cooling Research | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research The Emerging Technology team conducts research in space heating and cooling technologies, with a goal of realizing aggregate energy savings of 20% relative to a 2010 baseline. In addition to work involving the development of products, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with industry partners and researchers, develops best practices, tests, and guides designed to reduce market barriers and increase public awareness of these energy saving technologies. Research is currently focusing on: Geothermal Heat Pumps Photo of a home with a geothermal heat pump, showing how it can regulate the temperature of a home using the temperature underground to cool warm air or heat cold air.

243

Geothermal Heat Pumps- Cooling Mode  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In summer, the fluid removes heat from the building and transfers it to the relatively cooler ground in order to cool the building.

244

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

245

Empirical Modeling of a Rolling-Piston Compressor Heat Pump for Predictive Control in Low-Lift Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

Gayeski, Nicholas

246

Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

District Cooling Using Central Tower Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract During the operation of solar power towers there are occasions, commonly in the summer season, where some of the heliostats have to stop focusing at the central receiver, located at the top of the tower, because the maximum temperature that the receiver can withstand has been reached. The highest demands of cooling for air conditioning take place at these same occasions. In the present paper, we have analyzed the possibility of focusing the exceeding heliostats to the receiver increasing the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid over the nominal value and using the extra heat as a source of an absorption chiller. The chilled water would be used to cool buildings and offices, using a district cooling network. Using the extra heat of the solar power tower plant would greatly reduce the electricity usage. In this work we have analyzed the case of a circular field of heliostats focusing at a circular receiver, such as the case of Gemasolar plant. We have quantified the thermal power that can be obtained from the unused heliostats, the cooling capacity of the absorption system as well as the heat losses through the insulated pipes that distribute the chilled water to the buildings of the network.

C. Marugán-Cruz; S. Sánchez-Delgado; M.R. Rodríguez-Sánchez; M. Venegas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Predicting pipeline frost load  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to find a formula for predicting the additional load imposed on underground pipelines by soil freezing. The authors conclude that a modified Boussinesq equation can be used to assess this load. Results also showed that frost affects the modulus of soil reaction and therefore the induced stress in flexible pipe.

Fielding, M.B.; Cohen, A.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

251

Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: TRACE Load 700  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Load 700 Load 700 TRACE Load 700 logo. Use TRACE Load 700 software - the building and load design modules of TRACE 700, Trane Air Conditioning Economics - to evaluate the effect of building orientation, size, shape, and mass based on hourly weather data and the resulting heat-transfer characteristics of air and moisture. To assure calculation integrity, the program uses algorithms recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Choose from eight different ASHRAE cooling and heating methodologies, including the Exact Transfer Function. The program encourages "what if" analyses, allowing the user to enter construction details in any order and then easily change the resulting building model as the design progresses. Multiple project views and "drag-and-drop"

253

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Title Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Ho, Tony, Samuel S. Mao, and Ralph Greif Journal International Journal of Energy Research Volume 34 Start Page 1257 Issue 14 Pagination 1257-1271 Date Published 11/2010 Keywords high-concentrator photovoltaic efficiency, two-phase flow cooling applications Abstract The potential of increasing high-concentrator photovoltaic cell efficiency by cooling with two-phase flow is analyzed. The governing energy equations were used to predict cell temperature distributions and cell efficiencies for a photovoltaic cell under 100 suns' concentration. Several design conditions were taken into consideration in the analysis, including cooling channel height, working fluid type (between water and R134a), working fluid inlet temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate. It was observed that the dominant parameter for increasing cell efficiency was the working fluid saturation temperature, which itself is affected by a number of the aforementioned design parameters. The results show R134a at low inlet pressures to be highly effective in this two-phase cooling design.

255

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Integrated Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrated Modeling Integrated Modeling NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team predicts the impact of advanced vehicle cooling technologies before testing by using an integrated modeling process. Evaluating the heat load on a vehicle under real world conditions is a difficult task. An accepted method to evaluate passenger compartment airflow and heat transfer is computational fluid dynamics. (CFD). Combining analytical models with CFD provides a powerful tool to assist industry both on current vehicles and on future design studies. Flow chart showing the vehicle integrated modeling process which considers solar radiation, air conditioning, and vehicles with CAD, glazing, cabin thermal/fluid, and thermal comfort modeling tools. Results are provided for fuel economy, tailpipe emissions and occupant thermal comfort.

256

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

257

Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1\\muK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for BEC is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10^5 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a timescale of 100ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method of, and apparatus for, killing marine life in and about the cooling system of a marine vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of killing marine life in the cooling system of a marine vehicle having a water-cooled internal combustion engine. It comprises: providing an enclosure about the inlet and outlet ports such that water circulated through the cooling system will be drawn from, and discharged back into, the enclosure; and operating the engine so as to cause the temperature of the water within the enclosure and the cooling system to increase to a predetermined minimum temperature; thereby to cause marine life in the enclosure and cooling system to be killed by the increased temperature of water within the cooling system and enclosure.

Brockhurst, J.V.

1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

259

Combi Systems for Low Load homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

text styles text styles Combi Systems for Low Load Homes Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer * Low load homes are more common than ever. * Typical space heating and DHW equipment have capacities larger than necessary * A single heating plant could provide high efficiency heat at lower costs, increased durability and improved combustion safety Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System specifications, sizing, and installation optimization guidelines were all developed. * Contractor capability was developed in MN market, but may not be developed in all local. 4 Recommended Guidance * Determine peak load on system: - Space heating design load (ie 40,000 Btu/hr)

260

Scalable Load Distribution and Load Balancing for Dynamic Parallel Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shown that the algorithm scales according to the definition of scalability given following. LoadScalable Load Distribution and Load Balancing for Dynamic Parallel Programs E. Berger and J. C of an integrated load distribution-load balancing algorithm which was targeted to be both efficient and scalable

Berger, Emery

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

262

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

263

NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

building’s roof to take advantage of long-wave radiation to the night sky has been long identified as a potentially productive means to reduce building space cooling. A typical roof at 75?F will radiate at about 55-60 W/m 2 to clear night sky... and about 25 W/m 2 to a cloudy sky. For a typical roof (250 square meters), this represents a cooling potential of 6,000 - 14,000 Watts or about 1.5 - 4.0 tons of cooling potential each summer night. However, various physical constraints (differential...

Parker, D. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.

Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

266

Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The City of San José is considering the installation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system on the roof of the San José Convention Center. The installation would be on a lower section of the roof covering approximately 21,000 ft2. To assist city staff in making a decision on the PV installation, the Department of Energy Tiger Team has investigated potential indirect benefits of installing a solar PV system on the Convention Center roof. The indirect benefits include potential increase in roof life, as well as potential reduced heating and cooling load in the building due to roof shading from the PV system.

267

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

268

Buildings Stock Load Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: An assembly of the various blocks of the library of simbad and simulink permit to model building. Finally the last part prensents the study results: Graphs and tables to see the load shedding strategies impacts....

Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Demonstration of Energy Savings of Cool Roofs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. 1997. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-et al. 1997. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-Hanford, J. 1997. "Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of

Konopacki, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

integrated control resets for supply air temperature and75.2°F) Cooling supply air temperature control Minimum AHUvary the VAV supply-air-temperature reset control mid-bands

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Stochastic cooling of bunched beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation studies are presented for transverse and longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched particle beams. Radio frequency buckets of various shapes (e.g. rectangular, parabolic well, single sinusoidal waveform) are used to investigate the enhancement of phase space cooling by nonlinearities of synchrotron motion. The connection between the notions of Landau damping for instabilities and mixing for stochastic cooling are discussed. In particular, the need for synchrotron frequency spread for both Landau damping and good mixing is seen to be comparable for bunched beams.

Bisognano, J.J.; Chattopadhyay, S.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Multi-nozzle array spray cooling for large area high power devices in a closed loop system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A prototype of a closed loop system was built to study multi-nozzle array spray cooling on high-power, large-area electronic devices. Fifty-four nozzles with an in-lined array of 9 × 6 were applied to spray cool a simulated 6U electronic card using R134a. Simple drainage concepts were introduced to assist the drainage of both liquid and vapour on the heated surface. The results indicated a promising prospect of using a multi-nozzle array on large-area power electronics cooling. 16 kW heat was removed from the 6U card area by maintaining the mean surface temperature below 26.5  ° C . Heat transfer coefficient up to 2.8  × 10 4 W / m 2 K was obtained, and liquid usage fraction as high as 0.88 was achieved before CHF occurred. It was found that increasing nozzle pressure drop or flow rate enhanced heat transfer and gave better surface temperature uniformity. Chamber pressure significantly influenced mean surface temperature, but had no observable effects on surface temperature uniformity. The control of chamber pressure can maintain a constant temperature on the heated surface when heat load varied largely. The results also showed that the spray-to-spray interactions had inconspicuous effects on local surface temperatures but rather the distance from a location relative to the drainage outlets.

J.L. Xie; Y.B. Tan; T.N. Wong; F. Duan; K.C. Toh; K.F. Choo; P.K. Chan; Y.S. Chua

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Composite Load Model Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

Cool Storage Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilities have promoted the use of electric heat and thermal storage to increase off peak usage of power. High daytime demand charges and enticing discounts for off peak power have been used as economic incentives to promote thermal storage systems...

Eppelheimer, D. M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

279

Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

280

Direct-Cooled Power Electronic Substrate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Energy 3 Barriers VTP Activities Related Challenges Conventional cooling methods for power electronics are typically based on conduction cooling through solids directly adjacent...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Cooling Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Power Plant Cooling Technologies Cooling Technologies Cooling tower at Steamboat Springs geothermal power plant in Steamboat Springs, NV. Power generation facilities that rely on thermal sources as their energy inputs such as Coal, Natural Gas, Geothermal, Concentrates Solar Power, and Nuclear require cooling technologies to reject the heat that is created. The second law of thermodynamics states: "No process can convert heat absorbed from a reservoir at one temperature directly into work without also rejecting heat to a cooler reservoir. That is, no heat engine is 100% efficient"[1] In the context of power generation from thermal energy, this means that any heat that is created must be rejected. Heat is most commonly rejected in

282

Advance in MEIC cooling studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Cooling molecules in optical cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied theoretically and numerically the cooling of CN molecules in a high-finesse optical cavity and show that these molecules can be cooled from 100 mK temperatures to submillikelvin temperatures in less than 1 ms. We establish that the cooling time does not change significantly with molecular numbers and initial temperatures over a wide range. We have further studied the scaling of the system for extending the current results for hundreds of molecules to a very large molecular ensemble. The results indicate that a gas of 10{sup 9} molecules can be cooled in the cavity by use of a far-off-resonant and high-intensity pump source.

Lu Weiping; Zhao Yongkai; Barker, P. F. [Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air...

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas...

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements IncorporatingSolar Assisted Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper expands on prior Berkeley Lab work on integrated simulation of building energy systems by the addition of active solar thermal collecting devices, technology options not previously considered (Siddiqui et al 2005). Collectors can be used as an alternative or additional source of hot water to heat recovery from reciprocating engines or microturbines. An example study is presented that evaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large mail sorting facility in southern California with negligible heat loads and year-round cooling loads. Under current conditions solar thermal energy collection proves an unattractive option, but is a viable carbon emission control strategy.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

289

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

290

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

291

Definition: Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of

292

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system simplification, the R&D cost minimization and the flexibility for core design. As the demand for advanced nuclear system increases, Japanese R&D project started in 1999 aiming to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through three sub-themes of 1. Plant conceptual design, 2. Thermal-hydraulics, and 3. Material. Although the material development is critical issue of SCWR development, previous studies were limited for the screening tests on commercial alloys

293

Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

296

Ground Water Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to conc~ntrate their turbine business efforts in the electric power generation market. In 1979, Westinghouse Canada Inc., Turbine and Generator Division, embarked on an intensive expansion program to increase production capabili ties and improve... capacity well was recorded. This well was drilled in the Town of Renfrew, February 1963, for United Dairy and Poultry Coop. From the well drillers log, it was determined that the well was approximately 700 feet deep with a casing diameter of eight...

Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

298

Performance of a Rack of Liquid-Cooled Servers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electronics densification is continuing at an unrelenting pace at the server, rack, and facility level. With increasing facility density levels, air flow management has become a major challenge and concern. In an effort to deal with the resulting thermal management challenges, manufacturers are increasingly turning to liquid-cooling as a practical solution. The majority of manufacturers have turned to liquid-cooled enclosed racks, or rear door heat exchangers, in which chilled water is delivered to the racks. Some manufacturers are now looking to cold plate cooling solutions that take the heat directly off problem components such as the CPUs, and to get it directly out of the facility. The current paper describes work done at the Pacific Northwest National Labs (PNNL) under a Department of Energy funded program entitled “Energy Smart Data Center”. An 8.2 kW rack of HP rx2600 2U servers has been converted from air-cooling to liquid spray cooling (CPUs only). The rack has been integrated into PNNL’s main cluster and subjected to a suite of acceptance tests. Under the testing, the spray cooled CPUs ran an average of 10C cooler than the air-cooled CPUs. Other peripheral devices such as the memory DIMMs ran an average of 8C cooler, and the power pod board was measured at 15C cooler. Since installation in July, 2005, the rack has been undergoing a one year uptime and reliability investigation. As part of the investigation, the rack has been subjected to monthly robustness testing and ongoing performance evaluation while running applications such as High Performance Linpack, parts of the NASA NPB-2 Benchmark Suite, and NWChem. The rack has undergone 3 months’ worth of robustness testing with no major events. Including the robustness testing, the rack uptime is at 95.54% over 299 days. While undergoing application testing, no computational performance differences have been observed between the liquid-cooled and standard air-cooled racks. A miniature Spray Cooled Energy Smart Data Center is now being designed as a final step to demonstrate the feasibility of scaling liquid-cooling at the single rack up to an entire facility.

Cader, Tahir; Westra, Levi J.; Marquez, Andres; Mcallister, Harley J.; Regimbal, Kevin M.

2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

299

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References ↑ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

300

An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lavan, Z. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Collier, R.K. Jr. (Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)); Meckler, G. (Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Low reflectance radio frequency load  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling Ryan Firestone, Chrisevaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semenyuk, “Thermoelectric Micro Modules for Spot Cooling ofthermoelectric module is still too large for spot cooling.

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Characterization of Rivastigmine Loaded Chitosan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI). In present study rivastigmine loaded chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles

Simar Preet Kaur; Rekha Rao; Afzal Hussain; Sarita Khatkar

306

Bridge Monitoring and Loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;1 Bridge Monitoring and Loading P. Fanning, E. OBrien Stone Arch Bridges - Modelling simulations were conducted for a range of stone arch bridges spanning 5.0m to 32m. Traditional assessment procedures for the determination of both longitudinal and transverse bridge strengths were developed

307

Bridge Monitoring and Loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Bridge Monitoring and Loading P. Fanning, E. OBrien Stone Arch Bridges - Modelling and Assessment dimensional non- linear finite element simulations of a range of stone arch- bridges spanning 5.0m to 32m and novel assessment proce- dures for the determination of both longitudinal andtrans- verse bridge

308

Load Management Made Simple  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

Schneider, K.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Laser cooling with ultrafast pulse trains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a new laser cooling method for atomic species whose level structure makes traditional laser cooling difficult. For instance, laser cooling of hydrogen requires vacuum-ultraviolet laser light, while multielectron atoms need laser light at many widely separated frequencies. These restrictions can be eased by laser cooling on two-photon transitions with ultrafast pulse trains. Laser cooling of hydrogen, antihydrogen, and carbon appears feasible, and extension of the technique to molecules may be possible.

David Kielpinski

2003-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

310

Utility -Owned Central Plant Load Management at the Domain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensive than ice > Pro – Can use existing chillers > Pro – Can be below ground (dual use of space) > Pro – Can be used for fire fighting or cooling tower backup water source > Con – Larger footprint 7 Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Options ESL-KT-13...Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP Customer Energy Solutions, Austin Energy Mission: Deliver clean, affordable, reliable energy and excellent customer service. Utility Owned Load Management – Thermal Energy Storage ESL-KT-13-12-12 CATEE 2013: Clean Air...

Lilley, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

A review of solar photovoltaic panel cooling systems with special reference to Ground coupled central panel cooling system (GC-CPCS)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The efficiency of wafer-based crystalline as well as Thin film Solar photovoltaic cells get reduced with increase of panel temperature. It is noted that the efficiency drops by about 0.5% for increase of 1 °C of panel temperature. It is necessary to operate them at low temperatures in order to keep the PV module electrical efficiency at acceptable level. Therefore need for a low-cost cooling system for the Solar panels is felt. The cooling of Solar PV panels is a problem of great practical significance. It has the potential to reduce the cost of solar energy in three ways. First, cooling can improve the electrical production of standard flat plate PV modules. Second, cooling makes possible the use of concentrating PV systems. Finally, the heat removed by the PV cooling system can be used for domestic or industrial use. Various Solar PV panel cooling systems have been developed in past. A new system for cooling of Solar PV panels called the Ground-Coupled Central Panel Cooling System (GC-CPCS) is installed and operational at the Energy Park of Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya (RGPV), Bhopal, India. This paper discusses various Solar PV panel cooling technologies and the testing and performance of the newly developed Ground-Coupled Central Panel Cooling System (GC-CPCS). This study is unique in three ways. First, it introduces the concept of Central cooling of Solar PV panels. Second, Ground Coupled Heat Exchanger is used for the first time in any Solar PV Panel Cooling System. Third, the testing is done on site under actual solar irradiance.

Amit Sahay; V.K. Sethi; A.C. Tiwari; Mukesh Pandey

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

recreate load le Rick Whitman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an example of an initial unexpanded fos load le. It loads data for the le: u-init-y.cy0 u data for the le: e-init-y.cy0 2 #12;e-next-y.lod - this is an expanded fos load which uses erecreate load le Rick Whitman November 27, 1996 Usage The tool is invoked by entering recreate load

Sirianni, Marco

313

cooling | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(15) Member 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer heating living walls metabolic adjustment net zero pre-electricity Renewable Energy Solar university of colorado utility grid Wind Much of the discussion surrounding green buildings centers around reducing energy use. The term net zero is the platinum standard for green buildings, meaning the building in question does not take any more energy from the utility grid than it produces using renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal installations (and sometimes these renewable energy resources actually feed energy back to the utility grid).

314

Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

June 28, 1996 June 28, 1996 Number 13 Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE 2 University Close-Up: The University of Minnesota 6 Summer at Fermilab by Eric Berger, Office of Public Affairs As debate heats up among lawmakers on the fate of the nation's helium reserve, Fermilab researchers prepare for a long, cold summer. How cold? Minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit-the temperature of the liquid helium that cools the Tevatron's supercon- ducting magnets. Proposed congressional changes to the 1960 Helium Act, however, could ultimately affect Fermilab's vital cooling operation, which uses 13 million cubic feet of gaseous helium annually. Electric current travels through a supercon- ductor friction-free, like skaters on smooth ice, allowing physicists to run accelerators at higher f energies, while using far less electricity than

315

Muon Cooling: Longitudinal Compression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 10??MeV/c positive muon beam was stopped in helium gas of a few mbar in a magnetic field of 5 T. The muon “swarm” has been efficiently compressed from a length of 16 cm down to a few mm along the magnetic field axis (longitudinal compression) using electrostatic fields. The simulation reproduces the low energy interactions of slow muons in helium gas. Phase space compression occurs on the order of microseconds, compatible with the muon lifetime of 2???s. This paves the way for the preparation of a high-quality low-energy muon beam, with an increase in phase space density relative to a standard surface muon beam of 107. The achievable phase space compression by using only the longitudinal stage presented here is of the order of 104.

Yu Bao; Aldo Antognini; Wilhelm Bertl; Malte Hildebrandt; Kim Siang Khaw; Klaus Kirch; Angela Papa; Claude Petitjean; Florian M. Piegsa; Stefan Ritt; Kamil Sedlak; Alexey Stoykov; David Taqqu

2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

316

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs July 2010 V. 1.2 Prepared by the Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Additional technical support provided by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Federal Energy Management Program. Authors: Bryan Urban and Kurt Roth, Ph.D. ii Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Why Use Cool Roofs .............................................................................................................. 3

317

Improving Process Cooling Tower Eddiciency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 7 Improving Cooling Tower Efficiency ? Two Improvements in Capacity/Performance 1. Filtration for water quality control Side stream filtration Make up water quality...-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 2 Types of Cooling Towers Forced Draft Towers ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 3 Types...

Turpish, W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

319

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

320

Solar cooling in the food industry in Mexico: A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Mexico efforts are being made to promote the use of solar energy for cooling in the Agro-Food Industries (AFI), 120 industries were contacted in order to assess the solar cooling potential application in the sector. One case study was selected among the visited potential end users according to the size of the facility, the information available and their willingness to collaborate in the present project. Data from the industry was used to select the appropriate solar cooling concept and therefore the collector’s typology, and the absorption cooling system. Moreover, the operation of the system was simulated in order to define the optimal size of the collector field required. The proposed cooling system was composed by a Fresnel concentrating collector field to activate a series of air cooled single-effect ammonia–water absorption chillers. The cooling system simulation was carried out with the Transient Systems Simulation Programme (TRNSYS) which allowed to model the collector system that fulfill the required load. The calculated saved electricity was around 19% of the total consumption, this small fraction is due to the fact that the selected facility is operating continuously with very large refrigeration capacities. The specifications of the simulated solar cooling system are presented.

Roberto Best B.; Juan M. Aceves H.; Jorge M. Islas S.; Fabio L. Manzini P.; Isaac Pilatowsky F.; Rossano Scoccia; Mario Motta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Simulation of solar lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system with parabolic trough collector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal N–S parabolic trough collector and stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system has been designed to supply the cooling load of a typical house where the cooling load peak is about 17.5 kW (5 tons of refrigeration), which occurs in July. A thermodynamic model has been used to simulate the absorption cycle. The working fluid is water, which is pumped directly to the collector. The results showed that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 57.6 m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

M. Mazloumi; M. Naghashzadegan; K. Javaherdeh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Did you know that heating and cooling accounts for more than half of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes? Energy Saver shares tips and advice on ways you can reduce your heating and cooling costs, putting more money in your wallet.

323

Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Reflective Greenhouses in SE Spain Title Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Reflective Greenhouses in SE Spain Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Campra, Pablo, and Dev Millstein Journal Environmental Science & Technology Volume 47 Issue 21 Pagination 12284 - 12290 Date Published 11/2013 ISSN 0013-936X Keywords buildings, Heat Island Group Abstract A long-term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface air temperatures. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m-2 of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum temperatures was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban temperature cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance.

324

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

Ghajar, Afshin J.

325

Evaluation of a sodium/Hastelloy-X heat pipe for wing leading edge cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers assembly of a sodium heat pipe, testing to verify performance during start-up and under steady-state conditions with stagnation point heat loads to about 80 W/cm{sup 2}, performance analysis and evaluation. Evaluation of this leading edge cooling concept is offered and recommendations for further research discussed.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Glass, D.E. [Analytical Services and Materials, Hampton, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants...

Abernethy, D.

327

Effects of surface deposition, hole blockage, and thermal barrier coating spallation on vane endwall film cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the increase in usage of gas turbines for power generation and given that natural gas resources continue to be depleted, it has become increasingly important to search for alternate fuels. One source of alternate fuels is coal derived synthetic fuels. Coal derived fuels, however, contain traces of ash and other contaminants that can deposit on vane and turbine surfaces affecting their heat transfer through reduced film cooling. The endwall of a first stage vane is one such region that can be susceptible to depositions from these contaminants. This study uses a large-scale turbine vane cascade in which the following effects on film cooling adiabatic effectiveness were investigated in the endwall region: the effect of near-hole deposition, the effect of partial film cooling hole blockage, and the effect of spallation of a thermal barrier coating. The results indicated that deposits near the hole exit can sometimes improve the cooling effectiveness at the leading edge, but with increased deposition heights the cooling deteriorates. Partial hole blockage studies revealed that the cooling effectiveness deteriorates with increases in the number of blocked holes. Spallation studies showed that for a spalled endwall surface downstream of the leading edge cooling row, cooling effectiveness worsened with an increase in blowing ratio.

Sundaram, N.; Thole, K.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (USA)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Development of a 5 kW Cooling Capacity Ammonia-water Absorption Chiller for Solar Cooling Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of a small capacity absorption chiller and the numerical and experimental results are presented in this paper. The prototype is a thermally driven ammonia-water absorption chiller of 5 kW cooling capacity for solar cooling applications. The chiller was developed in an industrial perspective with a goal of overall compactness and using commercially available components. In order to characterize various component technologies and different optimization components, the prototype is monitored with temperature, pressure and mass flow rate accurate sensors. The resulting chiller, characterized by a reduced load in ammonia-water solution and the use of brazed plate heat exchanger, has shown good performance during the preliminary tests. A comparison with the expected numerical results is given.

François Boudéhenn; Hélène Demasles; Joël Wyttenbach; Xavier Jobard; David Chèze; Philippe Papillon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

330

Heat transfer with nanofluids for electronic cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In response to the ever increasing demand for smaller and lighter high performance cooling devices a new heat transfer liquids come into picture, called Nanofluids. Nanofluids are new class of heat transfer fluids developed by suspending nanosized solid particles in liquids. Larger thermal conductivity of solid particles compared to the base fluid such as water, ethylene glycol, engine oil, etc. significantly enhances its thermal properties. Numbers of phenomenological models have been proposed to explain the anomalous heat transfer enhancement in nanofluids. This paper presents systematic literature survey observed to exploit several characteristic behaviours of nanofluids viz. increase in thermal conductivity, specific heat and other thermal properties. An empirical correlation for Al2O3 + water nanofluid and effects of temperature, volume fraction and size of nanoparticle is studied. The effect of temperature on nanofluid thermal conductivity is also brought out. This behaviour combined with better mechanical properties makes fluids embedded with nanomaterials are excellent candidates for future applications.

V. Vasu; K Rama Krishna; A.C.S. Kumar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

load profile | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

332

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

basis. Since that humble beginning, literally millions of square feet of roof cooling systems have been installed in industrial and commercial buildings. A "mini-boom" for roof sprays existed following World War 11, when air conditioning was new.... All supply piping and spray laterals are supported at 5 ft. inter- vals by cementing redwood blocks to the surface. No roof penetrations are necessary with the excep- tion of very large roof areas, and this is done by a competent roofing...

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Influence of hole shape on the performance of a turbine vane endwall film-cooling scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rising combustor exit temperatures in gas turbine engines necessitate active cooling for the downstream industrial gas turbine engines. One means of achieving this goal is to increase the combustion temper- ature are so high in today's gas turbine engines that in the absence of complex cooling schemes the turbine

Thole, Karen A.

334

Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

Males, R.; Hassig, N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

DOE Cool Roof Calculator for Low-Slope or Flat Roofs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Estimates Cooling and Heating Savings for Flat Roofs with Non-Black Surfaces - Developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Version 1.2) - This version of the calculator is for small and medium-sized facilities that purchase electricity without a demand charge based on peak monthly load. If you have a large facility that purchases electricity with a demand charge, run the CoolCalcPeak version in order to include the savings in peak demand charges from using solar radiation control. - What you get out of this calculator is only as good as what you put in. If you CLICK HERE , you'll find help in figuring out the best input values. Some things, such as the weathering of the solar radiation control properties and the effects of a plenum, are especially important. You'll

336

T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType Library  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType Library Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType Library Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2011 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader. A remote user can cause arbitrary code to be executed on the target user's system. PLATFORM: Adobe Reader and Acrobat X (10.0.2) and earlier 10.x and 9.x versions for Windows and Macintosh operating systems ABSTRACT: A remote user can create a specially crafted PDF file that, when loaded by the target user, will trigger a memory corruption error in the CoolType library and execute arbitrary code on the target system. The code will run

337

Cooling power of the dilution refrigerator with a perfect continuous counterflow heat exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The model of the perfect continuous counterflow heat exchanger introduced by Frossati et al. to describe the performance of dilution refrigerators is solved rigorously with the proper boundary condition. Unlike the original solution by Frossati et al. the present solution gives the refrigerator cooling power which is in good agreement with experimental data over the entire temperature range. The analysis of the cooling power using the present result allows more detailed evaluation of the refrigerator performance than has been possible with the analysis of the base temperature. An approximate expression for the cooling power is discussed which simplifies the prediction of the cooling rate of a large thermal load such as a copper nuclear?demagnetization stage.

Y. Takano

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A review of solar cooling technologies for residential applications in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last two decades, the demand for residential cooling has increased exponentially, creating a significant demand on the electrical grid during the summer months. Between 1990 and 2008, the total Canadian residential floor area that requires cooling has almost tripled, while the total energy consumed for space cooling has more than doubled. The implementation of solar cooling systems could assist in reducing this energy consumption, and consequently, reduce greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere as a result of the generation of the required electricity to power typical air conditioners. This paper presents a review of the solar cooling technologies that have been developed and implemented for use in residential and commercial applications. Related work conducted under the International Energy Agency is also described and a review of cooling installations both worldwide and Canada are discussed.

Christopher Baldwin; Cynthia A. Cruickshank

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Variable loading roller  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

Williams, D.M.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

340

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

342

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot-arid climates. This paper explores the application of evaporative coolers to the hot-humid climates using a controlled...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

Matson, J.

344

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (CFE) °C/W °F/WSun et al. 2007). Thus, the CFE is defined by Equation 1.?t eq CFE = Cooling effect = ( – 1 ) --------- P f Fan power

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

named Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) that is the ratio betweenthe Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) is defined by Equation 1. ?t CFE ? ( ? 1 ) eq P f where P f is fan power, i.e the input

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Duration 2:17 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Credit Energy Department Video MR. : Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is or what it's made of, but your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. Think about it this way: In the summertime, we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter clothes reflect rather than absorb the heat of the sun. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is

347

Guide to Minimizing Compress-based Cooling  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Guide describes best practices for reducing energy use and total-cost-of-ownership for data center cooling systems.

348

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) Project objectives: Create a campus geothermal heating and cooling...

349

Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

available Efficiency solar power Cooling power per capturedavailable Efficiency solar power Cooling power per capturedEq. (3) by integrating the cooling power and dividing by the

Widyolar, Bennett

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Demonstration of Rack-Mounted Computer Equipment Cooling Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

F. Calculations of room power balance and cooling providedrequired for all other cooling power related componentscooling provided is the cooling power remaining after the

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado....

352

What's so cool about Curiosity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What's so cool about Curiosity? What's so cool about Curiosity? Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory, is the largest and most complicated device we have ever landed on a planet other than Earth.  About the size of a small SUV -- ten feet long (not including the arm), nine feet wide and seven feet tall  900 kilograms (2,000 pounds) (Spirit and Opportunity, earlier research vehicles sent to Mars were 384 pounds)  Uses aerobraking, parachute, retro rockets and skycrane concepts to land gently (Spirit and Opportunity used aerobraking, parachutes and airbags that bounced them to the surface) Curiosity carries three instruments from Los Alamos National Laboratory.  The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator supplies electricity and heat to the rover

353

Optomechanical laser cooling with mechanical modulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically study the laser cooling of cavity optomechanics when the mechanical resonance frequency and damping depend on time. In the regime of weak optomechanical coupling we extend the theory of laser cooling using an adiabatic approximation. We discuss the modifications of the cooling dynamics and compare it with numerical simulations in a wide range of modulation frequencies.

Marc Bienert; Pablo Barberis-Blostein

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Berkeley Lab's Cool Your School Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cool Your School is a series of 6th-grade, classroom-based, science activities rooted in Berkeley Lab's cool-surface and cool materials research and aligned with California science content standards. The activities are designed to build knowledge, stimulate curiosity, and carry the conversation about human-induced climate change, and what can be done about it, into the community.

Ivan Berry

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

355

Muon Cooling via Ionization Andrea Kay Forget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Muon Cooling via Ionization Andrea Kay Forget Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 Dated: August 7, 2006 Muons only live a few microseconds before they ultimately, and laser cooling) cannot be used to properly cool muons that are being used in proposed accelerators

Cinabro, David

356

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM GUIDELINES for Wet and Hybrid Cooling Towers at Power Plants May 17, 2004 A and needs, and may vary from the examples cited here. Staff recommend that such a cooling water management

357

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Speaker(s): Chadi Maalouf Date: December 2, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Peng Xu Increased living standards and high occupants comfort demands lead to a growth in air conditioning market. This results in high energy consumption and high CO2 emissions. For these reasons, the solar desiccant cooling system is proposed as an alternative to traditional air conditioning systems. This system comprises a desiccant wheel containing Lithium Chloride in tandem with a rotating heat exchanger and two humidifiers on both supply and return air. The required regeneration temperature for the desiccant wheel varies between 40oC and 70oC which makes possible the use

358

Gas cooled traction drive inverter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

359

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Na Zhu*, Yu Lei, Pingfang Hu, Linghong Xu, Zhangning Jiang Department of Building Environment and Equipment Engineering... heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office...

Zhu, N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The Corporate Headquarters for Alabama Power Company--How One Utility is Promoting Cool Storage in a Big Way  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS FOR ALABAMA POWER COMPANY How One Utility is Promoting Cool Storage in a Big Way J.. Grego ry Reardon, P. E.. Kenneth M. Penuel Alabama Power Company Birmingham, Alabama ABSTRACT facilities. In addition..., commercial cooling storage has Corporate Headquarters for Alabama Power Company been identified as one of the most promising was designed to utilize and demonstrate tech strategic load management options, since the nologies which are of mutual benefit...

Reardon, J. G.; Penuel, K. M.

362

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

364

MTS Table Top Load frame  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MTS Table Top Load frame MTS Table Top Load frame The Non-destructive Evaluation group operates an MTS Table Top Load frame for ultimate strength and life cycle testing of various ceramic, ceramic-matrix (FGI), carbon, carbon fiber, cermet (CMC) and metal alloy engineering samples. The load frame is a servo-hydraulic type designed to function in a closed loop configuration under computer control. The system can perform non-cyclic, tension, compression and flexure testing and cyclic fatigue tests. The system is comprised of two parts: * The Load Frame and * The Control System. Load Frame The Load Frame (figure 1) is a cross-head assembly which includes a single moving grip, a stationary grip and LVDT position sensor. It can generate up to 25 kN (5.5 kip) of force in the sample under test and can

365

Western Cooling Efficiency Center | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Efficiency Center Efficiency Center Jump to: navigation, search Name Western Cooling Efficiency Center Place Davis, CA Website http://http://wcec.ucdavis.edu References Western Cooling Efficiency Center [1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections Western Cooling Efficiency Center is a research institution located in Davis, CA, at the University of California at Davis (UC Davis). References ↑ "Western Cooling Efficiency Center" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Western_Cooling_Efficiency_Center&oldid=382319" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

366

Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Geothermal, People and Policy Phase: Create a Vision, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type: Guide/manual, Case studies/examples, Templates, Technical report User Interface: Website Website: www.nrel.gov/geothermal/publications.html Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

367

Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Some studies on industrial Refrigeration system integrated With encapsulated pcm in cool Thermal energy storage system;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The widespread use of refrigeration and air conditioning utilities newlineespecially in the developing countries has increased manifold during the last newlinedecade This additional load on… (more)

Cheralathan M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Thermally Activated Cooling: A Regional Approach for EstimatingBuilding Adoption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the economic potential for thermally-activated cooling (TAC) technologies as a component of distributed energy resource (DER) systems in California. A geographic information system (GIS) is used to assess the regional variation of TAC potential and to visualize the geographic pattern of potential adoption. The economic potential and feasibility of DER systems in general, and especially TAC, is highly dependent on regional factors such as retail electricity rates, building cooling loads, and building heating loads. Each of these factors varies with location, and their geographic overlap at different sites is an important determinant in a market assessment of DER and TAC. This analysis uses system payback period as the metric to show the regional variation of TAC potential in California office buildings. The DER system payback with and without TAC is calculated for different regions in California using localized values of retail electricity rates and the weather-dependent variation in building cooling and heating loads. This GIS-based method has numerous applications in building efficiency studies where geographically dependent variables, such as space cooling and heating energy use, play an important role.

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Film cooling performance and heat transfer over an inclined film-cooled surface at different divergent angles with respect to highly turbulent mainstream  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments have been performed to study and obtain the adiabatic wall film cooling effectiveness and the heat transfer over a film-cooled surface that is made inclined at various angles with respect to a highly turbulent flow. The vertical temperature distribution was measured to infer the flow structure and the rate of mixing of film jet with the freestream. The freestream turbulence intensity is controlled to range from 1.0% to 26.4%, the inclination or the divergent angle of the film-cooled surface ranges from 0 to 20 , the blowing parameter from 0.5 to 2.0. It is found that the mixing of the film jet with the freestream is significantly enhanced by both the freestream turbulence intensity and the divergent angle of the film-cooled surface, which leads to the decrease in the film cooling effectiveness and the increase in the heat transfer. However, the inclination angle has more effect on the film cooling performance while the turbulence intensity has more effect on the heat transfer under the film. More detailed discussion is presented. Correlations for both the film cooling effectiveness and the heat transfer under the film-cooled surface have been very successful and are provided. (author)

Yang, Chih-Sheng [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering Far East University (China); Lin, C.L.; Gau, C. [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designersmeasured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spacesmeasured equipment load data from various laboratory spaces

Mathew, Paul A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Research on over Frequency Load Adding and Its Application to Hainan Power Grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In allusion to the frequency increase problem caused by under frequency load shedding in Hainan power grid, over frequency load adding, which is ... the paper. The general condition of Hainan power grid is introd...

Yu Jiaxi; Wei Guoqing; Li Xian; Hu Jianchen…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Data Consistency for Self-acting Load Balancing of Parallel File System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the increasing scale of I/O servers, nice load balancing algorithm among I/O servers is ... problem, we have proposed a self-acting load balancing strategy. In this paper, data consistency between I/O server...

Li Guoying; Dong Bin; Li Xiuqiao; Wu Qimeng…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Cool Roofs video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Cool Roofs." This is followed by images of residential rooftops. Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is, or what it's made of. But your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. The video shows pedestrians walking on a city street. Think about it this way... in the summertime we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter colors reflect - rather than absorb - the heat of the sun. The video shows images of a white roof. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is often light in color and made

375

Why Cool Roofs? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Addthis Description By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills. Speakers Secretary Steven Chu Duration 1:46 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Fossil Oil Credit Energy Department Video SECRETARY OF ENERGY STEVEN CHU: The reason we wanted the Department of Energy to take the lead in cool roofs is to demonstrate that this really saves money. If you have a roof and it's black, it's absorbing energy from the sun

376

Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:46pm Addthis Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger What does this mean for me? You may be able to keep your home cool with energy-efficient and well-placed fans. Fans are less expensive to operate than air conditioners. Circulating fans include ceiling fans, table fans, floor fans, and fans mounted to poles or walls. These fans create a wind chill effect that will make you more comfortable in your home, even if it's also cooled by natural ventilation or air conditioning. Ceiling Fans Ceiling fans are considered the most effective of these types of fans,

377

A new cylinder cooling system using oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of engine cylinders must satisfy two conflicting requirements, good cooling performance and ease of manufacture. A cooling system was designed to permit the circulation of engine lubricating oil as a coolant at high speed through grooves provided on the external periphery of the cylinder liner. Testing in an actual operating engine confirmed that this cooling system design not only provides better heat transfer and higher cooling performance but also simplifies the manufacturing of the cylinder since external cooling fins are not required. In this paper, the authors will discuss the cylinder cooling effect of the new cylinder cooling system, referring mainly to the test results of a single-cylinder motorcycle engine with lubricating oil from the crankcase used as the coolant.

Harashina, Kenichi; Murata, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Hamamura, Masahiro

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

Photometric Identification of Cool White Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the use of a narrow-band DDO51 filter for photometric identification of cool white dwarfs. We report photometric observations of 30 known cool white dwarfs with temperatures ranging from 10,000 K down to very cool temperatures (<3500 K). Follow-up spectroscopic observations of a sample of objects selected using this filter and our photometric observations show that DDO51 filter photometry can help select cool white dwarf candidates for follow-up multi--object spectroscopy by rejecting 65% of main sequence stars with the same broad--band colors as the cool white dwarfs. This technique is not selective enough to efficiently feed single--object spectrographs. We present the white dwarf cooling sequence using this filter. Our observations show that very cool white dwarfs form a sequence in the r-DDO vs. r-z color--color diagram and demonstrate that significant improvements are needed in white dwarf model atmospheres.

M. Kilic; D. E. Winget; Ted von Hippel; C. F. Claver

2004-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

379

Load Balancing Of Parallel Monte Carlo Transport Calculations  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Load Balancing Of Parallel Load Balancing Of Parallel Monte Carlo Transport Calculations R.J. Procassini, M. J. O'Brien and J.M. Taylor Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 The performance of parallel Monte Carlo transport calculations which use both spatial and particle parallelism is increased by dynamically assigning processors to the most worked domains. Since the particle work load varies over the course of the simulation, each cycle this algorithm determines if dynamic load balancing would speed up the calculation. If load balancing is required, a small number of particle communications are initiated in order to achieve load balance. This method has decreased the parallel run time by more than a factor of three for certain criticality

380

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and J. E. Bowers, “High cooling power density SiGe/Si microDevice area, m . Maximum cooling power density, W/cm . I. Ibest cooling performance. C. Cooling Power Measurements For

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed depending on the number of astronauts level of scientific activity and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Ronald J. Lipinski; Steven A. Wright; Roger X. Lenard; Gary A. Harms

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

can increase its efficiency by up to 10% How cool is that? For window units, inspect the seal between the air conditioner and the window frame to ensure it makes contact with the...

384

Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Multi-Scale Thermal Measurement and Design of Cooling Systems in Gas Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present gas turbine technology increases the turbine inlet temperature to a limitation which is very high gas temperature accomplished by recently developed material and cooling technology. In order to overco...

Hyung Hee Cho; Kyung Min Kim; Sangwoo Shin…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray cooling is a feasible cooling technology for hybrid vehicle electronics; HFE 7100 is a promising coolant.

Mudawar, I.; Bharathan, D.; Kelly, K.; Narumanchi, S.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Cooling Fusion in a Flash | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling Fusion in a Flash American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Cooling Fusion in a Flash...

388

Stress resultants in hyperboloid cooling tower shells subjected to foundation settlement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of differential settlement of columns supporting a natural draught hyperboloid cooling tower on the stress resultants in the tower shell is analyzed using discrete finite element modelling of the shell and the supporting base. The quadrilateral facet shell elements and 3-D beam elements are used to model the shell and the columns respectively. The stress resultants obtained due to an imposed settlement are compared with those reported earlier by other investigators. In the existing literature, the stress resultants are found using the Boussinesq equation to calculate the approximate edge loading (column forces) on the cooling tower shell due to differential settlement. It is shown in the present study that using the Boussinesq solution for the calculation of edge loading may lead to an over-estimation of the column forces and hence the stress resultants. The magnitude of stress resultants is also found to be dependent on the column flexibility. The paper also presents an investigation in which the local amplification of stress resultants in the vicinity of the shell column junction of the cooling towers (stress concentration) due to dead load and foundation settlement is studied. It is shown that the stress concentration can be severe, i.e., up to seven times the average stress resultants for dead load, and up to five times the average stress resultants for the foundation settlement. 28 refs.

Krishna Mohan Rao, S.V.; Appa Rao, T.V.S.R. [CSIR Campus, Madras (India)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Information technology equipment cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

Schultz, Mark D.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

390

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

undersized due to the low bidder syndrome (1). 4. New plant expansion needs colder temperatures off the tower. State of the Art Upgrading Users of cooling towers are not par ticularly concerned with the thermal analysis involving calculus, or delving... HISTORY I Anhydrous Ammonia Plant The Hawkeye Chemical Corporation, a subsidiary of the Getty Oil Company, pro jected a 50% expansion of their anhydroug ammonia output from 120,000 tons (1.09 Kg) per year to ~ production level of 225,000 tons (2...

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Demand Response: Load Management Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

Simon, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus(R) with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH{sub 3} mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., k{sub NH3}< 4×10{sup -3} m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}). The effect of the CO{sub 2} mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., k{sub CO2}<4×10{{sup -6} m/s).

Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.25 minutes. This setting allows a maximum reduction of the demand of the condensing unit of 30%. The direct control device is part of a bi-directional power line carrier load management system. It is a three tier system consisting of a central control... lines to the central control computer (CCC). Once a week, the load survey data from the CCC was copied to a tape to be transferred to the Mesquite Data Center for analysis. A heating and cooling load calculation was performed on each house...

Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at PSE is to collect load data for validating dynamic and approach decomposes recorded load data into different load “to continuously record load data for a selected time period

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

High-Power Rf Load  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

Louay Chamra

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

398

Feature extraction and classification of load dynamic characteristics based on lifting wavelet packet transform in power system load modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Load dynamic characteristics classification and synthesis is the main approach to solve the problem of load time-variation. The basis and prerequisite of load dynamic characteristics classification is load dynamic characteristics feature extraction. Load model parameter space or the model response space gained by a standard voltage excitation is usually selected as the feature vector space in current practice of load dynamic characteristics feature extraction. However, both methods need to determine the load model structure and identify the model parameters. It would increase not only calculation error but also calculation time in the process of load model structure determination and parameter identification. Then the accuracy of the final classification results would be affected. It is reasonable and scientific to extract feature vector space of load dynamic characteristics directly from the measured response space. In this paper, a feature extraction method based on lifting wavelet packet transform is proposed for load dynamic characteristics classification. The load measured current response data is decomposed and reconstructed, then the wavelet packet coefficients can be extracted to construct energy moment based feature vector. On this basis, the load dynamic characteristics classification can be realized using fuzzy c-means (FCM) method. Finally, the validity and practicality of the proposed method have been proved by feature extraction and classification of dynamic simulation data acquired using Matlab/Simulink and field measurement data. Compared with traditional wavelet packet transform, the lifting wavelet packet transform has shown advantages both in computational speed and reconstruction error and can improve the accuracy of load dynamic characteristics classification.

Zhenshu Wang; Shaorun Bian; Ming Lei; Chuangang Zhao; Yan Liu; Zhifan Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Online Load Balancing for Related Machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of entire schedule s as follows: load(s; i) = 1 v i X s(j)=i p j ; Load(s) = max i load(s; i) It is easyOn­line Load Balancing for Related Machines Piotr Berman \\Lambda Moses Charikar y Marek Karpinski z­line load balancing was studied extensively over the years (cf., e.g., [7], [3], [4], and [2

Karpinski, Marek

400

Cool Farm Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Farm Tool Cool Farm Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Farm Tool Agency/Company /Organization: Unilever Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.unilever.com/aboutus/supplier/sustainablesourcing/tools/?WT.LHNAV= Cost: Free Language: English Cool Farm Tool Screenshot References: Cool Farm Tool [1] Overview "The Cool Farm Tool is a new greenhouse gas calculator for farming. It's easy to use and gives instant results that invite users to try out alternatives and ask 'what if' questions. The tool was commissioned by Unilever from the University of Aberdeen The tool is ideal for farmers, supply chain managers and companies interested in quantifying their

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

402

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs_090804  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for: for: Quarterly Facilities and Infrastructure Meeting Presented by: The Office of Engineering and Construction Management Content Excerpted From Presentation of: Bob Schmidt - NNSA Kansas City Plant Cool Roofs - An Overview August 4, 2009 2 *The terms "white roof" and "cool roof" are often mistakenly used interchangeably. A white roof is not necessarily a cool roof and a cool roof is not necessarily white. *"Cool Roofs" come in many style as defined by industry standard and can include: Metal Single ply Modified bitumen Acrylic coated White Roof vs. Cool Roof 3 Solar reflectance alone can significantly influence surface temperature, with the white stripe on the brick wall about 5 to 10° F (3-5° C) cooler than the surrounding, darker

403

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

404

Cooling and Clusters: When Is Heating Needed?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are (at least) two unsolved problems concerning the current state of the thermal gas in clusters of galaxies. The first is identifying the source of the heating which offsets cooling in the centers of clusters with short cooling times (the ``cooling flow'' problem). The second is understanding the mechanism which boosts the entropy in cluster and group gas. Since both of these problems involve an unknown source of heating it is tempting to identify them with the same process, particular since AGN heating is observed to be operating at some level in a sample of well-observed ``cooling flow'' clusters. Here we show, using numerical simulations of cluster formation, that much of the gas ending up in clusters cools at high redshift and so the heating is also needed at high-redshift, well before the cluster forms. This indicates that the same process operating to solve the cooling flow problem may not also resolve the cluster entropy problem.

Greg L. Bryan; G. Mark Voit

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

405

Hot gas path component cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

406

Definition: Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.[1] References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Evaporative_Cooling&oldid=601323" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

407

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Roofs: An Introduction Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

408

Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

Gottschalk, M.A.

1994-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

411

Spring loaded locator pin assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

Groll, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID); White, James P. (Pocatelo, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Spring loaded locator pin assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

413

A top loading 2 Kelvin test cryostat for SRF cavities.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new large 2 Kelvin test cryostat is being commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory. This system will have a full time connection to the 4.5 Kelvin ATLAS refrigerator and, with integrated J-T heat exchanger, will allow continuous 2 Kelvin operation. The large diameter was chosen to accommodate essentially all of today's superconducting cavities and the top loading design facilitates clean room assembly. The commissioning run will be with a coaxial half wave cavity to be followed by testing with 1.3 GHz single-cell elliptical cavities. Details of the initial engineering cool down on the cryostat are presented.

Kedzie, M.; Kelly, M. P.; Gerbick, S. M.; Fuerst, J. D.; Shepard, K. W.; Physics

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

C. Y. Yoshikawa, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov, D.V. Neuffer, K. Yonehara

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

Neuffer, D.V.; /Fermilab; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Johnson, R.P.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Derbenev, Y.S.; Morozov, V.S.; /Jefferson Lab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Bee Cool Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Ferrisburg, Vermont Zip: Vt 05473 Sector: Solar Product: Producer of polysilicon solar panels and solar trackers, and solar battery chargers. References: Bee Cool Inc1...

417

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce...

418

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

419

Depolarisation cooling of an atomic cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a cooling scheme based on depolarisation of a polarised cloud of trapped atoms. Similar to adiabatic demagnetisation, we suggest to use the coupling between the internal spin reservoir of the cloud and the external kinetic reservoir via dipolar relaxation to reduce the temperature of the cloud. By optical pumping one can cool the spin reservoir and force the cooling process. In case of a trapped gas of dipolar chromium atoms, we show that this cooling technique can be performed continuously and used to approach the critical phase space density for BEC

S. Hensler; A. Greiner; J. Stuhler; T. Pfau

2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

420

Cavity cooling of an optically trapped nanoparticle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the cooling of a dielectric nanoscale particle trapped in an optical cavity. We derive the frictional force for motion in the cavity field and show that the cooling rate is proportional to the square of oscillation amplitude and frequency. Both the radial and axial components of the center-of-mass motion of the trapped particle, which are coupled by the cavity field, are cooled. This motion is analogous to two coupled but damped pendulums. Our simulations show that the nanosphere can be cooled to e-1 of its initial momentum over time scales of hundredths of milliseconds.

P. F. Barker and M. N. Shneider

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Laser cooling by collisional redistribution of radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in aqueous solutions. Nature 406, 611–614 (2000) Adams, C. S. &Riis, E. Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms. Prog. Quantum Electron. 21, ...

Ulrich Vogl; Martin Weitz

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

422

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

J. R. Peterson; A. C. Fabian

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

building load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

424

Cooled turbine vane with endcaps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine vane assembly which includes an outer endcap having a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough, an inner endcap having a plurality of passages and passage segments therethrough, and a vane assembly having an outer shroud, an airfoil body, and an inner shroud. The outer shroud, airfoil body and inner shroud each have a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough as well. The outer endcap is coupled to the outer shroud so that outer endcap passages and said outer shroud passages form a fluid circuit. The inner endcap is coupled to the inner shroud so that the inner end cap passages and the inner shroud passages from a fluid circuit. Passages in the vane casting are in fluid communication with both the outer shroud passages and the inner shroud passages. Passages in the outer endcap may be coupled to a cooling system that supplies a coolant and takes away the heated exhaust.

Cunha, Frank J. (Avon, CT); Schiavo, Jr., Anthony L. (Ovideo, FL); Nordlund, Raymond Scott (Orlando, FL); Malow, Thomas (Oviedo, FL); McKinley, Barry L. (Chuluota, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Cool CAVEs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CAVEs CAVEs Cool CAVEs January 5, 2011 - 6:18pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? The Idaho National Laboratory's "CAVE" -- 3-D Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment -- allows scientists to literally walk into their data and look at it from multiple perspectives. Projectors, mounted behind the walls and on the ceiling, are manipulated by researchers using 3-D goggles and a handheld controller -- and allow them to study everything from terrain to applied nuclear research, to active sites of proteins. To escape the holiday chaos, many folks found refuge in caves - dark places with sticky floors, lumpy seating and Jeff Bridges playing scenes against a computer-enhanced younger version of himself . . . at least if

426

GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCED COOLED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11-14, 1981 GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCEDim mumii P mm GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCEDD. Henning, "Cryogenic Electrical Leads," Proceedings of the

Smits, R.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

428

HEATING AND COOLING PROTOSTELLAR DISKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission.

Hirose, S. [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Turner, N. J., E-mail: shirose@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

429

Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

Foster, R. [Southwest Technology Development Institute, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of a load (i.e., due to economic conditions or closures), additional contract purchases, and/or new generating resources. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The PNCA defines the planning and operation of seventeen U.S. Pacific Northwest utilities and other parties with generating facilities within the region's hydroelectric (hydro) system. The hydroregulation study used for the 2003 White Book incorporates measures from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) Biological Opinion dated December 2000, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 2000 Biological Opinion (2000 FCRPS BiOps) for the Snake River and Columbia River projects. These measures include: (1) Increased flow augmentation for juvenile fish migrations in the Snake and Columbia rivers in the spring and summer; (2) Mandatory spill requirements at the Lower Snake and Columbia dams to provide for non-turbine passage routes for juvenile fish migrants; and (3) Additional flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon in the spring. The hydroregulation criteria for this analysis includes: an updated Detailed Operation Plan for Treaty reservoirs for Operating Year (OY) 2004, updated PNCA planning criteria for OY 2003, and revised juvenile fish bypass spill levels for 2000 FCRPS BiOps implementation. The 2003 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information regarding marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2003 White Book analysis updates the December 2002 White Book. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Laser cooling and sympathetic cooling in a linear quadrupole rf trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LASER COOLING AND SYMPATHETIC COOLING IN A LINEAR QUADRUPOLE RF TRAP A Dissertation by VLADIMIR LEONIDOVICH RYJKOV Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2003 Major Subject: Physics LASER COOLING AND SYMPATHETIC COOLING IN A LINEAR QUADRUPOLE RF TRAP A Dissertation by VLADIMIR LEONIDOVICH RYJKOV Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Ryjkov, Vladimir Leonidovich

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

433

load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51 51 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142234851 Varnish cache server load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: application/zip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data

434

Contol of integrated mechanical dehumidification and passive cooling systems to produce energy efficient comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed computer simulations validated by full scale testing indicate that roof pond type passive cooling systems can provide acceptable residential temperature conditions in all climates of the United States. Passive cooling systems as presently conceived, however, require complementary dehumidification to carry existing latent loads. A study is made of the relative dehumidification efficiencies of conventional air conditioners and an improved mechanical dehumidifier which utilizes sensible cooling recovery. The effects of dew point and dry bulb temperatures, controller set point and humidity band width, infiltration, and climate are evaluated. A simple dehumidifier sizing procedure is presented. Results indicate that the improved dehumidifiers are several times as efficient as conventional air conditioners under desired steady state room conditions. It is also shown that dehumidifier capacities at AHAM test conditions may be misleading if used for design purposes.

Doderer, E.; Marcus, D.; Hoffner, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

Hankins, J.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Impact of Different Glazing Systems on Cooling Load of a Detached Residential Building at Bhubaneswar, India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assuming north?south and east?west facings of the building. For each orientation, different types of glazing (Table 4) and different glazing areas are considered. The first case(the base case) assumes a single clear glazing with a window-to-wall ratio.... Floor plan of the east-west oriented residential building taken for study (not to scale) Table 1. The zones basic characteristics Zone Area (m2) Volume (m3) Occupancy (people/m2) Venti- lation (l/s) HVAC system Bed room1 15.12 52...

Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Improving energy efficiency in a pharmaceutical manufacturing environment : analysis of EUI and cooling load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing energy consumption without compromising the quality of products and the comfort of occupants is important in maintaining the competence of a pharmaceutical company. An energy management tool is developed to monitor ...

Liu, Haoyu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Assessment and Improvements of the CBE Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

micro-encapsulated phase change materials to reduce buildingsave energy. The phase change materials within the EcoCore

Chen, Bin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of energy used in the commercial sector; commercial use is about 18.2% of the total energy used (EIA, 2010). Air conditioning is becoming more widely used in commercial buildings. The chilled water system is a very important component in large air....1 Simulation baseline Total face area / Face velocity 44 ft2 / 477.3 cfm Coil FH?FL 36 inch?88 inch Rows ? FPI 8 ? 11 Fin thickness / Material 0.008 inch / AL Tube outside diameter / Wall 5/8 inch / 0.025 inch Interior tube wall area Ai 759 ft2 Exterior...

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Improving energy efficiency in a pharmaceutical manufacturing environment : analysis of EUI and cooling load .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Reducing energy consumption without compromising the quality of products and the comfort of occupants is important in maintaining the competence of a pharmaceutical company. An… (more)

Liu, Haoyu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Assessment and Improvements of the CBE Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performances on indoor air quality and energy consumption incomfort, indoor air quality and energy performance. 1.1.1.better indoor air quality and energy efficiency, as well as

Chen, Bin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Assessment and Improvements of the CBE Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diffusers and underfloor fan coil units. .. 53 Figure 33 Thediffusers and underfloor fan coil units. Table 14 shows the

Chen, Bin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thermal Stratification- A Means to Reduce Cooling Loads in High Bay Industrial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the underside of the ro f on 29" centers. Also recorded were the supply an return air temperatures for each room along with outside air temperature. Each room is served by its own nominal 15 to rooftop mounted heatpump. The units operate with I constant... the underside of the ro f on 29" centers. Also recorded were the supply an return air temperatures for each room along with outside air temperature. Each room is served by its own nominal 15 to rooftop mounted heatpump. The units operate with I constant...

Olivieri, J. B.; Singh, T.

445

Daylighting Design Tools in Atria for Minimum Cooling Loads in Atrium Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

continuous artificial lighting. Furthermore, rules-of-thumb for sizing atrium physical parameters do not exist. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum transmittance of the top-fenestration that would meet the lighting criteria at the atrium...

Atif, M. R.; Boyer, L. L.; Degelman, L. O.; Claridge, D. E.

446

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light and then trapped in a bottle whose "walls" are magnetic fields. Cooled atoms are ideal for exploring basic. research has traditionally been the study of the intrinsic prop erties of isolated atoms. In the early part

Johannesson, Henrik

448

Geometric Control and Differential Flatness of a Quadrotor UAV with a Cable-Suspended Load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is established to be a differentially-flat hybrid system with the load position and the quadrotor yaw serving on the configuration space SE(3)Ã?S2 , is obtained by taking variations on manifolds. The quadrotor-load system, see [9]. However, carrying an external load through a gripper increases the inertia of the system

Sreenath, Koushil

449

Is Human Papillomavirus Viral Load a Clinically Useful Predictive Marker? A Longitudinal Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Changes over Time in Viral Load Modeling viral load kinetics proved impossible...intractable nature of the data (see Supplementary Fig...on the estimated HRs (data not shown). Discussion...increase in HPV viral load is associated with a significantly...

Christothea Constandinou-Williams; Stuart I. Collins; Sally Roberts; Lawrence S. Young; Ciaran B.J. Woodman; and Paul G. Murray

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol J. Brown C. F. H. Tipper The kinetics...products of the cool flame combustion of ethanol between about 280 and 330 C have been...much less for a 1 : 2 than for a 1 : 1 ethanol/oxygen mixture at constant T and varied...

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

PROJECT REPORT WESTERN COOLING CHALLENGE LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that reduce energy, water consumption and peak electricity demand associated with cooling in the Western-cool- er to reduce the refrigerant condensing temperature of a vapor compression system, then cycles Davis Energy Efficiency Center in 2007 through a grant from the California Clean Energy Fund

California at Davis, University of

453

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

454

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

455

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

456

One Cool Roof | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

One Cool Roof One Cool Roof One Cool Roof November 9, 2010 - 10:28am Addthis Deputy Director Salmon Deputy Director, Resource Management The Office of Science occupies many buildings around the country, but it owns only two of them. One of them is making some news. The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a "Cool Roof" -- making it energy efficient in ways that darker roofs are not. Cool roofs are light in color, and therefore, reflect rather than absorb sunlight. The previous roof was black, but worse, it was leaky and those leaks, controlled for years in some very innovative ways by the OSTI staff, were going to cause significant problems if not addressed. OSTI needed to invest

457

Solar space cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Jump to: navigation, search Solarcooling.jpg Contents 1 Introduction 2 Solar Absorption Technology 3 Solar Desiccant Technology 4 Passive Solar Cooling 5 References Introduction There are many benefits to Solar Cooling systems. For one the sun is a clean energy resource that we should be using more often. It also produces no emissions and is replenished naturally, it reduces greenhouse gases, it saves the release of 1.6 lbs. of carbon dioxide (CO2) for each kilowatt-hour (kWh) produced, it saves the use of one-half gallon of water for each kWh of solar energy produced, it saves the release of other emissions that result from the burning of fossil fuels such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide or mercury and it provides customers with options to reduce their electric bills. But up to this point Solar Cooling systems are

458

Sisyphus Cooling of Electrically Trapped Polyatomic Molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rich internal structure and long-range dipole-dipole interactions establish polar molecules as unique instruments for quantum-controlled applications and fundamental investigations. Their potential fully unfolds at ultracold temperatures, where a plethora of effects is predicted in many-body physics, quantum information science, ultracold chemistry, and physics beyond the standard model. These objectives have inspired the development of a wide range of methods to produce cold molecular ensembles. However, cooling polyatomic molecules to ultracold temperatures has until now seemed intractable. Here we report on the experimental realization of opto-electrical cooling, a paradigm-changing cooling and accumulation method for polar molecules. Its key attribute is the removal of a large fraction of a molecule's kinetic energy in each step of the cooling cycle via a Sisyphus effect, allowing cooling with only few dissipative decay processes. We demonstrate its potential by reducing the temperature of about 10^6 ...

Zeppenfeld, M; Glöckner, R; Prehn, A; Mielenz, M; Sommer, C; van Buuren, L D; Motsch, M; Rempe, G

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

Amtmann, Hans H. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

CFD analyses of natural circulation in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is currently being built at Argonne National Laboratory, to evaluate the feasibility of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). CFD simulations have been applied to evaluate the NSTF and NGNP RCCS designs. However, previous simulations found that convergence was very difficult to achieve in simulating the complex natural circulation. To resolve the convergence issue and increase the confidence of the CFD simulation results, additional CFD simulations were conducted using a more detailed mesh and a different solution scheme. It is found that, with the use of coupled flow and coupled energy models, the convergence can be greatly improved. Furthermore, the effects of convection in the cavity and the effects of the uncertainty in solid surface emissivity are also investigated. (authors)

Hu, R. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL (United States); Pointer, W. D. [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Measurable energy savings of installing variable frequency drives for cooling towers’ fans, compared to dual speed motors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent years the building management system (BMS) controllers have been used to control the operation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system in addition to lighting and some electrical equipment in order to save energy. In the water cooled system, the BMS controls the operation process of the cooling towers (CTs) fans of dual speed motors to maintain a constant leaving water temperature for different cooling loads and different ambient wet bulb temperature (WBT). This paper presents the effect of installing variable frequency drives (VFDs) for \\{CTs\\} fans in Kuwait during summer season on energy savings compared to dual speed control. The results have shown that with VFD mode, the reduction in water consumption was over 13% compared to the commonly used dual speed mode. More importantly, the combined power for the chillers and the \\{CTs\\} fans for the same amount of cooling produced were reduced by 5.8% in the VFD mode.

E. Al-Bassam; R. Alasseri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Propellant feed system of a regeneratively cooled scramjet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An expander cycle for an airframe-integrated hydrogen-fueled scramjet is analyzed to study regenerative cooling characteristics and overall specific impulse. Below Mach 10, the specific impulse and thrust coincide with the reference values. At Mach numbers above 10, a reduction of the specific impulse occurs due to the coolant flow rate requirement, which is accompanied by an increase of thrust. It is shown that the thrust may be increased by injecting excess fuel into the combustor to compensate for the decrease of the specific impulse. 9 refs.

Kanda, Takeshi; Masuya, Goro; Wakamatsu, Yoshio (National Aerospace Laboratory, Kakuda (Japan))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Radiative cooling of solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Standard solar cells heat up under sunlight. The resulting increased temperature of the solar cell has adverse consequences on both its efficiency and its reliability. We introduce a...

Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Wang, Ken Xingze; Anoma, Marc Abou; Fan, Shanhui

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Control of Noise in Power Station Cooling Tower Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power?station cooling tower systems must handle large volumes of water and air with large potential energy in the water flows and the requirement for large fans. To minimize the noise generated at power station sites use is made of efficient tower fill materials dual low?speed fans (which shifts the spectrum and lowers mid?frequency noise level) and barrier effects in tower location and orientation. Conventional noise control measures such as mufflers are avoided because of the required increase in pressure across the fan and the high initial cost for quieting large towers. The use of natural draft towers is discussed and it is shown that although the low?frequency noise may be reduced the noise levels at typical property line locations are of the same order of magnitude as that for conventional mechanical cooling towers. Since cooling towers at power stations are required as an environmental (thermal) pollution control measure a trade?off between temperature rise of local water supplies versus increases in community noise becomes a critical factor.

Lewis S. Goodfriend

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Enhancement of loading capacity of distribution system through distributed generator placement considering techno-economic benefits with load growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Load growth in a system is a natural phenomenon. With the increase in load demand, system power loss and voltage drop increases. Distributed generators (DGs) are one of the best solutions to cope up with the load growth if they are allocated appropriately in the distribution system. In this work, optimal size and location of multiple \\{DGs\\} are found to cater the incremental load on the system and minimization of power loss without violating system constraints. For this a predetermined annual load growth up to five years is considered with voltage regulation as a constraint. The particle swarm optimization with constriction factor approach is applied to determine the optimum size and location with multiple DGs. To see the effect of load growth on system, 33-node IEEE standard test case is considered. It is observed that with the penetration of multiple number of \\{DGs\\} in distribution system, there is great improvement in several distribution system parameters. Moreover, the loading capacity of distribution system is enhanced through DG placement and its techno-economic benefits are also established.

Khyati D. Mistry; Ranjit Roy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Evaporative cooling of a guided rubidium atomic beam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on our recent progress in the manipulation and cooling of a magnetically guided, high-flux beam of Rb87 atoms. Typically, 7×109atomspersecond propagate in a magnetic guide providing a transverse gradient of 800G?cm, with a temperature ?550?K, at an initial velocity of 90cm?s. The atoms are subsequently slowed down to ?60cm?s using an upward slope. The relatively high collision rate (5s?1) allows us to start forced evaporative cooling of the beam, leading to a reduction of the beam temperature by a factor of 4, and a tenfold increase of the on-axis phase-space density.

T. Lahaye, Z. Wang, G. Reinaudi, S. P. Rath, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin

2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

468

Numerical simulation of a blanket cooling system for fusion reactor based on PWR conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The simulations of a blanket cooling system were presented to address the choice of cooling channel geometry and coolant input data which are related to blanket engineering implementation. This work was performed using computer aided design (CAD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Simulations were carried out for the blanket module with a size of 0.6 m × 0.45 m in toroidal plane, and the nuclear heat was applied on the cooling system at Pn (neutron wall load) of 5 MW/m2. The structure factors and input data of hydraulics were investigated to explore the optimal parameters to match the PWR condition. It was found that the inlet velocity of first wall (FW) channel should be within the range of 2.48–3.34 m/s. As a result, the temperature rise (TR) of the coolant in the FW channel would be 24–25 K. This leads to the remaining space for TR within the range of 15 K in the piping circuits. It also indicated that the FW plays an important role in TR (reaches 60% of the whole cooling system) due to its high level of Pn and heat flux in the zones. It was predicted that the nuclear heat inside blanket module could be removed completely by the piping circuits with an acceptable pipe bore and the related input data. Finally, a possible design range of cooling parameters was proposed in view of engineering feasibility and blanket neutronics design.

Changle Liu; Jianzhong Zhang; Yinfeng Zhu; Songlin Liu; Xuebin Ma; Peiming Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

electric load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load building...

470

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bulk System Load  Model in GE PSLF TM for Investigating the a Bulk System Load Model in GE PSLF TM for Investigating thecomposite load model in  the PSLF simulation software; the 

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PGE. 2007. Pacific Gas & Electric cool-roof rebate program.at http://www.pge.com/res/rebates/cool_roof/ . ROH. 2001.California Edison cool-roof rebate program. Online at

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Application of Cooling Concepts to European Office Buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plant Model and Cooling Concepts.... Five different cooling concepts are applied in order to cool the office building (Fig. 7.3). All of them allow for free ventilation by opening windows. Four con...

Doreen E. Kalz; Jens Pfafferott

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCMAG-SIO The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems With76SF0009S. The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems WithAbstract- The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical

Green, Michael A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Improving the Efficiency of Your Process Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many industries require process cooling to achieve desired outcomes of specific processes. This cooling may come from cooling towers, once-through water, mechanical refrigeration, or cryogenic sources such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice. This paper...

Baker, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Hanford. 1997. “Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings ofJ. Hanford. 1997. "Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of1997) monitored peak-power and cooling-energy savings from

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9~K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise \\emph{CPT} test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

ALPHA Collaboration; G. B. Andresen; M. D. Ashkezari; M. Baquero-Ruiz; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; T. Friesen; M. C. Fujiwara; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; A. Humphries; R. Hydomako; S. Jonsell; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; S. Menary; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; D. M. Silveira; C. So; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; D. Wilding; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

478

Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

479

Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To compare the operating costs of an existing standard motor with an appropriately-sized energy-efficient replacement, you need to determine operating hours, efficiency improvement values, and load. Part-load is a term used to describe the actual load served by the motor as compared to the rated full-load capability of the motor. Motor part-loads may be estimated through using input power, amperage, or speed measurements. This fact sheet briefly discusses several load estimation techniques.

480

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling transported,Generally, total modular cooling power demand stabilized atrack) in this study. The cooling power demand decreased when

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of total hydraulic power for cooling to cooling delivered,temperatures, and cooling output power. 6 Test proceduresefficiency defined as power demand per cooling transferred.

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Influence of loading rate on axially loaded piles in clay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Haas and Saxe Yong and Japp. Arulanandan and Shen 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 5 5 6 6 13 13 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 Ladd, Hi11iams, Connell and Edgars Berre and Bjerrum. Stevenson. King Vaid and Campanella. Lacasse. Rigqins. CHAPTER V... of the Gain in Strength versus Shearing Rate Plots 4. Select Regression, PI, LI, W, SO(REF) 76 Cases for 152 Laboratory Tests 5. Collected Data for Pile Load Test Results. 6. Data Set References for Pile Load Tests. Page 14 36 54 61 7. Semi...

Garland Ponce, Enrique Eduardo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

483

A comparative assessment of alternative combustion turbine inlet air cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTAC) has increased during the last few years as electric utilities face increasing demand for peak power. Inlet air cooling increases the generating capacity and decreases the heat rate of a combustion turbine during hot weather when the demand for electricity is generally the greatest. Several CTAC systems have been installed, but the general applicability of the concept and the preference for specific concepts is still being debated. Concurrently, Rocky Research of Boulder City, Nevada has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct research on complex compound (ammoniated salt) chiller systems for low-temperature refrigeration applications.

Brown, D.R.; Katipamula, S.; Konynenbelt, J.H.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Self-aligning biaxial load frame  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

486

Peak load management: Potential options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling Tower Management to someone by E-mail Cooling Tower Management to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance

488

Direct Cooled Power Electronics Substrate | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Direct Cooled Power Electronics Substrate 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

489

Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

490

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Commercial Building Thermal Energy _Storage in ASEANGas Electric Company, "Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling,"LBL--25393 DE91 ,THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR COOLING OF

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance...

492

High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

493

Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2008 Electricity Reliability Impacts of a Mandatory Cooling Tower Rule for Existing Steam Generation Units Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 More Documents & Publications...

494

Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

495

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and implement cool roof technologies. coolroofguide.pdf More Documents & Publications Green Roofs - Federal Technology Alert Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs090804 Accelerated...

496

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit...

497

Heat generation from electronics increases with the advent of high-density integrated circuit technology. To  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Abstract Heat generation from electronics increases with the advent of high-density integrated circuit technology. To come up with the heat generation, microscale cooling has been thought as a promising technology. Prediction of heat transfer rate is crucial in design of microscale cooling device

Boyer, Edmond

498

Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Title Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3348e Year of Publication 2008 Authors Yin, Rongxin, Peng Xu, and Sila Kiliccote Keywords auto-dr, building energy simulation tool, demand response, demand shifting (pre-cooling), DRQAT, market sectors, pre-cooling, technologies, testbed tools and guides, thermal mass Abstract Over the several past years, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has conducted field tests for different pre-cooling strategies in different commercial buildings within California. The test results indicated that pre-cooling strategies were effective in reducing electric demand in these buildings during peak periods. This project studied how to optimize pre-cooling strategies for eleven buildings in the Tri-City Corporate Center, San Bernardino, California with the assistance of a building energy simulation tool - the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT) developed by LBNL's Demand Response Research Center funded by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. From the simulation results of these eleven buildings, optimal pre-cooling and temperature reset strategies were developed. The study shows that after refining and calibrating initial models with measured data, the accuracy of the models can be greatly improved and the models can be used to predict load reductions for automated demand response (Auto-DR) events. This study summarizes the optimization experience of the procedure to develop and calibrate building models in DRQAT. In order to confirm the actual effect of demand response strategies, the simulation results were compared to the field test data. The results indicated that the optimal demand response strategies worked well for all buildings in the Tri-City Corporate Center. This study also compares DRQAT with other building energy simulation tools (eQUEST and BEST). The comparison indicate that eQUEST and BEST underestimate the actual demand shed of the pre-cooling strategies due to a flaw in DOE2's simulation engine for treating wall thermal mass. DRQAT is a more accurate tool in predicting thermal mass effects of DR events.

499

Potential of air-side economizers for data center cooling: A case study for key Australian cities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The provision of low cost cooling is challenging due to high energy costs and increasing heat dissipation volumes from data centers. In Australia, with the introduction of emissions trading scheme, the cost of energy with carbon origin is expected to increase. In order to reduce cooling costs, alternative low cost cooling methods for data centers are highly sought after. In this study, we investigate