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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE By BEREKET TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE Dissertation Approved: Dr. Jeffrey D- Original RTSM.......................................................153 4.4.1 RTSM Peak Design Cooling Load

4

Matching equipment size to the cooling load  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a heat extraction rate analysis method, using ASHRAE algorithms that enables HVAC system designers to optimally size cooling equipment. The final stage of the cooling load calculation process determines the heat extraction rate required to achieve design conditions. Put another way, this stage determines the equipment capacity required to match the cooling load profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile. It is a stage in the design process that, in practice, may not be given the attention it deserves.

Bloom, B. (Harvey Toub Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads and Overall Energy Performance Title The Effect of Daylighting Strategies on Building Cooling Loads and Overall...

6

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the effect of thermal mass on cooling loads, and thereforelift radiant cooling using building thermal mass, Departmentlevel thermal modelling are recommended for design cooling

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Space cooling demands from office plug loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Undersizing space cooling systems for office buildings can result in uncomfortable and angry tenants on peak cooling days. However, oversizing wastes money because more capacity is installed than is needed, and oversized systems have a lower energy efficiency which makes operating costs higher than necessary. Oversizing can adversely affect comfort as well, because oversized systems may provide poor humidity control and large temperature variations. Correct system sizing requires estimating building heat loads accurately. This paper discusses the heat load generated by the plug load, which includes any electrical equipment that is plugged into outlets.

Komor, P.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

change the cooling load profile for the mechanical systems.and the resulting cooling load profile has been reported inimplications for cooling load profile and peak cooling load

Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Auxiliary Cooling Loads in Passively Cooled Buildings: An Experimental Research Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently accepted methods of passive cooling offset only sensible building loads. In the warm, humid southeastern gulf coast climates the latent building load can comprise 35% of the building load in the typical residence. As the sensible load on residences in these climates is reduced or offset by passive cooling techniques, this latent cooling load percentage increases rapidly. In such residences the auxiliary cooling load cannot be effectively met by conventional cooling equipment . The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is examining the auxiliary cooling requirements of residences in warm, humid climates. The study addresses both the thermal and moisture response of buildings. A total of eight wall systems, three frame wall types and five concrete block wall types are under test at the FSEC Passive Cooling Laboratory (PCL) in Cape Canaveral. Moisture studies involve examination of the absorption and desorption rates of building materials and furnishings and the development of improved moisture migration modeling techniques for inclusion in building energy analysis programs. TARP (Thermal Analysis Research program), developed at NBS by George Walton, and FLOAD, by FCHART Software, have been chosen as the analysis programs with which cooling examined.

Fairey, P.; Vieira, R.; Chandra, S.; Kerestecioglu, A.; Kalaghchy, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

Burdick, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Incremental cooling load determination for passive direct gain heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines the applicability of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) full load compressor hour method for predicting the cooling load increase in a residence, attributable to direct gain passive heating systems. The NAHB method predictions are compared with the results of 200 hour-by-hour simulations using BLAST and the two methods show reasonable agreement. The degree of agreement and the limitations of the NAHB method are discussed.

Sullivan, P.W.; Mahone, D.; Fuller, W.; Gruber, J.; Kammerud, R.; Place, W.; Andersson, B.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Heat Generated Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Generated Cooling Heat Generated Cooling A counterintuitive but promising path to reducing the loads imposed by automotive air conditioning systems is to use heat-specifically the waste heat generated by engines. This can be an abundant source of energy, since most light-duty vehicles with combustion engines are only about 30% efficient at best. With that degree of thermal efficiency, an engine releases 70% of its fuel energy as waste heat through the coolant, exhaust gases, and engine compartment warm-up. During much of a typical drive cycle, the engine efficiency is even lower than 30%. As efficiency decreases, the amount of waste heat increases, representing a larger potential energy source. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team is investigating a number of heat generated cooling technologies

13

Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HVAC equipment manufacturers, specifiers and end users interacting in the marketplace today are only beginning to address the series of issues promulgated by the increased outside air requirements in ASHRAE Standard 62- 1989, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality", that has cascaded into building codes over the early to mid 1990's. There has been a twofold to fourfold increase in outside air requirements for many commercial building applications, compared to the 1981 version of the standard. To mitigate or nullify these additional weather loads, outdoor air preconditioning technologies are being promoted in combination with conventional HVAC operations downstream as a means to deliver the required fresh air and control humidity indoors. Preconditioning is the term applied for taking outside air to the indoor air setpoint (dry bulb temperature and relative humidity). The large humidity loads from outside air can now be readily recognized and quantified at cooling design point conditions using the extreme humidity ratios/dew points presented in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Chapter 26 "Climatic Design Information". This paper presents an annual index called the Ventilation Load Index (VLI), recently developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) that measures the magnitude of latent (and sensible) loads for preconditioning outside air to indoor space conditions over the come of an entire year. The VLI has units of ton-hrs/scfm of outside air. The loads are generated using new weather data binning software called ~BinMaker, also from GRI, that organizes the 239 city, 8760 hour by hour, TMY2 weather data into user selected bidtables. The VLI provides a simple methodology for accessing the cooling load impact of increased ventilation air volumes and a potential basis for defining a "humid" climate location.

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Influence of raised floor on zone design cooling load in commercial buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design day zone cooling load profile is evaluated for anThe zone cooling load profiles and the thermal performanceaffects the zone cooling load profile and the peak cooling

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Cooling and Heating Loads | Building  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling and Heating Loads Cooling and Heating Loads The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on heating and cooling system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems and equipment should be calculated in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks such as ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_cooling_and_heating_loads.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999

17

Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in design day cooling load profiles for OH and UFAD systems;in design day cooling load profiles for OH and UFAD systems;showed that the cooling load profiles for UFAD and OH are

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design day cooling load profiles, (2) impact of a thermallyday peak zone cooling load profile for UFAD and a well-mixedaffects the cooling load profiles, therefore it is possible

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Climatic indicators for estimating residential heating and cooling loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive data base of residential energy use generated with the DOE-2.1A simulation code provides an opportunity for correlating building loads predicted by an hourly simulation model to commonly used climatic parameters such as heating and cooling degree-days, and to newer parameters such as insolation-days and latent enthalpy-days. The identification of reliable climatic parameters for estimating cooling loads and the incremental loads for individual building components, such as changing ceiling and wall R-values, infiltration rates or window areas is emphasized.

Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Chang, L.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Laser cooling of a trapped particle with increased Rabi frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the cooling of a single particle in a harmonic trap with red-detuned laser light with fewer approximations than previously done in the literature. We avoid the adiabatic elimination of the excited atomic state but are still interested in Lamb-Dicke parameters {eta}cooling laser can be chosen higher than previously assumed, thereby increasing the effective cooling rate but not affecting the final outcome of the cooling process. Since laser cooling is already a well-established experimental technique, the main aim of this paper is to present a model which can be extended to more complex scenarios, like cavity-mediated laser cooling.

Blake, Tony; Kurcz, Andreas; Saleem, Norah S.; Beige, Almut [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The temperature differential of chilled water is an important factor used for evaluating the performance of a chilled water system. A low delta-T may increase the pumping energy consumption and increase the chiller energy consumption. The system studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low cooling loads, it may lead to the laminar flow of the chilled water in the cooling coils. The main objective of this thesis is to explain the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils under low cooling loads. The water side and air side heat transfer coefficients at different water and air flow rates are calculated. The coefficients are used to analyze the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils at conditions ranging from very low loads to design conditions. The effectiveness-number of transfer units (NTU) method is utilized to analyze the cooling coil performance under different flow conditions, which also helps to obtain the cooling coil chilled water temperature differential under full load and partial load conditions. When the water flow rate drops to 1ft/s, laminar flow occurs; this further decreases the heat transfer rate on the water side. However, the cooling coil effectiveness increases with the drop of water flow rate, which compensates for the influence of the heat transfer performance under laminar flow conditions. Consequently, the delta-T in the cooling coil decreases in the transitional flow regime but increases in the laminar flow regime. Results of this thesis show that the laminar flow for the chilled water at low flow rate is not the main cause of the low delta-T syndrome in the chilled water system. Possible causes for the piping strategy of the low delta-T syndrome existing in the chilled water system under low flow conditions are studied in this thesis: (1) use of two way control valves; and (2) improper tertiary pump piping strategy.

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save Cooling Energy and Dollars: New Cooling Technology Targets Peak Load Reduction  

SciTech Connect

This document is about a new evaporative cooling technology that can deliver cooler supply air temperatures than either direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems, without increasing humidity. The Coolerado Cooler technology can help Federal agencies reach the energy-use reduction goals of EPAct 2005, particularly in the western United States.

Robichaud, R.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a control scheme which utilizes the enhanced instantaneous cooling load measurements to improve the reliability of chiller sequencing control. The enhanced measurement is obtained by merging two different measurements of building cooling load using data fusion technique. One is the direct cooling load measurement, which is obtained directly using the differential water temperature and water flow rate measurements. The other is the indirect cooling load measurement, which estimates the cooling load using chiller models based on the instantaneous chiller electrical power input and condition measured variables. The control performance of the proposed scheme is validated in this paper.

Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads  

SciTech Connect

Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).

White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; /Fermilab; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

25

Effects of Material Moisture Adsorption and Desorption on Building Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moisture adsorption and desorption (MAD) by internal building materials and furnishings can be significant in buildings. For many building cooling strategies, MAD may have overriding effects on building cooling loads. For example, natural ventilation of buildings in hot, humid climates has been shown to induce higher latent loads and higher room relative humidities during periods following the ventilation.

Fairey, P.; Kosar, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Cooling-load implications for residential passive-solar-heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.

Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. Filippi, B.W. Olesen, Solar radiation and cooling loaddependant upon solar radiation, ASHRAE Transactions, (2006)heat gains also included solar radiation through windows. G3

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Evaluation on Cooling Energy Load with Varied Envelope Design for High-Rise Residential Buildings in Malaysia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the development of the economy in the recent years, Malaysia is maintaining a high economic growth and therefore, its energy consumption increases dramatically. Residential buildings are characterized by being envelope-load dominated buildings, hence are greatly influenced by the outside climatic conditions. Due to the hot humid climate of Malaysia, air conditioning system accounts for more than 45% of the total electricity used in the residential sector which is required to remove substantial amount of gained heat due to poor thermal envelope performance. This paper uses Ecotect software to analyze the impact of building envelope design on energy cooling load for residential building in Penang, Malaysia, which include area ratio of window to floor, exterior wall thermal insulation, and several kinds of shading system. This paper describes an integrated passive design approach to reduce the cooling requirement for high-rise apartments through an improved building envelope design. Comparing with the other passive strategies investigated in this paper, the results indicated that exterior wall thermal insulation is the best strategy to decrease both annual cooling energy load and peak cooling load which achieved a reduction of 10.2% and 26.3% respectively. However, the other passive strategies applied also have some marginal effect on decreasing the cooling load.

Al-Tamimi, N.; Fadzil, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Impact of Different Glazing Systems on Cooling Load of a Detached Residential Building at Bhubaneswar, India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For detached residential buildings located in the tropics, it is more challenging and difficult to deal with the space cooling load due to hot and humid climates. In this paper, daily and monthly computer simulations of solar heat gain and cooling load for a detached residential building are carried out using Design Builder software. Different glazing systems ranging from single glazed clear glass to double glaze with electro chromic reflective colored have been analyzed in terms of their impact on solar heat gain and cooling load. The simulation results show reductions in solar heat gain, cooling load and better thermal comfort can be achieved using proper glazing systems for a specific orientation of the building. The significance of these results stems from the fact that they are obtained under local weather conditions, a matter of importance to building architects, designers, contractors, and builders as well as air conditioning equipment manufacturers.

Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The Potential of Vegetation in Reducing Summer Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential of trees and other vegetation to reduce building cooling loads has been recorded in a number of studies but the meso- and microclimate changes producing such savings are not well understood. This paper describes a preliminary ...

Y. J. Huang; H. Akbari; H. Taha; A. H. Rosenfeld

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are test. In the tests proposed here, the ASHRAE heat balance method is used as a reference model. Details of confidence in load calculation methods and the computer implementations that they use. ASHRAE has a long

32

A Liquid-Helium-Cooled Absolute Reference Cold Load forLong-Wavelength Radiometric Calibration  

SciTech Connect

We describe a large (78-cm) diameter liquid-helium-cooled black-body absolute reference cold load for the calibration of microwave radiometers. The load provides an absolute calibration near the liquid helium (LHe) boiling point, accurate to better than 30 mK for wavelengths from 2.5 to 25 cm (12-1.2 GHz). The emission (from non-LHe temperature parts of the cold load) and reflection are small and well determined. Total corrections to the LHe boiling point temperature are {le} 50 mK over the operating range. This cold load has been used at several wavelengths at the South Pole and at the White Mountain Research Station. In operation, the average LHe loss rate was {le} 4.4 l/hr. Design considerations, radiometric and thermal performance and operational aspects are discussed. A comparison with other LHe-cooled reference loads including the predecessor of this cold load is given.

Bensadoun, M.; Witebsky, C.; Smoot, George F.; De Amici,Giovanni; Kogut, A.; Levin, S.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Contact-cooled U-monochromators for high heat load x-ray beamlines  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design, expected performance, and preliminary test results of a contact-cooled monochromator for use on high heat load x-ray beamlines. The monochromator has a cross section in the shape of the letter U. This monochromator should be suitable for handing heat fluxes up to 5 W/square millimeter. As such, for the present application, it is compatible with the best internally cooled crystal monochromators. There are three key features in the design of this monochromator. First, it is contact cooled, thereby eliminating fabrication of cooling channels, bonding, and undesirable strains in the monochromator due to coolant-manifold-to-crystal-interface. Second, by illuminating the entire length of the crystal and extracting the central part of the reflected beam, sharp slope changes in the beam profile and thus slope errors are avoided. Last, by appropriate cooling of the crystal, tangential slope error can be substantially reduced.

Khounsary, A.; Yun, W.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Xu, S.; Assoufid, L.; Lee, W.K.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

How and why side cooling of high-heat-load optics works.  

SciTech Connect

The temperature gradients in a side-cooled mirror would create a thermal bending moment along the mirror length. For a slender side-cooled mirror with longitudinally uniform incident beam, the tangential slope error is primarily due to the bowing deformation caused by this thermal bending moment. The thermal bending moment depends on the temperature distribution, which is a function of the mirror geometry, heat load, and cooling design. Optimal design of a side-cooled mirror can achieve a 'favorable' temperature profile to make the thermal bending moment, with respect to the substrate neutral plane, approach zero, so that the bowing deformation of the mirror is minimized. To understand the deformation of a side-cooled mirror and achieve an optimal design, a theoretical formulation is developed.

Li, Y.; Khounsary, A.; Nair, S.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); IIT

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

CoolCab: Reducing Thermal Loads in Long-Haul Trucks (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project tested and modeled the effects of several thermal-load reduction strategies applied to long-haul truck cabs. NREL partnered with two major truck manufacturers to evaluate three long-haul trucks at NREL's outdoor test facility in Golden, Colorado.

Not Available

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Overall U-values and heating/cooling loads: Manufactured homes  

SciTech Connect

This manual specifies a method for calculating the overall thermal transmittance (also referred to as the overall U-value or U{sub o}), heating load, and cooling load of a manufactured (mobile) home. Rules, examples, and data required by the method are also presented. Compliance with the Department of Housing and Urban Development`s (HUD) U{sub o} and load calculation regulations contained in Sections 3280.506, 3280.510 and 3280.511 of the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards must be demonstrated through the application of the method provided herein.

Conner, C.C.; Taylor, Z.T.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Overall U-values and heating/cooling loads: Manufactured homes  

SciTech Connect

This manual specifies a method for calculating the overall thermal transmittance (also referred to as the overall U-value or U{sub o}), heating load, and cooling load of a manufactured (mobile) home. Rules, examples, and data required by the method are also presented. Compliance with the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) U{sub o} and load calculation regulations contained in Sections 3280.506, 3280.510 and 3280.511 of the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards must be demonstrated through the application of the method provided herein.

Conner, C.C.; Taylor, Z.T.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Overall U-values and heating/cooling loads: Manufactured homes  

SciTech Connect

This manual specifies a method for calculating the overall thermal transmittance (also referred to as the overall U-value or U{sub o}), heating load, and cooling load of a manufactured (mobile) home. Rules, examples, and data required by the method are also presented. Compliance with the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) U{sub o} and load calculation regulations contained in Sections 3280.506, 3280.510 and 3280.511 of the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards must be demonstrated through the application of the method provided herein.

Conner, C.C.; Taylor, Z.T.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describes the CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Global cooling: increasing world-wide urban albedos to offset...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In addition, increasing urban albedo can result in less absorption of incoming solar radiation by the surface-troposphere system, countering to some extent the global scale...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Combustion Impacts of Flexible Operation: Low Load, Load Following, and Increased Staging Impact on Boiler Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past few years, coal-fired generating units have changed from stable base load operation to flexible operation, including periods of prolonged low-load operation. These changes in operation can have various adverse effects on all plant equipment, particularly in older units and may impact their ability to operate without tube failures due to elevated levels of fireside corrosion and circumferential cracking. This report discusses the combustion-related impacts of low-load, load-following, ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

42

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes February 1, 2008 - 11:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) today expanded cooperation to coordinate Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototype development through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by DOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Dennis R. Spurgeon, CEA Chairman Alain Bugat and JAEA President Toshio Okazaki. The MOU establishes a collaborative framework with the ultimate goal of deploying sodium-cooled fast reactor prototypes. A sodium-cooled fast reactor uses liquid sodium

43

Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

44

Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

Stovall, Therese K. (Knoxville, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Roof shading and wall glazing techniques for reducing peak building heating and cooling loads. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The roof shading device proved to be effective in reducing peak building cooling loads under both actual testing conditions and in selected computer simulations. The magnitude of cooling load reductions varied from case to case depending on individual circumstances. Key variables that had significant impacts on its thermal performance were the number of months of use annually, the thermal characteristics of the roof construction, hours of building use, and internal gains. Key variables that had significant impacts upon economic performance were the costs of fuel energy for heating and cooling, and heating and cooling equipment efficiency. In general, the more sensitive the building is to climate, the more effective the shading device will be. In the example case, the annual fuel savings ($.05 psf) were 6 to 10% of the estimated installation costs ($.50 to .75 psf). The Trombe wall installation at Roxborough High School proved to be effective in collecting and delivering significant amounts of solar heat energy. It was also effective in conserving heat energy by replacing obsolete windows which leaked large amounts of heat from the building. Cost values were computed for both solar energy contributions and for heat loss reductions by window replacement. Together they amount to an estimated three hundred and ninety dollars ($390.00) per year in equivalent electric fuel costs. When these savings are compared with installation cost figures it is apparent that the Trombe wall installation as designed and installed presents a potentially cost-effective method of saving fuel costs. The study results indicate that improved Trombe wall efficiency can be achieved by making design and construction changes to reduce or eliminate outside air leakage into the system and provide automatic fan control.

Ueland, M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Performance of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load silicon crystal monochromators with porous media augmentation  

SciTech Connect

The performance of two Si crystal x-ray monochromators internally cooled with liquid nitrogen was tested on the F2-wiggler beamline at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Both crystals were (111)-oriented blocks of rectangular cross section having identical dimensions. Seven 6.4-mm-diameter coolant channels were drilled through the crystals along the beam direction. In one of the crystals, porous Cu mesh inserts were bonded into the channels to enhance the heat transfer. The channels of the second crystal were left as drilled. Symmetric, double-crystal rocking curves were recorded simultaneously for both the first and third order reflections at 8 and 24 keV. The power load on the cooled crystal was adjusted by varying the horizontal beam size using slits. The measured Si(333) rocking curve of the unenhanced crystal at 24 keV at low power was 1.9 arcsec FWHM. The theoretical width is 0.63 arcsec. The difference is due to residual fabrication and mounting strain. For a maximum incident power of 601 W and an average power density of about 10 W/MM{sup 2}, the rocking curve was 2.7 arcsec. The rocking curve for the enhanced crystal at low power was 2.4 arcsec. At a maximum incident power of 1803 W and an average power density of about 19 W/mm{sup 2} the rocking curve width was 2.2 arcsec FWHM. The use of porous mesh augmentation is a simple, but very effective, means to improve the performance of cryogenically cooled Si monochromators exposed to high power x-ray beams.

Rogers, C.S.; Mills, D.M.; Assoufid, L.; Graber, T.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments James Cummings BA-PIRC; Florida Solar Energy Center Presented at BA Summer Meeting, July 26, 2012 The gist of my message * Fixed capacity AC systems generally provide good RH control in typical residences. * In low-load homes, they may be less effective in achieving good RH control. * On the other hand, variable capacity AC systems have several characteristics which can provide improved RH control in homes. - Both Nordyne and Carrier have variable capacity units, varying from about 40% to 100% of nominal full capacity. - What is variable capacity? -- condenser fan, compressor speed, and AHU fan speed. The gist, continued

48

Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load for Radiant and Air Conditioning Systems. ProceedingsRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. Babiak,of European Heating ahd Air-Conditioning Associations. CEN (

Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Investigation of Peak Load Reduction Strategies in Residential Buildings in Cooling Dominated Climates.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This investigation of peak load reduction strategies in residential buildings contributes to the global international efforts in reducing energy consumption and is related directly to… (more)

Atallah, Fady

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

52

Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations

Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

illuminated by direct solar radiation. Causone et al. (2010)3, where solar gain causes an increase in the radiation/

Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

Gueymard, Christian A. [Solar Consulting Services, P.O. Box 392, Colebrook, NH 03576 (United States); Thevenard, Didier [Numerical Logics Inc., 498 Edenvalley Cres., Waterloo, Ont. (Canada)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Enhanced biogas production by increasing organic load rate in mesophilic anaerobic digestion with sludge recirculation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? For enhancing anaerobic sludge digestion and biogas recovery, an increase in organic load rate (OLR) from 1.0 to 3.0kgVS/(m3·day) was imposed upon a new… (more)

Huang, Zhanzhao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, ASHRAE Research Project 1093, Preliminary Report, Literature Review and Database Search  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this report, the first report for the ASHRAE 1093-RP project, we present: (1) our extended literature search of methods used to derive load shapes and diversity factors in the U.S. and Europe, (2) a survey of available databases of monitored commercial end-use electrical data in the U.S. and Europe, and (3) a review of classification schemes of the commercial building stock listed in national standards and codes, and reported by researchers and utility projects. The findings in this preliminary report will help us in performing the next steps of the project where we will identify and test appropriate daytyping methods on relevant monitored data sets of lighting and equipment (and other surrogates for occupancy) to develop a library of diversity factors and schedules for use in energy and cooling load simulations. The goal of this project is to compile a library of schedules and diversity factors for energy and cooling load calculations in various types of indoor office environments in the U.S. and Europe. Two sets of diversity factors, one for peak cooling load calculations and one for energy calculations will be developed.

Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, Phase II Report - Identified Relevant Data Sets, Methods, and Variability Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the second report of the ASHRAE 1093-RP project that reports on the progress during the scheduled Phase II effort. In this report, we present: (1) the data sets identified and acquired required for the analysis; (2) the method adopted for classifying the Office building categories; (3) the relevant methods for daytyping necessary for creating the typical load shapes for energy and cooling load calculation; (4) the relevant robust variability (uncertainty) analysis; (5) typical load shapes reported in the literature; (6) a test to assure the non-weather dependency (seasonal variation) of the lighting and equipment data sets; and (7) a proposed occupancy surrogate variable. The results obtained during Phase II will enable us to proceed with Phase III, as planned. Phase III will cover: (1) developing the typical load shapes for the acquired data sets, using the proposed method, for both energy and cooling load calculations; (2) developing the tool-kit for deriving the new diversity factors and general guidelines for their use; and (3) developing illustrative examples of the use of the diversity factors in the DOE-2 and BLAST simulation programs.

Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Effect of adding flash tank on the evaporator's thermal load of the combined ejector-absorption cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified combined absorption-ejector cooling system using aqua-ammonia (NH3-H2O) refrigerant has been investigated. Removable flash tank was added between the condenser and the evaporator. The modified cycle brings the advantage of improving in the ... Keywords: absorption system, combined absorption cooling system, ejectors, evaporators

Ranj Sirwan; Yusoff Ali; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question What are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Influence of the greenhouse effect on human health through stratospheric cooling: Possible increase in acquired immunodeficient syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect cools the stratosphere and increases formation of PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) in polar regions and enhances ozone depletion. If the enhanced ozone depletion diffused to lower latitudes, it could increase ultraviolet radiation (UV), which might increase acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemiological studies are made to test this hypothesis. The relation between AIDS prevalence R and latitude {theta}. Comparison of analyses shows that R of Caucasians would be higher than Non-Caucasians at the same {theta}. These trends are similar to those of skin cancers known to be caused by UV. In developing countries poverty, malnutrition, etc., could cause high R, and since most developing countries are located at low {theta}, the low {theta} increase may be due to these factors. However if so in Africa they are about the same and the low {theta} increase would disappear, but data on African countries also show the low {theta} increase and the significant correlation. Some countries at low {theta} have low R, probably because HIV is not prevalent for them. Then the upper envelope of the distribution of R would be cases when HIV is prevalent and UV is most effective. Therefore analyses are repeated using maxima of R within intervals of {theta} of 1, 3 and 5{degree}. In all cases the low {theta} increase and the correlation becomes more significant. These results support the hypothesis that AIDS is promoted by UV.

Okamoto, Kazuto; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Shin [Toyo Gakuen Univ. Chiba (Japan)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Methods to Mitigate the Effect of Increased Cycling and Load Following on Heat Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the U.S. coal-fired plants currently in service were designed for baseload operation. Today, however, actual generation conditions dictate that many of these units operate in a continuous transient mode, following generation demand. As such, they often experience large load changes throughout the day that result in a poorer plant heat rate. Reducing the throttle pressure, also known as sliding pressure, reduces throttling losses and is a potential method to reduce the heat rate penalties ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

63

A bottom-up engineering estimate of the aggregate heating and cooling loads of the entire U.S. building stock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

furnaces, chillers, and cooling towers, including the energyheating, chiller and cooling towers. Gas Plant Factors in

Huang, Yu Joe; Brodrick, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Increased precision in sampling using regression modeling, with an application to electric load research  

SciTech Connect

A model is given for situations in survey sampling in which the characteristic of interest is an expected value of the dependent variable in a regression. For each sample unit, a regression can be used to estimate the expected value of the characteristic of interest for a given set of values of the explanatory variables. The model can be used to calculate the expected value and variance of an estimator of the population total of the expected value of the characteristic of interest, for a given set of values of the explanatory variables. The application involves the estimation of a class-load curve on the system peak day of an electric utility. The conventional method uses, for each customer in the sample, the customer's actual demand on the system peak day to estimate the customer's expected demand under the conditions of the peak day. The proposed method uses, for each customer in the sample, a model to estimate the customer's expected demand under the conditions of the peak day. The conditions are variables such as the time-of-day and weather. The variance of an estimator of a class expected load curve under the conditions of the peak day may be reduced by using the proposed method instead of the conventional method.

Oberg, K.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effect of increased electric loads on primary substation equipment in 100-B, C, D, DR, F, and H areas  

SciTech Connect

The loading on the primary transformers which step down the 230 kv transmission voltage to a distribution voltage of 13.8 kv, at 100-B-C, 100-D-DR, 100-F, and 100-H Areas will be increased by the synchronous motors now being installed in those areas under Project CG-558. This report summarizes: The changes in electric loads (both kv and power factor) which will result when the new motors are placed in service and certain older motors are withdrawn from service. Electric loads are tabulated in section 4.0 for each area for present conditions, the planned changes and the post-CG-558 conditions. The reduction of distribution voltage during the starting of individual 4500 hp synchronous motors. Since the synchronous motors will be started across the line as induction motors, the starting current will be high, and at a low power factor. Voltage drops are calculated for the starting of a synchronous motor, with one and then with two transformer banks paralleled. The current-interrupting capacity of switchgear vs. the maximum short-circuit current which could occur with separate transformers and with two primary transformers in parallel.

Baker, D.S.; McLenegan, D.W.

1956-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

67

A bottom-up engineering estimate of the aggregate heating and cooling loads of the entire U.S. building stock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

quad. The estimates for total energy usage are within 12% ofthe total heating and cooling energy usages represented bythe total heating and cooling energy usages represented by

Huang, Yu Joe; Brodrick, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

A bottom-up engineering estimate of the aggregate heating and cooling loads of the entire U.S. building stock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the estimated national energy consumption for residentialand cooling energy consumption of the national building

Huang, Yu Joe; Brodrick, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

year-round cooling loads and a 1.6 MW summer peak electrical load near midnight. Electricity consumption

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Hybrid Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water consumption by power plants has become an increasingly contentious siting issue. In nearly all fossil-fired and nuclear plants, water for plant cooling is by far the greatest water requirement. Therefore, the use of water-conserving cooling systems such as dry or hybrid cooling is receiving increasing attention. This technology overview from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provides a brief introduction to hybrid cooling systems. As defined in the report, the term "hybrid cooling" refer...

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

71

Response to CO2 Transient Increase in the GISS Coupled Model:Regional Coolings in a Warming Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GISS coupled atmosphere–ocean model is used to investigate the effect of increased atmospheric CO2 by comparing a compounded 1% CO2 increase experiment with a control simulation. After 70 yr of integration, the global surface air temperature ...

Gary L. Russell; David Rind

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Data Center Alternative Cooling Analysis Tool  

amounts of energy. Consistent large loads of energy are required for data center efficiency and reliability. Four different cooling technologies, ...

73

Laser Cooling of Trapped Ions.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... period, so it can be assumed to give an in- stantaneous impulse to the ... In sympathetic laser cooling, two different ion species are loaded into a trap. ...

2002-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

An experimental investigation of an air cooling scheme for removing environmentally imposed heat loads from the multiplicity and vertex detector`s main enclosure  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a closed loop air cooling system designed to control the temperature and humidity in the main enclosure of the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD). Measurements of the cooling air flow rate, the humidity levels inside and outside of the MVD, and the cooling air temperatures were used to assess the performance of the system and to characterize the system limitations and potential assembly problems. The results of the study indicate that several design changes are needed in the final design to meet the temperature and humidity operating requirements. A thorough set of design change recommendations that satisfy these operating criteria completes this report.

Cunningham, R.; Bernardin, J.D.; Simon-Gillo, J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Cool Storage Technology Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is a fact that avoiding load growth is cheaper than constructing new power plants. Cool storage technologies offer one method for strategically stemming the impact of future peak demand growth. This guide provides a comprehensive resource for understanding and evaluating cool storage technologies.

2000-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Characterizing Household Plug Loads through Self-Administered Load Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Household miscellaneous loads, which include consumer electronics, are the fastest growing segment of household energy use in the United States. Although the relative energy intensity of applications such as heating and cooling is declining, the DOEAnnual Energy Outlook forecasts that the intensity of residential miscellaneous end uses will increase substantially by 2030. Studies by TIAX and Ecos Consulting reveal that miscellaneous devices8212smaller devices in terms of energy draw but growing in usage8...

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

77

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Cool Roof Calculator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator logo. Many reflective roof coatings and membranes are now available for low-slope roofs. These coatings help to reduce summer air-conditioning loads, but can also increase the winter heating load. The Cool Roof Calculator will estimate both how much energy you'll save in the summer and how much extra energy you'll need in the winter. Cool Roof Calculator provides answers on a 'per square foot' basis, so you can then multiply by the area of your roof to find out your net savings each year. Keywords reflective roof, roofing membrane, low-slope roof Validation/Testing The Radiation Control Fact Sheet describes both the analytical and experimental results that went into the calculator's development. Expertise Required

78

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads. ASHRAEThe Role of Thermal Mass on the Cooling Load of Buildings.to reduce peak cooling loads with thermal mass control.

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Peak demand reduction from pre-cooling with zone temperature reset in an office building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads. ASHRAEThe Role of Thermal Mass on the Cooling Load of Buildings.to reduce peak cooling loads with thermal mass control.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Stochastic Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Solar heating and cooling of buildings: activities of the private sector of the building community and its perceived needs relative to increased activity  

SciTech Connect

A description of the state of affairs existing in the private sector of the building community between mid-1974 and mid-1975 with regard to solar heating and cooling of buildings is presentd. Also, information on the needs perceived by the private sector with regard to governmental actions (besides research) required to induce widespread application of solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings is given. The information is based on surveys, data obtained at workshops, sales literature of manufacturers, symposia, and miscellaneous correspondence. Selected interests and projects of individuals and organizations are described. (WHK)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Performance study of a thermal-envelope house: Phase II. Cooling performance. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal envelope house is shown to perform much better than conventional houses without mechanical refrigeration and better than one would expect from most passively cooled houses in the hot-humid climate of Georgia. Peak temperatures inside the house were 8 to 15/sup 0/F below peak ambient temperatures. Peak inside temperature measured during the test period was 80/sup 0/F with an outside ambient peak of 93/sup 0/F. Air flow rates within the envelope were less than 1 ft/sec even when the attic fan was operating. The earth cooling tubes provided noticeable sensible cooling to the house. Exit temperatures from the cooling tubes were between 72 to 76/sup 0/F, depending upon the air velocity through the tubes. The thermal chimney performed poorly as an air mover, especially when used to induce flow through the earth cooling tubes. The performance of the earth cooling tube could be improved by using the attic fan to increase the air flow through the cooling tubes and to insure it flowed in the cooling tube, through the envelope and out the thermal chimney. Being an exhaust fan, the attic fan created a negative pressure in the house. While this increased air flow through the cooling tubes, it also increased air infiltration through the building shell, thus increasing load. The humidity level within the living space remains relatively high year-round due to low rates of air infiltration and water vapor transmission through the building skin. The problem is aggravated during the summer by the introduction of cool moist air from the cooling tubes to the envelope and frequently to the inner space. While the cooling tubes are able to reduce the sensible load, and they are incapable of significantly reducing humidity or latent loads. This results in relatively comfortable air temperatures but uncomfortable humidities within the living space.

Akridge, J.M.; Benton, C.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

SOLERAS solar cooling project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In view of the increasing demand for cooling in both the United States and Saudi Arabia, solar cooling systems are being considered as serious alternatives to the energy intensive conventional systems, especially when confronted with rising fossil fuel costs. Saudi Arabia and the hot, southern regions of the United States, having abundant sunshine and high cooling demand, are obvious candidates for solar active cooling systems and passive cooling design. Solar active cooling has yet to be shown to be either technologically mature or economically feasible, but efforts have been, and are presently being made within the United States National Solar Cooling Program to develop reliable systems which can compete economically with conventional cooling systems. Currently, the program is funding research and development projects in the areas of absorption, Rankine, dessicant, and advanced technologies. Saudi Arabia has a long and successful tradition of building cooling using passive architectural designs. Combining these past achievements with a program of research and development in both active and passive solar cooling should permit an early economical introduction of entirely solar cooled buildings to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States.

Corcoleotes, G.; Williamson, J.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Implications of office building thermal mass and multi-day temperature profiles for cooling strategies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a study of the cooling energy requirements that result from thermal storage in building mass, and suggests methods for predicting and controlling its energy cost implications. The study relies on computer simulations of energy use for a large office building prototype in El Paso, TX using the DOE-2 building energy analysis program. Increased Monday cooling energy requirements resulting from the weekend shut-down of HVAC systems are documented. Predictors of energy use and peak demands, which account for thermal storage in building mass, are described. Load-shifting, sub-cooling and pre-cooling equipment operating strategies are evaluated with explicit reference to utility rate schedules.

Eto, J.H.; Powell, G.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Gas turbine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Dust and ventilation effects on radiant barriers: Cooling season energy measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling season tests were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects on attic radiant barrier performance incurred by changes in attic ventilation area ratio, attic ventilation type, and the buildup of dust on horizontal radiant barriers. All three houses had R-19 fiberglass batt insulation in their attics. Horizontal radiant barriers were artificially dusted and the dusted barriers showed measurable performance degradations, although the dusted barriers were still superior to no radiant barriers. Dust loadings of 0.34 and 0.74 mg/cm{sup 2} reduced a clean radiant barrier surface emissivity of 0.055 to 0.125 and 0.185, respectively. Total house cooling load increases amounted to 2.3 and 8.4% compared to house loads with clean horizontal barriers, respectively. When compared to R-19 with no horizontal radiant barrier conditions, the dusted horizontal radiant barriers reduced cooling loads by about 7%. Testing showed that increasing the attic ventilation area ratio from the minimum recommended of 1/300 to 1/150 had little if any effect on the house cooling load with either truss or horizontal barriers present in the attics. Radiant barriers, however, still reduced the house cooling load. There was essentially no difference in house cooling load reduction between either ridge/soffit or gable/soffit vent type with a truss radiant barrier, as both reduced cooling loads by about 8% when compared to no radiant barrier conditions. The attic-ventilation-type testing was done with a ventilation area ratio of 1/150.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hall, J.A. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Cooling season energy measurements of dust and ventilation effects on radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling season tests were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects on attic radiant barrier performance incurred by changes in attic ventilation area ratio, attic ventilation type, and the buildup of dust on horizontal radiant barriers. All three houses had R-19 fiberglass batt insulation in their attics. Horizontal radiant barriers were artificially dusted and the dusted barriers showed measurable performance degradations, although the dusted barriers were still superior to no radiant barriers. Dust loadings of 0.34 and 0.74 mg/cm{sup 2} reduced a clean radiant barrier surface emissivity of 0.055 to 0.125 and 0.185, respectively. Total house cooling load increases amounted to 2.3 and 8.4% compared to house loads with clean horizontal barriers, respectively. When compared to R-19 with no horizontal radiant barrier conditions, the dusted horizontal radiant barriers reduced cooling loads by about 7%. Testing showed that increasing the attic ventilation area ratio from the minimum recommended of 1/300 (1 ft{sup 2} of effective ventilation area per 300 ft{sup 2} of attic area) to 1/150 had little if any effect on the house cooling load with either truss or horizontal barriers present in the attics. Radiant barriers, however, still reduced the house cooling load. 18 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hall, J.A. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Analysis of Dynamic Thermal Performance of Insulated Wall and Building Cooling Energy Consumption in Guangzhou  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The summer in Guangzhou, China, is hot and long. Heat proofing is very important for the energy efficiency of buildings and improvement of the indoor thermal environment. The residential buildings in the southern region are cooled by air conditioning mainly with the increase of the live level. This study investigates the influence of the thermal dynamic performance on the yearly cooling load and yearly maximum cooling demand in typical residential flats by employing KVALUE and DeST. The simulation predictions indicate that reductions in the cooling load and maximum cooling demand are obtained when the insulation is added in the wall, but the potential of energy saving is quite limited when the wall only is insulated.

Zhao, L.; Li, X.; Li, L.; Gao, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Effectiveness of External Window Attachments Based on Daylight Utilization and Cooling Load Reduction for Small Office Buildings in Hot Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study explored the effectiveness of selected external shading devices and glazing treatments used to minimize the total annual energy consumption in small office buildings in hot humid climates. The external shading devices included a permanent horizontal overhang and a light shelf. The selected types of glazing included clear, reflective, tinted, low-emissivity coating, and heat-mirror glass. One concern about using external window attachments is that while reducing the solar heat gains, they also reduce the amount of the daylight needed to supplement interior lighting. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore which strategy would give a balance between solar heat gain reduction and daylight utilization and result in the most energy savings in the building. Computer simulations using an hourly energy calculation model were conducted to predict the building's total energy consumption using each strategy. The economics of each strategy were analyzed with lifecycle costing techniques using the present value technique. Results show that properly designed overhangs that shade clear glazing are slightly more cost-effective than specialized low-e glazing systems. These results are unique for hot humid climates where winter heating is not an issue. On the contrary, when used in cold climates, external shading devices tend to increase the building's energy consumption.

Soebarto, V. I.; Degelman, L. O.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Cooling thermal storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article gives some overall guidelines for successful operation of cooling thermal storage installations. Electric utilities use rates and other incentives to encourage thermal storage, which not only reduces their system peaks but also transfers a portion of their load from expensive daytime inefficient peaking plants to less expensive nighttime base load high efficiency coal and nuclear plants. There are hundreds of thermal storage installations around the country. Some of these are very successful; others have failed to achieve all of their predicted benefits because application considerations were not properly addressed.

Gatley, D.P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

94

Investigations of flow and film cooling on turbine blade edge regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inlet temperature of modern gas turbine engines has been increased to achieve higher thermal efficiency and increased output. The blade edge regions, including the blade tip, the leading edge, and the platform, are exposed to the most extreme heat loads, and therefore, must be adequately cooled to maintain safety. For the blade tip, there is tip leakage flow due to the pressure gradient across the tip. This leakage flow not only reduces the blade aerodynamic performance, but also yields a high heat load due to the thin boundary layer and high speed. Various tip configurations, such as plane tip, double side squealer tip, and single suction side squealer tip, have been studied to find which one is the best configuration to reduce the tip leakage flow and the heat load. In addition to the flow and heat transfer on the blade tip, film cooling with various arrangements, including camber line, upstream, and two row configurations, have been studied. Besides these cases of low inlet/outlet pressure ratio, low temperature, non-rotating, the high inlet/outlet pressure ratio, high temperature, and rotating cases have been investigated, since they are closer to real turbine working conditions. The leading edge of the rotor blade experiences high heat transfer because of the stagnation flow. Film cooling on the rotor leading edge in a 1-1/2 turbine stage has been numerically studied for the design and off-design conditions. Simulations find that the increasing rotating speed shifts the stagnation line from the pressure side, to the leading edge and the suction side, while film cooling protection moves in the reverse direction with decreasing cooling effectiveness. Film cooling brings a high unsteady intensity of the heat transfer coefficient, especially on the suction side. The unsteady intensity of film cooling effectiveness is higher than that of the heat transfer coefficient. The film cooling on the rotor platform has gained significant attention due to the usage of low-aspect ratio and low-solidity turbine designs. Film cooling and its heat transfer are strongly influenced by the secondary flow of the end-wall and the stator-rotor interaction. Numerical predictions have been performed for the film cooling on the rotating platform of a whole turbine stage. The design conditions yield a high cooling effectiveness and decrease the cooling effectiveness unsteady intensity, while the high rpm condition dramatically reduces the film cooling effectiveness. High purge flow rates provide a better cooling protection. In addition, the impact of the turbine work process on film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. The overall cooling effectiveness shows a higher value than the adiabatic effectiveness does.

Yang, Huitao

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

http://escholarship.org/uc/item/70f4n03z. ASHRAE Journalcalculations for UFAD. ” ASHRAE Journal 49(10):36 – 44. 3.Ventilation. Atlanta: ASHRAE. 4. Loudermilk, K. 1999. “

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Economic Evaluation of Alternative Cooling Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water use and conservation at electric power plants are becoming increasingly important siting issues. At most plants, the requirement for condensing exhaust steam from the steam turbine, generically known as power plant cooling, is the major use of water. Alternative cooling systems exist, including once-through cooling, wet-recirculating cooling, dry cooling, and hybrid (or wet/dry cooling), some of which offer significant opportunity for water conservation. These water savings normally, but perhaps no...

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

97

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Recent Summer Rainfall Increase and Surface Cooling over Northern Australia since the Late 1970s: A Response to Warming in the Tropical Western Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rainfall over northern Australia (NA) in austral summer is the largest water source of Australia. Previous studies have suggested a strong zonal-dipole trend pattern in austral summer rainfall since 1950, with rainfall increasing in northwest ...

Xiao-Feng Li; Jingjing Yu; Yun Li

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

FOCUS COOLING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Comparative report: performance of active-solar space-cooling systems, 1981 cooling season  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. There is comprehensive data on four absorption chiller cooling systems and one Rankine cooling system. Three of these systems, including the Rankine system, demonstrated that solar cooling can be operated efficiently and provide energy savings. Good designs and operating procedures are discussed. Problems which reduce savings are identified. There is also a comparison of solar cooling by absorption, Rankine, and photovoltaic processes. Parameters and performance indices presented include overall system delivered loads, solar fraction of the load, coefficient of performance, energy collected and stored, and various subsystem efficiencies. The comparison of these factors has allowed evaluation of the relative performance of various systems. Analyses performed for which comparative data are provided include: energy savings and operating costs in terms of Btu; energy savings in terms of dollars; overall solar cooling efficiency and coefficient of performance; hourly building cooling loads; actual and long-term weather conditions; collector performance; collector area to tons of chiller cooling capacity; chiller performance; normalized building cooling loads per cooling degree-day and building area; and cooling solar fractions, design and measured.

Wetzel, P.; Pakkala, P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Research Search More Search Options Site Map Photo of Advanced Automotive Manikin Reducing fuel consumption by air conditioning systems is the focus of Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) activities at NREL. About 7 billion gallons of fuel-about 5.5% of total national light-duty vehicle fuel use-are used annually just to cool light-duty vehicles in the United States. That's why our VALR team works with industry to help increase fuel economy and reduce tailpipe emissions by reducing the ancillary loads requirements in vehicles while maintaining the thermal comfort of the passengers. Approaches include improved cabin insulation, advanced window systems, advanced cooling and venting systems, and heat generated cooling. Another focus of the VALR project is ADAM, the ADvanced Automotive Manikin

104

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: HVAC Residential Load...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD for the iPad Carmel Software logo HVAC Residential Load Calcs HD is a comprehensive HVAC heating and cooling load calculation application for the...

105

Dry Cooling: Perspectives on Future Needs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total number of dry-cooled power plants in the United States has increased significantly in recent years. This is because nonutility generators are using dry-cooling systems to meet environmental protection and water conservation requirements. A survey shows that utility planners expect that dry cooling could become an important cooling-system option for new utility plants.

1991-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

106

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Analysis of industrial load management  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Load Management, ILM, has increased the possibilities of changing load profiles and raising load factors. This paper reports on load profile measurements and feasible load management applications that could be implemented in industry e.g. bivalent systems for heating of premises and processes, load priority systems, energy storage and rescheduling processes or parts of processes due to differential electricity rates. Industrial load variations on hourly, daily and seasonal basis are treated as well as the impact by load management on load curves e g peak clipping, valley filling and increased off-peak electricity usage.

Bjork, C.O.; Karlsson, B.G.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

109

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

Spletzer, B.L.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity not supplied to the grid is analyzed in detail. Further, the new concept of CCHP system with cooling and heating network interconnecting is developed. Then, the Olympic Park energy system is presented to illustrate the advantage and improvement both in economy performance and energy efficiency.

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

1958-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

114

Determination of the Effects of Cooling Rate from Solution Treatment ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

notch rupture life are possible through control of the cooling rate after solution .... Notch stress rupture testing was conducted at 1000°F with a constant load.

115

Thermally Activated Cooling: A Regional Approach for Estimating Building Adoption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DG with TAC - retail electricity rates, high cooling load,California. Retail electricity rates change between utilityaverage values of electricity rates or temperature can

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Variable area fuel cell cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Oriented spray-assisted cooling tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus useful for heat exchange by evaporative cooling when employed in conjunction with a conventional cooling tower. The arrangement includes a header pipe which is used to divert a portion of the water in the cooling tower supply conduit up stream of the cooling tower to a multiplicity of vertical pipes and spray nozzles which are evenly spaced external to the cooling tower so as to produce a uniform spray pattern oriented toward the central axis of the cooling tower and thereby induce an air flow into the cooling tower which is greater than otherwise achieved. By spraying the water to be cooled towards the cooling tower in a region external to the cooling tower in a manner such that the spray falls just short of the cooling tower basin, the spray does not interfere with the operation of the cooling tower, proper, and the-maximum increase in air velocity is achieved just above the cooling tower basin where it is most effective. The sprayed water lands on a concrete or asphalt apron which extends from the header pipe to the cooling tower basin and is gently sloped towards the cooling tower basin such that the sprayed water drains into the basin. By diverting a portion of the water to be cooled to a multiplicity of sprays external to the cooling tower, thermal performance is improved. 4 figs.

Bowman, C.F.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage. OSTI Homepage Mobile Gallery Subscribe to RSS OSTI Blog Get Widgets Get Alert Services OSTI Facebook OSTI Twitter OSTI Google+ Bookmark and Share (Link will open in a new window) Go to Videos Loading... Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network National Library of Energy OSTIblog Science.gov Science Accelerator

119

The European Electricity Grid System and Winter Peak Load Stress: For how long can the european grid system survive the ever increasing demand during cold winter days?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rich countries of Western Europe and its citizens benefited during at least the last 30 years from an extraordinary stable electricity grid. This stability was achieved by the european grid system and a large flexible and reliable spare power plant capacity. This system allowed a continuous demand growth during the past 10-20 years of up to a few % per year. However, partially due to this overcapacity, no new large power plants have been completed during the past 10-15 years. The obvious consequence is that the reliable spare capacity has been reduced and that a further yearly demand growth of 1-2% for electric energy can only be achieved if new power plants will be constructed soon. Data from various European countries, provided by the UCTE, indicate that the system stress during peak load times and especially during particular cold winter days is much larger than generally assumed. In fact, the latest UCTE data on reliable power capacity indicate that already during the Winter 2007/8 only a few very col...

Dittmar, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Simulated energy savings of cool roofs applied to industrial premises in the Mediterranean Area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal insulation affects the sensible cooling savingshigh thermal insulation reduces the sensible cooling energyof a high thermal insulation increases the sensible cooling

De Carli, Michele; Scarpa, Massimiliano; Schiavon, Stefano; Zecchin, Roberto

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Assessment of District Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

District energy technologies are now regarded as an effective means to implement electric load management opportunities. Increasingly, electric utilities are adopting rate structures that provide incentives for more energy-efficient technologies and for shifting loads to off-peak.

1993-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

122

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reynolds Number (Nu Nu o ) (f f o ) 24% Increase in Cooling Performance Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling Passages with Shaped Turbulators...

126

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

127

Passive cooling program element. [Skytherm system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An outline of the Passive Cooling R and D program element is presented with significant technical achievements obtained during FY 1978. Passive cooling mechanisms are enumerated and a survey of ongoing projects is made in the areas of cooling resource assessment and system development. Results anticipated within the next fiscal year are discussed and the direction of the R and D effort is indicated. Passive cooling system development has centered primarily about the Skytherm system. Two projects are underway to construct such systems in regions having a higher cooling load than the original Skytherm site at Atascadero, California. Component development and commercialization studies are major goals of these two projects and a third project at Atascadero. A two-story passive cooling test module has been built to study radiative, evaporative and convective cooling effects in a structure making use of the thermosiphon principle, but not equipped with a roof pond.

Wahlig, M.; Martin, M.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

REACTOR COOLING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

Quackenbush, C.F.

1959-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

129

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid cooling, dry cooler, cooling tower 1. INTRODUCTIONsolutions for cooling. Substituting cooling towers,hybrid cooling towers, or dry coolers that provide warmer

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Neutrino-cooled accretion and GRB variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For accretion rates Mdot~0.1 Msun/s to a few solar mass black hole the inner part of the disk is expected to make a transition from advection dominance to neutrino cooling. This transition is characterized by sharp changes of the disk properties. I argue here that during this transition, a modest increase of the accretion rate leads to powerful enhancement of the Poynting luminosity of the GRB flow and decrease of its baryon loading. These changes of the characteristics of the GRB flow translate into changing gamma-ray spectra from the photosphere of the flow. The photospheric interpretation of the GRB emission explains the observed narrowing of GRB pulses with increasing photon energy and the luminosity-spectral peak relation within and among bursts.

Dimitrios Giannios

2007-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

132

Success Stories: Cool Color Roofs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

instead of absorbing, solar heat. So the question for scientists interested in increasing energy efficiency is, can one make a roof that is both cool and dark? Hashem Akbari, Paul...

133

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool logo The Center for the Built Environment's research team has developed a simplified, practical design procedure and associated software tool to determine cooling load requirements of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems. These are provided to improve the accuracy of airflow, thermal decay data, thermal comfort calculations, system design, and the operation of UFAD buildings. Screen Shots Keywords UFAD, underfloor, Cooling load calculator, cooling, stratification, thermal comfort Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Knowledge about cooling load calculation and UFAD. Users N/A Audience Practicing architects and engineers involved in the design, specification, and analysis of UFADs. Instructional tool in colleges and universities.

134

Understanding and reducing energy and costs in industrial cooling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial cooling remains one of the largest potential areas for electrical energy savings in industrial plants today. This is in spite of a relatively small amount of attention paid to it by energy auditors and rebate program designers. US DOE tool suites, for example, have long focused on combustion related systems and motor systems with a focus on pumps and compressors. A chilled water tool designed by UMass was available for some time but is no longer being supported by its designers or included in the government tool website. Even with the focus on motor systems, auditing programs like the DOE's Industrial Assessment Center program show dramatically less energy savings for electrical based systems than fossil fueled ones. This paper demonstrates the large amount of increased saving from a critical review of plant chilled water systems with both hardware and operational improvements. After showing several reasons why cooling systems are often ignored during plant energy surveys (their complexity, lack of data on operations etc.), three specific upgrades are considered which have become more reliable and cost effective in the recent past. These include chiller changeouts, right sizing of systems with load matching, and floating head pressures as a retrofit. Considerations of free cooling and improved cooling tower operations are shown as additional "big hitters”. It is made clear that with appropriate measurements and an understanding of the cooling system, significant savings can be obtained with reasonable paybacks and low risk.

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Title Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson, Ronnen M., and Hashem Akbari Journal Energy Efficiency Volume 3 Pagination 53-109 Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 1570-646X Keywords cool roof, Heat Island Abstract Cool roofs-roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission-lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes-new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980)-were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from $0.126/m2 in West Virginia to $1.14/m2 in Arizona ($0.356/m2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m2 in New York to 11.7 g/m2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m2 in California to 26.1 g/m2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2.58 billion square meters of commercial building conditioned roof area in the USA would yield an annual cooling energy saving of 10.4 TWh; an annual heating energy penalty of 133 million therms; and an annual energy cost saving of $735 million. It would also offer an annual CO2 reduction of 6.23 Mt, offsetting the annual CO2 emissions of 1.20 million typical cars or 25.4 typical peak power plants; an annual NOx reduction of 9.93 kt, offsetting the annual NOx emissions of 0.57 million cars or 65.7 peak power plants; an annual SO2 reduction of 25.6 kt, offsetting the annual SO2 emissions of 815 peak power plants; and an annual Hg reduction of 126 kg.

136

Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas or by solar systems. Comfort is achieved by reducing the moisture content of air by a solid or liquid desiccant and then reducing the temperature in an evaporative cooler (direct or indirect). Another system is one where the dehumidifier removes enough moisture to meet the latent portion of the load while the sensible portion is met by a vapor compression cooling system; desiccant regeneration is achieved by using the heat rejected from the condenser together with other thermal sources. At present, residential desiccant cooling systems are in actual operation but are more costly than vapor compression systems, resulting in relatively long payback periods. Component efficiencies need to be improved, particularly the efficiency of the dehumidifier.

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

139

Alternatives to compressor cooling in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This review and discussion has been prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) to examine research on alternatives to compressor cooling. The report focuses on strategies for eliminating compressors in California's transition climates -- moderately warm areas located between the cool coastal regions and the hot central regions. Many of these strategies could also help reduce compressor use in hotter climates. Compressor-driven cooling of residences in California's transition climate regions is an undesirable load for California's electric utilities because load factor is poor and usage is typically high during periods of system peak demand. We review a number of alternatives to compressors, including low-energy strategies: evaporative cooling, natural and induced ventilation, reflective coatings, shading with vegetation and improved glazing, thermal storage, and radiative cooling. Also included are two energy-intensive strategies: absorption cooling and desiccant cooling. Our literature survey leads us to conclude that many of these strategies, used either singly or in combination, are technically and economically feasible alternatives to compressor-driven cooling. 78 refs., 8 figs.

Feustel, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); de Almeida, A. (Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Blumstein, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Universitywide Energy Research Group)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D Contractors'been supported by the Solar Heating and Cooling Research andof Energy. 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air conditioning load, which is highly coincident with HL&P's system peak, provided a large market for cool storage technologies. Initial market research made it very clear that a special cool storage rate was required to successfully market the technology. Development of the rate required an integrated, multidepartment effort and extensive use of DSManager, an integrated resource planning model. An experimental version of the rate was initially implemented as part of the initial phase of the cool storage program. A permanent rate, incorporating lessons learned from the experimental rate, was then developed for the long term implementation of the program. The permanent rate went through a lengthy regulatory approval process which included intervention by a local natural gas distribution company. The end result is a very successful cool storage program with 52 projects and 31 megawatts of demand reduction in the first three and one-half years of program implementation.

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Energy Basics: Evaporative Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

absorbent material. Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative...

143

The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers  

SciTech Connect

Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

Abedi-Nik, Farhad [SADRA Institute of Higher Education, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid [K.N.T University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

144

Load Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

145

Stochastic cooling in muon colliders  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to {approximately}10{sup 3} for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW.

Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Cooling residential buildings in milder climates contributes significantly to peak demand mainly because of poor load factors. Peak cooling load determines the size of equipment and the cooling source. Several measures reduce cooling-system size and allow the use of lower-energy cooling sources; they include incorporating exterior walls or other elements that effectively shelter interiors from outside heat and cold, and providing thermal mass, to cool interior spaces during the day by absorbing heat and warm them at night as the mass discharges its heat. Thermal mass features may be used for storage only or serve as structural elements. Concrete, steel, adobe, stone, and brick all satisfy requirements

147

Debris trap in a turbine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Proceedings: Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Papers presented at EPRI's 1994 Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions. Specific topics include cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid cooling systems.

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

149

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling. From NIST Tech Beat: September 13, 2007. ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

150

Cooling Tower Fan Motor Power Optimization Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers are in use at more than 200 major electric generating plants in the United States, representing approximately 800 units and a total of more than 210,000 MW. The auxiliary power consumed by cooling tower fan motors can significantly reduce the net power output of steam-cycle power plants. Cooling tower specifications are established by the economic and operational requirements of maximum unit load and the most demanding environmental conditions expected in the tower’s locale. Since power pl...

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

151

Quantum-mechanical theory of optomechanical Brillouin cooling  

SciTech Connect

We analyze how to exploit Brillouin scattering of light from sound for the purpose of cooling optomechanical devices and present a quantum-mechanical theory for Brillouin cooling. Our analysis shows that significant cooling ratios can be obtained with standard experimental parameters. A further improvement of cooling efficiency is possible by increasing the dissipation of the optical anti-Stokes resonance.

Tomes, Matthew; Bahl, Gaurav; Carmon, Tal [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Marquardt, Florian [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

OCCUPATIONAL COOLING TOWERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY COOLING TOWERS EMPLOYEE HEALTH B C D F E CHILDREN'S ELEVATORS MEDICAL SCHOOL

Crews, Stephen

153

Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Office Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

LOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

Ohlinger, L.A.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Cooling Plant Optimization Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Central cooling plants or district cooling systems account for 22 percent of energy costs for cooling commercial buildings. Improving the efficiency of central cooling plants will significantly impact peak demand and energy usage for both building owners and utilities. This guide identifies opportunities for optimizing a central cooling plant and provides a simplified optimization procedure. The guide focuses on plant optimization from the standpoint of minimizing energy costs and maximizing efficiencies...

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

159

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Title Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Salamanca, Francisco, Shaheen R. Tonse, Surabi Menon, Vishal Garg, Krishna P. Singh, Manish Naja, and Marc L. Fischer Journal Environmental Research Letters Volume 7 Issue 4 Abstract We evaluate differences in clear-sky upwelling shortwave radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere in response to increasing the albedo of roof surfaces in an area of India with moderately high aerosol loading. Treated (painted white) and untreated (unpainted) roofs on two buildings in northeast India were analyzed on five cloudless days using radiometric imagery from the IKONOS satellite. Comparison of a radiative transfer model (RRTMG) and radiometric satellite observations shows good agreement (R2 = 0.927). Results show a mean increase of ~50 W m-2 outgoing at the top of the atmosphere for each 0.1 increase of the albedo at the time of the observations and a strong dependence on atmospheric transmissivity.

160

Cooling season energy measurements of dust and ventilation effects on radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling season tests were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects on attic radiant barrier performance incurred by changes in attic ventilation area ratio, attic ventilation type, and the buildup of dust on horizontal radiant barriers. All three houses had R-19 fiberglass batt insulation in their attics. Horizontal radiant barriers were artificially dusted and the dusted barriers showed measurable performance degradations, although the dusted barriers were still superior to no radiant barriers. Dust loadings of 0.34 and 0.74 mg/cm{sup 2} reduced a clean radiant barrier surface emissivity of 0.055 to 0.125 and 0.185, respectively. Total house cooling load increases amounted to 2.3 and 8.4% compared to house loads with clean horizontal barriers, respectively. When compared to R-19 with no horizontal radiant barrier conditions, the dusted horizontal radiant barriers reduced cooling loads by about 7%. 18 refs., 18 figs., 30 tabs.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hall, J.A. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

162

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Comparative report: performance of active solar space cooling systems, 1982 cooling season  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. Five solar cooling systems were monitored in 1982; four of these have absorption chillers and one has a Rankine engine. Of the four absorption chillers, two are directly solar fired and two are boiler fired using solar energy as the preheat to the boiler. The composite data for the five sites covers the period from September 1981 through December 1982. There are 36 site months of data covered in the report. These are all commercial systems with buildings ranging in size from 5000 to 84,000 square feet. There are three evacuated-tube, one flat-plate, and one linear concentrating collector systems. Analyses performed for which comparative data is provided include: Energy savings and operating costs in terms of Btu; Overall solar cooling efficiency and coefficient of performance; Hourly building cooling loads; Actual and long-term weather conditions; Collector performance; Chiller performance; Normalized building cooling loads per cooling degree-day and building area; and Cooling solar fractions, design and measured. Conclusions and lessons learned from the comparative analysis are presented.

Logee, T.; Kendall, P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y. Chen, The effect of solar radiation on dynamic thermaldependant upon solar radiation, ASHRAE Transactions, (2006)M. Filippi, B.W. Olesen, Solar radiation and cooling load

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J. [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

LOADED WAVEGUIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

1958-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

167

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Title Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-19734 Year of Publication 1985 Authors Arasteh, Dariush K., Russell Johnson, Stephen E. Selkowitz, and Deborah J. Connell Conference Name 2nd Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates Date Published 09/1985 Conference Location Texas A&M University Call Number LBL-19734 Abstract Fenestration performance in nonresidentialsbuildings in hot climates is often a large coolingsload liability. Proper fenestration design andsthe use of daylight-responsive dimming controls onselectric lights can, in addition to drasticallysreducing lighting energy, lower cooling loads,speak electrical demand, operating costs, chillerssizes, and first costs. Using the building energyssimulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C , wesfirst discuss lighting energy savings from daylighting.sThe effects of fenestration parametersson cooling loads, total energy use, peak demand,schiller sizes, and initial and operating costs aresalso discussed. The impact of daylighting, asscompared to electric lighting, on cooling requirementssis discussed as a function of glazingscharacteristics, location, and shading systems.

168

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler...

169

Interaction of lighting, heating, and cooling systems in buildings  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of building lighting and HVAC systems, and the effects on cooling load and lighting system performance, are being evaluated using a full-scale test facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The results from a number of test configurations are described, including lighting system efficiency and cooling load due to lighting. The effect of lighting and HVAC system design and operation on performance is evaluated. Design considerations are discussed.

Treado, S.J.; Bean, J.W.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

171

Study on Water-Cooled Solar Semiconductor Air Conditioner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-cooled solar semiconductor air conditioner was designed. Relevant calculation was made to determine the room's cooling load, which export the solar panels and battery capacity, followed by selection of CNC matcher. Development work also involves ... Keywords: solar energy, peltier effect, semiconductor air conditioner

Dong Zhi-Ming; Chang Ji-Bin; Xiang Li-Juan; Zhou Xue-Bin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Commercial Cool Storage Design Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This state-of-the-art handbook provides comprehensive guidance for designing ice and chilled-water storage systems for commercial buildings. HVAC engineers can take advantage of attractive rates and incentives offered by utilities to increase the market for cool storage systems.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Cooling System Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...size Flow restrictions Heat exchanger size and design All of these factors must be considered. Every component in the cooling

174

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

175

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

177

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substantial numbers of existing plants and buildings are found to depend solely upon Mechanical Cooling even though Natural Cooling techniques could be employed utilizing ambient air. Most of these facilities were constructed without Natural Cooling capability due to 'first cost' budget constraints when the cost and availability of energy were of little concern.

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these...

179

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

180

Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

Dakin, James T. (Schenectady, NY)

1982-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Best Management Practice: Single-Pass Cooling Equipment | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Best Management Practice: Single-Pass Cooling Equipment October 8, 2013 - 9:37am Addthis Single-pass or once-through cooling systems provide an opportunity for significant water savings. In these systems, water is circulated once through a piece of equipment and is then disposed down the drain. Types of equipment that typically use single-pass cooling include CAT scanners, degreasers, hydraulic equipment, condensers, air compressors, welding machines, vacuum pumps, ice machines, x-ray equipment, and air conditioners. To remove the same heat load, single-pass systems use 40 times more water than a cooling tower operated at five cycles of concentration. To maximize water savings, single-pass cooling equipment should be either modified to

183

Parametric Study of Turbine Blade Internal Cooling and Film Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas turbine engines are extensively used in the aviation and power generation industries. They are used as topping cycles in combined cycle power plants, or as stand alone power generation units. Gains in thermodynamic efficiency can be realized by increasing the turbine inlet temperatures. Since modern turbine inlet temperatures exceed the melting point of the constituent superalloys, it is necessary to provide an aggressive cooling system. Relatively cool air, ducted from the compressor of the engine is used to remove heat from the hot turbine blade. This air flows through passages in the hollow blade (internal cooling), and is also ejected onto the surface of the blade to form an insulating film (film cooling). Modern land-based gas turbine engines use high Reynolds number internal flow to cool their internal passages. The first part of this study focuses on experiments pertaining to passages with Reynolds numbers of up to 400,000. Common turbulator designs (45degree parallel sharp-edged and round-edged) ribs are studied. Older correlations are found to require corrections in order to be valid in the high Reynolds number parameter space. The effect of rotation on heat transfer in a typical three-pass serpentine channel is studied using a computational model with near-wall refinement. Results from this computational study indicate that the hub experiences abnormally high heat transfer under rotation. An experimental study is conducted at Buoyancy numbers similar to an actual engine on a wedge shaped model trailing edge, roughened with pin-fins and equipped with slot ejection. Results show an asymmetery between the leading and trailing surfaces due to rotation - a difference which is subdued due to the provision of pin-fins. Film cooling effectiveness is measured by the PSP mass transfer analogy technique in two different configurations: a flat plate and a typical high pressure turbine blade. Parameters studied include a step immediately upstream of a row of holes; the Strouhal number (quantifying rotor-stator interaction) and coolant to mainstream density ratio. Results show a deterioration in film cooling effectiveness with on increasing the Strouhal number. Using a coolant with a higher density results in higher film cooling effectiveness.

Rallabandi, Akhilesh P.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

185

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

186

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling for 12 hours. Pressurized argon and process water are used to expedite cooling. The proposed modifications aim to minimize cycling by reducing cooling time; they are grouped into three fundamental mechanisms. The first is a recommendation to modify current operating procedures. This entails opening the furnace doors at higher than normal temperatures. A furnace temperature model based on current parameters is used to show the reduction in cooling time in response to opening the furnace doors at higher temperatures. The second mechanism considers the introduction of forced argon convection. Argon is used in the process to mitigate part oxidation. Cycling argon through the furnace during cooling increases convection over the parts and removes heat from the furnace envelope. Heat transfer models based on convective Nusselt correlations are used to determine the increase in heat transfer rate. The last mechanism considers a modification to the current heat exchanger. By decreasing the temperature of the water jacket and increasing heat exchanger efficiency, heat transfer from the furnace is increased and cooling time is shortened. This analysis is done using the Effectiveness-NTU method.

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants with little or no internal loads. The evaporative roof cooling system keeps the building from heating up during the day by misting the roof surface with a fine spray of water -just enough to evaporate. This process keeps the roof surface at 90° levels instead of 150° and knocks out the radiant heat transfer from the roof into the building. The system is controlled by a thermostat and automatically shuts off at night or when the roof surface cools below the set point. The same control system turns on exhaust fans to load the building with cool night air. Air circulators are installed to provide air movement on workers during the day. Best results are achieved by closing dock doors and minimizing hot air infiltration during the day. The typical application will maintain inside temperatures that will average 84° -86° when outside ambient temperatures range from 98 °-100°. Many satisfied users will attest to marked improvements in employee moral and productivity, along with providing safe storage temperatures for many products. Installed "Flywheel" systems' costs are usually less than 20% of comparable air-conditioning equipment. By keeping a built up roof cooler, the system will eliminate thermal shock and extend roof life while reducing maintenance.

Abernethy, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Energy Basics: Absorption Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption...

191

Process Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers have been on the scene for more than 50 years. It is because they have proven to be an economic choice for waste heat dissipation. But it seems, for some reason, that after installation very little attention is paid to the cooling-tower and its effect on plant operating efficiency and production. This paper will describe the value of working with a cooling tower specialist to establish the physical and thermal potential of an existing cooling tower. It also demonstrates that a repair and thermal upgrade project to improve efficiency will have a better than average return on investment.

McCann, C. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Energy Basics: Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the...

193

Adaptive cooling of integrated circuits using digital microfluidics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal management is critical for integrated circuit (IC) design. With each new IC technology generation, feature sizes decrease, while operating speeds and package densities increase. These factors contribute to elevated die temperatures detrimental ... Keywords: adaptive cooling, chip cooling, digital microfluidics, electrowetting, hot-spot cooling, microfluidics

Philip Y. Paik; Vamsee K. Pamula; Krishnendu Chakrabarty

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving thermal comfort and saving energy, a combined system is presented in this paper. It combines an evaporative cooling system with ceiling cooling, in which the evaporative cooling system handles the entire latent load and one part of the sensible loads, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils of ceiling cooling system can be ground water, tap water or the cooled water from cooling towers in the summer. This new air-conditioning system and existing all- outdoor air evaporative cooling system are applied to a project in the city of Lanzhou. Energy consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort of both systems are then compared. It is concluded that the new system occupies less building space, reduces energy consumption, improves indoor human thermal comfort and saves initial investment.

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas due to extensive changes in the landscape. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent.

196

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

method. , in: ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamental, American Societyin: ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamental, American Society of18 of ASHRAE Fundamental (2012) handbook, the description of

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. , 345for Residen- tial Winter and Summer Air Conditioning,Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 1228 17th Street,

Sullivan, Paul W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the differences of the heat transfer process in zonesto capture detailed heat transfer processes in the zones and

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the publication Insulation Manual: Homes and Apartments [in Table 2 and thermal insulation values by city are givenArea) WALL AREAS Front e Insulation Area (75% of net wall

Sullivan, Paul W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Twenty-one papers presented at a 2003 conference in Charleston, South Carolina discussed industrial experience and provided case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

203

Wind load reduction for heliostats  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

205

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

206

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

207

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

211

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

212

SIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the dynamic modeling of a solar absorption cooling plant that will be built for both research and demonstration purposes by the end of 2007. The synchronizing of cooling loads with solar radiation intensity is an important advantage when utilizing solar energy in air conditioning in buildings. The first part of this work deals with the dynamic modeling of an evacuated tube collector. A field of these collectors feed a single-effect absorption chiller of 35 kW nominal cooling capacity. The simulation model has been done in a modular way under TRNSYS16. In a second part, simulation and optimization of the system has been investigated in order to determine the effect of several parameters (collector area, tank volume...) on chiller performance.

J. P. Praene; D. Morau; F. Lucas; F. Garde; H. Boyer; J. P. Praene

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers January 16, 2014 - 4:19pm Addthis This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the calculator assumptions and definitions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement How many chillers will you purchase? Performance Factors Existing What is the existing design condition? Full Load Partial Load What is the cooling capacity of the existing chiller? tons What is the full-load efficiency of the existing chiller? EER What is the partial-load efficiency of the existing chiller? EER New What is the new design condition? Full Load Partial Load

214

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

215

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

216

Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)  

SciTech Connect

There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

217

Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the system was built and analyzed. This was followed by building a mock-up of the system and conducting experiments to validate the CFD model. It was found that some of the simplest cooling techniques like white oil paint on the outer surface can significantly reduce the impact of solar loads. Adding internal circulation fans can also be very effective. Using air-to-air heat exchangers was found to be the most effective solution although it is more complex and costly.

Mahendra Wankhede; V. Khaire; A. Goswami; S. D. Mahajan

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

218

Cooling the dark energy camera instrument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DECam, camera for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is undergoing general design and component testing. For an overview see DePoy, et al in these proceedings. For a description of the imager, see Cease, et al in these proceedings. The CCD instrument will be mounted at the prime focus of the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. The instrument temperature will be 173K with a heat load of 113W. In similar applications, cooling CCD instruments at the prime focus has been accomplished by three general methods. Liquid nitrogen reservoirs have been constructed to operate in any orientation, pulse tube cryocoolers have been used when tilt angles are limited and Joule-Thompson or Stirling cryocoolers have been used with smaller heat loads. Gifford-MacMahon cooling has been used at the Cassegrain but not at the prime focus. For DES, the combined requirements of high heat load, temperature stability, low vibration, operation in any orientation, liquid nitrogen cost and limited space available led to the design of a pumped, closed loop, circulating nitrogen system. At zenith the instrument will be twelve meters above the pump/cryocooler station. This cooling system expected to have a 10,000 hour maintenance interval. This paper will describe the engineering basis including the thermal model, unbalanced forces, cooldown time, the single and two-phase flow model.

Schmitt, R.L.; Cease, H.; /Fermilab; DePoy, D.; /Ohio State U.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab; Kuhlmann, S.; /Ohio State U.; Onal, Birce; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Feedback Cooling of a Single Neutral Atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate feedback cooling of the motion of a single rubidium atom trapped in a high-finesse optical resonator to a temperature of about 160 \\mu K. Time-dependent transmission and intensity-correlation measurements prove the reduction of the atomic position uncertainty. The feedback increases the 1/e storage time into the one second regime, 30 times longer than without feedback. Feedback cooling therefore rivals state-of-the-art laser cooling, but with the advantages that it requires less optical access and exhibits less optical pumping.

Markus Koch; Christian Sames; Alexander Kubanek; Matthias Apel; Maximilian Balbach; Alexei Ourjoumtsev; Pepijn W. H. Pinkse; Gerhard Rempe

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

220

Feedback Cooling of a Single Neutral Atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate feedback cooling of the motion of a single rubidium atom trapped in a high-finesse optical resonator to a temperature of about 160 \\mu K. Time-dependent transmission and intensity-correlation measurements prove the reduction of the atomic position uncertainty. The feedback increases the 1/e storage time into the one second regime, 30 times longer than without feedback. Feedback cooling therefore rivals state-of-the-art laser cooling, but with the advantages that it requires less optical access and exhibits less optical pumping.

Koch, Markus; Kubanek, Alexander; Apel, Matthias; Balbach, Maximilian; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Pinkse, Pepijn W H; Rempe, Gerhard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10 19%. With the assumption of an annual increase...

222

Advances in Energy Efficiency, Capital Cost, and Installation Schedules for Large Capacity Cooling Applications Using a Packaged Chiller Plant Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling equipment, whether used to meet air-conditioning or process cooling loads, represents a large consumer of energy. Even more to the point, cooling loads and the associated cooling equipment energy consumption tend to be at maximum levels during periods of high ambient air temperatures. It is precisely at those times that the general demand for energy is at its peak and therefore the price or value of energy is also at its highest level. Cooling loads often drive the peak electric power demand of energy users and thus affect not only the level of consumption of high cost energy, but also affect the peak power demand. Together, the energy and demand costs equate to very high unit costs for operating cooling equipment. Accordingly, it is of interest to minimize cooling energy use and costs by maximizing the energy efficiency of cooling equipment installations. A relatively new approach has been developed and is being increasingly used to maximize chiller plant efficiency. The approach involves the use of a standardized, pre-engineered, shop-fabricated approach to entire chiller plant installations. Compared to the traditional, piece-meal approach to chiller plants that utilize individual component specification, procurement and installation, the "packaged" or modular chiller plant approach often delivers substantially improved energy efficiencies. Also, the packaged plant approach achieves further benefits for large cooling system owners and operators. These additional benefits include: 1) dramatic reductions in unit capital costs of installed chiller plant capacity on a dollar per ton basis, 2) marked improvements in total procurement and installation schedules, 3) significantly smaller space requirements, and 4) enhanced control over total system quality and performance. The capacities and performance characteristics of available chiller plant modules are described, including both electric and non-electric chiller technologies. Examples are presented to illustrate the typical sizes and locations of actual installations as well as the growth and extent of the use of this technology to-date. Case studies document the energy efficiency improvements, cost reductions in both operating and capital costs, and improvements in schedule and space utilization, of the packaged chiller plant approach relative to the traditional chiller plant approach.

Pierson, T. L.; Andrepont, J. S.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy December 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Secretary Steven Chu today announced the completion of a new cool roof installation on the Department of Energy's Headquarters West Building. There was no incremental cost to adding the cool roof as part of the roof replacement project and it will save taxpayers $2,000 every year in building energy costs. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency, reduce cooling costs and offset carbon emissions. The cool roof and increased insulation at the facility were

224

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

225

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

SciTech Connect

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

226

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

227

Loading of a surface-electrode ion trap from a remote, precooled source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate loading of ions into a surface-electrode trap (SET) from a remote, laser-cooled source of neutral atoms. We first cool and load ?10[superscript 6] neutral [superscript 88]Sr atoms into a magneto-optical trap ...

Sage, Jeremy M.

228

Overview: Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

than earlier models. Dehumidifying heat pipes can help an air conditioner remove humidity and more efficiently cool the air. Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling cools a floor or...

229

Performance comparison of absorption and desiccant solar cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cooling systems are required to operate over a wide range of outdoor and load conditions; however, the performance of solar cooling components is often specified and compared at a typical design point such as ARI conditions. A method is presented to directly compare the performance of different desiccant and absorption cooling systems by using psychrometric analysis of air distribution cycles under a range of outdoor conditions that systems encounter over a year. Using analysis of cooling load distributions for a small commercial office building in Miami and Phoenix a seasonal COP is calculated for each system. The heat input can be provided by solar or by an auxiliary heat source, such as natural gas.

Warren, M.L.; Wahlig, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

LBNL's Novel Approach to Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems department, chilled water, cooling water tower, double exchanger cooling, dual heat exchanger, high tech and industrial systems group, inrow, lawrence berkeley national...

231

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(510) 486-7494 Links Heat Island Group The Cool Colors Project Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs and...

232

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

233

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

234

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

235

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

236

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

237

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems.

Matson, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin and Paul Berdahl SeptemberNTIS. 3. P. Berdahl and M. Martin, "The Resource for Radia-1978) p. 684. 4. M. Martin and P. Berdahl, "Description of a

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Müller

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Periodic load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiprocessor load balancing aims to improve performance by moving jobs from highly loaded processors to more lightly loaded processors. Some schemes allow only migration of new jobs upon arrival, while other schemes allow migration of ... Keywords: heavy traffic diffusion approximations, load balancing, periodic load balancing, reflected Brownian motion, resource sharing, transient behavior

Gísli Hjálmtýsson; Ward Whitt

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

243

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

WATER COOLED RETORT COVER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Performance prediction of cryogenically cooled silicon crystal monochromator  

SciTech Connect

To predict the performance of the cryogenically cooled silicon crystal, intensive studies have been carried out to sort out the influences of various parameters, such as heat load power and power distribution, cooling coefficient, and beam size. The thermal slope error of the crystal is calculated by finite element modeling. Quadratic law was applied to calculate the rocking-curve width. Heat load tests were also performed with a channel-cut silicon monochromator on beamline ID09 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The silicon crystal is indirectly cooled from the sides by liquid nitrogen. Measured rocking-curve widths are compared with those calculated by finite element modeling. When we include the broadening from the intrinsic rocking-curve width and mounting strain, the calculated rocking-curve width versus heat load is in excellent agreement with experiment.

Zhang Lin; Wulff, Michael; Eybert, Laurent [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Lee, Wah-Keat [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

246

Floating power optimization studies for the cooling system of a geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The floating power concept was studied for a geothermal power plant as a method of increasing the plant efficiency and decreasing the cost of geothermal power. The stored cooling concept was studied as a method of reducing the power fluctuations of the floating power concept. The studies include parametric and optimization studies for a variety of different types of cooling systems including wet and dry cooling towers, direct and indirect cooling systems, forced and natural draft cooling towers, and cooling ponds. The studies use an indirect forced draft wet cooling tower cooling system as a base case design for comparison purposes.

Shaffer, C.J.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Vapor cooled lead and stacks thermal performance and design analysis by finite difference techniques  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of the combined thermal performance of the stacks and vapor-cooled leads for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) demonstrates considerable interdependency. For instance, the heat transfer to the vapor-cooled lead (VCL) from warm bus heaters, environmental enclosure, and stack is a significant additional heat load to the joule heating in the leads, proportionately higher for the lower current leads that have fewer current-carrying, counter flow coolant copper tubes. Consequently, the specific coolant flow (G/sec-kA-lead pair) increases as the lead current decreases. The definition of this interdependency and the definition of necessary thermal management has required an integrated thermal model for the entire stack/VCL assemblies. Computer simulations based on finite difference thermal analyses computed all the heat interchanges of the six different stack/VCL configurations. These computer simulations verified that the heat load of the stacks beneficially alters the lead temperature profile to provide added stability against thermal runaway. Significant energy is transferred through low density foam filler in the stack from warm ambient sources to the vapor-cooled leads.

Peck, S.D.; O' Loughlin, J.M.; Christensen, E.H.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Cool Storage Economic Feasibility Analysis for a Large Industrial Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analysis of economic feasibility for adding a cool storage facility to shift electric demand to off-peak hours for a large industrial facility is presented. DOE-2 is used to generate the necessary cooling load profiles for the analysis. The aggregation of building information for predicting central plant behavior at the site is discussed. The dollar benefits and costs for the project are favorable, providing a payback in the neighborhood of 4 to 5 years.

Fazzolari, R.; Mascorro, J. A.; Ballard, R. H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.

Rolland P. Johnson; Mohammad Alsharo'a; Charles Ankenbrandt; Emanuela Barzi; Kevin Beard; S. Alex Bogacz; Yaroslav Derbenev; Licia Del Frate; Ivan Gonin; Pierrick M. Hanlet; Robert Hartline; Daniel M. Kaplan; Moyses Kuchnir; Alfred Moretti; David Neuffer; Kevin Paul; Milorad Popovic; Thomas J. Roberts; Gennady Romanov; Daniele Turrioni; Victor Yarba; and Katsuya Yonehara

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Optimizing the Low Temperature Cooling Energy Supply: Experimental Performance of an Absorption Chiller, a Compression Refrigeration Machine and Direct Cooling - a Comparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A strategy to optimize the low temperature cooling energy supply of a newly build office building is discussed against the background of a changing energy system. It is focused on, what production way - Direct Cooling, the Compression Refrigeration Machine or the Absorption Chiller provided with heat from Combined Heat and Power Plants - has the lowest primary energy consumption at what load level. For low levels this is direct cooling. If demand exceeds the capacity of direct cooling, the absorption chiller is the option to choose. However, in future the compression refrigeration machine is more efficient at providing high load levels than the Absorption Chiller. The operation analysis shows that flow rates are often held constant and the re-cooling temperatures are often above the ambient temperature. By the integration of automatic flow rate control and lowering the re-cooling temperature of the chillers, electricity consumption of pumps can be reduced and energy efficiency enhanced.

Uhrhan, S.; Gerber, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Cooling Evolution of Hybrid Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cooling of compact isolated objects for different values of the gravitational mass has been simulated for two alternative assumptions. One is that the interior of the star is purely hadronic and second that the star can have a rather large quark core. It has been shown that within a nonlocal chiral quark model the critical density for a phase transition to color superconducting quark matter under neutron star conditions can be low enough for these phases to occur in compact star configurations with masses below 1.3 M_sun. For a realistic choice of parameters the equation of state (EoS) allows for 2SC quark matter with a large quark gap ~ 100 MeV for u and d quarks of two colors that coexists with normal quark matter within a mixed phase in the hybrid star interior. We argue that, if in the hadronic phase the neutron pairing gap in 3P_2 channel is larger than few keV and the phases with unpaired quarks are allowed, the corresponding hybrid stars would cool too fast. Even in the case of the essentially suppressed 3P_2 neutron gap if free quarks occur for M cooling data existing by today. It is suggested to discuss a "2SC+X" phase, as a possibility to have all quarks paired in two-flavor quark matter under neutron star constraints, where the X-gap is of the order of 10 keV - 1 MeV. Density independent gaps do not allow to fit the cooling data. Only the presence of an X-gap that decreases with increase of the density could allow to appropriately fit the data in a similar compact star mass interval to that following from a purely hadronic model.

H. Grigorian

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

252

The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, a fixed cooling concept is used in the design of evaporative heat rejection systems for process and power plants. In the fixed cooling mode, a plant is designed for maximum output at the design summer wet bulb temperature. The application of a floating cooling concept to evaporative heat rejection systems can have significant impact on improving plant performance. The floating cooling concept refers to the optimization of yearly plant output and energy consumption by taking advantage of seasonal wet bulb temperature fluctuations. The maximum plant output occurs at the average winter wet bulb temperature. Floating cooling is especially suited to base load power plants located in regions with large daily and seasonal wet bulb temperature variations. An example for a geothermal power plant is included in this paper.

Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to reduce operating costs, the IBM site at Kingston, New York incorporated the energy saving concept of 'free cooling' (direct cooling of chilled water with condenser water) with the expansion of the site chilled water system. Free cooling was employed to satisfy the winter chilled water load of approximately 3000 tons resulting in electrical savings of up to 70% in the winter with wet bulb temperatures below 38 oF. Other energy efficient features included variable speed pumping, high efficiency motors and chillers with reduced entering condenser water limits. This paper will describe the various possible operating modes and their associated savings using computer simulation techniques.

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Solar Energy to Drive Absorption Cooling Systems Suitable for Small Building Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air conditioning systems have a major impact on energy demand. With fossil fuels fast depleting, it is imperative to look for cooling systems that require less high-grade energy for their operation. In this context, absorption cooling systems have become increasingly popular in recent years from the viewpoints of energy and environment. Two types of the absorption chillers, the single effect and the half-effect systems, can operate using low temperature hot water. This paper presents the simulation results and an overview of the performance of low capacity single stage and half-effect absorption cooling systems, suitable for residential and small building applications. The primary heat source is solar energy supplied from flat plate collectors. The complete systems (solar collectors and absorption cooling system) were simulated using a developed software program. The energy and exergy analysis is carried out for each component of the two systems. When evaporator temperature is maintained constant at 5 C and the condenser temperature is fixed at 28 C, 32 C and 36 C respectively the percentage of the used energy covered by solar collectors and the percentage of auxiliary heating load were calculated versus time of day.

Gomri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Performance of a hotel chilled water plant with cool storage  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive monitoring suite was installed at a large convention hotel located in San Francisco, CA. The instrumentation was used for a research project to evaluate the effectiveness of electricity price based controls that automate response to real time pricing and to characterize the operation and performance of the hotel's chilled water plant that included a newly installed ice cool storage system. The hotel operates under real-time electricity rates. To date, over four years of data have been collected. Data included electricity use for all chillers, secondary coolant, chilled water, condenser pumps, and the cooling tower fans. Thermal flow data were also collected for the storage system, ice chiller, direct cooling chillers, and chilled water load loops. This paper (1) describes the chilled water plant, (2) defines the performance measurement objectives for the project, (3) discusses operational experience with the plant, focusing on the cool storage system, (4) analyzes chilled water plant and cool storage system operation by examining the charge/discharge heat flow data, and (5) evaluates how well the plant as a whole and the cool storage system specifically met cooling loads of the facility, and how this affected their use.

Gillespie, K.L.; Blanc, S.L.; Parker, S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Maryvale Terrace: geothermal residential district space heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary study of the technical and economic feasibility of installing a geothermal district heating and cooling system is analyzed for the Maryvale Terrace residential subdevelopment in Phoenix, Arizona, consisting of 557 residential houses. The design heating load was estimated to be 16.77 million Btu/h and the design cooling load was estimated to be 14.65 million Btu/h. Average annual energy use for the development was estimated to be 5870 million Btu/y and 14,650 million Btu/y for heating and cooling, respectively. Competing fuels are natural gas for heating and electricity for cooling. A geothermal resource is assumed to exist beneath the site at a depth of 6000 feet. Five production wells producing 1000 gpm each of 220/sup 0/F geothermal fluid are required. Total estimated cost for installing the system is $5,079,300. First year system operations cost (including debt service) is $974,361. The average annual geothermal heating and cooling cost per home is estimated to be $1750 as compared to a conventional system annual cost of $1145. Further, the cost of geothermal heating and cooling is estimated to be $47.50 per million Btu when debt service is included and $6.14 per million Btu when only operating costs are included. Operating (or fuel) costs for conventional heating and cooling are estimated to be $15.55 per million Btu.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The Promise of Load Balancing the Parameterization of Moist Convection Using a Model Data Load Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parameterization of physical processes in atmospheric general circulation models contributes to load imbalances among individual processors of message-passing distributed-multiprocessor systems. Load imbalances increase the overall time to ...

S. P. Muszala; D. A. Connors; J. J. Hack; G. Alaghband

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The Temperature Sensitivity of the Residential Load and Commercial Building Load  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a building modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building heating and cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. A building simulation software are first used to quantify the hourly energy consumption of different building types by end-use and by vintage. Then, the temperature sensitivities are derived based on the climate data inputs.

Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Correia, James; Leung, Lai R.; Wong, Pak C.

2009-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

260

Gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing.

Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units are large structures, Illustration 1. Big budget money and engineering time goes into gleaming stainless steel equipment and exotic process apparatus, the poor cooling tower is the ignored orphan of the system. Knowledgeable Engineers, however, are now looking into the function of the cooling tower, which is to produce colder water- and question the quality of water discharged from that simple appearing box. These cross-flow structures are quite large, ranging up to 60 feet tall with as many as 6 or more cells in a row. With cells up to 42 feet long so immense in aspect, with fans rotating, operators assume, just by appearances, that all is well, and usually pay no attention to the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower. The boxes look sturdy, but the function of the cooling tower is repeated ignored production of water as cold as possible.

Burger, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

263

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

264

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

265

Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

268

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Earth Solar Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Cool Earth Solar Name Cool Earth Solar Address 4659 Las Positas Rd, Bldg C Place Livermore, California Zip 94551 Sector Solar Product Electricty from High Concentrating PV Year founded 2007 Number of employees 11-50 Phone number 925.454.8506 Website http://www.coolearthsolar.com/ Coordinates 37.6971629°, -121.7339673° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.6971629,"lon":-121.7339673,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

271

Cool Roof Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roof Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online calculator, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/facts/CoolCalcEnergy.htm Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

272

Cactus pear cauterizer increases shelf life without cooling processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mexico is the world's largest cactus pear producer and aspires to be the world's largest exporter. Export pear quality depends significantly on good cuts during harvest, so a cauterizer was developed to cut and seal 600 fruits per hour. Shelf life of ... Keywords: Cauterization, Energy optimization, RGB maturity analysis, Weight loss

Federico Hahn

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Battery loading device  

SciTech Connect

A battery loading device for loading a power source battery, built in small appliances having a battery loading chamber for selectively loading a number of cylindrical unit batteries or a one body type battery having the same voltage as a number of cylindrical unit batteries, whereby the one body type battery and the battery loading chamber are shaped similarly and asymmetrically in order to prevent the one body type battery from being inserted in the wrong direction.

Phara, T.; Suzuki, M.

1984-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

274

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling (TABS) with a cooling tower providing chilled waterevaporative cooling (cooling tower) for radiant ceiling slabradiant cooling with a cooling tower providing chilled water

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Case Study of Stratified Chilled Water Storage Utilization for Comfort and Process Cooling in a Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The advantages of thermal storage are enhanced in hot and humid climates. Year-round cooling loads increase thermal storage operating cost savings. The absence of a long winter during which major maintenance tasks can be accomplished without compromising system reliability increases the importance of thermal storage as back-up capacity. In an industrial setting, operating cost savings due to thermal storage go directly to the bottom line of a manufacturing process and the avoidance of lost production due to process cooling outages can save millions of dollars per year. This paper presents a case study of chilled water storage use at the campus of a major US electronics manufacturer located in Dallas, TX. An overview of the system and its operation is followed by presentation of operating data taken during 1997.

Bahnfleth, W. P.; Musser, A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

277

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Five solar cooling projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The jointly funded $100 million five-year international agreement (SOLERAS) between Saudi Arabia and the United States was undertaken to promote the development of solar energy technologies of interest to both nations. Five engineering field tests of active solar cooling systems funded under the SOLERAS agreement for installation and operation in the U.S. southwest are described.

Davis, R.E.; Williamson, J.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Cool, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool, Texas: Energy Resources Cool, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 32.8001288°, -98.001153° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.8001288,"lon":-98.001153,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

280

Air-Cooled Condenser Design, Specification, and Operation Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to once-through and evaporative cooling systems, use of the air-cooled condenser (ACC) for heat rejection in steam electric power plants has historically been very limited, especially in the United States. However, greater industry focus on water conservation - combined with continued concern over the environmental effects of once-through and evaporative cooling - will almost certainly increase interest in ACC applications. While operating experience and performance data are, to some extent, ...

2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition: The total load profile obtained from  load individual load types if  load profiles of individual load composition validation: Load profiles generated by the load 

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!

Smith, M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

284

Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

Abreu, Mario E. (Poway, CA); Kielczyk, Janusz J. (Escondido, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Retrofitting Power Plants to Provide District Heating and Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Case studies at five utilities documented consumer and utility benefits of retrofitting fossil steam and combined-cycle plants to provide thermal energy for district heating and cooling (DHC) for nearby loads. This cogeneration strategy helps utilities boost revenues and plant energy utilization efficiencies. It can also revitalize communities by providing inexpensive electricity and thermal energy while reducing emissions.

1997-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

286

The spatial distributions of cooling gas and intrinsic X-ray absorbing material in cooling flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results from a study of the spatial distributions of cooling gas and intrinsic X-ray absorbing material in a sample of nearby, X-ray bright cooling flow clusters observed with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) on ROSAT. Our method of analysis employs X-ray colour profiles, formed from ratios of the surface brightness profiles of the clusters in selected energy bands, and an adapted version of the deprojection code of Fabian et al. (1981). We show that all of the cooling flow clusters in our sample exhibit significant central concentrations of cooling gas. At larger radii the clusters appear approximately isothermal. In detail, the spatial distributions and emissivity of the cooling material are shown to be in excellent agreement with the predictions from the deprojection code, and can be used to constrain the ages of the cooling flows. The X-ray colour profiles also indicate substantial levels of intrinsic X-ray absorption in the clusters. The intrinsic absorption increases with decreasing radius, and is confined to the regions occupied by the cooling flows. We explore a range of likely spatial distributions for the absorbing gas and discuss the complexities

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Experimental investigation of turbine blade platform film cooling and rotational effect on trailing edge internal cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work has been an experimental investigation to evaluate the applicability of gas turbine cooling technology. With the temperature of the mainstream gas entering the turbine elevated above the melting temperature of the metal components, these components must be cooled, so they can withstand prolonged exposure to the mainstream gas. Both external and internal cooling techniques have been studied as a means to increase the life of turbine components. Detailed film cooling effectiveness distributions have been obtained on the turbine blade platform with a variety of cooling configurations. Because the newly developed pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique has proven to be the most suitable technique for measuring the film effectiveness, it was applied to a variety of platform seal configurations and discrete film flows. From the measurements it was shown advanced seals provide more uniform protection through the passage with less potential for ingestion of the hot mainstream gases into the engine cavity. In addition to protecting the outer surface of the turbine components, via film cooling, heat can also be removed from the components internally. Because the turbine blades are rotating within the engine, it is important to consider the effect of rotation on the heat transfer enhancement within the airfoil cooling channels. Through this experimental investigation, the heat transfer enhancement has been measured in narrow, rectangular channels with various turbulators. The present experimental investigation has shown the turbulators, coupled with the rotation induced Coriolis and buoyancy forces, result in non-uniform levels of heat transfer enhancement in the cooling channels. Advanced turbulator configurations can be used to provide increased heat transfer enhancement. Although these designs result in increased frictional losses, the benefit of the heat transfer enhancement outweighs the frictional losses.

Wright, Lesley Mae

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary ...

Peter Tikuisis; Randall J. Osczevski

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Petroleum and Minerals. Solar cooling system. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides details of the proposed solar cooling laboratory, including descriptions of the building and design conditions; the collector/storage subsystem; the Rankine cycle engine subsystem; instrumentation and data acquisition; and an implementation plan. Appendices of relevant data including computer programs for building load and engine system calculations and descriptions of equipment are included.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: QwickLoad  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

QwickLoad QwickLoad QwickLoad logo QwickLoad uses the ASHRAE TFM (Transfer Function Method) algorithms combined with a screen interface that provides building load calculations. It includes a Duct Sizing Program and supports IP and SI units. QwickLoad Residential 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 10 zones. QwickLoad Commercial 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 500 zones. Zones and plenums can be added or deleted with one button click. Intuitive screens for entering building information. Default is automatically displayed. Construction types for roofs, walls, partitions, windows, shade types, and scheduling control. Complete air-conditioning and heating system control and supply, return, heating and cooling duct static pressure specification. Energy recovery ventilator can

291

HEPTAFLUOROPROPANE WITH WATER SPRAY COOLING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEPTAFLUOROPROPANE WITH WATER SPRAY COOLING SYSTEM AS A TOTAL ... and evaluation studies on active and passive fire protection ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

292

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

SCINTILLATION DETECTOR COOLING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A well logging apparatus for irradiating earth formations with neutrons and recording the gamma rays emitted therefrom is designed which hss a scintillation decay time of less than 3 x 10/sup -8/ sec and hence may be used with more intense neutron sources. The scintillation crystal is an unactivated NaI crystal maintained at liquid N/sub 2/ temperature. The apparatus with the cooling system is described in detail. (D.L.C.)

George, W.D.; Jones, S.B.; Yule, H.P.

1962-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cooling your home naturally  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Proceedings: Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affect availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Twenty-two papers presented at the 1997 Cooling Tower Technology Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

297

Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware  

SciTech Connect

Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art chemistry programs help to ensure the continued operation of open cooling water systems while mitigating corrosion and fouling mechanisms. This document, Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline, prepared by a committee of industry experts, reflects field and laboratory data on corrosion and fouling issues of open cooling systems.BackgroundService Water System Chemical Addition Guideline (Electric Power Research Institute ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

299

Temperature and cooling management in computing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

72 5.1.2 Memory thermal and cooling model . . . . . . . . 75Energy, Thermal and Cooling Management . . . . . . . .Conclusion . . Chapter 4 Thermal and Cooling Management in

Ayoub, Raid

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Guide to Minimizing Compress-based Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling (direct or indirect), or various liquid cooled solutions. In addition to weather data, the Green Grid organization has developed a free cooling map tool to aid in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A Microcomputer Model of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy use characteristics of evaporative cooling towers are of interest because, although such towers are widely used in industry, they do require a substantial amount of energy. Evaporative cooling towers are basically large heat exchangers that use both sensible heat transfer and mass transfer to cool. The heat and mass transfer process for a crossflow cooling tower has been modeled on an Apple II microcomputer. Various heat loads or weather conditions can be imposed on a given tower to evaluate its response; moreover, a subprogram can evaluate pressure drop and motor/fan characteristics. Determination of the energy required to operate the tower enables its performance to be compared against energy-saving operations such as variable speed drive or changes in fill height or type.

Reichelt, G. E; Jones, J. W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Heat pipe turbine vane cooling  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Discharge circuits and loads  

SciTech Connect

This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

Sarjeant, W.J.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: CL4M Commercial Cooling and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CL4M Commercial Cooling and Heating Loads CL4M Commercial Cooling and Heating Loads Uses ASHRAE methods and algorithms to calculate cooling loads, heating loads and air requirements for each space, and coil specifications, for commercial buildings. CLTD's, SHGF's, CLF's and almost all other factors in the ASHRAE load calculations for each surface and space are calculated and displayed for the engineer's inspection. Latitude and longitude of building location may be specified to the degree, altitude to the foot, and calculations are made for any range of days of the year, and range of hours desired. Building may be rotated or reflected and construction types easily changed for studies. &nsbsp; Handles variations in sky clarity, ground reflectivity, building shading, humidity and altitude. Almost unlimited flexibility in wall, roof and glass

305

Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

Elpern, David G. (Los Angeles, CA); McCabe, Niall (Torrance, CA); Gee, Mark (South Pasadena, CA)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

306

Effect of Cooling Rate From Solution Treatment on Precipitation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

of practical large size forging, such as furnace cooling, air cooling, oil quench and water quench. .... of y (3 y 'I and y '- y ” co-precipitates is agreed well with the TTH diagram. The “on .... groups, because of either the increase of total amount of.

307

Optimized core design of a supercritical carbon dioxide-cooled fast reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spurred by the renewed interest in nuclear power, Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFRs) have received increasing attention in the past decade. Motivated by the goals of the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF), a GFR cooled ...

Handwerk, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanley), 1974-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the applicability of alternative systems for electric vehicle (EV) heating and air conditioning (HVAC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. These systems are ranked according to their overall weight The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best, because minimum vehicle weight decreases the energy required for propulsion, and therefore increases the vehicle range. Three systems are considered as the best choices for EV HVAC. These are, vapor compression, ice storage and adsorption systems. These systems are evaluated, including calculations of system weight, system volume, and COP. The paper also includes a calculation on how the battery energy storage capacity affects the overall system weights and the selection of the optimum system. The results indicate that, at the conditions analyzed in this paper, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor compression air conditioners become the system with the minimum weight for battery storage capacities above 230 kJ/kg.

Aceves, S.M.; Comfort, W.J. III

1994-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

309

Guide to efficient unitary cooling equipment  

SciTech Connect

The universe of unitary cooling equipment is a large one; these systems are used in nearly forty percent of the residential and commercial buildings in the United States. Unitary cooling equipment is made up of off-the-shelf units: factory-assembled single or split systems, including air-source heat pumps and air conditioners. The efficiency of this class of cooling equipment has increased steadily in recent years, driven primarily by government standards. Although most of the units have efficiencies near the minimum federal standards, a significant number of models beat the standards by 10 to 30 percent. However, the larger the system, the narrower the range of efficiencies available and the fewer models available in the most efficient categories. For the buyer and the utility, this report reveals where to get efficiency information on current products, and a recommended purchasing process. It also examines the ratings, standards, and programs that can expand the number of high-efficiency models available.

Gregerson, J.; George, K.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Gas cooling for large commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Energy costs typically account for 10% to 20% of the operating costs for commercial buildings. These costs have continued to rise over the past several years notwithstanding the implementation of energy conservation programs. Increasing electric demand charges have been a major cause of the problem, and as capital-intensive nuclear and coal plants under construction are rolled into the rate base, these demand penalties are likely to become more severe. Electric cooling is the major contributor to seasonal and daily electric peaks. The use of natural gas for cooling can provide relief from high peak period electric prices either directly through absorption systems and engine-driven chillers or indirectly via cogeneration and recovered heat-driven absorption cooling. Although a window of opportunity exists for gas cooling in some parts of the country today, technological advancement and cost reduction are required in order for gas cooling to realize widespread applicability. The Gas Research Institute has implemented a comprehensive development program in cooperation with industry to evolve engine-driven chiller systems in the 100-ton and larger size range with gas coefficients of performance of 2.4, first-cost premiums of less than $100/ton, and service intervals of 4000 hours. Maintenance records of several engine-driven systems installed in the early 1970's were studied. System reliability was found to be in-line with HVAC market requirements.

Davidson, K.; Brattin, H.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Recovery Act: Federspiel Controls (now Vigilent) and State of California Department of General Services Data Center Energy Efficient Cooling Control Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Eight State of California data centers were equipped with an intelligent energy management system to evaluate the effectiveness, energy savings, dollar savings and benefits that arise when powerful artificial intelligence-based technology measures, monitors and actively controls cooling operations. Control software, wireless sensors and mesh networks were used at all sites. Most sites used variable frequency drives as well. The system dynamically adjusts temperature and airflow on the fly by analyzing real-time demands, thermal behavior and historical data collected on site. Taking into account the chaotic interrelationships of hundreds to thousands of variables in a data center, the system optimizes the temperature distribution across a facility while also intelligently balancing loads, outputs, and airflow. The overall project will provide a reduction in energy consumption of more than 2.3 million kWh each year, which translates to $240,000 saved and a reduction of 1.58 million pounds of carbon emissions. Across all sites, the cooling energy consumption was reduced by 41%. The average reduction in energy savings across all the sites that use VFDs is higher at 58%. Before this case study, all eight data centers ran the cooling fans at 100% capacity all of the time. Because of the new technology, cooling fans run at the optimum fan speed maintaining stable air equilibrium while also expending the least amount of electricity. With lower fan speeds, the life of the capital investment made on cooling equipment improves, and the cooling capacity of the data center increases. This case study depicts a rare technological feat: The same process and technology worked cost effectively in eight very different environments. The results show that savings were achieved in centers with diverse specifications for the sizes, ages and types of cooling equipment. The percentage of cooling energy reduction ranged from 19% to 78% while keeping temperatures substantially within the limits recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) for data center facilities.

Federspiel, Clifford; Evers, Myah

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

313

Assessment of Industrial-Sector Load Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The load shapes of industrial-sector customers are becoming increasingly important for utility forecasting, marketing, and demand-side management planning and evaluation activities. This report analyzes load shapes for various industry segments and investigates the transfer of these load shapes across service territories. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Funders may download this report at http://my.primen.com/Applications/DE/Community/index.asp .

1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

314

Reservoir compaction loads on casings and liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure drawdown due to production from a reservoir causes compaction of the reservoir formation which induces axial and radial loads on the wellbore. Reservoir compaction loads increase during the production life of a well, and are greater for deviated wells. Presented here are casing and liner loads at initial and final pressure drawdowns for a particular reservoir and at well deviation angles of 0 to 45 degrees.

Wooley, G.R.; Prachner, W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (C...

Wankhede, Mahendra; Goswami, A; Mahajan, S D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled, top entry loop nuclear fission reactors. It comprises: a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant; a passive cooling system; and a secondary passive cooling system.

Boardman, C.E.; Hunsbedt, A.; Hui, M.M.

1992-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

317

Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Cooling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method provide for cooling of a system having an energy source, one or more devices that actively consume energy, and one or more devices that generate heat. The device may include one or more thermoelectric coolers ("TECs") in conductive engagement with at least one of the heat-generating devices, and an energy diverter for diverting at least a portion of the energy from the energy source that is not consumed by the active energy-consuming devices to the TECs.

Mayes, James C. (Sugar Land, TX)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

319

Superconducting magnet cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

Vander Arend, Peter C. (Center Valley, PA); Fowler, William B. (St. Charles, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with four cooling fans of different designs available on thedesign, installation, and use, the performance of cooling fans

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Advanced Cooling Options for Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative power plant cooling systems exist that offer significant opportunity for reducing the amount of water used in power plant cooling. These systems include direct dry cooling using air-cooled condensers, indirect dry cooling using air-cooled heat exchangers paired with water-cooled surface condensers, and a variety of hybrid systems incorporating both dry and wet cooling elements. The water savings afforded by the use of these systems, however, comes at a price in the form of more expensive ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

322

Diversity of intertidal macroalgae increases with nitrogen loading by invertebrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning.M. A. 1994. Biological diversity: the coexistence of speciesand P. B. Rainey. 2000. Diversity peaks at intermediate

Bracken, Matthew E S; Nielsen, K J

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Application of Building Precooling to Reduce Peak Cooling Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A building cooling control strategy was developed and tested for a 1.4 million square foot (130,000 square meter) office building located in Hoffman Estates, IL. The goal of the control strategy was to utilize building thermal mass to limit the peak cooling load for continued building operation in the event of the loss of one of the four central chiller units. The algorithm was first developed and evaluated through simulation and then evaluated through tests on two identical buildings. The east building utilized the existing building control strategy while the west building used the precooling strategy developed for this project. Consistent with simulation predictions, the precooling control strategy successfully limited the peak load to 75 % of the cooling capacity for the west building, while the east building operated at 100 % of capacity. Precooling of the building mass provided an economical alternative to the purchase of an additional chiller unit. The estimated cost of installing an additional chiller was approximately $500,000. Computer models developed for this project also showed that precooling based upon cooling cost minimization could result in savings of approximately $25,000 per month during the peak cooling season. The building model was validated with experimental results and could be used in the development of a cost minimization strategy.

Kevin R. Keeney; James E. Braun, Ph.D.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Emergency core cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Spray Cooling Enhancement of Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dry cooling of power plants may be an attractive alternative to wet cooling, particularly where water conservation and environmental protection pose critical siting issues. However, dry cooling technology may be unable to maintain design plant output during the hottest periods of the year, which are often periods of peak system demand. This study—cosponsored by EPRI, the California Energy Commission, and Crockett Cogeneration Co.—evaluated the use of a low-pressure spray enhancement system to...

2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

326

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a passive cooling system. It is for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors having a pool of liquid metal coolant with the heat generating fissionable fuel core substantially immersed in the pool of liquid metal coolant. The passive cooling system including a combination of spaced apart side-by-side partitions in generally concentric arrangement and providing for intermediate fluid circulation and heat transfer therebetween.

Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

327

Loading a planar RF Paul Trap from a cold Yb? source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we demonstrate a functioning planar radio frequency, three-rod Paul Trap, loaded with Yb+ ions that have been photoionized from a source of neutral atoms, which were cooled in a magneto-optical trap. Planar ...

Shields, Brendan John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Quantifying the effectiveness of load balance algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load balance is critical for performance in large parallel applications. An imbalance on today's fastest supercomputers can force hundreds of thousands of cores to idle, and on future exascale machines this cost will increase by over a factor of a thousand. ... Keywords: framework, load balance, modeling, performance, simulation

Olga Pearce; Todd Gamblin; Bronis R. de Supinski; Martin Schulz; Nancy M. Amato

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

SIMULATING THE COOLING FLOW OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We carry out high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of a cool core cluster, resolving the flow from Mpc scales down to pc scales. We do not (yet) include any active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating, focusing instead on cooling in order to understand how gas reaches the supermassive black hole at the center of the cluster. We find that, as the gas cools, the cluster develops a very flat temperature profile, undergoing a cooling catastrophe only in the central 10-100 pc of the cluster. Outside of this region, the flow is smooth, with no local cooling instabilities, and naturally produces very little low-temperature gas (below a few keV), in agreement with observations. The gas cooling in the center of the cluster rapidly forms a thin accretion disk. The amount of cold gas produced at the very center grows rapidly until a reasonable estimate of the resulting AGN heating rate (assuming even a moderate accretion efficiency) would overwhelm cooling. We argue that this naturally produces a thermostat which links the cooling of gas out to 100 kpc with the cold gas accretion in the central 100 pc, potentially closing the loop between cooling and heating. Isotropic heat conduction does not affect the result significantly, but we show that including the potential well of the brightest cluster galaxy is necessary to obtain the correct result. Also, we found that the outcome is sensitive to resolution, requiring very high mass resolution to correctly reproduce the small transition radius.

Li Yuan; Bryan, Greg L. [Department of Astronomy, Pupin Physics Laboratories, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Evaluation of geothermal cooling systems for Arizona  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Arizona consumes nearly 50 percent more electricity during the peak summer season of May through part of October, due to the high cooling load met by electrical-driven air conditioning units. This study evaluates two geothermal-driven cooling systems that consume less electricity, namely, absorption cooling and heat pumps. Adsorption cooling requires a geothermal resource above 105{sup 0}C (220{sup 0}F) in order to operate at a reasonable efficiency and capacity. Geothermal resources at these temperatures or above are believed existing in the Phoenix and Tucson areas, but at such depths that geothermal-driven absorption systems have high capital investments. Such capital investments are uneconomical when paid out over only five months of operation each year, but become economical when cascaded with other geothermal uses. There may be other regions of the state, where geothermal resources exist at 105{sup 0}C (220{sup 0}F) or higher at much less depth, such as the Casa Grande/Coolidge or Hyder areas, which might be attractive locations for future plants of the high-technology industries. Geothermal assisted heat pumps have been shown in this study to be economical for nearly all areas of Arizona. They are more economical and reliable than air-to-air heat pumps. Such systems in Arizona depend upon a low-temperature geothermal resource in the narrow range of 15.5 to 26.6{sup 0}C (60 to 80{sup 0}F), and are widely available in Arizona. The state has over 3000 known (existing) thermal wells, out of a total of about 30,000 irrigation wells.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Preliminary economic assessment or residential passive solar cooling potential in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In many areas of the continental United States, residential cooling loads are equal to or greater than energy used for residential space heating. Offsetting part of the cooling load could yield considerable dollar savings to the consumer as well as total energy savings. The physical performances of three passive cooling designs are used to estimate the dollar value of first-year fuel savings (excluding heating benefits) and a maximum affordable design cost. The designs include natural ventilation, forced ventilation, and evaoprative cooling concepts. Because economic performance is primarily governed by the level of electricity prices, dollars savings are greatest in regions that show both good physical performance of the cooling design and high electricity prices. Physical and economic performance summaries are presented in mapped form for 220 solar regions within the continental United States.

Kirschner, C.; Mangeng, C.; Yemans, M.; Roach, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

Hammond, J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

High field solenoids for muon cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proposed cooling system for the muon collider will consist of a 200 meter long line of alternating field straight solenoids interspersed with bent solenoids. The muons are cooled in all directions using a 400 mm long section liquid hydrogen at high field. The muons are accelerated in the forward direction by about 900 mm long, 805 MHz RF cavities in a gradient field that goes from 6 T to -6 T in about 300 mm. The high field section in the channel starts out at an induction of about 2 T in the hydrogen. As the muons proceed down the cooling channel, the induction in the liquid hydrogen section increases to inductions as high as 30 T. The diameter of the liquid hydrogen section starts at 750 mm when the induction is 2 T. As the induction in the cooling section goes up, the diameter of the liquid hydrogen section decreases. When the high field induction is 30 T, the diameter of the liquid hydrogen section is about 80 mm. When the high field solenoid induction is below 8.5 T or 9T, niobium titanium coils are proposed for generating .the magnetic field. Above 8.5 T or 9 T to about 20 T, graded niobium tin and niobium titanium coils would be used at temperatures down to 1.8 K. Above 20 T, a graded bybrid magnet system is proposed, where the high field magnet section (above 20 T) is either a conventional water cooled coil section or a water cooled Bitter type coil. Two types of superconducting coils have been studied. They include; epoxy impregnated intrinsically stable coils, and cable in conduit conductor (CICC) coils with helium in the conduit.

Green, M.A.; Eyssa, Y.; Kenny, S.; Miller, J.R.; Prestemon, S.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

336

Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

338

Energy Efficiency of Rack Level Liquid Cooling in Data Centers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

William Tschudi In the past 3 to 5 years computer equipment power in a standard data center IT rack increased to the point where cooling using conventional methods is becoming...

339

Influence of Tropical Tropopause Layer Cooling on Atlantic Hurricane Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Virtually all metrics of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity show substantial increases over the past two decades. It is argued here that cooling near the tropical tropopause and the associated decrease in tropical cyclone outflow temperature ...

Kerry Emanuel; Susan Solomon; Doris Folini; Sean Davis; Chiara Cagnazzo

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Influence of Tropical Tropopause Layer Cooling on Atlantic Hurricane Activity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Virtually all metrics of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity show substantial increases over the past two decades. It is argued here that cooling near the tropical tropopause and the associated decrease in tropical cyclone ...

Solomon, Susan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

H. Chen; L. Hsu; X. Wei

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water become concentrated. The evaporated water is replaced by fresh makeup water. The dissolved solids content of the water is maintained by the rate of water discharge (blowdown). As the amount of dissolved solids increases, their solubility is exceeded and the solids tend to precipitate from the cooling water. The precipitated scale adheres to heat transfer surfaces and reduces heat transfer efficiency. In order to achieve zero discharge of water, it is paramount that the potential for scale formation and deposition be minimized. This can be accomplished through physical separation of scale-forming ions and particulate matter. Two widely used mechanical methods in this category are lime-soda side stream softening and vapor compression blowdown evaporation. Another approach is chemical treatment to promote scale inhibition and dispersion.

Boffardi, B. P.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Beam cooling: Principles and achievements  

SciTech Connect

After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

2003-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

344

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H. (Powell, TN), Wereszczak, Andrew A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN); Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

345

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Published 112011 Conference Location Seattle, WA Call Number LBNL-5128E Abstract Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and...

346

Muon Cooling R&D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International efforts are under way to design and test a muon ionization cooling channel. The present R&D program is described, and future plans outlined.

Steve Geer

2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Influence of Cooling on Distortion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 11   Factors that influence the cooling intensity of liquid quenchants...the vapor pressure is, the more difficult the

348

Theory of Semiconductor Laser Cooling .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order… (more)

Rupper, Greg

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Thermally activated miniaturized cooling system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comprehensive study of a miniaturized thermally activated cooling system was conducted. This study represents the first work to conceptualize, design, fabricate and successfully test… (more)

Determan, Matthew Delos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

1958-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

351

Status of load management storage demonstrations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE is funding a nationwide demonstration of electric load management through the use of utility-controlled, customer-side thermal energy storage for residential space conditioning. The general concept of the projects was developed with the assistance of a broadly based working group drawn from the utility industry. This paper presents the current status of these demonstrations. Ten demonstrations are underway - five heat storage and five cool storage - using between 30 and 50 near-commercial thermal storage devices. The installations and experimental program are designed to: (1) collect reliable load research data for assessing the impact on the utility system; (2) delineate and solve installation problems; (3) establish maintainability; (4) illuminate customer and utility acceptance; and (5) generate cost data. The results obtained are expected to assist utilities in making local load-management decisions, to assist DOE in establishing priorities for R and D efforts in load management, and to provide objective information related to the electric system impact, energy conservation, and cost-effectiveness of this form of load management.

Long, H M; Mohre, D L

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait and other counties of Arabian Peninsula, reduced airflow can lead to reduction in water consumption as well, since during the summer season, the dry bulb temperature of the ambient air is higher than the incoming hot water temperature, and the air undergoes sensible cooling. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted in the Avenues mall, Kuwait. Initially, the CTs operated only at high speed, and on a typical summer day nearly one fourth of the make-up water was used for self cooling of air. The study based on measured data revealed that the use of VFD can reduce the water wastage for self-cooling of air by as much as 75% and overall water consumption by 18.6% while keeping the cooling system performance at design level.

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

"Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative Cooling" Inventors..--.. Lewis Meixler, Charles Gentile, Patricia Hillyer, Dylan Carpe, Jason Wang, Caroline Brooks...

354

Structural load combinations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ or 1.0 x 10/sup -5/ during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Watershed Mercury Loading Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explains and illustrates a simplified stochastic framework, the Watershed Mercury Loading Framework, for organizing and framing site-specific knowledge and information on mercury loading to waterbodies. The framework permits explicit treatment of data uncertainties. This report will be useful to EPRI members, state and federal regulatory agencies, and watershed stakeholders concerned with mercury-related human and ecological health risk.

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

356

load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

357

Load-management decision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities require baseload, intermediate, and peaking plants to meet fluctuating customer demand. These can be supplemented with off-peak generation and storage and load management, which can take the form of direct utility control over interruptible and deferrable customers or customer incentives that require off-peak demand. Utilities should make a careful analysis of their load profile, their generation mix, their ability to shift loads, and customer attitudes before deciding on a load-management program that fits their individual needs. They should also be aware that load management is only a limited resource with a number of uncertainties. Research programs into customer relations, system reliability, communications devices, and special control switches and meters will help to relieve some of the uncertainties. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Gupta, P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Real-Time Forcast Model Analysis of Daily Average Building Load for a Thermal Storage System Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal storage systems were originally designed to shift the on-peak cooling production to off-peak cooling production to reduce the on-peak demand. Based on the current electricity charging structure, the reduction of both on-peak and off-peak demands is becoming an exceedingly important issue. Reduction of both on-peak and off-peak demands can also extend the life span and defer or eliminate the replacement of power transformers due to potential shortage of building power capacity with anticipated equipment load increases. The next day daily average electricity demand is a critical set point to operate chillers and associated pumps at the appropriate time. For this paper, a mathematic analysis was conducted for annual daily average cooling of a building and three real-time building load forecasting models were developed. They are first-order autogressive model, random walk model and linear regression model. Finally, the comparison of results show the random walk model provides the best forecast.

Song, L.; Joo, I. S.; Guwana, S.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Space Heating & Cooling Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research The Emerging Technology team conducts research in space heating and cooling technologies, with a goal of realizing aggregate energy savings of 20% relative to a 2010 baseline. In addition to work involving the development of products, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with industry partners and researchers, develops best practices, tests, and guides designed to reduce market barriers and increase public awareness of these energy saving technologies. Research is currently focusing on: Geothermal Heat Pumps Photo of a home with a geothermal heat pump, showing how it can regulate the temperature of a home using the temperature underground to cool warm air or heat cold air.

360

Desiccant contamination in desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a desiccant contamination experiment and the impact of the obtained silica gel degradation data on the performance of a desiccant cooling system. A test apparatus was used to thermally cycle several desiccant samples and expose them to ambient'' humid air or contaminated'' humid air. The source of contamination was cigarette smoke. The exposed desiccant samples were removed after 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 months of exposure and their moisture capacities were measured. The silica get samples thermally cycled with ambient air showed a 5% to 30% to 70% of their moisture capacity. Using the obtained degradation data in a system, the impact of desiccant degradation on the performance of a desiccant cooling cycle was estimated. Depending on the degree of desiccant degradation, the decrease in thermal coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling capacity of the system was 10% to 35%. It was found that the COP and the cooling capacity of a system after desiccant degradation can be improved by increasing the rotational speed of the dehumidifier. This indicates that a simple engineering solution may exist to alleviate some type of degradations. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Pesaran, A.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Alternative technique for laser cooling with superradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a theoretical scheme for laser cooling of rare-earth-doped solids with optical superradiance (SR), which is the coherent, sharply directed spontaneous emission of photons by a system of laser-excited rare-earth ions in the solid-state host (glass or crystal). We consider an Yb{sup +}-doped ZnF{sub 4}-BaF{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3}-AlF{sub 3}-NaF (ZBLAN) sample pumped at a wavelength 1015 nm, with a rectangular pulsed source with a power of {approx}433 W and a duration of 10 ns. The intensity of the SR is proportional to the square of the number of excited ions. This unique feature of SR permits an increase in the rate of the cooling process in comparison with the traditional laser cooling of the rare-earth-doped solids with anti-Stokes spontaneous incoherent radiation (fluorescence). This scheme overcomes the limitation of using only low phonon energy glasses for laser cooling.

Nemova, Galina [Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada); Kashyap, Raman [Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada); Advanced Photonics Concepts Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, Station Centre-ville, Montreal (Canada)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

365

Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1\\muK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for BEC is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10^5 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a timescale of 100ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Keeping cool in the job  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Describes cooling garments used at nuclear plants to keep workers cooler for longer periods of time, safeguard health, boost efficiency, and elevate morale. Examines 2 cooling concepts tested by EPRI in laboratory and field conditions: using circulating liquids for cooling (represented by 2 commercially available personal cooling systems); and using frozen water for cooling (represented by 2 prototype garments recently developed by EPRI). Explains that pipes and pressure vessels inside nuclear power plants give off significant amounts of waste heat, with temperatures reaching up to 55C (131F)-not very comfortable for maintenance workers who are swathed in radiation protection gear and doing repair work. Finds that the frozen-water concept may considerably extend working time in the power plant. Concludes that the right research can overcome heat, humidity, and close quarters which conspire to make maintenance work in power plants a tough task.

Lihach, N.; O'Brien, J.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Laser system for secondary cooling of {sup 87}Sr atoms  

SciTech Connect

A laser system with a narrow generation line for secondary laser cooling of {sup 87}Sr atoms has been developed and investigated. It is planned to use ultracold {sup 87}Sr atoms loaded in an optical lattice in an optical frequency standard. To this end, a 689-nm semiconductor laser has been stabilised using an external reference ultrastable cavity with vibrational and temperature compensation near the critical point. The lasing spectral width was 80 Hz (averaging time 40 ms), and the frequency drift was at a level of 0.3 Hz s{sup -1}. Comparison of two independent laser systems yielded a minimum Allan deviation: 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} for 300-s averaging. It is shown that this system satisfies all requirements necessary for secondary cooling of 87Sr atoms using the spectrally narrow {sup 1}S{sub 0} - {sup 3}P{sub 1} transition ({lambda} = 689 nm). (cooling of atoms)

Khabarova, K Yu; Slyusarev, S N; Strelkin, S A; Belotelov, G S; Kostin, A S; Pal'chikov, Vitaly G; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

368

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level, clothing and air velocity, the predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD), and cumulative dissatisfaction levels for each month are estimated. Time - air condition contours of ambient, supply air and indoor air are plotted on a psychrometric chart for different cities in India like Ahmadabad, Jodhpur, Nagpur and New Delhi representing different climatic conditions of India. While satisfactorily comfort can be achieved at cool and dry weather conditions by evaporative cooling system throughout the year, some discomfort prevailed for few months around July at hot and dry/humid weather conditions. The results are also quantified in terms of PMV, PPD and their cumulative factors; PMV-hour and PPD-hour.

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Introducing an Online Cooling Tower Performance Analysis Tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers are used extensively for numerous industrial, residential, and commercial applications. Yet despite how common their uses, operators often do not know how to properly evaluate and optimize their performance. This is due to the complex and variable nature of all of the factors that can influence performance; fan speed, wind speed, sump temperature, heat load, ambient temperature, relative humidity, etc. This can be overwhelming for a regular operator resulting in many cooling towers being set to a default operating condition and forgotten. This paper will introduce a web-based cooling tower analysis tool being developed to help users understand and optimize operational efficiency. The calculations, evaluations, and models will be discussed in detail to highlight important design considerations and issues. This will include how the Merkel Theory, psychometric properties, tower types, and historical weather data are incorporated into the analysis.

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.; Rao, P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Empirical Modeling of a Rolling-Piston Compressor Heat Pump for Predictive Control in Low-Lift Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

Gayeski, Nicholas

371

Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil  

SciTech Connect

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Integrated Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Modeling Integrated Modeling NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team predicts the impact of advanced vehicle cooling technologies before testing by using an integrated modeling process. Evaluating the heat load on a vehicle under real world conditions is a difficult task. An accepted method to evaluate passenger compartment airflow and heat transfer is computational fluid dynamics. (CFD). Combining analytical models with CFD provides a powerful tool to assist industry both on current vehicles and on future design studies. Flow chart showing the vehicle integrated modeling process which considers solar radiation, air conditioning, and vehicles with CAD, glazing, cabin thermal/fluid, and thermal comfort modeling tools. Results are provided for fuel economy, tailpipe emissions and occupant thermal comfort.

374

1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Static Heat Loads in the LHC Arc Cryostats: Final Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This note presents the final assessment of the static heat loads in the LHC arc cryostats, using different experimental methods during the first commissioning period in 2007. This assessment further develops and completes previous estimates made during the commissioning of sector 7_8 [1]. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the internal energy balance during natural as well as powered warm-ups of the helium baths in different subsector. The helium inventory is calculated from the internal energy balance during powered warm-ups and matched with previous assessments. Furthermore, heat loads to the thermal shield are estimated from the non-isothermal cooling of the supercritical helium in line E. The comparison of measured heat loads with previous estimates and with budgeted values is then presented, while their correlation with some important parameters like insulation vacuum pressure and some heat ...

Parma, V

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: TRACE Load 700  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Load 700 Load 700 TRACE Load 700 logo. Use TRACE Load 700 software - the building and load design modules of TRACE 700, Trane Air Conditioning Economics - to evaluate the effect of building orientation, size, shape, and mass based on hourly weather data and the resulting heat-transfer characteristics of air and moisture. To assure calculation integrity, the program uses algorithms recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Choose from eight different ASHRAE cooling and heating methodologies, including the Exact Transfer Function. The program encourages "what if" analyses, allowing the user to enter construction details in any order and then easily change the resulting building model as the design progresses. Multiple project views and "drag-and-drop"

378

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

379

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

380

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

OpenEI - load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

382

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Title Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Ho, Tony, Samuel S. Mao, and Ralph Greif Journal International Journal of Energy Research Volume 34 Start Page 1257 Issue 14 Pagination 1257-1271 Date Published 11/2010 Keywords high-concentrator photovoltaic efficiency, two-phase flow cooling applications Abstract The potential of increasing high-concentrator photovoltaic cell efficiency by cooling with two-phase flow is analyzed. The governing energy equations were used to predict cell temperature distributions and cell efficiencies for a photovoltaic cell under 100 suns' concentration. Several design conditions were taken into consideration in the analysis, including cooling channel height, working fluid type (between water and R134a), working fluid inlet temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate. It was observed that the dominant parameter for increasing cell efficiency was the working fluid saturation temperature, which itself is affected by a number of the aforementioned design parameters. The results show R134a at low inlet pressures to be highly effective in this two-phase cooling design.

383

Pot Gas Cooling Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... has been enormously increased by the suppliers of pot gas treatment plants, ... and Capillary Instabilities in Carbon-anode using Lattice Boltzmann Method.

384

Solar heating/cooling and domestic hot-water systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing awareness of global warming forces policy makers and industries to face two challenges: reducing greenhouse gas emissions and securing stable energy supply against ever-increasing world energy consumption, which is projected to increase by ... Keywords: buildings heating, domestic hot-water, energetical analysis, renewable energy sources, solar cooling technologies, solar energy collection, solar thermal systems

Ioan Sârbu; Marius Adam

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Predictive pre-cooling control for low lift radiant cooling using building thermal mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low lift cooling systems (LLCS) hold the potential for significant energy savings relative to conventional cooling systems. An LLCS is a cooling system which leverages existing HVAC technologies to provide low energy cooling ...

Gayeski, Nicholas (Nicholas Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Composite Load Model Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

387

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

388

Systems simulation and economic analysis for active solar cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A consistent methodology has been developed by which general solar cooling market capture goals have been translated into specific cost and performance goals for solar cooling systems and subsystems. Preliminary results indicate that realistic cost/performance goals can be established for active solar cooling systems and that, with aggressive development, these goals can be reached by the year 2000. As the technology develops, tax incentives will be required to bridge the gap between the actual costs and the cost goals, so that the scenario of an ever increasing share of market penetration can be maintained over the 1986 to 2000 time period.

Warren, M.; Wahlig, M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

building load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

390

electric load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

391

commercial load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

392

residential load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

393

Combi Systems for Low Load homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

text styles text styles Combi Systems for Low Load Homes Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer * Low load homes are more common than ever. * Typical space heating and DHW equipment have capacities larger than necessary * A single heating plant could provide high efficiency heat at lower costs, increased durability and improved combustion safety Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System specifications, sizing, and installation optimization guidelines were all developed. * Contractor capability was developed in MN market, but may not be developed in all local. 4 Recommended Guidance * Determine peak load on system: - Space heating design load (ie 40,000 Btu/hr)

394

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiant cooling is credited with improving energy efficiency and enhancing the comfort level as an alternative method of space cooling in mild and dry climates, according to recent research. Since radiant cooling panels lack the capability to remove latent heat, they normally are used in conjunction with an independent ventilation system, which is capable of decoupling the space sensible and latent loads. Condensation concerns limit the application of radiant cooling. This paper studies the dehumidification processes of solid desiccant systems and investigates the factors that affect the humidity levels of a radiantly cooled space. Hourly indoor humidity is simulated at eight different operating conditions in a radiantly cooled test-bed office. The simulation results show that infiltration and ventilation flow rates are the main factors affecting indoor humidity level and energy consumption in a radiantly cooled space with relatively constant occupancy. It is found that condensation is hard to control in a leaky office operated with the required ventilation rate. Slightly pressurizing the space is recommended for radiant cooling. The energy consumption simulation shows that a passive desiccant wheel can recover about 50% of the ventilation load.

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Use of an Electron Beam for Stochastic Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave instability of an electron beam can be used for a multiple increase in the collective response for the perturbation caused by a particle of a co-moving ion beam, i.e. for enhancement of friction force in electron cooling method. The low scale (hundreds GHz and higher frequency range) space charge or FEL type instabilities can be produced (depending on conditions) by introducing an alternating magnetic fields along the electron beam path. Beams’ optics and noise conditioning for obtaining a maximal cooling effect and related limitations will be discussed. The method promises to increase by a few orders of magnitude the cooling rate for heavy particle beams with a large emittance for a wide energy range with respect to either electron and conventional stochastic cooling.

Yaroslave Derbenev

2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

396

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

l U CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING* M.Wahlig,be capable of operating solar heating and cooling systemsand now transferred to ERDA, on solar heating and cooling of

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade  

SciTech Connect

A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

398

MUCOOL: Ionization Cooling R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory MUCOOL Muon Ionization Cooling R&D Welcome to the muon ionization cooling experimental R&D page. The MuCool collaboration has been formed to pursue the development of a...

399

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between the cooling effect (measured with a thermal manikin)output is the body cooling effect [5]. Thermal manikins withThermal manikins can be used to measure the fan cooling

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the cooling effect measured with the thermal manikin andThe mea- sured cooling effect with the thermal manikin isby a thermal manikin to quantify the cooling effects of air

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Distribution substation load impacts of residential air conditioner load control  

SciTech Connect

An ongoing experiment to monitor the substation level load impacts of end-use load control is described. An overview of the data acquisition system, experimental procedures and analysis techniques are provided. Results of the 1983 and 1984 experiments demonstrate the value of aggregate load impact monitoring as a means of verifying load research results, calculating the diversity of end-use loads, and predicting the impacts of load management on the transmission and distribution systems.

Heffner, G.C.; Kaufman, D.A.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

Winters, P.J.

1991-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

403

Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Akbari, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

Parametric Study of Gas Turbine Film-Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, the film-cooling effectiveness in different regions of gas turbine blades was investigated with various film hole/slot configurations and mainstream flow conditions. The study consisted of three parts: 1) turbine blade span film-cooling, 2) turbine platform film-cooling, and 3) blade tip film-cooling. Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique was used to get the conduction-free film-cooling effectiveness distribution. Film-cooling effectiveness is assessed in terms of cooling hole geometry, blowing ratio, freestream turbulence, and coolant-to-mainstream density ratio. Blade span film-cooling test shows that the compound angle shaped holes offer better film effectiveness than the axial shaped holes. Greater coolant-to-mainstream density ratio prevents coolant to lift-off. Higher freestream turbulence causes effectiveness to drop everywhere except in the region downstream of suction side. Results are also correlated with momentum flux, compound shaped hole has the greatest optimum momentum flux ratio, and then followed by axial shaped hole, compound cylindrical hole, and axial cylindrical hole. For platform purge flow cooling, the stator-rotor gap was simulated by a typical labyrinth-like seal. Two different film-cooling hole geometries, three blowing ratios and density ratios, and two freestream turbulence are examined. Results showed that the shaped holes present higher film-cooling effectiveness and wider film coverage than the cylindrical holes, particularly at higher blowing ratios. Moreover, the platform film-cooling effectiveness increases with density ratio but decreases with turbulence intensity. The blade tip study was performed in a blow-down flow loop. Results show that a blowing ratio of 2.0 is found to give best results on the tip floor. Lift-off of the coolant jet can be observed for the holes closer to the leading edge as blowing ratio increases from 1.5 to 2.0. A stator vane suction side heat transfer study was conducted in a partial annular cascade. The heat transfer coefficients were measured by using the transient liquid crystal technique. At X/L=0.15, a low heat transfer region where transition occurs. The heat transfer coefficients increase toward the trailing edge as flow accelerates; a spanwise variation can be found at neat tip and hub portions due to passage and horseshoe vortices.

Liu, Kevin

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Cooling Water Intake Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The types of cooling water systems to be evaluated are: Wet Cooling Tower - The condenser is cooled with water recirculated to a mechanical draft cooling tower. Because there...

407

Thermally Activated Cooling: A Regional Approach for Estimating Building Adoption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed Generation, Absorption Cooling, Space Cooling,use heat to drive an absorption cooling cycle, and the heatlargest drivers for absorption cooling technology adoption

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Cool roofs could save money, save planet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool roofs could save money, save planet Title Cool roofs could save money, save planet Publication Type Broadcast Year of Publication 2009 Authors Akbari, Hashem, and Arthur H....

409

Temperature and cooling management in computing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

78 5.2 Combined Energy, Thermal and CoolingOne reason for thermal and energy variations betweenWe propose a combined energy, thermal and cooling management

Ayoub, Raid

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Vehicle Cooling Systems - Energy Innovation Portal  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and ... The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a ...

411

Cooling Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Power Plant Cooling Technologies Cooling Technologies Cooling tower at Steamboat Springs geothermal power plant in Steamboat Springs, NV. Power generation facilities that rely on thermal sources as their energy inputs such as Coal, Natural Gas, Geothermal, Concentrates Solar Power, and Nuclear require cooling technologies to reject the heat that is created. The second law of thermodynamics states: "No process can convert heat absorbed from a reservoir at one temperature directly into work without also rejecting heat to a cooler reservoir. That is, no heat engine is 100% efficient"[1] In the context of power generation from thermal energy, this means that any heat that is created must be rejected. Heat is most commonly rejected in

412

Convective Cooling of Lightning Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report experimental data which trace the time development of electric discharge channels in air and which demonstrate the turbulent cooling of such channels. These data provide qualitative confirmation of the model proposed and used by Hill, ...

J. M. Picone; J. P. Boris; J. R. Greig; M. Raleigh; R. F. Fernsler

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Multi-Photon Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... used traditional cooling beams at 852 nm in the x-y plane, but replaced the usual two beams along z with lasers at 795 nm. This laser only couples ...

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

414

Advance in MEIC cooling studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Energy Savers: Cool Summer Tips  

SciTech Connect

A tri-fold brochure addressing energy-saving tips for homeowners ranging from low- or no-cost suggestions to higher cost suggestions for longer-term savings. Cooling, windows, weatherizing, and landscaping are addressed.

Miller, M.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

416

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and...

417

Absorption Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial...

418

Advanced Refrigerant-Based Cooling Technologies for Information and Communication Infrastructure (ARCTIC)  

SciTech Connect

Faster, more powerful and dense computing hardware generates significant heat and imposes considerable data center cooling requirements. Traditional computer room air conditioning (CRAC) cooling methods are proving increasingly cost-ineffective and inefficient. Studies show that using the volume of room air as a heat exchange medium is wasteful and allows for substantial mixing of hot and cold air. Further, it limits cabinet/frame/rack density because it cannot effectively cool high heat density equipment that is spaced closely together. A more cost-effective, efficient solution for maximizing heat transfer and enabling higher heat density equipment frames can be accomplished by utilizing properly positioned �¢����phase change�¢��� or �¢����two-phase�¢��� pumped refrigerant cooling methods. Pumping low pressure, oil-free phase changing refrigerant through microchannel heat exchangers can provide up to 90% less energy consumption for the primary cooling loop within the room. The primary benefits of such a solution include reduced energy requirements, optimized utilization of data center space, and lower OPEX and CAPEX. Alcatel-Lucent recently developed a modular cooling technology based on a pumped two-phase refrigerant that removes heat directly at the shelf level of equipment racks. The key elements that comprise the modular cooling technology consist of the following. A pump delivers liquid refrigerant to finned microchannel heat exchangers mounted on the back of equipment racks. Fans drive air through the equipment shelf, where the air gains heat dissipated by the electronic components therein. Prior to exiting the rack, the heated air passes through the heat exchangers, where it is cooled back down to the temperature level of the air entering the frame by vaporization of the refrigerant, which is subsequently returned to a condenser where it is liquefied and recirculated by the pump. All the cooling air enters and leaves the shelves/racks at nominally the same temperature. Results of a 100 kW prototype data center installation of the refrigerant-based modular cooling technology were dramatic in terms of energy efficiency and the ability to cool high-heat-density equipment. The prototype data center installation consisted of 10 racks each loaded with 10 kW of high-heat-density IT equipment with the racks arranged in a standard hot-aisle/cold-aisle configuration with standard cabinet spacing. A typical chilled-water CRAC unit would require approximately 16 kW to cool such a heat load. In contrast, the refrigerant-based modular cooling technology required only 2.3 kW of power for the refrigerant pump and shelf-level fans, a reduction of 85 percent. Differences in hot-aisle and cold-aisle temperature were also substantially reduced, mitigating many issues that arise in purely air-based cooling systems, such as mixing of hot and cold air streams, or from placing high-heat-density equipment in close proximity. The technology is also such that it is able to retro-fit live equipment without service interruption, which is particularly important to the large installed ICT customer base, thereby providing a means of mitigating reliability and performance concerns during the installation, training and validation phases of product integration. Moreover, the refrigerant used in our approach, R134a, is a widely-used, non-toxic dielectric liquid which, unlike water, is non-conducting and non-corrosive and will not damage electronics in the case of a leak�¢����a triple-play win over alternative water-based liquid coolant technologies. Finally, through use of a pumped refrigerant, pressures are modest (~60 psi), and toxic lubricants and oils are not required, in contrast to compressorized refrigerant systems�¢����another environmental win. Project Activities - The ARCTIC project goal was to further develop an

Todd Salamon

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

419

Cross-cooled dehumidifier model test results and computer simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research on the development of a solar operated cross-cooled desiccant cooling system is described. A 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm (6'' x 6'' x 6'') cross-cooled silica gel desiccant dehumidifier model was designed, built and tested. The process of producing the silica gel sheets, the design and construction of the unit, the test setup and the test procedures are described in detail. A total of twenty tests were performed to determine the effect of inlet process stream dew point, process stream and cooling stream flowrates and regeneration stream temperature and dew point, on the performance of the unit. The test results show that the unit performance improves with increasing regeneration temperature, process stream flowrate and process air inlet dew point. The unit performance decreases with increase of the regeneration stream dew point. The results clearly show that the process stream inlet dew point is the dominating factor and that the concept of cross-cooling works very well. With moderate cross-cooling, the unit performance can increase over 50%. All tests were simulated by a computer program. The experimental and theoretical results are in very good agreement.

Mei, V.; Lavan, Z.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Modeled and measured effects of compressor downsizing in an existing air conditioner/heat pump in the cooling mode  

SciTech Connect

It is not uncommon to find oversized central air conditioners in residences. HVAC contractors sometimes oversize central air conditioners for one reason or another--some to the point that they may be 100% larger than needed to meet the load. Retrofit measures done to improve house envelope and distribution system efficiency also contribute to HVAC oversizing, as they reduce house heating and cooling loads. Proper sizing of an air conditioner or heat pump allows more efficient operation and provides a more comfortable environment than a highly oversized unit. Another factor that lowers operating efficiency is an improper refrigerant charge. Field inspections have revealed that about half of the units checked were not properly charged. An option available to homeowners with oversized air conditioners is to replace the existing compressor with a smaller, more efficient compressor, rather than purchasing a new, smaller unit. Such a retrofit may be economically justified, especially during a compressor failure, provided the oversizing of the existing unit is not too great. A used, 15-year old, single-package heat pump with a capillary tube expansion device on the indoor coil was purchased and tested in a set of environmental chambers to determine its cooling performance at various conditions. The system was also modeled to estimate its existing performance, and that with two different types of retrofitted state-of-the-art (SOA) efficient compressors with about 30% less capacity than the original compressor. This reduced the overall system cooling capacity by about 25%. Modeling estimated that the retrofit would increase system EER at 95 F by 30%, SEER by 34%, and reduce power demand by 39% compared to the existing unit. Reduced cycling losses account for the higher increase in SEER.

Levins, W.P.; Rice, C.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water returning from the cooling tower, greater chemical product volume can be condensed and less energy is required to run compressors. This paper will discuss two case histories and the rapid cost-effective savings thereby accruing through retrofit.

Burger, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Quantum limit of photothermal cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

De Liberato, Simone; Nori, Franco

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Heat transfer issues in high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray beams  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a short description of the synchrotron radiation x-ray sources and the associated power loads is given, followed by a brief description of typical synchrotron components and their heat load. It is emphasized that the design goals for most of these components is to limit (a) temperature, (b) stresses, or (c) strains in the system. Each design calls for a different geometry, material selection, and cooling scheme. Cooling schemes that have been utilized so far are primarily single phase and include simple macrochannel cooling, microchannel cooling, contact cooling, pin-post cooling, porous-flow cooling, jet cooling, etc. Water, liquid metals, and various cryogenic coolants have been used. Because the trend in x-ray beam development is towards brighter (i.e., more powerful) beams and assuming that no radical changes in the design of x-ray generating machines occurs in the next few years, it is fair to state that the utilization of various effective cooling schemes and, in particular, two-phase flow (e.g., subcooled boiling) warrants further investigation. This, however, requires a thorough examination of stability and reliability of two-phase flows for high-heat-flux components operating in ultrahigh vacuum with stringent reliability requirements.

Khounsary, A.M.; Mills, D.M.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

426

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

427

Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Geothermal district heating and cooling system for the city of Calistoga, California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Calistoga has long been known for having moderate (270/sup 0/F maximum) hydrothermal deposits. The economic feasibility of a geothermal heating and cooling district for a portion of the downtown commercial area and city-owned building was studied. Descriptions of existing and proposed systems for each building in the block are presented. Heating and cooling loads for each building, retrofit costs, detailed cost estimates, system schematics, and energy consumption data for each building are included. (MHR)

Frederick, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

CALIOP: a multichannel design code for gas-cooled fast reactors. Code description and user's guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CALIOP is a design code for fluid-cooled reactors composed of parallel fuel tubes in hexagonal or cylindrical ducts. It may be used with gaseous or liquid coolants. It has been used chiefly for design of a helium-cooled fast breeder reactor and has built-in cross section information to permit calculations of fuel loading, breeding ratio, and doubling time. Optional cross-section input allows the code to be used with moderated cores and with other fuels.

Thompson, W.I.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spray cooling has proven to be efficient in managing thermal load in high power applications. Reliability of electronic products relies on the thermal management and understanding of heat transfer mechanisms including those related to spray cooling. However, to date, several of the key heat transfer mechanisms are still not well understood. An alternative approach for improving the heat transfer performance is to change the film dynamics through surface modification. The main goal of this study is to understand the effects of nano-scale features on flat heater surfaces subjected to spray cooling and to determine the major factors in droplet impingement cooling to estimate their effects in the spray cooling system. Single droplet stream and simultaneous triple droplet stream with two different stream spacings (500 ?m and 2000 ?m), experiments have been performed to understand the droplet-surface interactions relevant to spray cooling systems. Experiments have been conducted on nano-structured surfaces as well as on flat (smooth) surfaces. It is observed that nano-structured surfaces result in lower minimum wall temperatures, better heat transfer performance, and more uniform temperature distribution. A new variable, effective thermal diameter (de), was defined based on the radial temperature profiles inside the impact zone to quantify the effects of the nano-structured surface in droplet cooling. Results indicate that larger effective cooling area can be achieved using nano-structured surface in the single droplet stream experiments. In triple stream experiments, nano-structured surface also showed an enhanced heat transfer. In single stream experiments, larger outer ring structures (i.e. larger outer diameters) in the impact crater were observed on the nano-structured surfaces which can be used to explain enhanced heat transfer performance. Smaller stream spacing in triple stream experiments reveal that the outer ring structure is disrupted resulting in lower heat transfer. Lower static contact angle on the nano-structured surface has been observed, which implies that changes in surface properties result in enhanced film dynamics and better heat transfer behavior. The results and conclusions of this study should be useful for understanding the physics of spray cooling and in the design of better spray cooling systems.

Lin, Yen-Po

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

A Wind-Tunnel Study of Wind Effects on Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to increasing competition for fresh water supplies in the future, development of power plants that use a minimum of water is crucial. When minimizing water use in a water-constrained environment, direct dry cooling systems are a good alternative to once-through cooling systems with an evaporative wet cooling tower. The core of any direct dry cooling system is an air-cooled condenser (ACC). A number of studies have shown that wind can negatively impact ACC system performance. Based on these observati...

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

433

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

434

Definition: Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of

435

Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Mass-Loaded Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A key process within astronomy is the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between diffuse plasmas in many types of astronomical sources (including planetary nebulae, wind-blown bubbles, supernova remnants, starburst superwinds, and the intracluster medium) and dense, embedded clouds or clumps. This transfer affects the large scale flows of the diffuse plasmas as well as the evolution of the clumps. I review our current understanding of mass-injection processes, and examine intermediate-scale structure and the global effect of mass-loading on a flow. I then discuss mass-loading in a variety of diffuse sources.

J. M. Pittard

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

437

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been accomplished in large integrated plants, such as petroleum refineries. In many of the chemical process industries, however, a plant contains several individual processes, and network optimization, except on a limited basis, is not feasible. So far, no one has developed similar procedures for designing and optimizing a cooling-water once through-exchanger system. This article attempts to fill the void by presenting a design basis that will produce a 'near optimum' system. A cooling-water system consists of four major components: heat exchangers, cooling towers, circulation piping and pumps. To optimize such a system, one must define the system interactions and apply these relationships to the simultaneous design of the aforementioned equipment. This article develops criteria that for most applications allow one to ignore system interactions, and still design a 'near optimum' system. Cooling-water systems have long been designed by 'rules of thumb' that call for fixing the cool ant temperature-rise across all heat exchangers (usually 20 F) and setting the coolant inlet temperature to the heat exchanger at the site's wet-bulb temperature plus 8 F. These rules produce a workable cooling system; but, by taking the same coolant rise across all exchangers, regardless of the individual process outlet-temperatures, this cannot result in an optimized design. The design method presented in this article replaces the 'rules of thumb' with criteria that are easy to apply and that take into account the effect that the individual exchanger process outlet- temperatures have on cooling-system economics. Economic analyses of actual process have shown that cooling-system investment can be reduced by one third, and cooling-system operating cost by one half, If the proposed design criteria are used instead of the 'rules of thumb.' It has been found that the controlling economic factor for a cooling system is the quantity of water being circulated. Reducing the flow (raising the coolant outlet temperature of heat exchangers) significantly reduces cooling tower, pump and piping investment, and operating cost, and only moderately increases the heat-exchanger investment. The overriding conclusion to be drawn is that cooling water is very expensive, and its conservation can result in significant savings.

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

An analysis of electrothermodynamic heating and cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current advances in semiconductor manufacturing have brought about an increasing use of thermoelectricity in a variety of applications. Most of these applications, however, have involved the steady state application of this phenomenon. As a result, few have considered the transient aspect of this field (Gray 1960). In recent years there has been an increasing demand to heat and cool objects very quickly. One particular proposal to use the transient nature of thermoelectricity was made by Lagoudas and Kinra (I 993) in regard to shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. In general, SMA actuators have been largely limited by the rate that heat may be extracted from the SMA. In their investigation, they proposed the concept of using the SMA directly as the cold junction of a thermocouple. By way of the Peltier effect, then, heat could be added or removed at the interfaces at a rate proportional to the current density and local temperature; by increasing the current, the rate of cooling would be increased, albeit at the expense of the Joule heating within the conductor. This investigation explores the dynamic nature of thermoelectrically cooled/heated regions in effort to gain a greater understanding of the transient application of thermoelectricity, including the role of the surrounding material properties. To this end, we consider a pair of semi-infinite rods of equal cross-sectional area in perfect thermoelectric contact. At time t = 0, a DC current begins to flow in the axial direction. The electrothermodynamic response of the composite rod at the interface is calculated. The transient interface temperature is completely described by a single dimensionless parameter called the MOET number (Modulus Of ElectroThermodynamics). Perhaps the most interesting result is that the minimum temperature at the interface is independent of the current density. Of course, the time required to reach this minimum temperature does depend on the current density; it varies as 1/J2.

Honea, Mark Stephen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Multidimensional spectral load balancing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

Hendrickson, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leland, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

440

Buildings Stock Load Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on electricity demand control by applying some strategies in existing building to reduce it during the extreme climate period. The first part of this paper presents the objectives of the study: ? to restrict the startup polluting manufacturing units (power station), ? to limit the environmental impacts (greenhouse emission), ? to reduce the transport and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing models of tertiary buildings stocks (Schools, offices, Shops, hotels); ? Making simulations for different load shedding strategies to calculate potential peak power saving. The third part is dedicated to the description of the developed models: An assembly of the various blocks of the library of simbad and simulink permit to model building. Finally the last part prensents the study results: Graphs and tables to see the load shedding strategies impacts.

Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

Treshow, M.

1960-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

442

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements IncorporatingSolar Assisted Cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper expands on prior Berkeley Lab work on integrated simulation of building energy systems by the addition of active solar thermal collecting devices, technology options not previously considered (Siddiqui et al 2005). Collectors can be used as an alternative or additional source of hot water to heat recovery from reciprocating engines or microturbines. An example study is presented that evaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large mail sorting facility in southern California with negligible heat loads and year-round cooling loads. Under current conditions solar thermal energy collection proves an unattractive option, but is a viable carbon emission control strategy.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

443

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system simplification, the R&D cost minimization and the flexibility for core design. As the demand for advanced nuclear system increases, Japanese R&D project started in 1999 aiming to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through three sub-themes of 1. Plant conceptual design, 2. Thermal-hydraulics, and 3. Material. Although the material development is critical issue of SCWR development, previous studies were limited for the screening tests on commercial alloys

444

Characterization of Engine Control Authority on HCCI Combustion as the High Load Limit is Approached  

SciTech Connect

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on characterizing the authority of the available engine controls as the high load limit of HCCI combustion is approached. The experimental work is performed on a boosted single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train to enable the negative valve overlap (NVO) breathing strategy. Valve lift and duration are held constant while phasing is varied in an effort to make the results as relevant as possible to production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) systems on multi-cylinder engines. Results presented include engine loads from 350 to 650 kPa IMEPnet and manifold pressure from 98 to 190 kPaa at 2000 rpm. It is found that in order to increase engine load to 650 kPa IMEPnet, it is necessary to increase manifold pressure and external EGR while reducing the NVO duration. Both NVO duration and fuel injection timing are effective means of controlling combustion phasing, with NVO duration being a coarse control and fuel injection timing being a fine control. NOX emissions are low throughout the study, with emissions below 0.1 g/kW-h at all boosted HCCI conditions, while good combustion efficiency is maintained (>96.5%). Net indicated thermal efficiency increases with load up to 600 kPa IMEPnet, where a peak efficiency of 41% is achieved. Results of independent parametric investigations are presented on the effect of external EGR, intake effect of manifold pressure, and the effect of NVO duration. It is found that increasing EGR at a constant manifold pressure and increasing manifold pressure at a constant EGR rate both have the effect of retarding combustion phasing. It is also found that combustion phasing becomes increasingly sensitive to NVO duration as engine load increases. Finally, comparisons are made between three commonly used noise metrics (AVL noise meter, ringing intensity (RI), and maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR)). It is found that compared to the AVL noise meter, RI significantly underestimates combustion noise under boosted conditions.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

OpenEI Community - load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

446

OpenEI Community - electric load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

447

OpenEI Community - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

448

OpenEI Community - residential load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

449

OpenEI Community - commercial load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

450

OpenEI Community - building load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

451

Standard assumptions and methods for solar heating and cooling systems analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A set of inputs, assumptions, analytical methods, and a reporting format is presented to help compare the results of residential and commercial solar system analyses being performed by different investigators. By the common use of load data, meteorological data, economic parameters, and reporting format, researchers examining, for example, two types of collectors may more easily compare their results. For residential heating and cooling systems, three locations were selected. The weather data chosen to characterize these cities are the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY). A house for each location was defined that is typical of new construction in that locale. Hourly loads for each location were calculated using a computerized load model that interacts with the system specified inputs characterizing each house. Four locations for commercial cooling analyses were selected from among the existing sites for which TMYs were available. A light commercial (nominal 25-ton cooling load) office building was defined and is used in all four locations. Hourly cooling and heating loads were computed for each city and are available on magnetic tape from the Solar Energy Research Insititute (SERI).

Leboeuf, C.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Personal cooling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system. While our engineers are pretty well convinced of the importance of their sophisticated equipment, and rightly so, they take the cooling towers and the cold water returning from them for granted. Design Conditions are specified for the particular requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. After it is put on the line and the cold water temperature or volume becomes inadequate, they look to solutions other than the obvious. While all cooling towers are purchased to function at 100% of capability in accordance with the required Design Conditions, in actual on stream employment, the level of operation many times is lower, downwards to as much as 50% due to a variety of reasons: (1) The present service needed is now greater than the original requirements which the tower was purchased for; (2) 'Slippage' due to usage and perhaps deficient maintenance has reduced the performance of the tower over years of operation; (3) The installation could have been originally undersized due to the low bidder syndrome; and (4) New plant expansion needs colder temperatures off the tower.

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

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Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

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