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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Production Will Meet Demand Increase This Summer  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Production must meet increases in demand this year. Last year, increased imports met most of the summer demand increase, and increases in stock draws met almost all of the remainder. Production did not increase much. But this year, inventories will not be available, and increased imports seem unlikely. Thus, increases in production will be needed to meet increased demand. Imports availability is uncertain this summer. Imports in 1999 were high, and with Phase II RFG product requirements, maintaining this level could be challenging since not all refineries exporting to the U.S. will be able to meet the new gasoline specifications. Stocks will also contribute little supply this summer. Last year's high gasoline stocks allowed for a stock draw that was 58 MB/D higher than

2

Introduction Increasing demands on limited water resources have made  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Increasing demands on limited water resources have made wastewater recycling quality, containing numerous microbiological and chemical contaminants, than recycled wastewater that has such that recycled water is of sufficient quality to satisfy most non-potable demands, and as such, recycled water

Sanderson, Mike

3

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 9 Chiller Power in Pre-Cooling Tests Chiller powerFigure 10 Supply Fan Power in Pre- Cooling Tests response ofthe extended pre-cooling tests, the power increased at night

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

The benefits of combining utility-controlled demand response with residential zoned cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of combining direct load control with a residential zoned-cooling technology in meeting the objectives of reducing peak demand and maintaining home comfort level. In cont...

Wen Zhou; Dean C. Mountain

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Laser cooling of a trapped particle with increased Rabi frequencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper analyses the cooling of a single particle in a harmonic trap with red-detuned laser light with fewer approximations than previously done in the literature. We avoid the adiabatic elimination of the excited atomic state but are still interested in Lamb-Dicke parameters $\\eta \\ll 1$. Our results show that the Rabi frequency of the cooling laser can be chosen higher than previously assumed, thereby increasing the effective cooling rate but {\\em not} affecting the final outcome of the cooling process. Since laser cooling is already a well established experimental technique, the main aim of this paper is to present a model which can be extended to more complex scenarios, like cavity-mediated laser cooling.

Tony Blake; Andreas Kurcz; Norah S. Saleem; Almut Beige

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

6

Domestic Demand Response to Increase the Value of Wind Power.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis describes a new method to evaluate the value of wind power combined with domestic demand response. The thesis gives a brief overview of… (more)

Hamidi, Vandad

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential for reducing peak-period electrical demand in moderate-weight commercial buildings by modifying the control of the HVAC system. An 80,000 ft{sup 2} office building with a medium-weight building structure and high window-to-wall ratio was used for a case study in which zone temperature set-points were adjusted prior to and during occupancy. HVAC performance data and zone temperatures were recorded using the building control system. Additional operative temperature sensors for selected zones and power meters for the chillers and the AHU fans were installed for the study. An energy performance baseline was constructed from data collected during normal operation. Two strategies for demand shifting using the building thermal mass were then programmed in the control system and implemented progressively over a period of one month. It was found that a simple demand limiting strategy performed well in this building. This strategy involved maintaining zone temperatures at the lower end of the comfort region during the occupied period up until 2 pm. Starting at 2 pm, the zone temperatures were allowed to float to the high end of the comfort region. With this strategy, the chiller power was reduced by 80-100% (1-2.3 W/ft{sup 2}) during normal peak hours from 2-5 pm, without causing any thermal comfort complaints. The effects on the demand from 2-5 pm of the inclusion of pre-cooling prior to occupancy are unclear.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Peak demand reduction from pre-cooling with zone temperature reset in an office building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential for reducing peak-period electrical demand in moderate-weight commercial buildings by modifying the control of the HVAC system. An 80,000 ft{sup 2} office building with a medium-weight building structure and high window-to-wall ratio was used for a case study in which zone temperature set-points were adjusted prior to and during occupancy. HVAC performance data and zone temperatures were recorded using the building control system. Additional operative temperature sensors for selected zones and power meters for the chillers and the AHU fans were installed for the study. An energy performance baseline was constructed from data collected during normal operation. Two strategies for demand shifting using the building thermal mass were then programmed in the control system and implemented progressively over a period of one month. It was found that a simple demand limiting strategy performed well in this building. This strategy involved maintaining zone temperatures at the lower end of the comfort region during the occupied period up until 2 pm. Starting at 2 pm, the zone temperatures were allowed to float to the high end of the comfort region. With this strategy, the chiller power was reduced by 80-100% (1-2.3 W/ft{sup 2}) during normal peak hours from 2-5 pm, without causing any thermal comfort complaints. The effects on the demand from 2-5 pm of the inclusion of pre-cooling prior to occupancy are unclear.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report examines the potential infrastructure needs of the U.S. interstate natural gas pipeline transmission system across a range of future natural gas demand scenarios that drive increased electric power sector natural gas use.

10

Imperfect price-reversibility of US gasoline demand: Asymmetric responses to price increases and declines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a framework for analyzing the imperfect price-reversibility (hysteresis) of oil demand. The oil demand reductions following the oil price increases of the 1970s will not be completely reversed by the price cuts of the 1980s, nor is it necessarily true that these partial demand reversals themselves will be reversed exactly by future price increases. The author decomposes price into three monotonic series: price increases to maximum historic levels, price cuts, and price recoveries (increases below historic highs). He would expect that the response to price cuts would be no greater than to price recoveries, which in turn would be no greater than for increases in maximum historic price. For evidence of imperfect price-reversibility, he tests econometrically the following US data: vehicle miles per driver, the fuel efficiency of the automobile fleet, and gasoline demand per driver. In each case, the econometric results allow him to reject the hypothesis of perfect price-reversibility. The data show smaller response to price cuts than to price increases. This has dramatic implications for projections of gasoline and oil demand, especially under low-price assumptions. 26 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Gately, D. (New York Univ., NY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Impact of Reflective Roofing on Cooling Electrical Use and Peak Demand in a Florida Retail Mall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington D.C., Vol. 9, p. 1, August, 1992. Akbari, H., Bretz, S., Kurn, D.M. and Hanford, J., ?Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High Albedo Roofs,? Energy... positive pressure dehumidified air ventilation in hot humid climates, quiet exhaust fan ventilation in cool climates, solar water heaters, heat pump water heaters, high efficiency right sized heating/cooling equipment, and gas fired combo space...

Parker, D. S.; Sonne, J. K.; Sherwin, J. R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Exploring the Effect of Continuing Increases in Water Demands on the Sustainability of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the Rio Grande Compact was approved by Congress, dividing the annual water flow among the three states3 Exploring the Effect of Continuing Increases in Water Demands on the Sustainability of Limited Water Resources byDr.JamesF.Booker NRLCVisitingFellow The Rio Grande originates in the southern Colorado

13

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Restored Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand on Surface Water Use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pierina noceti Pierina noceti Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5428 pierina.noceti@netl.doe.gov steven I. apfelbaum Principal Investigator Applied Ecological Services, Inc. 17921 Smith Road P.O. Box 256 Brodhead, WI 53520 608-897-8641 steve@appliedeco.com Wetland Water Cooling PartnershiP: the Use of restored Wetlands to enhanCe thermoeleCtriC PoWer Plant Cooling and mitigate the demand on sUrfaCe Water Use Background Thermoelectric power plants require a significant volume of water to operate, accounting for 39 percent of freshwater (136 billion gallons per day) withdrawn in the United States in 2000, according to a U.S. Geological Survey study. This significant use of water ranks second only to the agricultural sector

14

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes February 1, 2008 - 11:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) today expanded cooperation to coordinate Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototype development through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed by DOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Dennis R. Spurgeon, CEA Chairman Alain Bugat and JAEA President Toshio Okazaki. The MOU establishes a collaborative framework with the ultimate goal of deploying sodium-cooled fast reactor prototypes. A sodium-cooled fast reactor uses liquid sodium

15

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Summary We examined the effects of increased transpira-tion demand on xylem hydraulic conductivity and vulnerabil-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in response to high evaporative demand and prevent xylem tensions from reaching values that cause catastrophicSummary We examined the effects of increased transpira- tion demand on xylem hydraulic conductivity potential and water potential differences between the soil and the shoot were similar for desert and montane

Maherali, Hafiz

17

Sweating it out: the response of summer electricity demand to increases in price.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study examines the own price elasticity of demand for electricity in the Greater Sacramento Area. Data corresponded to customer billing information from the Sacramento… (more)

Davis, Zephaniah K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The demand for high performance computing research has been significantly increasing over the past few years. Various  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The demand for high performance computing research has been significantly increasing over the past to promote the effective use of High Performance Computing in the research environment. In addition facility has enabled cutting-edge computations material research, "Having a high-performance computing

Akhmedov, Azer

19

Abstract--Electrical Distribution Systems (EDS) are facing ever-increasing complexity due to fast growing demand and large  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operation. As such Electrical Distribution Systems will require new planning strategies and tools, new1 Abstract-- Electrical Distribution Systems (EDS) are facing ever-increasing complexity due to fast growing demand and large amount of distributed energy resources integration. The conventional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Linking supply and demand: increasing grower participation and customer attendance at local farmers' markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Farmers' markets in the United States have experienced a dramatic increase since the 1970's. In the past three decades the number of farmers' markets has increased from 340 in 1970 to 3,617 by 2006. This interest in farmers' markets has not been...

Lillard, Patrick Terrell

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Steam generator air-cooling and ways to increase its effectiveness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To shorten the downtime for repair of steam turbines, various methods for rapid cooling of the turbine can be used. One method is to cool the turbine with free air whose movement is controlled by a standard ejector through the flow passage in sequence of the high-, medium-, and low-pressure zones of the turbine. The effectiveness of air cooling the turbine through use of a counterflow system for controlling air flow through the turbine is discussed.

Kulichikhin, V.V.; Tazhiev, E.I.; Leshchinskii, A.M.; Zubov, P.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Energy demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basic forces pushing up energy demand are population increase and economic growth. From ... of these it is possible to estimate future energy requirements.

Geoffrey Greenhalgh

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling provided, inGenerally, total modular cooling power demand was somewhathigher server loads. The cooling power demand decreased when

Adams, Barbara J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling transported,Generally, total modular cooling power demand stabilized atrack) in this study. The cooling power demand decreased when

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Radiant Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

hours, reducing the electrical demand on electric utilities. Learn More Home Cooling Systems References Final Report Compilation for Residential Hydronic Radiant Cooling and...

27

They must respond to growing demands for good affordable housing, to increasing urbanisation, and to calls for higher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the built environment and urban areas. It focuses on all phases of real estate ­ initiation, preparation, organisational and computational concerns. Specialisations: · Design & Construction Management · Real Estate growing communities. They confront new challenges as the demand for sustainable building grows, and as new

Langendoen, Koen

28

Composites for Aerospace and Transportation As the fuel costs and environment concerns continue to increase, so does the demand for composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Composites for Aerospace and Transportation As the fuel costs and environment concerns continue to increase, so does the demand for composite materials for aerospace and transportation applications. Polymer composites are inherited lighter than their metallic counterparts resulting in significant weight reduction

Li, Mo

29

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of total hydraulic power for cooling to cooling delivered,temperatures, and cooling output power. 6 Test proceduresefficiency defined as power demand per cooling transferred.

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

31

As the world economy continues to expand the demand for petroleum based fuel increases and the price of these fuels rises  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 4 Structural Studies of Catalytically Stabilized Industrial Hydrotreating Catalysts Myriam Perez De la Rosa 1 , Gilles Berhault 2 , Apurva Mehta 3 , Russell R. Chianelli 1 1 University of Texas at El Paso, Materials Research Technology Institute, El Paso, TX 2 Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, Villeurbanne cedex, France 3 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA Figure 1: MoS 2 layered structure. As the world economy continues to expand the demand for petroleum based fuel increases and the price of these fuels rises. The rising price of fuel has another consequence: refiners tend to purchase cheaper fuels of poorer quality. These poor quality fuels contain increasing amounts of sulfur and other pollutants leading to a decline

32

INCREASE  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

None

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

33

Duct Leakage Impacts on Airtightness, Infiltration, and Peak Electrical Demand in Florida Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

return leak from the attic can increase cooling electrical demand by 100%. Duct repairs in a typical. electrically heated Florida home reduce winter peak demand by about 1.6 kW per house at about one-sixth the cost of building new electrical generation...

Cummings, J. B.; Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Demand Reduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

35

Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission January 6, 2005 Mike Koszalka Director;Demand Response Results, 2004 Load Control ­ Cool Keeper ­ ID Irrigation Load Control Price Responsive

36

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas due to extensive changes in the landscape. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent.

37

Demand Side Management by controlling refrigerators and its effects on consumers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Demand Side Management in power grids has become more and more important in recent years. Continuously growing energy demand both increases the need for distributed generation from renewable energy sources and brings out the topic of Demand Side Management. One of the major application areas of Demand Side Management in smart grids is cooling systems. In this paper, Demand Side Management with control of a refrigerator and its economic effects on consumers are analyzed. With a refrigerator model based on real measurements, several cooling schedules are simulated and annual energy fees for different pricing methods in use in Turkey are calculated and discussed. The results revealed that, 37.9% of refrigerator’s demand in peak period can be shifted to other periods and annual electricity bills for customers can be reduced by 11.4%.

M. Alparslan Zehir; Mustafa Bagriyanik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the ice storage system, during direct cooling, thethe building cooling load. In dynamic systems, ice is formedcooling/demand-limited storage / electric load management / full storage / ice

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

40

In a world where the demand for fresh surface water increases every year, the restoration and protection of the Great Lakes is vital, as the lakes contain 20 percent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Identifying Land Use Tipping Points that Threaten Great Lakes Ecosystems Aquatic Invasive Species · Great Lakes Aquatic Nuisance Species Information System Expansion · Regional Ecosystem Prediction- AquaticIn a world where the demand for fresh surface water increases every year, the restoration

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A review of solar cooling technologies for residential applications in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last two decades, the demand for residential cooling has increased exponentially, creating a significant demand on the electrical grid during the summer months. Between 1990 and 2008, the total Canadian residential floor area that requires cooling has almost tripled, while the total energy consumed for space cooling has more than doubled. The implementation of solar cooling systems could assist in reducing this energy consumption, and consequently, reduce greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere as a result of the generation of the required electricity to power typical air conditioners. This paper presents a review of the solar cooling technologies that have been developed and implemented for use in residential and commercial applications. Related work conducted under the International Energy Agency is also described and a review of cooling installations both worldwide and Canada are discussed.

Christopher Baldwin; Cynthia A. Cruickshank

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

New coal plant technologies will demand more water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Population shifts, growing electricity demand, and greater competition for water resources have heightened interest in the link between energy and water. The US Energy Information Administration projects a 22% increase in US installed generating capacity by 2030. Of the 259 GE of new capacity expected to have come on-line by then, more than 192 GW will be thermoelectric and thus require some water for cooling. Our challenge will become balancing people's needs for power and for water. 1 ref., 7 figs.

Peltier, R.; Shuster, E.; McNemar, A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Murphy, J.

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

A comparative assessment of alternative combustion turbine inlet air cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTAC) has increased during the last few years as electric utilities face increasing demand for peak power. Inlet air cooling increases the generating capacity and decreases the heat rate of a combustion turbine during hot weather when the demand for electricity is generally the greatest. Several CTAC systems have been installed, but the general applicability of the concept and the preference for specific concepts is still being debated. Concurrently, Rocky Research of Boulder City, Nevada has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct research on complex compound (ammoniated salt) chiller systems for low-temperature refrigeration applications.

Brown, D.R.; Katipamula, S.; Konynenbelt, J.H.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Balancing of Energy Supply and Residential Demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power demand of private households shows daily fluctuations and ... (BEV) and heat pumps. This additional demand, especially when it remains unmanaged, will ... to an increase in fluctuations. To balance demand,

Martin Bock; Grit Walther

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Marketing Demand-Side Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

they the only game in town, enjoying a captive market. Demand-side management (DSM) again surfaced as a method for increasing customer value and meeting these competitive challenges. In designing and implementing demand-side management (DSM) programs we... have learned a great deal about what it takes to market and sell DSM. This paper focuses on how to successfully market demand-side management. KEY STEPS TO MARKETING DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT Management Commitment The first key element in marketing...

O'Neill, M. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone Title Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3898e Year of Publication 2009 Authors Xu, Peng, Rongxin Yin, Carrie Brown, and DongEun Kim Date Published June 2009 Publisher CEC/LBNL Keywords demand response, demand shifting (pre-cooling), DRQAT, hot climates, market sectors, office buildings, pre-cooling, technologies, testbed tools and guides, thermal mass Abstract The potential for using building thermal mass for load shifting and peak energy demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. Previous Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory research has demonstrated that the approach is very effective in cool and moderately warm climate conditions (California Climate Zones 2-4). However, this method had not been tested in hotter climate zones.This project studied the potential of pre-cooling the building early in the morning and increasing temperature setpoints during peak hours to reduce cooling-related demand in two typical office buildings in hotter California climates - one in Visalia (CEC Climate Zone 13) and the other in San Bernardino (CEC Climate Zone 10). The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling in hotter climates has similar potential to that seen previously in cool and moderate climates. All other factors being equal, results to date indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the possible demand shed of a given building. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling in typical office building under hot weather conditions is very limited. However, night pre-cooling is helpful for office buildings with an undersized HVAC system. Further work is required to duplicate the tests in other typical buildings and in other hot climate zones and prove that pre-cooling is truly effective.

48

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air...

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Transportation Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 69 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight and passenger rail, freight shipping, and miscellaneous

50

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

51

Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondarytreated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Demand Response  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee Prepared for FY12 DOE-CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review September 20, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DOE National Laboratory Studies Funded to Support FOA 63 * DOE set aside $20 million from transmission funding for national laboratory studies. * DOE identified four areas of interest: 1. Transmission Reliability 2. Demand Side Issues 3. Water and Energy 4. Other Topics * Argonne, NREL, and ORNL support for EIPC/SSC/EISPC and the EISPC Energy Zone is funded through Area 4. * Area 2 covers LBNL and NREL work in WECC and

53

Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers. California Energy

54

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Energy Demand Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the end of World War II until the early 1970s there was a strong and steady increase in the demand for energy. The abundant supplies of fossil and other ... an actual fall in the real price of energy of abou...

S. L. Schwartz

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Annual World Oil Demand Growth  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Following relatively small increases of 1.3 million barrels per day in 1999 and 0.9 million barrels per day in 2000, EIA is estimating world demand may grow by 1.6 million barrels per day in 2001. Of this increase, about 3/5 comes from non-OECD countries, while U.S. oil demand growth represents more than half of the growth projected in OECD countries. Demand in Asia grew steadily during most of the 1990s, with 1991-1997 average growth per year at just above 0.8 million barrels per day. However, in 1998, demand dropped by 0.3 million barrels per day as a result of the Asian economic crisis that year. Since 1998, annual growth in oil demand has rebounded, but has not yet reached the average growth seen during 1991-1997. In the Former Soviet Union, oil demand plummeted during most of the

58

Commercial & Industrial Demand Response  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources News & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response...

59

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

60

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system simplification, the R&D cost minimization and the flexibility for core design. As the demand for advanced nuclear system increases, Japanese R&D project started in 1999 aiming to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through three sub-themes of 1. Plant conceptual design, 2. Thermal-hydraulics, and 3. Material. Although the material development is critical issue of SCWR development, previous studies were limited for the screening tests on commercial alloys

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;2008 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering Staff Report Federal Energy metering penetration and potential peak load reduction from demand response have increased since 2006. Significant activity to promote demand response or to remove barriers to demand response occurred at the state

Tesfatsion, Leigh

62

Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Case  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Case Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Case Studies and Tools Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: March 9, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The idea of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling energy in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads during the peak periods. Savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. Case studies in a number of office buildings in California has found that a simple demand limiting strategy reduced the chiller power by 20-100% (0.5-2.3W/ft2) during six

63

Secure Demand Shaping for Smart Grid On constructing probabilistic demand response schemes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Secure Demand Shaping for Smart Grid On constructing probabilistic demand response schemes. Developing novel schemes for demand response in smart electric gird is an increasingly active research area/SCADA for demand response in smart infrastructures face the following dilemma: On one hand, in order to increase

Sastry, S. Shankar

64

Very Cool Close Binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new observations of cool <6000K and low mass <1Msun binary systems that have been discovered by searching several modern stellar photometric databases. The search has led to a factor of 10 increase in the number of known cool close eclipsing binary systems.

J. Scott Shaw; Mercedes Lopez-Morales

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

65

Marketing Cool Storage Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage has been substantiated. bv research conducted by Electric Power Research Institute, and by numerous installations, it has become acknowledged that cool stora~e can provide substantial benefits to utilities and end-users alike. A need was reco...~ned to improve utility load factors, reduce peak electric demands, and other-wise mana~e the demand-side use of electricity. As a result of these many pro~rams, it became apparent that the storage of coolin~, in the form of chilled water, ice, or other phase...

McCannon, L.

66

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Cool Storage Applications in the Texas LoanSTAR Program: Overview and Preliminary Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cool Storage Systems (CSS) are becoming a popular demand side management tool for utilities because that helps them avoid costly plant expansions and reduces summer-time peak electricity demand. This paper presents an analysis of cool storage...

Abbas, M.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Modern structural steels with improved properties through accelerated cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The last decade has seen an enormous increase in the stringency of the demands placed on steels. The main characteristics involved are higher strength and toughness, better suitability for welding and, in certain cases, corrosion resistance. The reason for these heightened demands resides in the higher strains to which the material is exposed in structural applications and in a greater need for safety. In many areas, the steel industry has succeeded in offering appropriate solutions through improved metallurgical and rolling techniques. Accelerated cooled steel grades are one example.

Tschersich, H.J.; Schriever, U.; Bobbert, J.; Kuntze, C. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

3-D Numerical Study of Impinging Water Jets in Run Out Table Cooling Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

product quality, and even to create new microstructures, in order to fulfill the increasing demands surface, which are generally obtained from plant measurements. The design of better cooling header systems, where complex boiling, steam-layer development, and Leidenfrost effects occur. Heat transfer depends

Thomas, Brian G.

70

Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers: Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers: Findings From Field Studies Title Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers: Findings From Field Studies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5763E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ghatikar, Girish, Venkata Ganti, Nance Matson, and Mary Ann Piette Publisher PG&E/SDG&E/CEC/LBNL Keywords communication and standards, control systems, data centers, demand response, enabling technologies, end-use technologies, load migration, market sectors, technologies Abstract The energy use in data centers is increasing and, in particular, impacting the data center energy cost and electric grid reliability during peak and high price periods. As per the 2007 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the Pacific Gas and Electric Company territory, data centers are estimated to consume 500 megawatts of annual peak electricity. The 2011 data confirm the increase in data center energy use, although it is slightly lower than the EPA forecast. Previous studies have suggested that data centers have significant potential to integrate with supply-side programs to reduce peak loads. In collaboration with California data centers, utilities, and technology vendors, this study conducted field tests to improve the understanding of the demand response opportunities in data centers. The study evaluated an initial set of control and load migration strategies and economic feasibility for four data centers. The findings show that with minimal or no impact to data center operations a demand savings of 25% at the data center level or 10% to 12% at the whole building level can be achieved with strategies for cooling and IT equipment, and load migration. These findings should accelerate the grid-responsiveness of data centers through technology development, integration with the demand response programs, and provide operational cost savings.

71

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

72

Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

cooling systems that are providing 30%-70% energy and cost savings for homeowners in Jordan, New York. Demand for these systems is growing; nationally, shipments of geothermal...

73

District Cooling Using Central Tower Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract During the operation of solar power towers there are occasions, commonly in the summer season, where some of the heliostats have to stop focusing at the central receiver, located at the top of the tower, because the maximum temperature that the receiver can withstand has been reached. The highest demands of cooling for air conditioning take place at these same occasions. In the present paper, we have analyzed the possibility of focusing the exceeding heliostats to the receiver increasing the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid over the nominal value and using the extra heat as a source of an absorption chiller. The chilled water would be used to cool buildings and offices, using a district cooling network. Using the extra heat of the solar power tower plant would greatly reduce the electricity usage. In this work we have analyzed the case of a circular field of heliostats focusing at a circular receiver, such as the case of Gemasolar plant. We have quantified the thermal power that can be obtained from the unused heliostats, the cooling capacity of the absorption system as well as the heat losses through the insulated pipes that distribute the chilled water to the buildings of the network.

C. Marugán-Cruz; S. Sánchez-Delgado; M.R. Rodríguez-Sánchez; M. Venegas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Cool Storage Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilities have promoted the use of electric heat and thermal storage to increase off peak usage of power. High daytime demand charges and enticing discounts for off peak power have been used as economic incentives to promote thermal storage systems...

Eppelheimer, D. M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demand Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center Technical Advisory Group Meeting August 31, 2007 10:30 AM - Noon Meeting Agenda * Introductions (10 minutes) * Main Presentation (~ 1 hour) * Questions, comments from panel (15 minutes) Project History * Lighting Scoping Study (completed January 2007) - Identified potential for energy and demand savings using demand responsive lighting systems - Importance of dimming - New wireless controls technologies * Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) Objectives * Provide up-to-date information on the reliability, predictability of dimmable lighting as a demand resource under realistic operating load conditions * Identify potential negative impacts of DR lighting on lighting quality Potential of Demand Responsive Lighting Control

76

ASSESSMENT OF VARIABLE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMS WITH DEMAND RESPONSE RESOURCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSMENT OF VARIABLE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMS WITH DEMAND RESPONSE RESOURCES BY ANUPAMA SUNIL KOWLI B of consumers - called demand response resources (DRRs) - whose role has become increasingly important

Gross, George

77

The business value of demand response for balance responsible parties.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? By using IT-solutions, the flexibility on the demand side in the electrical systems could be increased. This is called demand response and is part… (more)

Jonsson, Mattias

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Modeling Energy Demand Aggregators for Residential Consumers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current world-wide increase of energy demand cannot be matched by energy production and power grid updateModeling Energy Demand Aggregators for Residential Consumers G. Di Bella, L. Giarr`e, M. Ippolito, A. Jean-Marie, G. Neglia and I. Tinnirello § January 2, 2014 Abstract Energy demand aggregators

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Speaker(s): Chadi Maalouf Date: December 2, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Peng Xu Increased living standards and high occupants comfort demands lead to a growth in air conditioning market. This results in high energy consumption and high CO2 emissions. For these reasons, the solar desiccant cooling system is proposed as an alternative to traditional air conditioning systems. This system comprises a desiccant wheel containing Lithium Chloride in tandem with a rotating heat exchanger and two humidifiers on both supply and return air. The required regeneration temperature for the desiccant wheel varies between 40oC and 70oC which makes possible the use

80

Impacts of urban location and climate change upon energy demand of office buildings in Vienna, Austria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Urban heat island effects are already known for decades to result in increased urban outdoor temperatures as compared to the surrounding countryside. At the same time, recent years have witnessed growing concern about climate change's impact upon office buildings' performance in regard to indoor thermal comfort and the energy consumption needed to safeguard this comfort. Thus, it has to be expected that buildings in urban areas are especially effected by increased outdoor temperatures and the effects these may cause for indoor thermal comfort. A vicious circle of raising outdoor temperatures and consequently increasing CO2 emissions associated with raising energy demands for cooling during summer heat waves is anticipated in this respect. This paper builds upon regionally downscaled weather data from future climate scenarios and applies these to dynamic thermal simulation of four sample office buildings in Vienna, Austria, at urban locations ranging from central business district to green outskirts of the city. Values of both heating and cooling demands under current and future conditions are calculated: while heating demands slightly diminish, cooling requirements generally rise significantly. Distinct differences in energy performance of buildings from different periods of construction can be observed. The impact of location within the city is considerable.

Tania Berger; Christof Amann; Herbert Formayer; Azra Korjenic; Bernhard Pospichal; Christoph Neururer; Roman Smutny

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

82

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response:both the avoided energy costs (and demand charges) as wellCoordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response,

Shen, Bo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential: Integrating Price and Customer Behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential:Syracuse, NY ABSTRACT Demand response (DR) is increasinglyestimated. Introduction Demand response (DR) is increasingly

Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan, Bernie; Cappers, Peter

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A Methodology for Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market PotentialEstimating Large-Customer Demand Response Market PotentialSyracuse, NY ABSTRACT Demand response (DR) is increasingly

Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan, Bernie; Cappers, Peter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Demand Side Management in Smart Buildings Using KNX/EIB  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper aims to present the development, design and analysis of a control scheme named Thermal Model Predictive Control for Demand Side Management Cooling Strategies. The control is implemented on ... for ener...

P. Romanos; N. Hatziargyriou; Jurgen Schmid

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

PROJECT REPORT WESTERN COOLING CHALLENGE LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that reduce energy, water consumption and peak electricity demand associated with cooling in the Western-cool- er to reduce the refrigerant condensing temperature of a vapor compression system, then cycles Davis Energy Efficiency Center in 2007 through a grant from the California Clean Energy Fund

California at Davis, University of

87

Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

benefits of Demand Side Management (DSM) are insufficient toefficiency, demand side management (DSM) cost effectivenessResearch Center Demand Side Management Demand Side Resources

Heffner, Grayson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

FOCUS COOLING  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

89

Dr. Cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...replace fossil fuels, and analyses of hydrogen fuel, natural gas...quickly "cut the average rate of global...global cooling effect of large volcanic...dollars—"the price of a Hollywood blockbuster...away from fossil fuels, he concedes...

Eli Kintisch

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

90

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Demand Response Research in Spain  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demand Response Research in Spain Demand Response Research in Spain Speaker(s): Iñigo Cobelo Date: August 22, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Mary Ann Piette The Spanish power system is becoming increasingly difficult to operate. The peak load grows every year, and the permission to build new transmission and distribution infrastructures is difficult to obtain. In this scenario Demand Response can play an important role, and become a resource that could help network operators. The present deployment of demand response measures is small, but this situation however may change in the short term. The two main Spanish utilities and the transmission network operator are designing research projects in this field. All customer segments are targeted, and the research will lead to pilot installations and tests.

92

Small capacity absorption systems for cooling and power with a scroll expander and ammonia based working fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Up to now, the use of ammonia/water absorption cycles has been mainly limited to the production of refrigeration or air conditioning but due to the relatively high generator pressure some authors have proposed the integration in parallel of an expander to produce cooling and power simultaneously. This feature could provide many benefits in the future such as the use of solar thermal energy to partially cover the heating, cooling and electricity demand of a building. In the other hand the life cycle cost of the absorption system is improved because of the increase in the number of running hours in periods in which there is no demand for cooling but the demand for electrical power is still important. This paper shows a new combined absorption system using a scroll expander and three different working fluids using ammonia as refrigerant: ammonia/water, ammonia/lithium nitrate and ammonia/sodium thiocyanate. The scroll expander performance maps were obtained experimentally and modeled to predict the power production, rotational speed and exhaust temperature of the expander and included in the complete absorption cycle model build using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) Software. This system produces different amounts of cooling and power at the desired power/cooling ratio to cover varying demand profiles.

Luis Carlos Mendoza; Dereje S. Ayou; Joaquín Navarro-Esbrí; Joan Carles Bruno; Alberto Coronas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Mass Market Demand Response  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mass Market Demand Response Mass Market Demand Response Speaker(s): Karen Herter Date: July 24, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Demand response programs are often quickly and poorly crafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisis subsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared when the next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the event-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demand responsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such, demand response can be required as a condition of service, and the offering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities as an element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore the costs and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response system capable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory,

94

Heat transfer with nanofluids for electronic cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In response to the ever increasing demand for smaller and lighter high performance cooling devices a new heat transfer liquids come into picture, called Nanofluids. Nanofluids are new class of heat transfer fluids developed by suspending nanosized solid particles in liquids. Larger thermal conductivity of solid particles compared to the base fluid such as water, ethylene glycol, engine oil, etc. significantly enhances its thermal properties. Numbers of phenomenological models have been proposed to explain the anomalous heat transfer enhancement in nanofluids. This paper presents systematic literature survey observed to exploit several characteristic behaviours of nanofluids viz. increase in thermal conductivity, specific heat and other thermal properties. An empirical correlation for Al2O3 + water nanofluid and effects of temperature, volume fraction and size of nanoparticle is studied. The effect of temperature on nanofluid thermal conductivity is also brought out. This behaviour combined with better mechanical properties makes fluids embedded with nanomaterials are excellent candidates for future applications.

V. Vasu; K Rama Krishna; A.C.S. Kumar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the demand for cooling energy, urban trees indirectly reducesurfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improvethe energy savings and GHG benefits of cool roofs and tree

Akbari, Hashem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

MODELING THE MUON COOLING CHANNEL USING MOMENTS B. A. Shadwick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reach the luminosity goals demanded by high- energy physics applications [3]. Furthermore, this cooling Using a moment formalism [1, 2] we model beam trans- port in the muon collider cooling channel. This model con- tains much of the physics we believe to be relevant to muon cooling such as ionization energy

Wurtele, Jonathan

97

Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION This appendix provides more detail on some of the topics raised in Chapter 4, "Demand Response" of the body of the Plan. These topics include 1. The features, advantages and disadvantages of the main options for stimulating demand response (price mechanisms

98

Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

columns indicate the energy and cost savings for  demand class size.   (The energy costs  of classroom ventilation Total Increase in Energy Costs ($) Increased State Revenue

Fisk, William J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Representative dehumidification increase using Trane CDQ dehumidification system Standard HVAC coil - 20% latent dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet, supply fan, cooling coil, optional reheat coil, optional final filters. A CDQ system in a Custom Climate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

102

The Important Participants in Demand-Side Management: Power Consumers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electric power consumers are the basis for demand-side management (DSM) practice. Increased power consumption efficiency...

Zhaoguang Hu; Xinyang Han; Quan Wen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D electrothermal model, the cooling power densities of themax , and increasing the cooling power densities 2–24 times.the advantages of high cooling power densities and is less

Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Turkey's energy demand and supply  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Demand response enabling technology development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response Enabling Technology Development Phase IEfficiency and Demand Response Programs for 2005/2006,Application to Demand Response Energy Pricing” SenSys 2003,

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Cross-sector Demand Response  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources News & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response...

108

Demand Response Programs for Oregon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response Programs for Oregon Utilities Public Utility Commission May 2003 Public Utility ....................................................................................................................... 1 Types of Demand Response Programs............................................................................ 3 Demand Response Programs in Oregon

109

Demand response enabling technology development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

behavior in developing a demand response future. Phase_II_Demand Response Enabling Technology Development Phase IIYi Yuan The goal of the Demand Response Enabling Technology

Arens, Edward; Auslander, David; Huizenga, Charlie

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Automated Demand Response and Commissioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fully-Automated Demand Response Test in Large Facilities14in DR systems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercialof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”

Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

A Simulation Study of Demand Responsive Transit System Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Simulation Study of Demand Responsive Transit System Design Luca Quadrifoglio, Maged M. Dessouky changed the landscape for demand responsive transit systems. First, the demand for this type of transit experiencing increased usage for demand responsive transit systems. The National Transit Summaries and Trends

Dessouky, Maged

112

Demand Response In California  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the demand response in California and is given at the FUPWG 2006 Fall meeting, held on November 1-2, 2006 in San Francisco, California.

113

Energy Demand Forecasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents alternative approaches used in forecasting energy demand and discusses their pros and cons. It... Chaps. 3 and 4 ...

S. C. Bhattacharyya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Global cooling updates: Reflective roofs and pavements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With increasing the solar reflectance of urban surfaces, the outflow of short-wave solar radiation increases, less solar heat energy is absorbed leading to lower surface temperatures and reduced outflow of thermal radiation into the atmosphere. This process of “negative radiative forcing” effectively counters global warming. Cool roofs also reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win–win–win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO2 emissions. We review the status of cool roof and cool pavements technologies, policies, and programs in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Hashem Akbari; H. Damon Matthews

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the “Energy Crisis” Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

116

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

117

Global energy demand to 2060  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The projection of global energy demand to the year 2060 is of particular interest because of its relevance to the current greenhouse concerns. The long-term growth of global energy demand in the time scale of climatic change has received relatively little attention in the public discussion of national policy alternatives. The sociological, political, and economic issues have rarely been mentioned in this context. This study emphasizes that the two major driving forces are global population growth and economic growth (gross national product per capita), as would be expected. The modest annual increases assumed in this study result in a year 2060 annual energy use of >4 times the total global current use (year 1986) if present trends continue, and >2 times with extreme efficiency improvements in energy use. Even assuming a zero per capita growth for energy and economics, the population increase by the year 2060 results in a 1.5 times increase in total annual energy use.

Starr, C. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Electron cooling for positron sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron cooling of positrons should make possible a large increase in the luminosity of future high-energy linear colliders, leading to greatly enhanced event rates at these machines. An evaluation of the electron-cooling-time requirement indicates that a positron-source repetition rate of 100 Hz is possible. Final positron-beam normalized emittances of 10-7 m rad should result, implying a tremendous increase in positron-beam density over that currently obtained.

D. J. Larson

1988-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

119

Electricity Demand and Energy Consumption Management System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This project describes the electricity demand and energy consumption management system and its application to the Smelter Plant of Southern Peru. It is composted of an hourly demand-forecasting module and of a simulation component for a plant electrical system. The first module was done using dynamic neural networks, with backpropagation training algorithm; it is used to predict the electric power demanded every hour, with an error percentage below of 1%. This information allows management the peak demand before this happen, distributing the raise of electric load to other hours or improving those equipments that increase the demand. The simulation module is based in advanced estimation techniques, such as: parametric estimation, neural network modeling, statistic regression and previously developed models, which simulates the electric behavior of the smelter plant. These modules allow the proper planning because it allows knowing the behavior of the hourly demand and the consumption patterns of the plant, in...

Sarmiento, Juan Ojeda

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Energy Demand | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Demand Energy Demand Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data Figure 55 From AEO2011 report . Market Trends Growth in energy use is linked to population growth through increases in housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, and goods and services. These changes affect not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels used. Energy consumption per capita declined from 337 million Btu in 2007 to 308 million Btu in 2009, the lowest level since 1967. In the AEO2011 Reference case, energy use per capita increases slightly through 2013, as the economy recovers from the 2008-2009 economic downturn. After 2013, energy use per capita declines by 0.3 percent per year on average, to 293 million Btu in 2035, as higher efficiency standards for vehicles and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Absorption cooling in district heating network: Temperature difference examination in hot water circuit.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Absorption cooling system driven by district heating network is relized as a smart strategy in Sweden. During summer time when the heating demand is… (more)

Yuwardi, Yuwardi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description As the geothermal industry moves to use geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. Because of increasing demand on finite supplies of water, this next generation of more efficient plants will likely need to reject heat sensibly to the ambient (air-cooling). This will be especially true in western states having higher grade Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) resources, as well as most hydrothermal resources. If one had a choice, an evaporative heat rejection system would be selected because it would provide both cost and performance advantages. The evaporative system, however, consumes a significant amount of water during heat rejection that would require makeup. Though they use no water, air-cooling systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at a higher temperature), lower power sales due to higher parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power output (because of large variation in the dry-bulb temperature).

123

Commercial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Commercial Demand Module The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module generates projections of commercial sector energy demand through 2035. The definition of the commercial sector is consistent with EIA's State Energy Data System (SEDS). That is, the commercial sector includes business establishments that are not engaged in transportation or in manufacturing or other types of industrial activity (e.g., agriculture, mining or construction). The bulk of commercial sector energy is consumed within buildings; however, street lights, pumps, bridges, and public services are also included if the establishment operating them is considered commercial. Since most of commercial energy consumption occurs in buildings, the commercial module relies on the data from the EIA

124

Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Industrial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Industrial Demand Module The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 15 manufacturing and 6 non-manufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy- intensive manufacturing industries and non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries (Table 6.1). The manufacturing industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process-flow or end-use accounting procedure, whereas the non- manufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail. The petroleum refining industry is not included in the Industrial Demand Module, as it is simulated separately in the Petroleum Market Module of NEMS. The Industrial Demand Module calculates energy consumption for the four Census Regions (see Figure 5) and disaggregates the energy consumption

126

demand | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

demand demand Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

127

RTP Customer Demand Response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides new evidence on customer demand response to hourly pricing from the largest and...real-time pricing...(RTP) program in the United States. RTP creates value by inducing load reductions at times...

Steven Braithwait; Michael O’Sheasy

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

World Energy Demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A reliable forecast of energy resources, energy consumption, and population in the future is a ... So, instead of absolute figures about future energy demand and sources worldwide, which would become...3.1 correl...

Giovanni Petrecca

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Transportation Demand This  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Transportation Demand Transportation Demand This page inTenTionally lefT blank 75 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific and associated technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight

130

Software components for demand side integration at a container terminal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Local energy management and demand response are established methods to raise energy ... in industrial enterprises the intelligent use of power demand draws significantly increased importance. Due to the ... energ...

Norman Ihle; Serge Runge; Claas Meyer-Barlag…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

Lee, Ching-Pang

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

136

Changing Energy Demand Behavior: Potential of Demand-Side Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a great theoretical potential to save resources by managing our demand for energy. However, demand-side management (DSM) programs targeting behavioral patterns of...

Dr. Sylvia Breukers; Dr. Ruth Mourik…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California Title Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-3636e Year of Publication 2010 Authors Yin, Rongxin, Sila Kiliccote, Mary Ann Piette, and Kristen Parrish Conference Name 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Conference Location Pacific Grove, CA Keywords demand response and distributed energy resources center, demand response research center, demand shifting (pre-cooling), DRQAT Abstract This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30% using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

138

Aviation fuel demand development in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper analyzes the core factors and the impact path of aviation fuel demand in China and conducts a structural decomposition analysis of the aviation fuel cost changes and increase of the main aviation enterprises’ business profits. Through the establishment of an integrated forecast model for China’s aviation fuel demand, this paper confirms that the significant rise in China’s aviation fuel demand because of increasing air services demand is more than offset by higher aviation fuel efficiency. There are few studies which use a predictive method to decompose, estimate and analyze future aviation fuel demand. Based on a structural decomposition with indirect prediction, aviation fuel demand is decomposed into efficiency and total amount (aviation fuel efficiency and air transport total turnover). The core influencing factors for these two indexes are selected using path analysis. Then, univariate and multivariate models (ETS/ARIMA model and Bayesian multivariate regression) are used to analyze and predict both aviation fuel efficiency and air transport total turnover. At last, by integrating results, future aviation fuel demand is forecast. The results show that the aviation fuel efficiency goes up by 0.8% as the passenger load factor increases 1%; the air transport total turnover goes up by 3.8% and 0.4% as the urbanization rate and the per capita GDP increase 1%, respectively. By the end of 2015, China’s aviation fuel demand will have increased to 28 million tonnes, and is expected to be 50 million tonnes by 2020. With this in mind, increases in the main aviation enterprises’ business profits must be achieved through the further promotion of air transport.

Jian Chai; Zhong-Yu Zhang; Shou-Yang Wang; Kin Keung Lai; John Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several

Heffner, Grayson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Commercial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank 39 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Commercial Demand Module The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module generates projections of commercial sector energy demand through 2035. The definition of the commercial sector is consistent with EIA's State Energy Data System (SEDS). That is, the commercial sector includes business establishments that are not engaged in transportation or in manufacturing or other types of industrial activity (e.g., agriculture, mining or construction). The bulk of commercial sector energy is consumed within buildings; however, street lights, pumps, bridges, and public services are also included if the establishment operating them is considered commercial.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Industrial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 12 manufacturing and 6 nonmanufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy-intensive manufacturing industries and nonenergy-intensive manufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process flow or end use accounting procedure, whereas the nonmanufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail (Table 17). The Industrial Demand Module forecasts energy consumption at the four Census region level (see Figure 5); energy consumption at the Census Division level is estimated by allocating the Census region forecast using the SEDS 27 data.

142

Residential Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Residential Demand Module The NEMS Residential Demand Module projects future residential sector energy requirements based on projections of the number of households and the stock, efficiency, and intensity of energy-consuming equipment. The Residential Demand Module projections begin with a base year estimate of the housing stock, the types and numbers of energy-consuming appliances servicing the stock, and the "unit energy consumption" (UEC) by appliance (in million Btu per household per year). The projection process adds new housing units to the stock, determines the equipment installed in new units, retires existing housing units, and retires and replaces appliances. The primary exogenous drivers for the module are housing starts by type

143

Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase the qubits' purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of 13C2-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. For example, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

144

Intelligent demand side energy management system for autonomous polygeneration microgrids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Autonomous polygeneration microgrids is a novel approach in addressing the needs of remote areas. These needs can include power, fuel for transportation in the form of hydrogen, potable water through desalination and space heating and cooling. This approach has been investigated technically and economically and has proved viable. Further research has taken place in the supervisory management of this topology using computational intelligence techniques like fuzzy logic, which has optimized the concept minimizing the sizes of the installed components. The optimal design of the system can meet, though, only the design principles and needs. In reality experience has shown that most autonomous power systems operate out of specifications very shortly after installation or after a couple of years new needs arise and it is not possible economic wise for the people to extend it. In these cases the microgrid would struggle to cover the increased needs and in the end fail, causing blackouts. A solution to this is partial load shedding in an intelligent manner. This paper presents a multi agent system for intelligent demand side management of the polygeneration microgrid topology which also includes grey prediction algorithms for better management. This approach can also be used for designing the optimal polygeneration microgrid for a given amount of an investment. The results show that the proposed intelligent demand side management system can address its design principles successfully and guaranty the most effective operation even in conditions near and over the limits of the design specification of the autonomous polygeneration microgrid.

George Kyriakarakos; Dimitrios D. Piromalis; Anastasios I. Dounis; Konstantinos G. Arvanitis; George Papadakis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Demand Response In California  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Efficiency & Energy Efficiency & Demand Response Programs Dian M. Grueneich, Commissioner Dian M. Grueneich, Commissioner California Public Utilities Commission California Public Utilities Commission FUPWG 2006 Fall Meeting November 2, 2006 Commissioner Dian M. Grueneich November 2, 2006 1 Highest Priority Resource Energy Efficiency is California's highest priority resource to: Meet energy needs in a low cost manner Aggressively reduce GHG emissions November 2, 2006 2 Commissioner Dian M. Grueneich November 2, 2006 3 http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUBLISHED/REPORT/51604.htm Commissioner Dian M. Grueneich November 2, 2006 4 Energy Action Plan II Loading order continued "Pursue all cost-effective energy efficiency, first." Strong demand response and advanced metering

146

On Demand Guarantees in Iran.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??On Demand Guarantees in Iran This thesis examines on demand guarantees in Iran concentrating on bid bonds and performance guarantees. The main guarantee types and… (more)

Ahvenainen, Laura

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Cool Storage Economic Feasibility Analysis for a Large Industrial Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The analysis of economic feasibility for adding a cool storage facility to shift electric demand to off-peak hours for a large industrial facility is presented. DOE-2 is used to generate the necessary cooling load profiles for the analysis...

Fazzolari, R.; Mascorro, J. A.; Ballard, R. H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

149

Personal Computer-Based Model for Cool Storage Performance Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERSONAL COMPUTER-BASED MODEL FOR COOL STORAGE PERFORMANCE SIMULATION Leszek M. Kasprowicz, Jerold W. Jones, and James Hitzfelder The University of Texas at Austin ust tin, ABSTRACT A personal computer based hourly simulation model... can be achieved by applying cool storage systems which use stored energy for air-conditioning purposes during peak periods. Customers benefit from cool storage in two ways. First, demand charges are reduced since customers with sufficient thermal...

Kasprowicz, L. M.; Jones, J. W.; Hitzfelder, J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumptions. The cooling capacities for WC and AC systems were 373 and 278 tons-of- refrigeration, respectively. It was found that for the same cooling production, the peak power demand and the daily energy consumption of the WC system were 45 and 32% less...

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Energy Demand Staff Scientist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Demand in China Lynn Price Staff Scientist February 2, 2010 #12;Founded in 1988 Focused on End-Use Energy Efficiency ~ 40 Current Projects in China Collaborations with ~50 Institutions in China Researcher #12;Talk OutlineTalk Outline · Overview · China's energy use and CO2 emission trends · Energy

Eisen, Michael

152

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Title Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-19734 Year of Publication 1985 Authors Arasteh, Dariush K., Russell Johnson, Stephen E. Selkowitz, and Deborah J. Connell Conference Name 2nd Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates Date Published 09/1985 Conference Location Texas A&M University Call Number LBL-19734 Abstract Fenestration performance in nonresidentialsbuildings in hot climates is often a large coolingsload liability. Proper fenestration design andsthe use of daylight-responsive dimming controls onselectric lights can, in addition to drasticallysreducing lighting energy, lower cooling loads,speak electrical demand, operating costs, chillerssizes, and first costs. Using the building energyssimulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C , wesfirst discuss lighting energy savings from daylighting.sThe effects of fenestration parametersson cooling loads, total energy use, peak demand,schiller sizes, and initial and operating costs aresalso discussed. The impact of daylighting, asscompared to electric lighting, on cooling requirementssis discussed as a function of glazingscharacteristics, location, and shading systems.

153

Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Real-Time Demand Side Energy Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Real-Time Demand Side Energy Management Annelize Victor Michael Brodkorb Sr. Business Consultant Business Development Manager Aspen Technology, Inc. Aspen Technology España, S.A. Houston, TX Barcelona, Spain ABSTRACT To remain... competitive, manufacturers must capture opportunities to increase bottom-line profitability. The goal of this paper is to present a new methodology for reducing energy costs – “Demand-Side Energy Management.” Learn how process manufacturers assess energy...

Victor, A.; Brodkorb, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards "Top-Runner Approach"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Energy Source Demand Coal, Oil, Gas, Heat, ElectricityEnergy Source Demand per Household Coal, Oil, Gas, Heat,ton of oil equivalent Considerable increases in demand for

Komiyama, Ryoichi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

157

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back in to the atmosphere. While much of the country can benefit from the use of cool coatings it remains to be seen whether the energy savings described are appropriate in cooler climates. By use of commonly available calculators one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental conditions and construction practices.

Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company] [The Garland Company; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Impacts of Temperature Variation on Energy Demand in Buildings (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In the residential and commercial sectors, heating and cooling account for more than 40% of end-use energy demand. As a result, energy consumption in those sectors can vary significantly from year to year, depending on yearly average temperatures.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Commercial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 The commercial module forecasts consumption by fuel 15 at the Census division level using prices from the NEMS energy supply modules, and macroeconomic variables from the NEMS Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM), as well as external data sources (technology characterizations, for example). Energy demands are forecast for ten end-use services 16 for eleven building categories 17 in each of the nine Census divisions (see Figure 5). The model begins by developing forecasts of floorspace for the 99 building category and Census division combinations. Next, the ten end-use service demands required for the projected floorspace are developed. The electricity generation and water and space heating supplied by distributed generation and combined heat and power technologies are projected. Technologies are then

160

Industrial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Industrial Demand Module The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 15 manufacturing and 6 non-manufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy- intensive manufacturing industries and nonenergy-intensive manufacturing industries (Table 6.1). The manufacturing industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process-flow or end-use accounting procedure, whereas the non- manufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail. The petroleum refining industry is not included in the Industrial Module, as it is simulated separately in the Petroleum Market Module of NEMS. The Industrial Module calculates

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

begun to require energy auditors to include recommendationsenergy efficiency (EE) measures, but increasing interest in demand response has led the IOUs to ask auditors

McKane, Aimee T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Title Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Publication Type Report Refereed Designation Unknown Year of Publication 2010 Authors Goldman, Charles A., Michael Reid, Roger Levy, and Alison Silverstein Pagination 74 Date Published 01/2010 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025.1 Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries-which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity-is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that "the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW" by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

163

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

165

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 6 Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Cooling residential buildings in milder climates contributes significantly to peak demand mainly because of poor load factors. Peak cooling load determines the size of equipment and the cooling source. Several measures reduce cooling-system size and allow the use of lower-energy cooling sources; they include incorporating exterior walls or other elements that effectively shelter interiors from outside heat and cold, and providing thermal mass, to cool interior spaces during the day by absorbing heat and warm them at night as the mass discharges its heat. Thermal mass features may be used for storage only or serve as structural elements. Concrete, steel, adobe, stone, and brick all satisfy requirements

167

National Action Plan on Demand Response  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

David Kathan, Ph.D David Kathan, Ph.D Federal Energy Regulatory Commission U.S. DOE Electricity Advisory Committee October 29, 2010 Demand Response as Power System Resources The author's views do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 2 Demand Response * FERC (Order 719) defines demand response as: - A reduction in the consumption of electric energy by customers from their expected consumption in response to an increase in the price of electric energy or to in incentive payments designed to induce lower consumption of electric energy. * The National Action Plan on Demand Response released by FERC staff broadens this definition to include - Consumer actions that can change any part of the load profile of a utility or region, not just the period of peak usage

168

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Electricity Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity Demand Electricity Demand Annual Energy Outlook 2008 with Projections to 2030 Electricity Demand Figure 60. Annual electricity sales by sector, 1980-2030 (billion kilowatthours). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 61. Electricity generation by fuel, 2006 and 2030 (billion kilowatthours). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Residential and Commercial Sectors Dominate Electricity Demand Growth Total electricity sales increase by 29 percent in the AEO2008 reference case, from 3,659 billion kilowatthours in 2006 to 4,705 billion in 2030, at an average rate of 1.1 percent per year. The relatively slow growth follows the historical trend, with the growth rate slowing in each succeeding

169

China End-Use Energy Demand Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

China End-Use Energy Demand Modeling China End-Use Energy Demand Modeling Speaker(s): Nan Zhou Date: October 8, 2009 (All day) Location: 90-3122 As a consequence of soaring energy demand due to the staggering pace of its economic growth, China overtook the United States in 2007 to become the world's biggest contributor to CO2 emissions (IEA, 2007). Since China is still in an early stage of industrialization and urbanization, economic development promises to keep China's energy demand growing strongly. Furthermore, China's reliance on fossil fuel is unlikely to change in the long term, and increased needs will only heighten concerns about energy security and climate change. In response, the Chinese government has developed a series of policies and targets aimed at improving energy efficiency, including both short-term targets and long-term strategic

170

Energy demand and population changes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

An economic comparison between two district cooling systems in Halmstad.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The supply of cooling has increased significantly in recent years, the trend shows that the increase will continue one reason is that the standard… (more)

Le, Alex

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Energy consumption and optimization of internally cooled/heated liquid desiccant air-conditioning system: A case study in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract LDAC (liquid desiccant air-conditioning system) is promising for reducing the energy consumption, and improving the indoor air quality. In this paper, the operation performance of LDAC with internally cooled/heated dehumidifier/regenerator was simulated and optimized. The cooling tower and solar collectors were employed as the cooling/heating source. Four nested iteration loops were developed and solved for system modeling. A typical commercial building in Hong Kong was selected as a case study, which air-conditioning load was obtained by Energy-plus. Results show that with the increase of solar collector area, the electricity consumption of AC (air-conditioning systems) system reduced by 11–35% in original system, but only a part of dehumidification demand was handled with liquid desiccant ventilation, which led to a low chiller COP (coefficient of performance). By adding a cooling coil for the solution entering dehumidifier, the electricity saving effectively increased to 22–47%, while the heat demand for regeneration also increased by 17%. So, a heat exchanger between water leaving regenerator and solution leaving dehumidifier was introduced. With the lower thermal requirement (reduced by 20%) and higher solar fraction (increased from 30 to 40%), the saving further increased to 29–49%, and the required collector area obviously reduced by 50–60% for the similar energy saving purpose.

Ronghui Qi; Lin Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Demand Side Bidding. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

Spahn, Andrew

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

The Effects of Residential Energy Efficiency on Electric Demand Response Programs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Design and efficiency of houses can affect the amount of peak load reduction available from a residential demand response program. Twenty-four houses were simulated with varying thermal integrity and air conditioner size during the summer cooling season ... Keywords: demand response, efficiency, residential, hvac, conservation

Ward Jewell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Demand Response | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in wholesale markets, and in turn, lead to lower retail rates. Methods of engaging customers in demand response efforts include offering time-based rates such as time-of-use pricing, critical peak pricing, variable peak pricing, real time pricing, and critical peak rebates. It also includes direct load control programs which provide the

176

Understanding and Analysing Energy Demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter introduces the concept of energy demand using basic micro-economics and presents the three-stage decision making process of energy demand. It then provides a set of simple ... (such as price and inco...

Subhes C. Bhattacharyya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Demand Response: Load Management Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

Simon, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Demand Charges | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Charges Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDemandCharges&oldid488967"...

179

Cavity cooling of an atomic array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While cavity cooling of a single trapped emitter was demonstrated, cooling of many particles in an array of harmonic traps needs investigation and poses a question of scalability. This work investigates the cooling of a one dimensional atomic array to the ground state of motion via the interaction with the single mode field of a high-finesse cavity. The key factor ensuring the cooling is found to be the mechanical inhomogeneity of the traps. Furthermore it is shown that the pumped cavity mode does not only mediate the cooling but also provides the necessary inhomogeneity if its periodicity differs from the one of the array. This configuration results in the ground state cooling of several tens of atoms within a few milliseconds, a timescale compatible with current experimental conditions. Moreover, the cooling rate scaling with the atom number reveals a drastic change of the dynamics with the size of the array: atoms are either cooled independently, or via collective modes. In the latter case the cavity mediated atom interaction destructively slows down the cooling as well as increases the mean occupation number, quadratically with the atom number. Finally, an order of magnitude speed up of the cooling is predicted as an outcome the optimization scheme based on the adjustment of the array versus the cavity mode periodicity.

Oxana Mishina

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

180

Assessment of Demand Response Resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for PGE and Pacific Power Prepared for: Portland January 15, 2004 K:\\Projects\\2003-53 (PGE,PC) Assess Demand Response\\Report\\Revised Report_011504.doc #12;#12;quantec Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for I-1 PGE and Pacific Power I. Introduction

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles Senior Analyst, Market Design & Development, ERCOT Whitacre;Definitions of Demand Response · `The short-term adjustment of energy use by consumers in response to price to market or reliability conditions.' (NAESB) #12;Definitions of Demand Response · The common threads

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

182

Pricing data center demand response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Demand response is crucial for the incorporation of renewable energy into the grid. In this paper, we focus on a particularly promising industry for demand response: data centers. We use simulations to show that, not only are data centers large loads, ... Keywords: data center, demand response, power network, prediction based pricing

Zhenhua Liu; Iris Liu; Steven Low; Adam Wierman

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Decentralized demand–supply matching using community microgrids and consumer demand response: A scenario analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Developing countries constantly face the challenge of reliably matching electricity supply to increasing consumer demand. The traditional policy decisions of increasing supply and reducing demand centrally, by building new power plants and/or load shedding, have been insufficient. Locally installed microgrids along with consumer demand response can be suitable decentralized options to augment the centralized grid based systems and plug the demand–supply gap. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) develop a framework to identify the appropriate decentralized energy options for demand–supply matching within a community, and, (2) determine which of these options can suitably plug the existing demand–supply gap at varying levels of grid unavailability. A scenario analysis framework is developed to identify and assess the impact of different decentralized energy options at a community level and demonstrated for a typical urban residential community – Vijayanagar, Bangalore in India. A combination of LPG based CHP microgrid and proactive demand response by the community is the appropriate option that enables the Vijayanagar community to meet its energy needs 24/7 in a reliable, cost-effective manner. The paper concludes with an enumeration of the barriers and feasible strategies for the implementation of community microgrids in India based on stakeholder inputs.

Kumudhini Ravindra; Parameshwar P. Iyer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Affecting the Gross Cooling Power of a Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Mass Flow Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To increase the cooling capacity of a pulse tube cryocooler the ... For a given pulse tube volume the gross cooling power is limited. Since the cooling effect originates from the phase shift angle ... we present ...

A. Waldauf; T. Schmauder; M. Thürk; P. Seidel

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Overview of Demand Response  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

08 PJM 08 PJM www.pjm.com ©2003 PJM Overview of Demand Response PJM ©2008 PJM www.pjm.com ©2003 PJM Growth, Statistics, and Current Footprint AEP, Dayton, ComEd, & DUQ Dominion Generating Units 1,200 + Generation Capacity 165,000 MW Peak Load 144,644 MW Transmission Miles 56,070 Area (Square Miles) 164,250 Members 500 + Population Served 51 Million Area Served 13 States and DC Generating Units 1,200 + Generation Capacity 165,000 MW Peak Load 144,644 MW Transmission Miles 56,070 Area (Square Miles) 164,250 Members 500 + Population Served 51 Million Area Served 13 States and DC Current PJM RTO Statistics Current PJM RTO Statistics PJM Mid-Atlantic Integrations completed as of May 1 st , 2005 ©2008 PJM

186

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

187

The impact of demand-controlled ventilation on energy use in buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation controls and energy analyses were performed for a range of typical buildings, systems, and climates. Only single zone buildings were considered, so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates, and for buildings that have low relative internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 10% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger, but were strongly dependent upon the occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules (e.g., stores and restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was reduced by a factor of 10 with demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates.

Braun, J.E.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Market-based airport demand management : theory, model and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ever-increasing demand for access to the world's major commercial airports combined with capacity constraints at many of these airports have led to increasing air traffic congestion. In particular, the scarcity of ...

Fan, Terence P

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

New city model to reduce demand for transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Managing demand for transportation can be a cost-effective alternative to increasing capacity. A demand management approach to transport services also has the potential to deliver better environmental outcomes, improved public health and stronger communities, and more prosperous and liveable cities The increased distance between places will have a direct impact on the demand of transportation. Public transport system (MRTS) is an answer to the growing traffic congestion. However, the question is; Is MRTS are the last resort? This paper will be an attempt to regularize the development scenario of the city and thus reducing the demand for transportation.

Sumant Sharma; Anoop Sharma; Ashwani Kumar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

New demands, new supplies : a national look at the water balance of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in serious consideration of policies aimed at reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. If large scale abatement efforts are undertaken, one critical tool will be geologic sequestration of CO2 captured from large point sources, specifically coal and natural gas fired power plants. Current CO2 capture technologies exact a substantial energy penalty on the source power plant, which must be offset with make-up power. Water demands increase at the source plant due to added cooling loads. In addition, new water demand is created by water requirements associated with generation of the make-up power. At the sequestration site however, saline water may be extracted to manage CO2 plum migration and pressure build up in the geologic formation. Thus, while CO2 capture creates new water demands, CO2 sequestration has the potential to create new supplies. Some or all of the added demand may be offset by treatment and use of the saline waters extracted from geologic formations during CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories, with guidance and support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is creating a model to evaluate the potential for a combined approach to saline formations, as a sink for CO2 and a source for saline waters that can be treated and beneficially reused to serve power plant water demands. This presentation will focus on the magnitude of added U.S. power plant water demand under different CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, and the portion of added demand that might be offset by saline waters extracted during the CO2 sequestration process.

Krumhansl, James Lee; McNemar, Andrea (National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Morgantown, WV); Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Abstract --Cybersecurity research demands extensive experimentation to be validated. This experimentation is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Abstract -- Cybersecurity research demands extensive experimentation to be validated to modern society, concerns about cybersecurity become increasingly important. The challenge of securing. In response to these factors, the cybersecurity research community demands increasingly realistic

Faber, Ted

192

Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This ?electricity value chain? defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to"demo" potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives.1 In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.

McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Piette, MaryAnn

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Demand Response Programs, 6. edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

NONE

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

195

Warm Winters Held Heating Oil Demand Down While Diesel Grew  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: To understand the inventory situation, we must look the balance between demand and supply that drives inventories up or down. First consider demand. Most of the remaining charts deal with total distillate demand. Total distillate demand includes both diesel and heating oil. These are similar products physically, and prior to the low sulfur requirements for on-road diesel fuel, were used interchangeably. But even today, low sulfur diesel can be used in the heating oil market, but low sulfur requirements keep heating oil from being used in the on-road transportation sector. The seasonal increases and decreases in stocks stem from the seasonal demand in heating oil shown as the bottom red line. Heating oil demand increases by more than 50 percent from its low point to its high

196

Effect of tree-shading on energy demand of two similar buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigates the effect of tree-shading on energy demand in two similar buildings. Outdoor and indoor air temperature was measured simultaneously for a period of 6 months. Five different base temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 25 °C were chosen and used to calculate cooling degree-days. Degree-day and cooling/warming rate methods were used to estimate cooling energy requirements for the two buildings. Indoor and outdoor cooling degree days were observed to be more for the un-shaded buildings compared to the tree-shaded one. Indoor warming and cooling rate show that the un-shaded building warms earlier and faster than the tree-shaded. Results indicate that tree-shading can save up to 34,500 NGN (US$218) on energy costs. The study shows the role of greening in reducing energy demand in buildings.

Ahmed Adedoyin Balogun; Tobi Eniolu Morakinyo; Olumuyiwa Bayode Adegun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Indoor air environment and night cooling energy efficiency of a southern German passive public school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The recently built school building has adopted a novel heat recovery air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification have been numerically investigated concerning the effects of the heat flow flux of passive cooling within the ceiling concrete in the classroom due to night ventilation in summer which could result in cooling energy storage. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of passive cooling can simultaneously decrease the volume averaged indoor temperatures and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air-cooling unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of exhaust air and the heat flux value for passive cooling within the classroom ceiling concrete. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented.

Yang Wang; Fu-Yun Zhao; Jens Kuckelkorn; Xiao-Hong Li; Han-Qing Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Uranium 2014 resources, production and demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. It presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Long-term projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major changes in the industry.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of control. Water heater demand response options are notcurrent water heater and air conditioning demand responsecustomer response Demand response water heater participation

Levy, Roger

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and D. Kathan (2009). Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityEnergy Financial Group. Demand Response Research Center [2008). Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering.

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Like HECO actual utility demand response implementations canindustry-wide utility demand response applications tend toobjective. Figure 4. Demand Response Objectives 17  

Levy, Roger

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their partnership in demand response automation research andand Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.

Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities,”Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities.for Automated Demand Response. Technical Document to

Rubinstein, Francis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23 ii Retail Demand Response in SPP List of Figures and10 Figure 3. Demand Response Resources by11 Figure 4. Existing Demand Response Resources by Type of

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Automating Demand Response Charles McParland, Lawrenceand Automating Demand Response Charles McParland, LBNLCommercial and Residential Demand Response Overview of the

McParland, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency,”Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,technical support from the Demand Response Research Center (

Federspiel, Clifford

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities”of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Option Value of Electricity Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 1. “Economic” demand response and real time pricing (Implications of Demand Response Programs in CompetitiveAdvanced Metering, and Demand Response in Electricity

Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, Charles; Krishnarao, P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 2.1 Demand-Side Managementbuildings. The demand side management framework is discussedIssues 2.1 Demand-Side Management Framework Forecasting

Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy demand-side management energy information systemdemand response. Demand-side management (DSM) program goalsa goal for demand-side management (DSM) coordination and

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

World: Renewable Energy and Demand Response Proliferation intogether the renewable energy and demand response communityimpacts of renewable energy and demand response integration

Papavasiliou, Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

District Small Business Summer Solutions: Energy and DemandSummer Solutions: Energy and Demand Impacts Monthly Energy> B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

electricity demand | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

demand demand Dataset Summary Description The New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development publishes energy data including many datasets related to electricity. Included here are three electricity consumption and demand datasets, specifically: annual observed electricity consumption by sector (1974 to 2009); observed percentage of consumers by sector (2002 - 2009); and regional electricity demand, as a percentage of total demand (2009). Source New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development Date Released Unknown Date Updated July 03rd, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords Electricity Consumption electricity demand energy use by sector New Zealand Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Electricity Consumption by Sector (1974 - 2009) (xls, 46.1 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Percentage of Consumers by Sector (2002 - 2009) (xls, 43.5 KiB)

215

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

216

Enhanced cooling of atoms within an optical cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study enhanced cooling of atoms within an optical cavity using feedback and a time-dependent pump source. The two approaches operate on the same principle by increasing the modulation of the optical potential induced by atomic motion in the cavity. We show that cooling time can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude over conventional cavity cooling.

Lu, W.; Barker, P.F. [Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Energy Demand and Supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The world consumption of primary energy has been on the increase ever since the Industrial Revolution . The energy consumption in 1860 is estimated to have ... particularly marked since WWII when the sources of primary

Kimio Uno

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Modelling transport fuel demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transport fuels account for an increasing share of oil ... interest to study the economics of the transport fuel market and thereby to evaluate the efficiency of the price mechanism as an instrument of policy in ...

Thomas Sterner; Carol A. Dahl

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

220

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

District cooling gets hot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Logistics: Keeping cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. 10.1038/507S8aLogistics: Keeping cool NeilSavageN

Neil Savage

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

224

Cooling System Analysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??ABSTRACT This master thesis report describes the behavior of a cooling system based on the power consumption and power losses during the velocity range. The… (more)

Cruz, João Pedro Brás da

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Harnessing the power of demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

China, India demand cushions prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

Boyle, M.

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility,...

229

Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data Collection for Demand-side Management for QualifyingPrepared by Demand-side Management Task Force of the

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Towards continuous policy-driven demand response in data centers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Demand response (DR) is a technique for balancing electricity supply and demand by regulating power consumption instead of generation. DR is a key technology for emerging smart electric grids that aim to increase grid efficiency, while incorporating ... Keywords: blink, power, renewable energy, storage

David Irwin; Navin Sharma; Prashant Shenoy

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Mobile applications constantly demand additional memory, and traditional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This remote access could reduce local storage space, thereby reducing energy demands on the mobile plat- form60 Mobile applications constantly demand additional memory, and traditional designs increase- port connected ubiquitous environments. Engineers attempt to minimize network use because of its

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

232

The impact of demand-controlled and economizer ventilation strategies on energy use in buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies for constant-air-volume (CAV) systems in commercial buildings. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation, and energy analyses were performed for four typical building types, eight alternative ventilation systems, and twenty US climates. Only single-zone buildings were considered so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates and for buildings that have relatively low internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 20% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger but were strongly dependent upon the building type and occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules and large internal gains (i.e., restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was virtually eliminated by demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates. For both heating and cooling, the savings associated with demand-controlled ventilation are dependent on the fixed minimum ventilation rate of the base case at design conditions.

Brandemuehl, M.J.; Braun, J.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Automated Demand Response and Commissioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts per month based on more than 50 manually-created document types. The fact that DAMA and FM&T desired to move from paper-based manual architectures to digitally based computer architectures gave further incentive for the partnership to grow. FM&T's greatest strength was its knowledge of NWC-wide scheduling and planning with its role as the NWC leader in manufacturing logistics. DAMA's asset was its new knowledge gained in the research and development of advanced architectures and tools for supply chain management in the textiles industry. These complimentary strengths allowed the two parties to provide both the context and the tools for the pilot. Bender: Honeywell FM&T participated in a four-site supply chain project, also referred to as an Inter-Enterprise Pipeline Evaluation. The MSAD project was selected because it involves four NWC sites: FM&T, Pantex, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). FM&T had previously participated with Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY98 to model a two-site supply chain project, between FM&T and LANL. Evaluation of a Supply Chain Methodology is a subset of the DAMA project for the AMTEX consortium. LANL organization TSA-7, Enterprise Modeling and Simulation, has been involved in AMTEX and DAMA through development of process models and simulations for LANL, the NWC, and others. The FY 1998 and this FY 1999 projects directly involved collaboration between Honeywell and the Enterprise Modeling and Simulation (TSA-7) and Detonation Science and Technology (DX1) organizations at LANL.

Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

2001-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

235

Water supply and demand in an energy supply model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

Abbey, D; Loose, V

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands haveincreased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. Data centers house IT equipment and require significantly more energy to operate per unit floor area thanconventional buildings. The economic and environmental ramifications of continued data center growth motivate the need to explore energy-efficient methods to operate these buildings. A substantial portion of data center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat that is generated by the IT equipment. Using economizers to introduce large airflow rates of outside air during favorable weather could substantially reduce the energy consumption of data center cooling. Cooling buildings with economizers is an established energy saving measure, but in data centers this strategy is not widely used, partly owing to concerns that the large airflow rates would lead to increased indoor levels of airborne particles, which could damage IT equipment. The environmental conditions typical of data centers and the associated potential for equipment failure, however, are not well characterized. This barrier to economizer implementation illustrates the general relationship between energy use and indoor air quality in building design and operation. This dissertation investigates how building design and operation influence energy use and indoor air quality in data centers and provides strategies to improve both design goals simultaneously.As an initial step toward understanding data center air quality, measurements of particle concentrations were made at multiple operating northern California data centers. Ratios of measured particle concentrations in conventional data centers to the corresponding outside concentrations were significantly lower than those reported in the literature for office or residential buildings. Estimates using a material-balance model match well with empirical results, indicating that the dominant particle sources and losses -- ventilation and filtration -- have been characterized. Measurements taken at a data center using economizers show nearly an order of magnitude increase in particle concentration during economizer activity. However, even with the increase, themeasured particle concentrations are still below concentration limits recommended in most industry standards. The research proceeds by exploring the feasibility of using economizers in data centers while simultaneously controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at a data center using economizers and varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to the measurements when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh the increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration couldsignificantly reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design. The emphasis of the dissertation then shifts to evaluate the energy benefits of economizer use in data centers under different design strategies. Economizer use with high ventilation rates is compared against an alternative, water-side economizer design that does not affect indoor particle concentrations. Building energy models are employed to estimate energy savings of both economizer designs for data centers in

Shehabi, Arman

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the number and nature of power and cooling distribution andservices such as power and cooling. Even though theirby the facility’s power, cooling, and lighting systems,

Mares, K.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

239

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

240

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

243

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

244

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

245

Cooling of neutron stars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the basis of current physical understanding, it is impossible to predict with confidence the interior constitution of neutron stars. Cooling of neutron stars provides a possible way of discriminating among possible states of matter within them. In the standard picture of cooling by neutrino emission developed over the past quarter of a century, neutron stars are expected to cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and to cool faster if matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been called into question by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

C. J. Pethick

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy December 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Secretary Steven Chu today announced the completion of a new cool roof installation on the Department of Energy's Headquarters West Building. There was no incremental cost to adding the cool roof as part of the roof replacement project and it will save taxpayers $2,000 every year in building energy costs. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency, reduce cooling costs and offset carbon emissions. The cool roof and increased insulation at the facility were

247

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a trade-off between cooling power and faster reaction time,a trade-off between cooling power and faster reaction time,derived potential peak cooling power of 77 W/m 2 (24 Btu/hr-

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Energy technologies and their impact on demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the uncertainties, energy demand forecasts must be made to guide government policies and public and private-sector capital investment programs. Three principles can be identified in considering long-term energy prospects. First energy demand will continue to grow, driven by population growth, economic development, and the current low per capita energy consumption in developing countries. Second, energy technology advancements alone will not solve the problem. Energy-efficient technologies, renewable resource technologies, and advanced electric power technologies will all play a major role but will not be able to keep up with the growth in world energy demand. Third, environmental concerns will limit the energy technology choices. Increasing concern for environmental protection around the world will restrict primarily large, centralized energy supply facilities. The conclusion is that energy system diversity is the only solution. The energy system must be planned with consideration of both supply and demand technologies, must not rely on a single source of energy, must take advantage of all available technologies that are specially suited to unique local conditions, must be built with long-term perspectives, and must be able to adapt to change.

Drucker, H.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Late January Cold Impacted Both Supply & Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

A brief cold spell occurred in the second half of January on top of A brief cold spell occurred in the second half of January on top of the low stocks. Cold weather increases demand, but it also can interfere with supply, as happened this past January. During the week ending January 22, temperatures in the New England and the Mid-Atlantic areas shifted from being15 percent and 17 percent warmer than normal, respectively, to 24 percent and 22 percent colder than normal. The weather change increased weekly heating requirements by about 40 percent. Temperature declines during the winter affect heating oil demand in a number of ways: Space heating demand increases; Electricity peaking demand increases and power generators must turn to distillate to meet the new peak needs; Fuel switching from natural gas to distillate occurs among large

250

building demand | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

demand demand Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

251

EIA - AEO2010 - Electricity Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity Demand Electricity Demand Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Electricity Demand Figure 69. U.S. electricity demand growth 1950-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 60. Average annual U.S. retail electricity prices in three cases, 1970-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 61. Electricity generation by fuel in three cases, 2008 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 62. Electricity generation capacity additions by fuel type, 2008-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 63. Levelized electricity costs for new power plants, 2020 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 64. Electricity generating capacity at U.S. nuclear power plants in three cases, 2008, 2020, and 2035

252

Full Rank Rational Demand Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a nominal income full rank QES. R EFERENCES (A.84)S. G. Donald. “Inferring the Rank of a Matrix. ” Journal of97-102. . “A Demand System Rank Theorem. ” Econometrica 57 (

LaFrance, Jeffrey T; Pope, Rulon D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Demand Forecasting of New Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keeping Unit or SKU) employing attribute analysis techniques. The objective of this thesis is to improve Abstract This thesis is a study into the demand forecasting of new products (also referred to as Stock

Sun, Yu

254

Development and analysis of a new integrated power and cooling plant using LiBr–H 2 O mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cooling needs are increasing rapidly at hot climatic ... expensive. The concept of a newly proposed cooling cogeneration cycle has been developed by clubbing the power and cooling processes. It consists of charac...

R SHANKAR; T SRINIVAS

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Demand Response and Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response & Energy Efficiency International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 2 ?Less than 5..., 2009 4 An Innovative Solution to Get the Ball Rolling ? Demand Response (DR) ? Monitoring Based Commissioning (MBCx) EnerNOC has a solution involving two complementary offerings. ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference...

256

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Use of Reclaimed Water for Power Plant Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CONTENTS Chapter 1 - Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1 Power Plants Need Water .................................................................................................. 1 Meeting Water Demands in a Water-Constrained Environment ....................................... 3 Purpose and Structure of the Report .................................................................................. 3 Chapter 2 - Database of Reclaimed Water Use for Cooling ................................................... 5 Data Collection .................................................................................................................. 5 The Database...................................................................................................................... 7

258

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

259

Impact of Natural Gas Price Decontrol on Gas Supply, Demand and Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is increasingly supplemented by supplies from coal gasification, Alaska, unconventional sources, LNG, Canada, and Mexico. At the same time, however, gas demand is characterized by price-induced conservation in all markets, together with continuing gas demand...

Schlesinger, B.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Sandia National Laboratories: increase PV deployment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

increase PV deployment ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Electronic Cooling in Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy transfer to acoustic phonons is the dominant low-temperature cooling channel of electrons in a crystal. For cold neutral graphene we find that the weak cooling power of its acoustic modes relative to their heat capacity leads to a power-law decay of the electronic temperature when far from equilibrium. For heavily doped graphene a high electronic temperature is shown to initially decrease linearly with time at a rate proportional to n3/2 with n being the electronic density. The temperature at which cooling via optical phonon emission begins to dominate depends on graphene carrier density.

R. Bistritzer and A. H. MacDonald

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Multiphase cooling flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

Peter A. Thomas

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

263

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the most important design considerations for any method of Natural Cool ing is the chil led water temperature range selected for use during Natural Cool ing. Figure VI shows that for a hypo thetical Chicago plant, the hours of operation for a Natural..." system on the Natural Cool ing cycle. As the pressures and flow rates of the condenser and chil led water systems are seldom the same, the designer must pay careful attention to the cross over system design to ensure harmonious operations on both...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

National Action Plan on Demand Response  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Action Plan on Demand National Action Plan on Demand Action Plan on Demand National Action Plan on Demand Response Response Federal Utilities Partnership Working Group Federal Utilities Partnership Working Group November 18, 2008 November 18, 2008 Daniel Gore Daniel Gore Office of Energy Market Regulation Office of Energy Market Regulation Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The author's views do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Presentation Contents Presentation Contents Statutory Requirements Statutory Requirements National Assessment [Study] of Demand Response National Assessment [Study] of Demand Response National Action Plan on Demand Response National Action Plan on Demand Response General Discussion on Demand Response and Energy Outlook

265

Investigation of a Single Stage Four-Valve Pulse Tube Refrigerator for High Cooling Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the optimization of a pulse tube refrigerator for high cooling power. Our approach is to increase the system...

T. Schmauder; A. Waldauf; M. Thürk; R. Wagner; P. Seidel

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Demand Response Projects: Technical and Market Demonstrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response Projects: Technical and Market Demonstrations Philip D. Lusk Deputy Director Energy Analyst #12;PLACE CAPTION HERE. #12;#12;#12;#12;City of Port Angeles Demand Response History energy charges · Demand charges during peak period only ­ Reduced demand charges for demand response

267

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

268

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

269

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

270

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

271

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Müller

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

272

HomeCooling101  

Energy Savers [EERE]

openings to prevent warm air from leaking into your home. Insulate and seal ducts -- air loss through ducts accounts for about 30 percent of a cooling system's energy consumption....

273

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

274

Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. Barat, D. Watson. 2006 Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby 2008. Demand Response Spinning ReserveReport 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communications

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standardized Automated Demand Response Signals. Presented atand Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedActions for Industrial Demand Response in California. LBNL-

Mares, K.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

278

Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, was used to determine the effect of several parameters on energy consumption, peak electrical demand cooling performance and lower energy consumption than houses with ducts in conventional attics. However consumption, and power demand. The effects of refrigerant charge, evaporator air flow), oversizing (relative

279

Exergoeconomic analysis of high concentration photovoltaic thermal co-generation system for space cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper provides an exergetic analysis of a 10 MW high concentration photovoltaic thermal (HCPVT) power plant case study located in Hammam Bou Hadjar, Algeria. The novel HCPVT multi-energy carrier plant converts 25% of the direct normal irradiance (DNI) into electrical energy and 62.5% to low grade heat for a combined efficiency of 87.5%. The HCPVT system employs a point focus dish concentrator with a cooled PV receiver module. The novel “hot-water” cooling approach is used for energy reuse purposes and is enabled by our state-of-the-art substrate integrated micro-cooling technology. The high performance cooler of the receiver with a thermal resistance of <0.12 cm2 K/W enables the receiver module to handle concentrations of up to 5000 suns. In the present study, a concentration of 2000 suns allows using coolant fluid temperatures of up to 80 °C. This key innovation ensures reliable operation of the triple junction PV (3JPV) cells used and also allows heat recovery for utilization in other thermal applications such as space cooling, heating, and desalination. Within this context, an exergoeconomics analysis of photovoltaic thermal co-generation for space cooling is presented in this manuscript. The valuation method presented here for the HCPVT multi-energy carrier plant comprises both the technical and economic perspectives. The proposed model determines how the cost structure is evolving in four different scenarios by quantifying the potential thermal energy demand in Hammam Bou Hadjar. The model pins down the influence of technical details such as the exergetic efficiency to the economic value of the otherwise wasted heat. The thermal energy reuse boosts the power station?s overall yield, reduces total average costs and optimizes power supply as fixed capital is deployed more efficiently. It is observed that even though potential cooling demand can be substantial (19,490 MWh per household), prices for cooling should be 3 times lower than those of electricity in Algeria (18 USD/MWh) to be competitive. This implies a need to reach economies of scale in the production of individual key components of the HCPVT system. The net present value (NPV) is calculated taking growth rates and the system?s modular efficiencies into account, discounted over 25 years. Scenario 1 shows that even though Algeria currently has no market for thermal energy, a break-even quantity (49,728 MWh) can be deduced by taking into account the relation between fixed costs and the marginal profit. Scenario 2 focuses on the national growth rate needed to break even, i.e. +10.92%. Scenario 3 illustrates thermal price variations given an increase in the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of a thermally driven adsorption chiller after year 10. In this case, the price for cooling will decrease from 18 USD/MWh to 14 USD/MWh. Finally, scenario 4 depicts Hammam Bou Hadjar?s potential cooling demand per household and the growth rate needed to break even if a market for heat would exist.

Veronica Garcia-Heller; Stephan Paredes; Chin Lee Ong; Patrick Ruch; Bruno Michel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Is Demand-Side Management Economically Justified?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 7 Is Demand-Side Management Economically Justified? With billions of dollars being spent on demand-side management programs in the U.S. every year, the rationale for and performance of these programs are coming under increasing scrutiny. Three projects in the Energy Analysis Program are making significant contributions to the DSM debate. *Total Resource Cost Test Ratio = ratio of utility avoided costs (i.e., benefits) divided by total cost of program (i.e., Administrative Cost + Incentive Cost + Consumer Cost) In May, Joe Eto, Ed Vine, Leslie Shown, Chris Payne, and I released the first in a series of reports we authored from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project. The objective of DEEP is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored energy-efficiency

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Must DSM programs increase rates? (Not all...just some)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand side management in the electric power industry is discussed. The effect on price increases to the consumer is evaluated.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

RHIC stochastic cooling motion control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

283

Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995 by Tancred Lidderdale* Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gaso- line in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. Refor- mulated motor gasoline is expected to constitute about one-third of total motor gasoline demand in 1995, and refiners will have to change plant opera- tions and modify equipment in order to meet the higher demand. The costs incurred are expected to create a wholesale price premium for reformu- lated motor gasoline of up to 4.0 cents per gallon over the price of conventional motor gasoline. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining

284

Facilitating Renewable Integration by Demand Response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Demand response is seen as one of the resources ... expected to incentivize small consumers to participate in demand response. This chapter models the involvement of small consumers in demand response programs wi...

Juan M. Morales; Antonio J. Conejo…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Barat, and D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby. 2009. Demand Response Spinning ReserveFormat of 2009-2011 Demand Response Activity Applications.

Joseph, Eto

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Demand response-enabled residential thermostat controls.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

human dimension of demand response technology from a caseArens, E. , et al. 2008. Demand Response Enabling TechnologyArens, E. , et al. 2006. Demand Response Enabling Technology

Chen, Xue; Jang, Jaehwi; Auslander, David M.; Peffer, Therese; Arens, Edward A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Value of Demand Response -Introduction Klaus Skytte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Value of Demand Response - Introduction Klaus Skytte Systems Analysis Department February 7, 2006 Energinet.dk, Ballerup #12;What is Demand Response? Demand response (DR) is the short-term response

288

World Energy Use — Trends in Demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to provide adequate energy supplies in the future, trends in energy demand must be evaluated and projections of future demand developed. World energy use is far from static, and an understanding of the demand

Randy Hudson

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050 RyanCEC (2003a) California energy demand 2003-2013 forecast.CEC (2005a) California energy demand 2006-2016: Staff energy

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Definition: Demand | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Demand Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Demand The rate at which electric energy is delivered to or by a system or part of a system, generally expressed in kilowatts or megawatts, at a given instant or averaged over any designated interval of time., The rate at which energy is being used by the customer.[1] Related Terms energy, electricity generation References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Demand&oldid=480555"

291

Winter Demand Impacted by Weather  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: Heating oil demand is strongly influenced by weather. The "normal" numbers are the expected values for winter 2000-2001 used in EIA's Short-Term Energy Outlook. The chart indicates the extent to which the last winter exhibited below-normal heating degree-days (and thus below-normal heating demand). Temperatures were consistently warmer than normal throughout the 1999-2000 heating season. This was particularly true in November 1999, February 2001 and March 2001. For the heating season as a whole (October through March), the 1999-2000 winter yielded total HDDs 10.7% below normal. Normal temperatures this coming winter would, then, be expected to bring about 11% higher heating demand than we saw last year. Relative to normal, the 1999-2000 heating season was the warmest in

292

International Oil Supplies and Demands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

International Oil Supplies and Demands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

Not Available

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

Not Available

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Numerical Simulation of Transpiration Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen SUMMARY Transpiration cooling using ceramic matrix composite (CMC

297

Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Demand Response Technology Development The objective ofin planning demand response technology RD&D by conductingNew and Emerging Technologies into the California Smart Grid

Joseph, Eto

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Long-term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response> B-4 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Demand Response - Policy Demand Response - Policy Since its inception, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has been committed to modernizing the nation's...

300

Sandia National Laboratories: demand response inverter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

demand response inverter ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Demand Response A pilot program from NSTAR in Massachusetts,Massachusetts, aiming to test whether an intensive program of energy efficiency and demand response

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

annual per-capita electricity consumption by demand15 California electricity consumption projections by demandannual per-capita electricity consumption by demand

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 January 16, 2011 Conference Call...

304

Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the BetterBuildings...

305

California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vehicle Conventional and Alternative Fuel Response Simulatormodified to include alternative fuel demand scenarios (whichvehicle adoption and alternative fuel demand) later in the

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

307

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

308

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

309

Integrating district cooling with cogeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

Spurr, M.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

DOE Cool Roof Calculator for Low-Slope or Flat Roofs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Estimates Cooling and Heating Savings for Flat Roofs with Non-Black Surfaces - Developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Version 1.2) - This version of the calculator is for small and medium-sized facilities that purchase electricity without a demand charge based on peak monthly load. If you have a large facility that purchases electricity with a demand charge, run the CoolCalcPeak version in order to include the savings in peak demand charges from using solar radiation control. - What you get out of this calculator is only as good as what you put in. If you CLICK HERE , you'll find help in figuring out the best input values. Some things, such as the weathering of the solar radiation control properties and the effects of a plenum, are especially important. You'll

311

Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.

McParland, Charles

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Smart Buildings and Demand Response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in communications and control technology the strengthening of the Internet and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto?DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components systems end?uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used levels of services by energy using systems granularity of control and speed of telemetry. DR when defined as a discrete event requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Water demand management in Kuwait  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

A Cheat-Proof Game Theoretic Demand Response Scheme for Smart Grids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Cheat-Proof Game Theoretic Demand Response Scheme for Smart Grids Yan Chen, W. Sabrina Lin, Feng}@umd.edu Abstract--While demand response has achieved promising results on making the power grid more efficient and reliable, the additional dynamics and flexibility brought by demand response also increase the uncertainty

Liu, K. J. Ray

315

Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

Zhang, Wei

316

(2013) 128 Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(2013) 1­28 Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via Workload Shifting.chen@hp.com Abstract Demand response is a crucial aspect of the future smart grid. It has the potential to provide centers' participation in demand response is becoming increasingly important given their high

Wierman, Adam

317

Design and Valuation of Demand Response Mechanisms and Instruments for Integrating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and Valuation of Demand Response Mechanisms and Instruments for Integrating Renewable) research project titled "Design and Valuation of Demand Response Mechanisms and Instruments for Integrating resources. The increased reserve requirement can be met using the so-called demand response resources (DRRs

318

Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options Speaker(s): Osman Sezgen Date: August 1, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare As some end-users of energy and aggregators are choosing to be exposed to real-time prices and energy price volatility, they are coming across new DSM opportunities that would not be feasible under typical utility rate structures. Effective evaluation of such opportunities requires a good understanding of the wholesale energy markets and the use of models based on recent financial techniques for option pricing. The speaker will give examples of such modeling approaches based on his experience in the retail-energy industry. Specific examples will include evaluation of distributed generation, load curtailment, dual-fuel cooling, and energy

319

Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Title Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3348e Year of Publication 2008 Authors Yin, Rongxin, Peng Xu, and Sila Kiliccote Keywords auto-dr, building energy simulation tool, demand response, demand shifting (pre-cooling), DRQAT, market sectors, pre-cooling, technologies, testbed tools and guides, thermal mass Abstract Over the several past years, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has conducted field tests for different pre-cooling strategies in different commercial buildings within California. The test results indicated that pre-cooling strategies were effective in reducing electric demand in these buildings during peak periods. This project studied how to optimize pre-cooling strategies for eleven buildings in the Tri-City Corporate Center, San Bernardino, California with the assistance of a building energy simulation tool - the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT) developed by LBNL's Demand Response Research Center funded by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. From the simulation results of these eleven buildings, optimal pre-cooling and temperature reset strategies were developed. The study shows that after refining and calibrating initial models with measured data, the accuracy of the models can be greatly improved and the models can be used to predict load reductions for automated demand response (Auto-DR) events. This study summarizes the optimization experience of the procedure to develop and calibrate building models in DRQAT. In order to confirm the actual effect of demand response strategies, the simulation results were compared to the field test data. The results indicated that the optimal demand response strategies worked well for all buildings in the Tri-City Corporate Center. This study also compares DRQAT with other building energy simulation tools (eQUEST and BEST). The comparison indicate that eQUEST and BEST underestimate the actual demand shed of the pre-cooling strategies due to a flaw in DOE2's simulation engine for treating wall thermal mass. DRQAT is a more accurate tool in predicting thermal mass effects of DR events.

320

Film Cooling Performance in a Transonic High-pressure Vane: Decoupled Simulation and Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The continuous demand for increased performance and reliability of gas turbines leads to the improvement of prediction tools. Having regard to the effects of heat transfer on the residual life of gas turbine components, it is necessary to achieve a high level of accuracy in the evaluation of thermal loads. Computational fluid dynamics is able to provide reliable data in a limited lapse of time. In this paper, the numerical analysis of the cooled vane of the MT1 high-pressure turbine stage is presented. A grid dependence analysis based on the evaluation of the aero-thermal characteristics of the vane has been performed. Turbulence is modeled using the kT-kL-? method whose performance in this kind of configuration is rarely debated in the scientific literature. Model parameters have been tuned to match the experimental data. The final objective of the present activity is to assess the capability of numerical methods to deal with an annular, transonic high-pressure vane with a realistic film cooling configuration. Adiabatic effectiveness, heat transfer coefficient and net heat flux reduction distributions have been evaluated, the latter providing relevant information on the performance of the cooling system. The coupled fluid-solid simulation of the cooled configuration has also been performed to evaluate the impact of conjugate heat transfer on the prediction of thermal loads. Results show a non-negligible difference in the wall temperature evaluation between the decoupled and the coupled approach, mainly caused by the heat conduction in the solid.

Massimiliano Insinna; Duccio Griffini; Simone Salvadori; Francesco Martelli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cooling Towers Make Money  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was hired and wrote specifications for a four cell induced draft counterflow cooling tower to cool 10,000 GPM entering at 95 0 F leaving at 85 0 F during an 80 0 F ambient wet bulb temperature. The specifications required that the bidders project a... F during an ambient wet bulb temperature of 7] OF could not be met The SuperCellular film fill, style] 3] 62 Illustration 3 was selected by the consultant because of its previous highly satisfactory service in sewage treatment trickling filter...

Burger, R.

322

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

323

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

325

Increasing Knowledge Increasing Knowledge 29  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

28 Increasing Knowledge Increasing Knowledge 29 Expanding Leadership 36 Building Partnerships 43 the world. The challenges ahead are large, but WSP is preparing to meet them by increasing knowledge, expanding leadership, building partnerships, and seeking solutions. #12;29 Increasing Knowledge Increasing

Fay, Noah

326

The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

Rochlin, Cliff

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Q:\asufinal_0107_demand.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

00 00 (AEO2000) Assumptions to the January 2000 With Projections to 2020 DOE/EIA-0554(2000) Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Macroeconomic Activity Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 International Energy Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Household Expenditures Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Residential Demand Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Commercial Demand Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Industrial Demand Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Transportation Demand Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Electricity Market Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Oil and Gas Supply Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution

328

INTEGRATION OF PV IN DEMAND RESPONSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTEGRATION OF PV IN DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS Prepared by Richard Perez et al. NREL subcontract response programs. This is because PV generation acts as a catalyst to demand response, markedly enhancing by solid evidence from three utility case studies. BACKGROUND Demand Response: demand response (DR

Perez, Richard R.

329

Demand Side Management in Rangan Banerjee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Side Management in Industry Rangan Banerjee Talk at Baroda in Birla Corporate Seminar August 31,2007 #12;Demand Side Management Indian utilities ­ energy shortage and peak power shortage. Supply for Options ­ Demand Side Management (DSM) & Load Management #12;DSM Concept Demand Side Management (DSM) - co

Banerjee, Rangan

330

Demand forecasting for multiple slow-moving items with short requests history and unequal demand variance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling the lead-time demand for the multiple slow-moving inventory items in the case when the available requests history is very short is a challenge for inventory management. The classical forecasting technique, which is based on the aggregation of the stock keeping units to overcome the mentioned historical data peculiarity, is known to lead to very poor performance in many cases important for industrial applications. An alternative approach to the demand forecasting for the considered problem is based on the Bayesian paradigm, when the initially developed population-averaged demand probability distribution is modified for each item using its specific requests history. This paper follows this approach and presents a new model, which relies on the beta distribution as a prior for the request probability, and allows to account for disparity in variance of demand between different stock keeping units. To estimate the model parameters, a special computationally effective technique based on the generalized method of moments is developed. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed model over the known ones, while the computational burden does not increase.

Alexandre Dolgui; Maksim Pashkevich

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

332

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrated Predictive Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on AddThis.com...

334

Techno-Economic Assessment of Solar PV/Thermal System for Power and Cooling Generation in Antalya, Turkey.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this study a roof-top PVT/absorption chiller system is modeled for a hotel building in Antalya, Turkey to cover the cooling demand of the… (more)

Kumbasar, Serdar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsand Techniques for Demand Response. California Energyand S. Kiliccote. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts:

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch

Satchwell, Andrew

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Techniques for Demand Response, report for theand Reliability Demand Response Programs: Final Report.Demand Response

McKane, Aimee T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,study of automated demand response in wastewater treatmentopportunities for demand response control strategies in

Thompson, Lisa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

CAPACITY DECISIONS WITH DEMAND FLUCTUATIONS AND CARBON LEAKAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For carbon-intensive, internationally-traded industrial goods, a unilat- eral increase in the domestic CO2 be partly oset by the increase of emissions in the rest of the world. The literature on carbon leakage hasCAPACITY DECISIONS WITH DEMAND FLUCTUATIONS AND CARBON LEAKAGE Guy MEUNIER Jean-Pierre PONSSARD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

Smith, M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

Optimized core design of a supercritical carbon dioxide-cooled fast reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spurred by the renewed interest in nuclear power, Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFRs) have received increasing attention in the past decade. Motivated by the goals of the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF), a GFR cooled ...

Handwerk, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanley), 1974-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions in Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, search Name Transportation Demand Management in Beijing - Mitigation of emissions in urban transport Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Transportation Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA Website http://www.tdm-beijing.org/ Program Start 2011 Program End 2014 Country China Eastern Asia References Transport Management in Beijing[1] Program Overview The project aims to improve transport demand management (TDM) in Beijing in order to manage the steadily increasing traffic density. The project provides capacity building for decision-makers and transport planners in

344

Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

Elpern, David G. (Los Angeles, CA); McCabe, Niall (Torrance, CA); Gee, Mark (South Pasadena, CA)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

345

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

346

Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling...

Brenner, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Cooling power of quenching oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Industrial oils 20 and 20V have the best cooling powers of all quenching oils (used in the USSR). They secure high cooling rates at low temperatures, have a satisfactory...

L. V. Petrash

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by  the  power  distribution  and  cooling  systems.  The  the  power   distribution  and  cooling  infrastructure  IT  power  consumed  along  with   the  cooling  required  

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Figure 3. Fan power versus cooling fan the computer fanparameters (cooling effect, fan power and CFE) involved inthat the typical power consumption of cooling fans is lower

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Cooling by heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

A. Mari; J. Eisert

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heating and cooling of dwelling houses and other confined spaces is facilitated by a system in which thermal energy is transported between an air heating and cooling system in the dwelling and a water heat storage sink or source, preferably in the form of a swimming pool or swimming pool and spa combination. Special reversing valve circuitry and the use of solar collectors and liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers on the liquid side of the system , and special air valves and air modules on the air side of the system, enhance the system's efficiency and make it practical in the sense that systems employing the invention can utilize existing craft skills and building financing arrangements and building codes, and the like, without major modification.

Krumhansl, M.U.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

Feasibility study for combining cooling and high grade energy production in a solar greenhouse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Throughout the world greenhouse horticulture is expanding and intensifying. The expansion is driven by the much higher production levels that are achieved in greenhouses compared to open fields. This provides increased income for farmers and a positive effect on rural development. Intensification is driven by the demand for better control of the production process resulting in higher yield but, more importantly, higher product quality. As a result products can meet the standards of the fast expanding consumer market for high quality fresh products, driven by the booming new economies. However greenhouse horticulture also faces major problems. In northern countries, with cold winter climates, greenhouses have to be heated for optimal growing conditions so energy supply is an important issue. In the southern countries with the combination of high global radiation and high outdoor temperatures during summer, cooling of greenhouses is needed during this period. Solutions for energy supply in winter and cooling in summer can be combined applying seasonal storage of excess solar energy and exploiting this for heating in winter. The advantage of this system is cheaper cooling, and energy savings of about 35% compared to heating by furnace. The disadvantage is that the excess solar energy is converted to low grade thermal energy which is stored at a temperature level of about 18 °C. This can only be exploited for heating in winter by a heat pump, driven by high grade energy such as electricity. Here, the feasibility of a novel approach is investigated of a greenhouse design combining cooling with energy supply in such a way that excess solar energy is directly converted to high grade electric energy. A prototype greenhouse according to this design is under construction. In a following paper the experimental results of this prototype greenhouse will be presented.

P.J. Sonneveld; G.L.A.M. Swinkels; G.P.A. Bot; G. Flamand

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Monolithically Peltier-cooled laser diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method of cooling a GaAs/GaAlAs laser in an optical integrated circuit or on a discrete chip, by adding an integral thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling and heat spreading device to the laser, is presented. This cooling both reduces and stabilizes the laser junction temperature to minimize such deleterious effects as wavelength drift due to heating. A unified description of the electrical and thermal properties of a monolithic semiconductor mesa structure is given. Here it is shown that an improvement in thermal characteristics is obtained by depositing a relatively thick metallic layer, and by using this layer as a part of an active Peltier structure. Experimental results reveal a 14-percent increase in emitted power (external quantum efficiency) due to passive heat spreading and a further 8-percent if its Peltier cooler is operated. Fabrication techniques used to obtain devices exhibiting the above performance characteristics are given. 21 references.

Hava, S.; Hunsperger, R.G.; Sequeira, H.B.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Turbine cooling waxy oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for pipelining a waxy oil to essentially eliminate deposition of wax on the pipeline wall is described comprising: providing a pressurized mixture of the waxy oil and a gas; effecting a sudden pressure drop of the mixture of the oil and the gas through an expansion turbine, thereby expanding the gas and quickly cooling the oil to below its cloud point in the substantial absence of wax deposition and forming a slurry of wax particles and oil; and pipelining the slurry.

Geer, J.S.

1987-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

356

LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

True, W.R.

1998-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

357

An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

IMPACT OF THE SUN PATCH ON HEATING AND COOLING POWER EVALUATION: APPLIED TO A LOW ENERGY CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACT OF THE SUN PATCH ON HEATING AND COOLING POWER EVALUATION: APPLIED TO A LOW ENERGY CELL A we study the impact of the incoming radiation through a window (sun patch) on the heating and cooling demand. Existing studies have shown that not considering the sun patch and fast climatic variations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

The impact of future energy demand on renewable energy production – Case of Norway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Projections of energy demand are an important part of analyses of policies to promote conservation, efficiency, technology implementation and renewable energy production. The development of energy demand is a key driver of the future energy system. This paper presents long-term projections of the Norwegian energy demand as a two-step methodology of first using activities and intensities to calculate a demand of energy services, and secondly use this as input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway to optimize the Norwegian energy system. Long-term energy demand projections are uncertain and the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the impact of different projections on the energy system. The results of the analyses show that decreased energy demand results in a higher renewable fraction compared to an increased demand, and the renewable energy production increases with increased energy demand. The most profitable solution to cover increased demand is to increase the use of bio energy and to implement energy efficiency measures. To increase the wind power production, an increased renewable target or higher electricity export prices have to be fulfilled, in combination with more electricity export.

Eva Rosenberg; Arne Lind; Kari Aamodt Espegren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The development of mathematical model for cool down technique in the LNG pipe-line system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An increase in demand for LNG as energy source can be expected since LNG is clean, in stable supply and produces low levels of carbon dioxide. Expansion of various LNG plants is planned. However, the optimal design of the LNG pipe-line systems has not yet been determined since the LNG transport phenomenon is not yet fully understood clearly. For example, in the LNG pipe-line system, large temperature gradients occur when the LNG transport starts. Therefore, although the necessity to cool down the pipe in order to minimize serious deformation is clear, the studies to understand it quantitatively have not been carried out. In this study, experiments on a commercial plant scale and a computer simulation, made up of structural analysis and two phase flow simulation were carried out to establish a prediction model of pipe deformation and to understand the phenomenon in the pipe.

Hamaogi, Kenji; Takatani, Kouji; Kosugi, Sanai; Fukunaga, Takeshi

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Definition: Peak Demand | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Peak Demand Peak Demand Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Peak Demand The highest hourly integrated Net Energy For Load within a Balancing Authority Area occurring within a given period (e.g., day, month, season, or year)., The highest instantaneous demand within the Balancing Authority Area.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Peak demand is used to refer to a historically high point in the sales record of a particular product. In terms of energy use, peak demand describes a period of strong consumer demand. Related Terms Balancing Authority Area, energy, demand, balancing authority, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An inli LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ne Glossary Definition Retrieved from

363

Industrial Equipment Demand and Duty Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand and duty factors have been measured for selected equipment (air compressors, electric furnaces, injection molding machines, centrifugal loads, and others) in industrial plants. Demand factors for heavily loaded air compressors were near 100...

Dooley, E. S.; Heffington, W. M.

364

ConservationandDemand ManagementPlan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Introduction Ontario Regulation 397/11 under the Green Energy Act 2009 requires public agencies and implement energy Conservation and Demand Management (CDM) plans starting in 2014. Requirementsofthe ConservationandDemand ManagementPlan 2014-2019 #12

Abolmaesumi, Purang

365

Energy Demand Analysis at a Disaggregated Level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this chapter is to consider energy demand at the fuel level or at the ... . This chapter first presents the disaggregation of energy demand, discusses the information issues and introduces framewor...

Subhes C. Bhattacharyya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Seasonal temperature variations and energy demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an empirical study of the relationship between residential energy demand and temperature. Unlike previous studies in this ... different regions and to the contrasting effects on energy demand ...

Enrica De Cian; Elisa Lanzi; Roberto Roson

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Decentralized demand management for water distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Actual Daily Demand for Model 2 . . 26 4 Predicted vs. Actual Peak Hourly Demand for Model 1 27 5 Predicted vs. Actual Peak Hourly Demand for Model 2 28 6 Cumulative Hourly Demand Distribution 7 Bryan Distribution Network 8 Typical Summer Diurnal... locating and controlling water that has not been accounted for. The Ford Meter Box Company (1987) advises the testing and recalibration of existing water meters. Because operating costs in a distribution network can be quite substantial, a significant...

Zabolio, Dow Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

368

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device H.C. Coles, S.prototype computer equipment rack-level cooling device withIT equipment cooling, server rack cooling, server cooling,

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling Effect, Fan Power, and Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index?t eq ) °C °F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (The measured cooling effect and fan power and the determined

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Residential Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residential Demand Module Residential Demand Module Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook Residential Demand Module The NEMS Residential Demand Module forecasts future residential sector energy requirements based on projections of the number of households and the stock, efficiency, and intensity of use of energy-consuming equipment. The Residential Demand Module projections begin with a base year estimates of the housing stock, the types and numbers of energy-consuming appliances servicing the stock, and the “unit energy consumption” by appliance (or UEC—in million Btu per household per year). The projection process adds new housing units to the stock, determines the equipment installed in new units, retires existing housing units, and retires and replaces appliances. The primary exogenous drivers for the module are housing starts by type (single-family, multifamily and mobile homes) and Census Division and prices for each energy source for each of the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5). The Residential Demand Module also requires projections of available equipment and their installed costs over the forecast horizon. Over time, equipment efficiency tends to increase because of general technological advances and also because of Federal and/or state efficiency standards. As energy prices and available equipment changes over the forecast horizon, the module includes projected changes to the type and efficiency of equipment purchased as well as projected changes in the usage intensity of the equipment stock.

371

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 - Residential Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residential Demand Module Residential Demand Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Residential Demand Module The NEMS Residential Demand Module projects future residential sector energy requirements based on projections of the number of households and the stock, efficiency, and intensity of use of energy-consuming equipment. The Residential Demand Module projections begin with a base year estimate of the housing stock, the types and numbers of energy-consuming appliances servicing the stock, and the “unit energy consumption” by appliance (or UEC—in million Btu per household per year). The projection process adds new housing units to the stock, determines the equipment installed in new units, retires existing housing units, and retires and replaces appliances. The primary exogenous drivers for the module are housing starts by type (single-family, multifamily and mobile homes) and Census Division and prices for each energy source for each of the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5). The Residential Demand Module also requires projections of available equipment and their installed costs over the projection horizon. Over time, equipment efficiency tends to increase because of general technological advances and also because of Federal and/or state efficiency standards. As energy prices and available equipment changes over the projection horizon, the module includes projected changes to the type and efficiency of equipment purchased as well as projected changes in the usage intensity of the equipment stock.

372

Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-62226 Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study F. Rubinstein, S. Kiliccote Energy Environmental Technologies Division January 2007 #12;LBNL-62226 Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California Energy

373

Demand Response Resources in Pacific Northwest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response Resources in Pacific Northwest Chuck Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory cagoldman@lbl.gov Pacific Northwest Demand Response Project Portland OR May 2, 2007 #12;Overview · Typology Annual Reports ­ Journal articles/Technical reports #12;Demand Response Resources · Incentive

374

Leveraging gamification in demand dispatch systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modern demand-side management techniques are an integral part of the envisioned smart grid paradigm. They require an active involvement of the consumer for an optimization of the grid's efficiency and a better utilization of renewable energy sources. ... Keywords: demand response, demand side management, direct load control, gamification, smart grid, sustainability

Benjamin Gnauk; Lars Dannecker; Martin Hahmann

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 #12;© 2008 EnerNOC, Inc. All Rights Reserved programs The purpose of this presentation is to offer insight into the mechanics of demand response and industrial demand response resources across North America in both regulated and restructured markets As of 6

376

THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA Prepared For: California Energy in this report. #12; ABSTRACT By reducing system loads during criticalpeak times, demand response can help reduce the threat of planned rotational outages. Demand response is also widely regarded as having

377

THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA Prepared For: California Energy in this report. #12; ABSTRACT By reducing system loads during criticalpeak times, demand response (DR) can.S. and internationally and lay out ideas that could help move California forward. KEY WORDS demand response, peak

378

Response to changes in demand/supply  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response to changes in demand/supply through improved marketing 21.2 #12;#12;111 Impacts of changes log demand in 1995. The composites board mills operating in Korea took advantage of flexibility environment changes on the production mix, some economic indications, statistics of demand and supply of wood

379

Response to changes in demand/supply  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response to changes in demand/supply through improved marketing 21.2 http with the mill consuming 450 000 m3 , amounting to 30% of total plywood log demand in 1995. The composites board, statistics of demand and supply of wood, costs and competitiveness were analysed. The reactions

380

Energy demand forecasting: industry practices and challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accurate forecasting of energy demand plays a key role for utility companies, network operators, producers and suppliers of energy. Demand forecasts are utilized for unit commitment, market bidding, network operation and maintenance, integration of renewable ... Keywords: analytics, energy demand forecasting, machine learning, renewable energy sources, smart grids, smart meters

Mathieu Sinn

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Smart Buildings Using Demand Response March 6, 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Smart Buildings Using Demand Response March 6, 2011 Sila Kiliccote Deputy, Demand Response Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Demand Response Research Center 1 #12;Presentation Outline Demand Response Research Center ­ DRRC Vision and Research Portfolio Introduction to Demand

Kammen, Daniel M.

382

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Natural Gas Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Demand Natural Gas Demand Annual Energy Outlook 2008 with Projections to 2030 Natural Gas Demand Figure 72. Natural gas consumption by sector, 1990-2030 (trillion cubic feet). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 73. Total natural gas consumption, 1990-2030 (trillion cubic feet). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Fastest Increase in Natural Gas Use Is Expected for the Buildings Sectors In the reference case, total natural gas consumption increases from 21.7 trillion cubic feet in 2006 to a peak value of 23.8 trillion cubic feet in 2016, followed by a decline to 22.7 trillion cubic feet in 2030. The natural gas share of total energy consumption drops from 22 percent in 2006

383

"Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative Cooling" Inventors..--.. Lewis Meixler, Charles Gentile, Patricia Hillyer, Dylan Carpe, Jason Wang, Caroline Brooks...

384

Solar cooling systems for climate change mitigation: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The impact of global warming and an increase in the indoor cooling equipments using energy sources other than conventional energy have become very attractive because they can reduce consumption of fossil fuels as well as harmful emissions in to the environment. The solar energy is one of the readily available forms of renewable energy which can be used to operate the cooling equipments depending on the geographical location of the area where solar cooling system needs to be installed. The effectiveness of solar cooling also needs to be evaluated based on various performance indicating parameters. However, different types of solar collectors also need to be evaluated in order to find out their feasibility for cooling applications. Thus in this article review of different types of solar cooling technologies have been carried out. The study reveals that evacuated tube collectors are best option for solar cooling where as desiccant cooling helps in improving the indoor air quality. Also, thermal energy storage and ejector based solar cooling efficiently improves the performance besides energy saving.

S. Anand; A. Gupta; S.K. Tyagi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Cooling Towers - Energy Conservation and Money Making Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The utilization of colder water conserves energy, creates profits, increases product output. In an effort to obtain greater efficiencies and conserve both energy and dollars, all too many engineers neglect the potential of the cooling tower. Many...

Burger, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gradients between oceanic basins lend additional support for increased...Malone MJ ( 2000 ) Great Australian Bight—Cenozoic cool-water...Tertiary of the Gippsland Basin, Victoria . APEA J...Malone MJ (2000) Great Australian Bight--Cenozoic...

Peter K. Bijl; James A. P. Bendle; Steven M. Bohaty; Jörg Pross; Stefan Schouten; Lisa Tauxe; Catherine E. Stickley; Robert M. McKay; Ursula Röhl; Matthew Olney; Appy Sluijs; Carlota Escutia; Henk Brinkhuis; Expedition 318 Scientists

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Influence of Tropical Tropopause Layer Cooling on Atlantic Hurricane Activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Virtually all metrics of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity show substantial increases over the past two decades. It is argued here that cooling near the tropical tropopause and the associated decrease in tropical cyclone ...

Solomon, Susan

388

Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12, 2009. AMD, 2006. Power and Cooling in the Data Center.monitored. However, power and cooling redundancy reducepractices. However, power and cooling redundancy may reduce

Shehabi, Arman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Automated Demand Response and Commissioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HVAC strategies include concepts such as global zone set point increase (from 72 °F-75 °F), resetting duct static pressure,

Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Electricity demand analysis - unconstrained vs constrained scenarios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In India, the electricity systems are chronically constrained by shortage of both capital and energy resources. These result in rationing and interruptions of supply with a severely disrupted electricity usage pattern. From this background, we try to analyse the demand patterns with and without resource constraints. Accordingly, it is necessary to model appropriately the dynamic nature of electricity demand, which cannot be captured by methods like annual load duration curves. Therefore, we use the concept - Representative Load Curves (RLCs) - to model the temporal and structural variations in demand. As a case study, the electricity system of the state of Karnataka in India is used. Four years demand data, two unconstrained and two constrained, are used and RLCs are developed using multiple discriminant analysis. It is found that these RLCs adequately model the variations in demand and bring out distinctions between unconstrained and constrained demand patterns. The demand analysis attempted here helped to study the differences in demand patterns with and without constraints, and the success of rationing measures in reducing demand levels as well as greatly disrupting the electricity usage patterns. Multifactor ANOVA analyses are performed to find out the statistical significance of the ability of logically obtained factors in explaining overall variations in demand. The results showed that the factors that are taken into consideration accounted for maximum variations in demand at very high significance levels.

P. Balachandra; V. Chandru; M.H. Bala Subrahmanya

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Spray Cooling Modeling: Droplet Sub-Cooling Effect on Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray cooling has become increasingly popular as a thermal management solution for high-heat flux (>100 W/cm{sup 2}) applications such as laser diodes and radars. Research has shown that using sub-cooled liquid can increase the heat flux from the hot surface. The objective of this study was to use a multi-phase numerical model to simulate the effect of a sub-cooled droplet impacting a growing vapor bubble in a thin (<100 {mu}m) liquid film. The two-phase model captured the liquid-vapor interface using the level set method. The effects of surface tension, viscosity, gravity and phase change were accounted for by using a modification to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, which were solved using the finite difference method. The computed liquid-vapor interface and temperature distributions were visualized for better understanding of the heat removal process. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms of sub-cooled droplet impact on a growing vapor bubble, various initial droplet temperatures were modeled (from 20 deg. C below saturation temperature to saturation temperature). This may provide insights into how to improve the heat transfer in future spray cooling systems.

Johnston, Joseph E.; Selvam, R. P. [Power Electronics Leveling Solutions LLC, 700 Research Boulevard, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Bell 4190 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Silk, Eric A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

392

An air-cooled pulse tube cryocooler with 50 W cooling capacity at 77 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pulse tube cryocooler with 50 W cooling capacity at 77 K is developed to cool superconducting devices mounted on automobiles. The envisioned cryocooler weight is less than 40 kg and the input electric power is less than 1 kW. To achieve these requirements the working frequency is increased to 75 Hz and the dual-opposed pistons use gas bearings to reduce compressor weight and volume. The heat from the main heat exchanger is rejected by forced convective air instead of water. The compressor and the cold finger are carefully matched to improve the efficiency. The details of these will be presented in this paper. After some adjustment a no load temperature for the pulse tube cryocooler of 40 K was achieved with 1 kW input electric power in surroundings at 298 K. At 77 K the cooling capacity is 50 W. If the main heat exchanger is cooled by water at 293 K the cooling capacity increases to 64 W corresponding to a relative Carnot efficiency of 18%.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Measurement and Verification for Demand Response  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Measurement and Verification for Measurement and Verification for Demand Response Prepared for the National Forum on the National Action Plan on Demand Response: Measurement and Verification Working Group AUTHORS: Miriam L. Goldberg & G. Kennedy Agnew-DNV KEMA Energy and Sustainability National Forum of the National Action Plan on Demand Response Measurement and Verification for Demand Response was developed to fulfill part of the Implementation Proposal for The National Action Plan on Demand Response, a report to Congress jointly issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in June 2011. Part of that implementation proposal called for a "National Forum" on demand response to be conducted by DOE and FERC. Given that demand response has matured, DOE and FERC decided that a "virtual" project

395

CAPACITY DECISIONS WITH DEMAND FLUCTUATIONS AND CARBON LEAKAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Palaiseau, France April 2013 Abstract For carbon-intensive, internationally-traded industrial goods, a uni be partly oset by the increase of emissions in the rest of the world. The literature on carbon leakage hasCAPACITY DECISIONS WITH DEMAND FLUCTUATIONS AND CARBON LEAKAGE Guy MEUNIER Jean-Pierre PONSSARD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

US Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that energy intensity is not necessarily a good indicator of energy efficiency, whereas by controllingUS Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier Approach Massimo www.cepe.ethz.ch #12;US Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier

397

An exploration of automotive platinum demand and its impacts on the platinum market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The platinum market is a material market of increasing interest, as platinum demand has grown faster than supply in recent years. As a result, the price of platinum has increased, causing end-user firms to experience ...

Whitfield, Christopher George

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Agile, Robust Designs: Increasing Quality and Efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Software Cleanroom is a concept that integrates the product teams, information technology, and the demand for increasing quality. It is designed to fulfill the long-term vision: to develop and integrate new t...

James A. Crowder; Shelli Friess

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Cool Roof Calculator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator logo. Many reflective roof coatings and membranes are now available for low-slope roofs. These coatings help to reduce summer air-conditioning loads, but can also increase the winter heating load. The Cool Roof Calculator will estimate both how much energy you'll save in the summer and how much extra energy you'll need in the winter. Cool Roof Calculator provides answers on a 'per square foot' basis, so you can then multiply by the area of your roof to find out your net savings each year. Keywords reflective roof, roofing membrane, low-slope roof Validation/Testing The Radiation Control Fact Sheet describes both the analytical and experimental results that went into the calculator's development. Expertise Required

400

Space Heating & Cooling Research | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research The Emerging Technology team conducts research in space heating and cooling technologies, with a goal of realizing aggregate energy savings of 20% relative to a 2010 baseline. In addition to work involving the development of products, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with industry partners and researchers, develops best practices, tests, and guides designed to reduce market barriers and increase public awareness of these energy saving technologies. Research is currently focusing on: Geothermal Heat Pumps Photo of a home with a geothermal heat pump, showing how it can regulate the temperature of a home using the temperature underground to cool warm air or heat cold air.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Geothermal Heat Pumps- Cooling Mode  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In summer, the fluid removes heat from the building and transfers it to the relatively cooler ground in order to cool the building.

402

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

403

Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

U.S. oil, natural gas demand still climbing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steady economic growth and slightly lower prices will boost demand for petroleum and natural gas in the US again this year. Economic growth will lag behind last year`s level but will remain strong. Increased worldwide petroleum production should lower oil prices and encourage fuel-switching, which will suppress natural gas prices. In the US, total energy consumption will grow less rapidly than economic activity due to continuing improvement in energy efficiency. US petroleum product demand will move up to 1.5% in 1997 to average 18.45 million b/d. And natural gas consumption will be up 0.7% at 22.05 tcf. Despite the oil price increases of 1996, US crude oil production will continue to slide in 1997; Oil and Gas Journal projects a drop of 1.1%. US production has been falling since 1985, except for a modest increase in 1991 related to the Persian Gulf War. The rate of decline has diminished in the past 2 years, but US crude oil production has still fall at an average rate of about 226,000 b/d/year since 1985. The paper discusses the economy, total energy consumption, the oil supply, imports, stocks, refining, refining margins and prices, demand for motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel oil, and other petroleum products, and natural gas demand and supply.

Beck, R.J.

1997-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

405

Both Distillate Supply and Demand Reached Extraordinary Levels This Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: This chart shows some critical differences in distillate supply and demand during this winter heating season, in comparison to the past two winters. Typically, distillate demand peaks during the winter months, but "new supply" (refinery production and net imports) cannot increase as much, so the remaining supply needed is drawn from inventories. This pattern is evident in each of the past two winter heating seasons. This winter, however, the pattern was very different, for several reasons: With inventories entering the season at extremely low levels, a "typical" winter stockdraw would have been nearly impossible, particularly in the Northeast, the region most dependent on heating oil. Demand reached near-record levels in December, as colder-than-normal

406

Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Scoping Study  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Electricity Markets Peter Cappers, Jason MacDonald, Charles Goldman April 2013 Report Summary 1 Energy Analysis Department  Electricity Markets and Policy Group Presentation Overview  Objectives and Approach  Wholesale and Retail Market Environments  Market and Policy Barrier Typology  Prototypical Regional Barrier Assessment 2 Energy Analysis Department  Electricity Markets and Policy Group A Role for Demand Response to Provide Ancillary Services  Increasing penetration of renewable energy generation in U.S. electricity markets means that bulk power system operators will need to manage the variable and uncertain nature of many renewable resources

407

Energy Efficiency Funds and Demand Response Programs - National Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Funds and Demand Funds and Demand Response Programs - National Overview Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory November 2, 2006 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group San Francisco CA Overview of Talk * National Overview * Energy Efficiency Programs and Funds * Demand Response Programs and Funds * FEMP Resources on Public Benefit Funds *Suggestions for Federal Customers DSM Spending is increasing! * 2006 Utility DSM and Public Benefit spending is ~$2.5B$ - $1B for C&I EE programs * CA utilities account for 35% of total spending 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1994 2000 2005 2006 Costs (in billion $) DSM Costs Load Management Gas EE Other States Electric EE California Electric EE EE Spending in 2006 (by State) $ Million < 1 (23) 1 - 10 (2) 11 - 50 (13) 51 - 100 (7) > 100 (5) 790 101 257

408

OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND EXPENDITURES: LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND EXPENDITURES: LOWER SNAKE RIVER RESERVOIRS John R. Mc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v SECTION ONE - OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Recreation Demand Methods

O'Laughlin, Jay

409

LEED Demand Response Credit: A Plan for Research towards Implementation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C. McParland, Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsand Open Automated Demand Response", Grid Interop Forum,Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of

Kiliccote, Sila

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Open Automated Demand Response. In Grid Interop Forum.work was sponsored by the Demand Response Research Center (load-management.php. Demand Response Research Center (2009).

Goli, Sasank

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. Barat, D. Watson. Demand Response Spinning ReserveOpen Automated Demand Response Communication Standards:Dynamic Controls for Demand Response in a New Commercial

Piette, Mary Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reliability signals for demand response GTA HTTPS HVAC IT kWand Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems. ”and Techniques for Demand Response. California Energy

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Techniques for Demand Response. May 2007. LBNL-59975.to facilitate automating  demand response actions at the Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,

Piette, Mary Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Fully Automated Demand  Response in Large Facilities.  Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities.  Open Automated  Demand Response Communication Standards: 

Dudley, June Han

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Scenarios for Consuming Standardized Automated Demand Response Signals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities.Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure.

Koch, Ed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Corporation. Demand response data task force:Energy. Benefits of demand response in electricity marketsAssessment of demand response & advanced metering, staff

Cappers, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure.and Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayand Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

Piette, Mary Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Goodin. 2009. “Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsin Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services. ” InOpen Automated Demand Response Demonstration Project. LBNL-

Ghatikar, Girish

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advanced metering and demand response in electricityGoldman, and D. Kathan. “Demand response in U.S. electricity29] DOE. Benefits of demand response in electricity markets

Mathieu, Johanna L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robinson, Michael, 2008, "Demand Response in Midwest ISOPresentation at MISO Demand Response Working Group Meeting,Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13 Table 2. Demand Side Management Framework for IndustrialDR Strategies The demand-side management (DSM) frameworkpresented in Table 2. Demand Side Management Framework for

McKane, Aimee T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ROLE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN DEFAULT SERVICE PRICING Galenfor providing much-needed demand response in electricitycompetitive retail markets, demand response often appears to

Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Chuck; Neenan, Bernie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center onThe Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing Galenfor providing much-needed demand response in electricity

Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

description of six energy and demand management concepts.how quickly it can modify energy demand. This is not a newimprovements in both energy efficiency and demand response (

Piette, Mary Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute, “Curbing Global Energy Demand Growth: The Energyup Assessment of Energy Demand in India Transportationa profound effect on energy demand. Policy analysts wishing

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Definition: Demand Side Management | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Side Management Side Management Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Demand Side Management The term for all activities or programs undertaken by Load-Serving Entity or its customers to influence the amount or timing of electricity they use.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Energy demand management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as financial incentives and education. Usually, the goal of demand side management is to encourage the consumer to use less energy during peak hours, or to move the time of energy use to off-peak times such as nighttime and weekends. Peak demand management does not necessarily decrease total energy consumption, but could be expected to reduce the need

427

Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) Building  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) Building Management System Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) Building Management System The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into distributed intelligent-automated demand response (DIADR) building management systems. Project Description This project aims to develop a DIADR building management system with intelligent optimization and control algorithms for demand management, taking into account a multitude of factors affecting cost including: Comfort Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) Lighting Other building systems Climate Usage and occupancy patterns. The key challenge is to provide the demand response the ability to address more and more complex building systems that include a variety of loads,

428

Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Cooling Energy Demand Evaluation by Meansof Regression Models Obtained From Dynamic Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was calculated to be -8.78oC (Moscow in January) and maximum of 42.9 oC (Abu-Dhabi in August). The hourly values of outdoor air temperature and solar radiation were obtained using Trnsys (Trnsys, 2006) meteonorm files. b) Glazing surface and distribution... the ,,black-box,, function, dynamic simulations were conducted using Trnsys 16 software (Trnsys, 2005). The Trnsys building model, known as, Type 56, is compliant with general requirements of European Directive on the energy performance of buildings...

Catalina, T.; Virgone, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Categories of indoor environmental quality and building energy demand for heating and cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Maintaining suitable indoor climate conditions is a need for the occupants’ well being, while requiring very strictly thermal comfort conditions and very high levels of indoor air quality in buildings represents ...

Stefano Paolo Corgnati; Enrico Fabrizio; Daniela Raimondo…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cooling energy demand evaluation by means of regression models obtained from dynamic simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of energy and CO2 emitter in the EU and is the major energy consumer of the EU's total final energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Buildings account for 40­45% of energy consumption in Europe and China (and estimation of the energy consumption is very difficult. So, we need precise and easy to use support tools

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control system does not support global reset of zone temperatures, strategies involving reset of supply air temperature

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Encyclopedia | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Encyclopedia Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Encyclopedia Agency/Company /Organization: Victoria Transport Policy Institute Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Topics: Implementation Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm12.htm Cost: Free Language: English References: Victoria Transport Policy Institute[1] "The Online TDM Encyclopedia is the world's most comprehensive information resource concerning innovative transportation management strategies. It describes dozens of Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies and contains information on TDM planning, evaluation and implementation. It has thousands of hyperlinks that provide instant access

435

The Retail Planning Problem under Demand Uncertainty.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Rajaram K. , (2000), “Accurate Retail Testing of FashionThe Retail Planning Problem Under Demand Uncertainty GeorgeAbstract We consider the Retail Planning Problem in which

Georgiadis, G.; Rajaram, K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

17 6. Barriers to Retail23 ii Retail Demand Response in SPP List of Figures and6 Table 3. SPP Retail DR Survey

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water heaters with embedded demand responsive controls can be designed to automatically provide day-ahead and real-time response

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Distributed Automated Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Distributed Automated Demand Response Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology...

439

Demand Response (transactional control) - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Demand Response (transactional control) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About...

440

Regulation Services with Demand Response - Energy Innovation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Regulation Services with Demand Response Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Using grid frequency information, researchers have created...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Topics in Residential Electric Demand Response.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Demand response and dynamic pricing are touted as ways to empower consumers, save consumers money, and capitalize on the “smart grid” and expensive advanced meter… (more)

Horowitz, Shira R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Maximum-Demand Rectangular Location Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oct 1, 2014 ... Demand and service can be defined in the most general sense. ... Industrial and Systems Engineering, Texas A&M University, September 2014.

Manish Bansal

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the presence of renewable resources and on the amount ofprimarily from renewable resources, and to a limited extentintegration of renewable resources and deferrable demand. We

Papavasiliou, Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Basic Theory of Demand-Side Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Demand-Side Management (DSM) is pivotal in Integrated Resource ... to realize sustainable development, and advanced energy management activity. A project can be implemented only...

Zhaoguang Hu; Xinyang Han; Quan Wen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Demand response at the Naval Postgraduate School .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this MBA project is to assist the Naval Postgraduate School's Public Works department to assimilate into a Demand Response program that will… (more)

Stouffer, Dean

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Demand response exchange in a deregulated environment .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents the development of a new and separate market for trading Demand Response (DR) in a deregulated power system. This market is termed… (more)

Nguyen, DT

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Demand response exchange in a deregulated environment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents the development of a new and separate market for trading Demand Response (DR) in a deregulated power system. This market is termed… (more)

Nguyen, DT

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Rollout Scenario Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout Scenario Analysis Presentation by Margo Melendez at the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for...

449

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Title Improving efficiency of high-concentrator photovoltaics by cooling with two-phase forced convection Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Ho, Tony, Samuel S. Mao, and Ralph Greif Journal International Journal of Energy Research Volume 34 Start Page 1257 Issue 14 Pagination 1257-1271 Date Published 11/2010 Keywords high-concentrator photovoltaic efficiency, two-phase flow cooling applications Abstract The potential of increasing high-concentrator photovoltaic cell efficiency by cooling with two-phase flow is analyzed. The governing energy equations were used to predict cell temperature distributions and cell efficiencies for a photovoltaic cell under 100 suns' concentration. Several design conditions were taken into consideration in the analysis, including cooling channel height, working fluid type (between water and R134a), working fluid inlet temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate. It was observed that the dominant parameter for increasing cell efficiency was the working fluid saturation temperature, which itself is affected by a number of the aforementioned design parameters. The results show R134a at low inlet pressures to be highly effective in this two-phase cooling design.

451

A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An appraisal of the potential performance of different Low Energy Cooling (LEC) systems in nonresidential buildings in California is being conducted using computer simulation. The paper presents results from the first phase of the study, which addressed the systems that can be modeled, with the DOE-2.1E simulation program. The following LEC technologies were simulated as variants of a conventional variable-air-volume system with vapor compression cooling and mixing ventilation in the occupied spaces: Air-side indirect and indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beams. Displacement ventilation. Results are presented for four populous climates, represented by Oakland, Sacramento, Pasadena and San Diego. The greatest energy savings are obtained from a combination of displacement ventilation and air-side indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beam systems have the lowest peak demand but do not reduce energy consumption significantly because the reduction in fan energy is offse t by a reduction in air-side free cooling. Overall, the results indicate significant opportunities for LEC technologies to reduce energy consumption and demand in nonresidential new construction and retrofit.

Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

452

Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed space heating reductions in Miami, Orlando and Atlanta (Wilkes, 1991). Also, detailed measurements by ORNL showed heating demand and energy reductions in monitored Tennessee homes (Levins and Karnitz, 1987...- 11 and R-30 Insulation, ORNL/CON-226, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN. Levins, W. P. and Karnitz, M. A. and Hall, J.A., 1990. Cooling Season Energy Measurements of Dust and Ventilation Effects on Radiant Barriers, ORNL/CON-271...

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Electroforming of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) nanowires for high-efficiency micro-thermoelectric cooling devices on a chip.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Active cooling of electronic systems for space-based and terrestrial National Security missions has demanded use of Stirling, reverse-Brayton, closed Joule-Thompson, pulse tube and more elaborate refrigeration cycles. Such cryocoolers are large systems that are expensive, demand large powers, often contain moving parts and are difficult to integrate with electronic systems. On-chip, solid-state, active cooling would greatly enhance the capabilities of future systems by reducing the size, cost and inefficiencies compared to existing solutions. We proposed to develop the technology for a thermoelectric cooler capable of reaching 77K by replacing bulk thermoelectric materials with arrays of Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires. Furthermore, the Sandia-developed technique we will use to produce the oriented nanowires occurs at room temperature and can be applied directly to a silicon substrate. Key obstacles include (1) optimizing the Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} alloy composition for thermoelectric properties; (2) increasing wire aspect ratios to 3000:1; and (3) increasing the array density to {ge} 10{sup 9} wires/cm{sup 2}. The primary objective of this LDRD was to fabricate and test the thermoelectric properties of arrays of Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires. With this proof-of-concept data under our belts we are positioned to engage National Security systems customers to invest in the integration of on-chip thermoelectric coolers for future missions.

Overmyer, Donald L.; Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (,; ); Siegal, Michael P.; Yelton, William Graham

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

455

Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1\\muK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for BEC is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10^5 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a timescale of 100ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Method of, and apparatus for, killing marine life in and about the cooling system of a marine vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of killing marine life in the cooling system of a marine vehicle having a water-cooled internal combustion engine. It comprises: providing an enclosure about the inlet and outlet ports such that water circulated through the cooling system will be drawn from, and discharged back into, the enclosure; and operating the engine so as to cause the temperature of the water within the enclosure and the cooling system to increase to a predetermined minimum temperature; thereby to cause marine life in the enclosure and cooling system to be killed by the increased temperature of water within the cooling system and enclosure.

Brockhurst, J.V.

1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

457

Price Movements Related to Supply/Demand Balance  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: EIA sees a tenuous supply/demand balance over the remainder of 2001 and into the beginning of 2002, as illustrated by the low OECD inventory levels. Global inventories remain low, and need to recover to more adequate levels in order to avoid continued price volatility. While we saw some stocking in April and May, typical third quarter stock builds may not occur. Even with Iraqi oil exports resuming in early July, OPEC was going to need to increase its oil production to account for demand increases over the 2nd half of the year to prevent stocks from falling further. However, they not only haven't agreed to increase production, but agreed to cut production quotas by 1 million barrels per day beginning on September 1! EIA's forecast of a continued low stock cushion implies we not only

458

Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements Title Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2010 Authors Fuller, Merrian C., Cathy Kunkel, Mark Zimring, Ian M. Hoffman, Katie L. Soroye, and Charles A. Goldman Tertiary Authors Borgeson, Merrian Pagination 136 Date Published 09/2010 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency-they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars1 flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements2, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula-and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs-there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers-especially those that are relatively new to the field, such as the over 2,000 towns, cities, states, and regions who are recipients of American Reinvestment and Recovery Act funds for clean energy programs. This report synthesizes lessons from first generation programs, highlights emerging best practices, and suggests methods and approaches to use in designing, implementing, and evaluating these programs. We examined 14 residential energy efficiency programs, conducted an extensive literature review, interviewed industry experts, and surveyed residential contractors to draw out these lessons.

459

Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

462

NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

building’s roof to take advantage of long-wave radiation to the night sky has been long identified as a potentially productive means to reduce building space cooling. A typical roof at 75?F will radiate at about 55-60 W/m 2 to clear night sky... and about 25 W/m 2 to a cloudy sky. For a typical roof (250 square meters), this represents a cooling potential of 6,000 - 14,000 Watts or about 1.5 - 4.0 tons of cooling potential each summer night. However, various physical constraints (differential...

Parker, D. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

The world supply/demand outlook for minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mining and agriculture are the fundamental industries that convert natural resources into useable forms. Mining and modern agriculture are inextricably interlinked because modern agriculture is heavily dependent upon the use of machinery power and fertilizers ? all of which are mineral based products and in some applications mineral and agricultural products are mutually substitutable. Steel production is common denominator for assessing demand for many minerals and in the last 2–1/2 decades world steel production has grown at an annual rate of about 5–1/2%. Currently the United States uses about 4 billion tons ? 40 000 pounds per person ? of new mineral supplies each year about equally divided between the mineral fuels and other mineral materials. The value of energy and processed materials of mineral origin used in the U.S. is estimated to exceed $270 billion per year. Rising world population coupled with aspirations for higher living standards points to steadily increasing world demand for mineral materials. Studies by the U.S. Bureau of Mines show that the ratio of recoverable world mineral reserves to cumulate demand over the next few decades is satisfactory for most mineral materials. However if world mineral production is to keep pace with demand there must be increased efforts to find mine beneficiate process and recycle mineral materials and there must also exist politico?economic climates that encourage long?term mineral development while also making appropriate provisions for humanitarian and envronmental concerns.

John D. Morgan Jr.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

FINAL DEMAND FORECAST FORMS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................................................... 11 3. Demand Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts................................... 13 4. Demand Sylvia Bender Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Scott W. Matthews Chief Deputy Director B.B. Blevins Forecast Methods and Models ....................................................... 14 5. Demand-Side

465

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Demand Response and Electric Grid Reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response and Electric Grid Reliability Paul Wattles Senior Analyst, Market Design & Development, ERCOT CATEE Conference, Galveston October 10, 2012 2 North American Bulk Power Grids CATEE Conference October 10, 2012 ? The ERCOT... adequacy ? ?Achieving more DR participation would . . . displace some generation investments, but would achieve the same level of reliability... ? ?Achieving this ideal requires widespread demand response and market structures that enable loads...

Wattles, P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

DEMAND SIMULATION FOR DYNAMIC TRAFFIC ASSIGNMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the response of travelers to real-time pre- trip information. The demand simulator is an extension of dynamicDEMAND SIMULATION FOR DYNAMIC TRAFFIC ASSIGNMENT Constantinos Antoniou, Moshe Ben-Akiva, Michel Bierlaire, and Rabi Mishalani Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 Abstract

Bierlaire, Michel

468

A Vision of Demand Response - 2016  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Envision a journey about 10 years into a future where demand response is actually integrated into the policies, standards, and operating practices of electric utilities. Here's a bottom-up view of how demand response actually works, as seen through the eyes of typical customers, system operators, utilities, and regulators. (author)

Levy, Roger

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

SUMMER 2007 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND OUTLOOK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION SUMMER 2007 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND OUTLOOK DRAFTSTAFFREPORT May ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION B. B assessment of the capability of the physical electricity system to provide power to meet electricity demand

470

Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

response DSM – Demand Side Management EE – energy efficiencywith the development of demand-side management (DSM)-related

Satchwell, Andrew

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

AN ANALYSIS OF THE UNITED STATES DEMAND FOR FISH MEAL D. D. HUPPERT1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and dynamic models. With either model the price elasticity of demand is high when fish meal price is low, and is low when price is high. Analysis of prices and market demand relation- ships for fish is of increased markets. Market prices can be expected to vary in response to changes in the annual yields permitted under

472

Quantifying flexibility of residential thermostatically controlled loads for demand response: a data-driven approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift due to the influx of variable renewable generation to the supply side. The resulting increased uncertainty has system operators looking to new resources, enabled by smart grid technologies, on the demand ... Keywords: demand response, inverse building model, load shedding, thermostatically controlled loads

Emre Can Kara; Michaelangelo D. Tabone; Jason S. MacDonald; Duncan S. Callaway; Sila Kiliccote

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.

Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

474

Demonstration of Energy Savings of Cool Roofs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. 1997. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-et al. 1997. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-Hanford, J. 1997. "Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of

Konopacki, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

476

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

integrated control resets for supply air temperature and75.2°F) Cooling supply air temperature control Minimum AHUvary the VAV supply-air-temperature reset control mid-bands

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

478

Stochastic cooling of bunched beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation studies are presented for transverse and longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched particle beams. Radio frequency buckets of various shapes (e.g. rectangular, parabolic well, single sinusoidal waveform) are used to investigate the enhancement of phase space cooling by nonlinearities of synchrotron motion. The connection between the notions of Landau damping for instabilities and mixing for stochastic cooling are discussed. In particular, the need for synchrotron frequency spread for both Landau damping and good mixing is seen to be comparable for bunched beams.

Bisognano, J.J.; Chattopadhyay, S.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Encryption-on-Demand, [EOD-g8516] Page #-1 Encryption-On-Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Encryption-on-Demand, [EOD-g8516] Page #-1 Encryption-On-Demand: Practical and Theoretical be served by an 'encryption-on-demand' (EoD) service which will enable them to communicate securely with no prior preparations, and no after effects. We delineate a possible EoD service, and describe some of its

480

Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "increased cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

482

Direct-Cooled Power Electronic Substrate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Energy 3 Barriers VTP Activities Related Challenges Conventional cooling methods for power electronics are typically based on conduction cooling through solids directly adjacent...

483

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-World Energy Demand and Economic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

World Energy and Economic Outlook World Energy and Economic Outlook International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 1 - World Energy Demand and Economic Outlook In the IEO2009 projections, total world consumption of marketed energy is projected to increase by 44 percent from 2006 to 2030. The largest projected increase in energy demand is for the non-OECD economies. Figure 10. World Marketed Energy Consumption, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 11. World Marketed Energy Consumption: OECD and Non-OECD, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 12. Marketed Energy Use by Region, 1990-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

484

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-World Energy Demand and Economic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

World Energy and Economic Outlook World Energy and Economic Outlook International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 1 - World Energy Demand and Economic Outlook In the IEO2008 projections, total world consumption of marketed energy is projected to increase by 50 percent from 2005 to 2030. The largest projected increase in energy demand is for the non-OECD economies. Figure 9. World Marketed EnergyConsumption, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 10. World Marketed Energy Consumption: OECD and Non-OECD, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 11. Marketed Energy Use in the Non-OECD Economies by Region, 1990-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

485

Demand Response This is the first of the Council's power plans to treat demand response as a resource.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demand Response This is the first of the Council's power plans to treat demand response the resource and describes some of the potential advantages and problems of the development of demand response. WHAT IS DEMAND RESPONSE? Demand response is a change in customers' demand for electricity corresponding

486

Cooling Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Power Plant Cooling Technologies Cooling Technologies Cooling tower at Steamboat Springs geothermal power plant in Steamboat Springs, NV. Power generation facilities that rely on thermal sources as their energy inputs such as Coal, Natural Gas, Geothermal, Concentrates Solar Power, and Nuclear require cooling technologies to reject the heat that is created. The second law of thermodynamics states: "No process can convert heat absorbed from a reservoir at one temperature directly into work without also rejecting heat to a cooler reservoir. That is, no heat engine is 100% efficient"[1] In the context of power generation from thermal energy, this means that any heat that is created must be rejected. Heat is most commonly rejected in

487

Advance in MEIC cooling studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Cooling molecules in optical cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied theoretically and numerically the cooling of CN molecules in a high-finesse optical cavity and show that these molecules can be cooled from 100 mK temperatures to submillikelvin temperatures in less than 1 ms. We establish that the cooling time does not change significantly with molecular numbers and initial temperatures over a wide range. We have further studied the scaling of the system for extending the current results for hundreds of molecules to a very large molecular ensemble. The results indicate that a gas of 10{sup 9} molecules can be cooled in the cavity by use of a far-off-resonant and high-intensity pump source.

Lu Weiping; Zhao Yongkai; Barker, P. F. [Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

489

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas...

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Economy key to 1992 U. S. oil, gas demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides a forecast US oil and gas markets and industry in 1992. An end to economic recession in the U.S. will boost petroleum demand modestly in 1992 after 2 years of decline. U.S. production will resume its slide after a fractional increase in 1991. Drilling in the U.S. will set a record low. Worldwide, the key questions are economic growth and export volumes from Iraq, Kuwait, and former Soviet republics.

Beck, R.J.

1992-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

491

Health Care Demand, Empirical Determinants of  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Economic theory provides a powerful but incomplete guide to the empirical determinants of health care demand. This article seeks to provide guidance on the selection and interpretation of demand determinants in empirical models. The author begins by introducing some general rules of thumb derived from economic and statistical principles. A brief review of the recent empirical literature next describes the range of current practices. Finally, a representative example of health care demand is developed to illustrate the selection, use, and interpretation of empirical determinants.

S.H. Zuvekas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

493

Application-oriented modelling of domestic energy demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Detailed residential energy consumption data can be used to offer advanced services and provide new business opportunities to all participants in the energy supply chain, including utilities, distributors and customers. The increasing interest in the residential consumption data is behind the roll-out of smart meters in large areas and led to intensified research efforts in new data acquisition technologies for the energy sector. This paper introduces a novel model for generation of residential energy consumption profiles based on the energy demand contribution of each household appliance and calculated by using a probabilistic approach. The model takes into consideration a wide range of household appliances and its modular structure provides a high degree of flexibility. Residential consumption data generated by the proposed model are suitable for development of new services and applications such as residential real-time pricing schemes or tools for energy demand prediction. To demonstrate the main features of the model, an individual household consumption was created and the effects of a possible change in the user behaviour and the appliance configuration presented. In order to show the flexibility offered in creation of the aggregated demand, the detailed simulation results of an energy demand management algorithm applied to an aggregated user group are used.

J.K. Gruber; S. Jahromizadeh; M. Prodanovi?; V. Rako?evi?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

495

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

496

Definition: Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of

497

Demand response: a strategy to address residential air-conditioning peak load in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rapid growth in electricity network peak demand is increasing pressure for new investment which may be used for only a few hours a year. Residential air-conditioning is widely believed to be the prime cause of...

Robert Smith; Ke Meng; Zhaoyang Dong…

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Quality-functions for an uniform and comparable analysis of demand side management algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to renewable energies, the feed-in to the power grid will fluctuate increasingly. As long as no highly efficient storage technology is found, the importance of demand side management (DSM) will grow. Differen...

Daniel Hölker; Daniel Brettschneider…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

An examination of factors affecting high occupancy/toll lane demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, high occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes have gained increasing recognition as a potential method of managing traffic congestion. HOT lanes combine pricing and vehicle occupancy restrictions to optimize the demand for high occupancy vehicle...

Appiah, Justice

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

NCEP_Demand_Response_Draft_111208.indd  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric Transmission Series for State Offi National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric Transmission Series for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials Prepared by the U.S. Demand Response Coordinating Committee for The National Council on Electricity Policy Fall 2008 i National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric Transmission Series for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials The National Council on Electricity Policy is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The views and opinions expressed herein are strictly those of the