Sample records for increase electricity demand

  1. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  2. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel electricity demands, and generation from these plantplants .. 47 Additional generation .. 48 Electricityelectricity demand increases generation from NGCC power plants.

  3. Abstract--Electrical Distribution Systems (EDS) are facing ever-increasing complexity due to fast growing demand and large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to improve the reliability and quality of electrical distribution system. Index Terms- OPC technology, ICT1 Abstract-- Electrical Distribution Systems (EDS) are facing ever-increasing complexity due systems and Local Agent , Distribution Network, IEDs, Maltab OPC Toolbox, Distributed Generators

  4. Electricity Demand and Energy Consumption Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarmiento, Juan Ojeda

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project describes the electricity demand and energy consumption management system and its application to the Smelter Plant of Southern Peru. It is composted of an hourly demand-forecasting module and of a simulation component for a plant electrical system. The first module was done using dynamic neural networks, with backpropagation training algorithm; it is used to predict the electric power demanded every hour, with an error percentage below of 1%. This information allows management the peak demand before this happen, distributing the raise of electric load to other hours or improving those equipments that increase the demand. The simulation module is based in advanced estimation techniques, such as: parametric estimation, neural network modeling, statistic regression and previously developed models, which simulates the electric behavior of the smelter plant. These modules allow the proper planning because it allows knowing the behavior of the hourly demand and the consumption patterns of the plant, in...

  5. ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST COMPARISON REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST COMPARISON REPORT STAFFREPORT June 2005 Gorin Principal Authors Lynn Marshall Project Manager Kae C. Lewis Acting Manager Demand Analysis Office Valerie T. Hall Deputy Director Energy Efficiency and Demand Analysis Division Scott W. Matthews Acting

  6. Electrical Demand Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppelheimer, D. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Almost every building owner or manager is interested in controlling electrical costs. Since the HVAC system is a large user of electricity, this article will discuss what can be done in the HVAC system to influence parts of the utility bill....

  7. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% ? 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  8. California's Summer 2004 Electricity Supply and Demand Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forecast for 2004 is higher to reflect increased demand from more robust economic growth. In this newCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION California's Summer 2004 Electricity Supply and Demand Outlook Supply and Demand Outlook The California Energy Commission staff's electricity supply and demand outlook

  9. SUMMER 2007 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND OUTLOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION SUMMER 2007 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND OUTLOOK DRAFTSTAFFREPORT May ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION B. B assessment of the capability of the physical electricity system to provide power to meet electricity demand

  10. The Economics of Energy (and Electricity) Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platchkov, Laura M.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    home to charge up at night. 12 The Tesla Roadster is an electric sport car prototype manufactured by Tesla Motors (http://www.teslamotors.com/). 13 This is based on there being around 25 million homes... 25 3.3.2 Electrification of personal transport New sources of electricity demand may emerge which substantially change the total demand for electricity and the way electricity is consumed by the household. The Tesla Roadster12 stores 53 k...

  11. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Designing Markets for Electricity, Wiley-IEEE Press. CEC (in Major Drivers in U.S. Electricity Markets, NREL/CP-620-and fuel efficiency and electricity demand assumptions used

  12. Electrical ship demand modeling for future generation warships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sievenpiper, Bartholomew J. (Bartholomew Jay)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of future warships will require increased reliance on accurate prediction of electrical demand as the shipboard consumption continues to rise. Current US Navy policy, codified in design standards, dictates methods ...

  13. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    49 Table 13. Vehicle and fuel efficiency and electricity14. Timing profiles and vehicle and fuel pathways includedand generation, Table 18. Vehicle demand and system load

  14. Demand Response and Electric Grid Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wattles, P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response and Electric Grid Reliability Paul Wattles Senior Analyst, Market Design & Development, ERCOT CATEE Conference, Galveston October 10, 2012 2 North American Bulk Power Grids CATEE Conference October 10, 2012 ? The ERCOT... adequacy ? ?Achieving more DR participation would . . . displace some generation investments, but would achieve the same level of reliability... ? ?Achieving this ideal requires widespread demand response and market structures that enable loads...

  15. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliability Corporation. Demand response data task force:Energy. Benefits of demand response in electricity marketsAssessment of demand response & advanced metering, staff

  16. Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables October 3, 2011 -...

  17. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  18. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 3: Electricity Demand Forecast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 3: Electricity Demand Forecast Summary............................................................................................................ 2 Sixth Power Plan Demand Forecast................................................................................................ 4 Demand Forecast Range

  19. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.

  20. What is a High Electric Demand Day?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by T. McNevin of the New Jersey Bureau of Air Quality Planning was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  1. Equity Effects of Increasing-Block Electricity Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidence from Residential Electricity Demand,” Review ofLester D. “The Demand for Electricity: A Survey,” The BellResidential Demand for Electricity under Inverted Block

  2. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  3. TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING CAPACITY IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-085 TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING CAPACITY IN CALIFORNIA, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.org #12;TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING** Abstract This study analyzes state and regional electricity supply and demand trends for the eleven states

  4. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Like HECO actual utility demand response implementations canindustry-wide utility demand response applications tend toobjective. Figure 4. Demand Response Objectives 17  

  5. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and best practices to guide HECO demand response developmentbest practices for DR renewable integration – Technically demand responseof best practices. This is partially because demand response

  6. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of control. Water heater demand response options are notcurrent water heater and air conditioning demand responsecustomer response Demand response water heater participation

  7. Control Mechanisms for Residential Electricity Demand in SmartGrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Larry

    Email: lvs2@lehigh.edu Abstract--We consider mechanisms to optimize electricity consumption both within subscription plan. Such methods for controlling electricity consumption are part of demand response, whichControl Mechanisms for Residential Electricity Demand in SmartGrids Shalinee Kishore Department

  8. Electricity Markets Meet the Home through Demand Response Lazaros Gkatzikis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Markets Meet the Home through Demand Response Lazaros Gkatzikis CERTH, University) programs motivate home users through dynamic pricing to shift electricity consumption from peak demand periods. In this paper, we introduce a day ahead electricity market where the operator sets the prices

  9. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENS (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785...

  10. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act...

  11. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392,...

  12. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    energy systems with high-performance homes and showing how they align with utility peak-demand reduction interests. In addition to substantial energy savings, solar electric home...

  13. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced Metering, and Demand Response in Electricity2006. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and2010. Open Automated Demand Response Technologies for

  14. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix C: Demand Forecast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix C: Demand Forecast Energy Demand................................................................................................................................. 1 Demand Forecast Methodology.................................................................................................. 3 New Demand Forecasting Model for the Sixth Plan

  15. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL; Fu, Joshua S [ORNL; Walker, Kimberly A [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  16. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    widely differing control technologies, notification options,Electric  Reliability   Technology,  LBNL,  Joseph  Eto  E. Availability F. Technology Proposed Residential Large

  17. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    management in the US electricity sector, Energy Policy, 23(deep reductions in electricity sector GHG emissions requireson the electricity sector. 19 Table 3.

  18. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. The Impact of Climate Change on Electricity Demand in Thailand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkpoom, Suchao Jake

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change is expected to lead to changes in ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity, precipitation and cloud cover. As electricity demand is closely influenced by these climatic variables, there is likely to be ...

  20. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  1. The residential demand for electricity in New England,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Paul F.

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The residential demand for electricity, studied on the national level for many years, is here investigated on the regional level. A survey of the literature is first presented outlining past econometric work in the field ...

  2. Smart Metering and Electricity Demand: Technology, Economics and International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brophy Haney, A; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael G.

    www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R Abstract Smart Metering and Electricity Demand: Technology, Economics and International Experience EPRG Working Paper EPRG0903 Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 0905 Aoife... Brophy Haney, Tooraj Jamasb and Michael G. Pollitt In recent years smart metering of electricity demand has attracted attention around the world. A number of countries and regions have started deploying new metering systems; and many others have...

  3. Electric Utility Demand-Side Evaluation Methodologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treadway, N.

    , in the case of electric utilities society and the ratepayer. Commissio~ Substanti ve Rul es Sec. 23.22 stops short of specifying an evaluation methodology or requiring a benefit-cost analysis for each conservation program, but it does require that util... of view using a standard benefit-cost methodology. The methodology now in use by several. electric utilities and the Public Utility Commlsslon of Texas includes measures of efficiency and equity. The nonparticipant test as a measure of equity...

  4. Electricity Demand Forecasting using Gaussian Processes Manuel Blum and Martin Riedmiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teschner, Matthias

    Electricity Demand Forecasting using Gaussian Processes Manuel Blum and Martin Riedmiller Abstract We present an electricity demand forecasting algorithm based on Gaussian processes. By introducing. Introduction Electricity demand forecasting is an important aspect of the control and scheduling of power

  5. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    problems, Electric Power Systems Research, 73(2): p. 169-problems, Electric Power Systems Research, 77(3-4): p. 212-decomposition, Electric Power Systems Research, 77(7): p.

  6. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix H: Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix H: Demand Response Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1 Demand Response in the Council's Fifth Power Plan......................................................................................................................... 3 Estimate of Potential Demand Response

  7. Reducing Electricity Demand Charge for Data Centers with Partial Execution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    . INTRODUCTION Data centers are the powerhouse behind many Internet services today. A modern data centerReducing Electricity Demand Charge for Data Centers with Partial Execution Hong Xu Department@eecg.toronto.edu ABSTRACT Data centers consume a large amount of energy and incur substantial electricity cost

  8. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel carbon intensity. . 8a function of the lifecycle carbon intensity of electricityCarbon Intensity

  9. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  10. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Design for implementation : fully integrated charging & docking infrastructure used in Mobility-on-Demand electric vehicle fleets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jean Mario Nations

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the technology used in electric vehicles continues to advance, there is an increased demand for urban-appropriate electric charging stations emphasizing a modern user interface, robust design, and reliable functionality. ...

  12. Statewide Electricity and Demand Capacity Savings from the Implementation of IECC Code in Texas: Analysis for Single-Family Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents estimates of the statewide electricity and electric demand savings achieved from the adoption of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for single-family residences in Texas and includes the corresponding increase...

  13. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  14. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  15. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System Operator. WECC (2006) Information Summary, Westernx SDG&E SMR SMUD TID v VMT WECC San Diego Gas & ElectricCoordinating Council (WECC) differ somewhat from the CEC and

  16. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Palm Springs solar insolation, and California electricityConcentrating Solar Power in California, NREL/SR-550-39291,generation from wind and solar in California could be very

  17. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al Scott et al (2007) [97] EPRI and NRDC (2007) [6, StephanAir Resources Board. EPRI and NRDC (2007) Environmentalin the hydrogen-electric economy, EPRI. Lemoine, D.M. , D.M.

  18. Industrial-Load-Shaping: The Practice of and Prospects for Utility/Industry Cooperation to Manage Peak Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D. J.; Rubin, D. E.; Maniates, M. F.

    INDUSTRIAL-LOAD-SHAPI1IG: TIlE PRACTICE OF AND PROSPECTS FOR UTILITY/INDUSTRY COOPERATION TO MAUGE PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND Donald J. BuIes and David E. Rubin Consultants, Pacific Gas and Electric Company San Francisco, California Michael F.... Maniates Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, California ABSTRACT Load-management programs designed to reduce demand for electricity during peak periods are becoming increasingly important to electric utilities. For a gf...

  19. Trends in Regional Electricity Demands 1995-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Department of Energy in EIA form 861. Council staff takes annual reported retail sales by each utility. Street lighting sales are not metered but rather estimated . 10 #12;Losses are Defined as Energy LoadsTrends in Regional Electricity Demands 1995-2012 January 29, 2014 #12;In Today's Conversation

  20. 2012 Portland General Electric. All rights reserved. Planning for Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2/13/2013 1 © 2012 Portland General Electric. All rights reserved. Planning for Demand Response Balance: Energy #12;2/13/2013 2 3 PGE Load ­ Resource Balance: Winter Capacity 4 Traditional Role decade, access to a material portion of its legacy hydro resources. Meanwhile, PGE (and other IOU

  1. THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49947 THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND? ..................................... 8 What are the seasonal aspects of electric peak demand?............................ 9 What because of the California electricity crisis (Borenstein 2001). Uncertainties surrounding the reliability

  2. Electric Power Research Institute Cooperation to Increase Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by improving energy efficiency and promoting the widespread adoption of electric energy demand response programs in an effort to curtail energy use during peak periods. Electric...

  3. Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost Siyu Yue- ple users cooperate to perform load demand scheduling in order to minimize the electricity generation between electricity consumption and generation. On the consumption side, electric demand ramps up

  4. The impact of changes in electric transmission regulation on coal demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, E.J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The likely impact of changes in regulation of electric transmission and the environmental impacts associated with those changes on the demand for coal by the electric utility industry are discussed. Since the electric utility industry is currently the largest user of coal (in 1992, 87% of coal consumed in the United States was used to generate electricity by electric utilities) any systematic change in the electric utility industry could ripple through the coal industry. What deregulation or changes in regulations in the electric industry is occurring or has occurred at the federal level and the expected impact on the demand for coal are discussed. From the point of view of the electric industry, at least, the primary variable driving demand for coal up or down is its price relative to alternate fuels, particularly natural gas. This is no surprise. Regardless of how the regulators increase or alter their scrutiny of the industry, fundamental economics will prevail. Indeed, with the changes in regulation moving toward more free and open competition, those forces will move even more to the forefront.

  5. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 5: Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 5: Demand Response Summary of Key.............................................................................................................. 1 Demand Response in the Fifth Power Plan........................................................................................... 3 Demand Response in the Sixth Power Plan

  6. Quantifying Changes in Building Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    building control strategies and techniques for demand response,”demand response systems,” in Proceedings of 16th National Conference on BuildingBuilding Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

  7. Influence of Air Conditioner Operation on Electricity Use and Peak Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGarity, A. E.; Feuermann, D.; Kempton, W.; Norford, L. K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity demand due to occupant controlled room air conditioners in a large mater-metered apartment building is analyzed. Hourly data on the electric demand of the building and of individual air conditioners are used in analyses of annual...

  8. Testing Electric Vehicle Demand in "Hybrid Households" Using a Reflexive Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Thomas; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to a hybrid vehicle whichcombines multipleor 180 mile hybrid electric vehicle. Natural gas vehicles (1994) "Demand Electric Vehicles in Hybrid for Households:

  9. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  10. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  11. Demand responsive programs - an emerging resource for competitive electricity markets?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson C. Dr.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The restructuring of regional electricity markets in the U.S. has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created significant new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators, to control and manage the load patterns of their wholesale or retail end-users. These technologies and business approaches for manipulating end-user load shapes are known as Load Management or, more recently, Demand Responsive programs. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is conducting case studies on innovative demand responsive programs and presents preliminary results for five case studies in this paper. These case studies illustrate the diversity of market participants and range of technologies and business approaches and focus on key program elements such as target markets, market segmentation and participation results; pricing scheme; dispatch and coordination; measurement, verification, and settlement; and operational results where available.

  12. A comparison of univariate methods for forecasting electricity demand up to a day ahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McSharry, Patrick E.

    A comparison of univariate methods for forecasting electricity demand up to a day ahead James W methods for short-term electricity demand forecasting for lead times up to a day ahead. The very short of Forecasters. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Electricity demand forecasting

  13. Innovative and Progressive Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, G. J.; Fuller, W. H.

    Conservation of electric energy has been a concern of energy users in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors for several decades, and has increased in significance since the 1973 energy shortages. During this time, it has also become...

  14. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Piette, MaryAnn

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This ?electricity value chain? defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to"demo" potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives.1 In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.

  15. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Piette, Mary Ann; Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This 'electricity value chain' defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to 'demo' potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives. In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.

  16. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  17. Using Compressed Air Efficiency Projects to Reduce Peak Industrial Electric Demands: Lessons Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skelton, J.

    "To help customers respond to the wildly fluctuating energy markets in California, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) initiated an emergency electric demand reduction program in October 2000 to cut electric use during peak periods. One component...

  18. Electric Power Research Institute Cooperation to Increase Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    March 6, 2008 Memorandum of Understanding on Electric Utility Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and the Smart Grid.pdf More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word -...

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  20. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ~;;38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation.

  1. A demand responsive bidding mechanism with price elasticity matrix in wholesale electricity pools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiankang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past several decades, many demand-side participation features have been applied in the electricity power systems. These features, such as distributed generation, on-site storage and demand response, add uncertainties ...

  2. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    intended to be an upper-bound test case on natural gas consumption in the electric power sector. 1 To perform this analysis, the U.S. Department of Energy commissioned Deloitte...

  3. On Coordinating Electricity Markets: Smart Power Scheduling for Demand Side Management and Economic Dispatch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    On Coordinating Electricity Markets: Smart Power Scheduling for Demand Side Management and Economic;On Coordinating Electricity Markets: Smart Power Scheduling for Demand Side Management and Economic Dispatch Abstract Information asymmetry in retail electricity markets is one of the largest sources of inef

  4. The behavioral response to voluntary provision of an environmental public good: Evidence from residential electricity demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    residential electricity demand Grant D. Jacobsen a,n , Matthew J. Kotchen b,c , Michael P. Vandenbergh d online 25 February 2012 JEL classification: H41 Q42 G54 Keywords: Green electricity Voluntary environmental protection Carbon offset Renewable energy Moral licensing Residential electricity demand a b s t r

  5. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, N.L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand responses to climate change: Methodology and application to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  6. Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Dooley, James J.; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Globally, electricity generation accounts for a large and potentially growing water demand, and as such is an important component to assessments of global and regional water scarcity. However, the current suite—as well as potential future suites—of thermoelectric generation technologies has a very wide range of water demand intensities, spanning two orders of magnitude. As such, the evolution of the generation mix is important for the future water demands of the sector. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to analyze the global electric sector’s water demands in three futures of climate change mitigation policy and two technology strategies. We find that despite five- to seven-fold expansion of the electric sector as a whole from 2005 to 2095, global electric sector water withdrawals remain relatively stable, due to the retirement of existing power plants with water-intensive once-through flow cooling systems. In the scenarios examined here, climate policies lead to the large-scale deployment of advanced, low-emissions technologies such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), concentrating solar power, and engineered geothermal systems. In particular, we find that the large-scale deployment of CCS technologies does not increase long-term water consumption from hydrocarbon-fueled power generation as compared with a no-policy scenario without CCS. Moreover, in sensitivity scenarios where low-emissions electricity technologies are required to use dry cooling systems, we find that the consequent additional costs and efficiency reductions do not limit the utility of these technologies in achieving cost-effective whole-system emissions mitigation.

  7. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for 90% of household electricity consumption in China. Usinggives an annual electricity consumption of 12kWh assumingto look at is electricity consumption at the household

  8. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsbuilt for electric storage water heaters and heat pumps asthat electric storage tank water heaters will be replaced

  9. An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

  10. California's Electricity Supply and Demand Balance Over the Next Five Years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the resources of the system. The Commission's 2003 Baseline Demand forecast assumes the following assumptions September October 1 CEC 2003 Baseline Demand Forecast (1-in-2 Weather)1, 2 31 California's Electricity Supply and Demand Balance Over the Next Five Years The Energy Commission

  11. Societal demand for increasing mineral resources continue to affect societythrough aspects as varied as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    Societal demand for increasing mineral resources continue to affect societythrough aspects in investment. The discovery of new mineral resources requires increasing risk, increasing costs, and to provide trained individuals to industry. Vancouver has long been a global leader in exploration

  12. Stackelberg Game based Demand Response for At-Home Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Member, IEEE Abstract--Consumer electricity consumption can be controlled through electricity prices and customers respond accordingly with their electricity consumption levels. In particular, the demands as a game [7]. Note that in reality, electricity retailers are significantly regulated by governments

  13. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6280E A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 2 Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial

  14. THE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES TO MEET THE WORKFORCE DEMAND IN THE ELECTRIC POWER AND ENERGY PROFESSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 THE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES TO MEET THE WORKFORCE DEMAND IN THE ELECTRIC POWER AND ENERGY, Iowa State University ABSTRACT There is a tremendous imbalance between engineering workforce demand and supply in the world in general, and in the US, in particular. The electric power and energy industry

  15. Introduction Increasing demands on limited water resources have made

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Mike

    (reclamation or reuse) an attractive option for extending water supplies. Treatment technologies have evolved has increasingly been used for municipal irrigation, toilet flushing, industrial cooling, and other varyconsiderablybetweensystems.Theuseofrecycledwater is particularly beneficial to extending water supplies in arid climates

  16. Texas Uses Phasors to Increase Electricity Reliability | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Texas Uses Phasors to Increase Electricity Reliability Texas Uses Phasors to Increase Electricity Reliability March 31, 2011 - 12:57pm Addthis Merrill Smith Program Manager, Office...

  17. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsfans, washing machines, water heaters and space heaters.and Space Heating Water heater intensities and electric

  18. Trends in electricity demand and supply in the developing countries, 1980--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Campbell, C.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of trends concerning electricity demand and supply in the developing countries in the 1980--1990 period, with special focus on 13 major countries for which we have assembled consistent data series. We describe the linkage between electricity demand and economic growth, the changing sectoral composition of electricity consumption, and changes in the mix of energy sources for electricity generation. We also cover trends in the efficiency of utility electricity supply with respect to power plant efficiency and own-use and delivery losses, and consider the trends in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity supply.

  19. Increasing primary energy and electricity demand. Persistent energy deficit situation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    greater commercial utilization of solar energy in India. · Determination of market acceptance for SLC (PV, T, and PV/T). · Design Solar Linear Concentrators to address market expectations in India) Grid connected (only 2MWp currently). Technical And Economic Potential Of Solar Linear Concentrators

  20. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    replaced with heat pump water heaters (efficiency of 250%).electric storage water heaters and heat pumps as shown infor Electric Water Heaters and Heat Pumps End Use Elec WH HP

  1. A Dynamic Supply-Demand Model for Electricity Prices Manuela Buzoianu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Dynamic Supply-Demand Model for Electricity Prices Manuela Buzoianu , Anthony E. Brockwell, and Duane J. Seppi Abstract We introduce a new model for electricity prices, based on the principle in a study of Californian wholesale electricity prices over a three-year period including the crisis period

  2. Testing The Effects Of Price Responsive Demand On Uniform Price And Soft-Cap Electricity Auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Testing The Effects Of Price Responsive Demand On Uniform Price And Soft-Cap Electricity Auctions R. The soft-cap market has not worked well. Spot prices for electricity in California remained consistently of different electric power markets with respect to price volatility and average market price. In particular

  3. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Hydroelectric Energy Supply Thermal-question. Data on PG&E's hydroelectric resources and Pacific27 Table 28 Table 29 Hydroelectric Supply in California Fuel

  4. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the second half of the wholesale electric market equation.response with Midwest ISO wholesale markets, report no.DR Programs in Wholesale Markets 18

  5. Quantifying Changes in Building Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Price, Phillip N.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present methods for analyzing commercial and industrial facility 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building managers to better understand their facility's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to ask the right questions to discover opportunities for demand response, energy efficiency, electricity waste elimination, and peak load management. We primarily focus on demand response. Methods discussed include graphical representations of electric load data, a regression-based electricity load model that uses a time-of-week indicator variable and a piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence, and the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads and demand response behavior. In the future, these methods could be translated into easy-to-use tools for building managers.

  6. Export demand response in the Ontario electricity market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peerbocus, Nash; Melino, Angelo

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Export responses to unanticipated price shocks can be a key contributing factor to the rapid mean reversion of electricity prices. The authors use event analysis - a technique more familiar from financial applications - to demonstrate how hourly export transactions respond to negative supply shocks in the Ontario electricity market. (author)

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aggregate electricity demand Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: for electricity based on aggregate data may in fact reflect the exit of coal-intensive firms (e.g. manufacturers... of fuel demand based on aggregate data, and...

  8. Electrical Energy Conservation and Peak Demand Reduction Potential for Buildings in Texas: Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunn, B. D.; Baughman, M. L.; Silver, S. C.; Rosenfeld, A. H.; Akbari, H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study of electrical energy conservation and peak demand reduction potential for the building sector in Texas. Starting from 1980 building stocks and energy use characteristics, technical conservation...

  9. Societal demand for increasing mineral resources Canada has made significant contributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelson, David G.

    Societal demand for increasing mineral resources Canada has made significant contributions. The discovery of new mineral resources requires increasing risk, increasing costs, and increasingly effective Vancouver has long been a global leader continue to affect society through aspects as varied as high metal

  10. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  11. Electricity Distribution Networks: Investment and Regulation, and Uncertain Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Marantes, Cristiano

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity distribution networks are capital intensive systems and timely investments are crucial for long-term reliability of their service. In coming years, in the UK, and elsewhere in Europe, many networks are in need of extensive investments...

  12. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    steel and glass. Pins, glass beads and headers are assembled manually and are put in a carbon tray. Carbon trays are put in furnaces (ovens) which are maintained at a constant temperature between 160Q-2000F and have an exothermic gas environment.... At this time, company registers its peak demand. Company keeps all furnaces on and keep them available for workers in case they will need it for their products. On average, no more than two furnaces will have same temperature and exothermic gas...

  13. Analysis of PG E's residential end-use metered data to improve electricity demand forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.H.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally acknowledged that improvements to end-use load shape and peak demand forecasts for electricity are limited primarily by the absence of reliable end-use data. In this report we analyze recent end-use metered data collected by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company from more than 700 residential customers to develop new inputs for the load shape and peak demand electricity forecasting models used by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the California Energy Commission. Hourly load shapes are normalized to facilitate separate accounting (by the models) of annual energy use and the distribution of that energy use over the hours of the day. Cooling electricity consumption by central air-conditioning is represented analytically as a function of climate. Limited analysis of annual energy use, including unit energy consumption (UEC), and of the allocation of energy use to seasons and system peak days, is also presented.

  14. Abstract--Forecasting of future electricity demand is very important for decision making in power system operation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    Abstract--Forecasting of future electricity demand is very important for decision making in power industry, accurate forecasting of future electricity demand has become an important research area sector. This paper presents a novel approach for mid-term electricity load forecasting. It uses a hybrid

  15. Exploring the Effect of Continuing Increases in Water Demands on the Sustainability of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the Rio Grande Compact was approved by Congress, dividing the annual water flow among the three states3 Exploring the Effect of Continuing Increases in Water Demands on the Sustainability of Limited Water Resources byDr.JamesF.Booker NRLCVisitingFellow The Rio Grande originates in the southern Colorado

  16. Green Marketing, Renewables, and Free Riders: Increasing Customer Demand for a Public Good

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-40632 UC-1321 Green Marketing, Renewables, and Free Riders: Increasing Customer Demand Customers that They Can "Make a Difference" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Emphasize Customer Retention errors and/or omissions are, of course, the full responsibility of the authors. The work described

  17. Statewide Electricity and Demand Capacity Savings from the Implementation of IECC Code in Texas: Analysis for Single-Family Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Lewis, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STATEWIDE ELECTRICITY AND DEMAND CAPACITY SAVINGS FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IECC CODE IN TEXAS: ANALYSIS FOR SINGLE?FAMILY RESIDENCES 11th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations New York City, October 18 ? 20, 2011 Hyojin...&M University System Statewide Electricity and Demand Savings from the IECC Code in TX 11th ICEBO Conference Oct. 18 ? 20, 2011 2 Outline Introduction Methodology Base?Case Building Results Summary Statewide Electricity and Demand Savings from the IECC...

  18. Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Maximizing the...

  19. Smart grid-demand side response model to mitigate prices and peak impact on the electrical system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marwan, Marwan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The aims of this project is to develop demand side response model which assists electricity consumers who are exposed to the market price through aggregator… (more)

  20. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  1. ZONAL PRICING AND DEMAND-SIDE BIDDING IN THE NORWEGIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-063 ZONAL PRICING AND DEMAND-SIDE BIDDING IN THE NORWEGIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET Tor Arnt Johnsen of the Program on Workable Energy Regulation (POWER). POWER is a program of the University of California Energy. University of California Energy Institute 2539 Channing Way Berkeley, California 94720-5180 www

  2. Battery Health-conscious Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Grid Demand Prediction Saeid Bashash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    at an incipient stage. A market share of about 25% is projected in the United States by year 2020, resulting in nearly five million PHEV sales per year [2]. The energy requirements of PHEVs depend significantlyBattery Health-conscious Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Grid Demand Prediction Saeid Bashash

  3. What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

  4. Integrating Demand into the U.S. Electric Power System: Technical, Economic, and Regulatory Frameworks for Responsive Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    for Responsive/Adaptive Load by Jason W. Black Massachusetts Institute of Technology Submitted to the Engineering integration of demand response. Integrating demand into the US electricity system will allow the development, and market issues to determine a system structure that provides incentives for demand response. An integrated

  5. Demand-response (DR) programs, in which facilities reduce their electric loads in response to a utility signal, represent a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Issue Demand-response (DR) programs, in which facilities reduce their electric loads (Figure 1). The testing covered four Lighting the Way to Demand ResponseLighting the Way to Demand Response California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program Technical Brief PIER

  6. The Impact of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Programs on the U.S. Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Young Sun [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the impact of the energy efficiency (EE) and demand response (DR) programs on the grid and the consequent level of production. Changes in demand caused by EE and DR programs affect not only the dispatch of existing plants and new generation technologies, the retirements of old plants, and the finances of the market. To find the new equilibrium in the market, we use the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch Model (ORCED) developed to simulate the operations and costs of regional power markets depending on various factors including fuel prices, initial mix of generation capacity, and customer response to electricity prices. In ORCED, over 19,000 plant units in the nation are aggregated into up to 200 plant groups per region. Then, ORCED dispatches the power plant groups in each region to meet the electricity demands for a given year up to 2035. In our analysis, we show various demand, supply, and dispatch patterns affected by EE and DR programs across regions.

  7. Electricity Demand-Side Management for an Energy Efficient Future in China: Technology Options and Policy Priorities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Electricity Demand-Side Management for an Energy Efficient Future in China: Technology Options Neufville Professor of Engineering Systems Chair, ESD Education Committee #12;2 #12;3 Electricity Demand-Side Management for an Energy Efficient Future in China: Technology Options and Policy Priorities By Chia

  8. Estimated winter 1980-1981 electric demand and supply, contiguous United States. Staff report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the most recent data available concerning projected electrical peak demands and available power resouces for the 1980-1981 winter peak period, as reported by electric utilities in the contiguous United States. The data, grouped by Regional Reliability Council areas and by Electrical Regions within the Council areas, was obtained from the Form 12E-2 reports filed by utilities with the Department of Energy on October 15, 1980 (data as of September 30). In some instances the data were revised or verified by telephone. Considerations affecting reliability, arising from Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions based on lessons learned from the forced outage of Three Mile Island Nuclear Unit No. 2, were factored into the report. No widespread large-scale reliability problems are foreseen for electric power supply this winter, on the basis of the supply and demand projections furnished by the electric utilities. Reserve margins could drop in some electric regions to levels considered inadequate for reliable service, if historical forced-outage magnitudes recur.

  9. Electric power is an increasingly important aspect of modern society. We are extremely dependent on electric-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    illustrates the structure of a local economy with a woody biomass energy sector and the links that im- pact a local economy. The businesses in the wood energy sector (such as timber growers, loggers, and electric & Service Suppliers Local Consumption & Intermediate Demand Economic Structure of the Wood Energy Industry

  10. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  11. The business value of demand response for balance responsible parties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonsson, Mattias

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? By using IT-solutions, the flexibility on the demand side in the electrical systems could be increased. This is called demand response and is part… (more)

  12. Evaluating Policies to Increase Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    Building on a review of experience in the United States and the European Union, this article advances four main propositions concerning policies aimed at increasing electricity generation from renewable energy. First, who ...

  13. High Electric Demand Days: Clean Energy Strategies for Improving Air Quality

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Art Diem of the State and Local Capacity Building Branch in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  14. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  15. Dynamic Control of Electricity Cost with Power Demand Smoothing and Peak Shaving for Distributed Internet Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, A.K.M. Ashikur

    Dynamic Control of Electricity Cost with Power Demand Smoothing and Peak Shaving for Distributed a major part of their running costs. Modern electric power grid provides a feasible way to dynamically and efficiently manage the electricity cost of distributed IDCs based on the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP

  16. Impact of increased electric vehicle use on battery recycling infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Hammel, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Jungst, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State and Federal regulations have been implemented that are intended to encourage more widespread use of low-emission vehicles. These regulations include requirements of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and regulations pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act. If the market share of electric vehicles increases in response to these initiatives, corresponding growth will occur in quantities of spent electric vehicle batteries for disposal. Electric vehicle battery recycling infrastructure must be adequate to support collection, transportation, recovery, and disposal stages of waste battery handling. For some battery types, such as lead-acid, a recycling infrastructure is well established; for others, little exists. This paper examines implications of increasing electric vehicle use for lead recovery infrastructure. Secondary lead recovery facilities can be expected to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead-acid electric vehicle battery recycling. However, they face stringent environmental constraints that may curtail capacity use or new capacity installation. Advanced technologies help address these environmental constraints. For example, this paper describes using backup power to avoid air emissions that could occur if electric utility power outages disable emissions control equipment. This approach has been implemented by GNB Technologies, a major manufacturer and recycler of lead-acid batteries. Secondary lead recovery facilities appear to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead waste from electric vehicles, but growth in that capacity could be constrained by environmental regulations. Advances in lead recovery technologies may alleviate possible environmental constraints on capacity growth.

  17. Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P o Contribution of Renewable Energy to Total Electricity Generation? 15 ManaGInG VaRIablE EnERGy REsouRCEs 16 What l i c y m a k e r G u i d e #12;Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 3

  18. Summary We examined the effects of increased transpira-tion demand on xylem hydraulic conductivity and vulnerabil-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maherali, Hafiz

    in response to high evaporative demand and prevent xylem tensions from reaching values that cause catastrophicSummary We examined the effects of increased transpira- tion demand on xylem hydraulic conductivity potential and water potential differences between the soil and the shoot were similar for desert and montane

  19. SmartCap: Flattening Peak Electricity Demand in Smart Homes Sean Barker, Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant Shenoy, and Jeannie Albrecht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    SmartCap: Flattening Peak Electricity Demand in Smart Homes Sean Barker, Aditya Mishra, David Irwin--Flattening household electricity demand reduces generation costs, since costs are disproportionately affected by peak demands. While the vast majority of household electrical loads are interactive and have little scheduling

  20. Electricity demand-side management for an energy efficient future in China : technology options and policy priorities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research is to identify robust technology and policy options which achieve substantial reductions in electricity demand in China's Shandong Province. This research utilizes a scenario-based ...

  1. Integrating demand into the U.S. electric power system : technical, economic, and regulatory frameworks for responsive load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Jason W. (Jason Wayne)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric power system in the US developed with the assumption of exogenous, inelastic demand. The resulting evolution of the power system reinforced this assumption as nearly all controls, monitors, and feedbacks were ...

  2. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  3. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Open Automated Demand Response. In Grid Interop Forum.Berkeley National Laboratory. Demand Response ResearchCenter, Demand Response Research Center PIER Team Briefing,

  4. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory. Berkeley. Demand Response Research Center,and Automated Demand Response in Wastewater TreatmentLaboratory. Berkeley. Demand Response Research Center,

  5. Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled Electric Springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Jayantika; Krishnanand, KR; Panda, Sanjib

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of demand-side management for electricand simulation of demand-side management potential in urbanin smart grids, demand side management has been a keen topic

  6. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  7. Statewide Electricity and Demand Capacity Savings from the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) Adoption for Single-Family Residences in Texas (2002-2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the continuation of the previous 2011 Statewide Electricity Savings report from code-compliant, single-family residences built between 2002 and 2009. Statewide electricity and electric demand savings achieved from the adoption...

  8. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of integrating demand response and energy efficiencyand D. Kathan (2009), Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityFRAMEWORKS THAT PROMOTE DEMAND RESPONSE 3.1. Demand Response

  9. Secure Demand Shaping for Smart Grid On constructing probabilistic demand response schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    Secure Demand Shaping for Smart Grid On constructing probabilistic demand response schemes. Developing novel schemes for demand response in smart electric gird is an increasingly active research area/SCADA for demand response in smart infrastructures face the following dilemma: On one hand, in order to increase

  10. Draft Fourth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, Appendix D ECONOMIC AND DEMAND FORECASTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND DEMAND FORECASTS INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY Role of the Demand Forecast A demand forecast of at least 20 years is one of the explicit requirements of the Northwest Power Act. A demand forecast is, of course analysis. Because the future is inherently uncertain, the Council forecasts a range of future demand levels

  11. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and provide demand response (DR) through building controland provide demand response (DR) through building controlDemand Response Automation Server (DRAS) in a 15-minute interval. This allows the continuous monitoring of the building's

  12. Intelligent Commercial Lighting: Demand-Responsive Conditioning and Increased User Satisfaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requirements, one time of use (TOU) tariff for smallerthat on a representative time of use electricity tariff, the

  13. Analysis of PG&E`s residential end-use metered data to improve electricity demand forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.H.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally acknowledged that improvements to end-use load shape and peak demand forecasts for electricity are limited primarily by the absence of reliable end-use data. In this report we analyze recent end-use metered data collected by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company from more than 700 residential customers to develop new inputs for the load shape and peak demand electricity forecasting models used by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the California Energy Commission. Hourly load shapes are normalized to facilitate separate accounting (by the models) of annual energy use and the distribution of that energy use over the hours of the day. Cooling electricity consumption by central air-conditioning is represented analytically as a function of climate. Limited analysis of annual energy use, including unit energy consumption (UEC), and of the allocation of energy use to seasons and system peak days, is also presented.

  14. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sjstems (ITS) Electricity Sector Promoting nuclear useindustrial and electricity generation sectors (Table 4-2).In the industrial sector, electricity demand will increase,

  15. Response Options Aimed at Increasing the ContributionResponse Options Aimed at Increasing the Contribution of Variable Energy Resources in the Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the Contribution of Variable Energy Resources in the Electricity Supply Workshop Roskilde June 10 Measures in the electricity tigeneration Henrik Klinge Jacobsen and Erika Zvingilaite, Risø DTUg g , #12;Contents · Impacts of electricity or heat 4 ­ Storage of electricity or heat ­ New demand technologies (heat pumps, hybrid electric

  16. oday the spotlight in the United States is on the increasing world demand for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    . Future of agriculture: supply of food fiber and bio-fuels. Forest Residues Agricultural Crops Aquatic sources, such as bio fuels, forests, wind, solar and animal manure. While demand for hydrocarbon energy of energy from biomass, including trees, agricultural crops, animal manure and municipal solid waste

  17. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is fraction of total electricity consumption for commercialy) ! calculate total electricity consumption for the end-useis fraction of total electricity consumption for residential

  18. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3. Price Variations of Wholesale Electricity Markets for NYC4. Price Variations of Wholesale Electricity Markets for NYCDemand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using

  19. The demand for high performance computing research has been significantly increasing over the past few years. Various

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhmedov, Azer

    The demand for high performance computing research has been significantly increasing over the past to promote the effective use of High Performance Computing in the research environment. In addition facility has enabled cutting-edge computations material research, "Having a high-performance computing

  20. Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled Electric Springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Jayantika; Krishnanand, KR; Panda, Sanjib

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlleddemand side management has been a keen topic of interest. Buildings,

  1. Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wigeland; K. Hamman

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Suggested for Track 7: Advances in Reactor Core Design and In-Core Management _____________________________________________________________________________________ Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency R. Wigeland and K. Hamman Idaho National Laboratory Given the ability of fast reactors to effectively transmute the transuranic elements as are present in spent nuclear fuel, fast reactors are being considered as one element of future nuclear power systems to enable continued use and growth of nuclear power by limiting high-level waste generation. However, a key issue for fast reactors is higher electricity cost relative to other forms of nuclear energy generation. The economics of the fast reactor are affected by the amount of electric power that can be produced from a reactor, i.e., the thermal efficiency for electricity generation. The present study is examining the potential for fast reactor subassembly design changes to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the average coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak temperatures within the subassembly, i.e., to make better use of current technology. Sodium-cooled fast reactors operate at temperatures far below the coolant boiling point, so that the maximum coolant outlet temperature is limited by the acceptable peak temperatures for the reactor fuel and cladding. Fast reactor fuel subassemblies have historically been constructed using a large number of small diameter fuel pins contained within a tube of hexagonal cross-section, or hexcan. Due to this design, there is a larger coolant flow area next to the hexcan wall as compared to flow area in the interior of the subassembly. This results in a higher flow rate near the hexcan wall, overcooling the fuel pins next to the wall, and a non-uniform coolant temperature distribution. It has been recognized for many years that this difference in sodium coolant temperature was detrimental to achieving greater thermal efficiency, since it causes the fuel pins in the center of the subassembly to operate at higher temperatures than those near the hexcan walls, and it is the temperature limit(s) for those fuel pins that limits the average coolant outlet temperature. Fuel subassembly design changes are being investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to quantify the effect that the design changes have on reducing the intra-subassembly coolant flow and temperature distribution. Simulations have been performed for a 19-pin test subassembly geometry using typical fuel pin diameters and wire wrap spacers. The results have shown that it may be possible to increase the average coolant outlet temperature by 20 C or more without changing the peak temperatures within the subassembly. These design changes should also be effective for reactor designs using subassemblies with larger numbers of fuel pins. R. Wigeland, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Mail Stop 3860, Idaho Falls, ID, U.S.A., 83415-3860 email – roald.wigeland@inl.gov fax (U.S.) – 208-526-2930

  2. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  3. Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

  4. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain Aimee McKane,Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain Aimee McKane,grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of

  5. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain Aimee McKane*,Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain Aimee McKane,grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of

  6. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards "Top-Runner Approach"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total Energy Source Demand Coal, Oil, Gas, Heat, ElectricityEnergy Source Demand per Household Coal, Oil, Gas, Heat,ton of oil equivalent Considerable increases in demand for

  7. Linking supply and demand: increasing grower participation and customer attendance at local farmers' markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lillard, Patrick Terrell

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Farmers' markets in the United States have experienced a dramatic increase since the 1970's. In the past three decades the number of farmers' markets has increased from 340 in 1970 to 3,617 by 2006. This interest in farmers' markets has not been...

  8. Evaluating the Long-term Impact of a Continuously Increasing Harmonic Load Demand on Feeder Level Voltage Distortion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simőes, Marcelo Godoy

    , fluorescent tube lighting, pc's and laptops have become more prominent in the residential household. With an expectation of higher penetrations of electric vehicle chargers and renewable energy devices the increased usage of nonlinear devices by type. The disadvantage to this approach is that it relies upon

  9. Testing Electric Vehicle Demand in `Hybrid Households' Using a Reflexive Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth; Turrentine, Thomas; Sperling, Daniel

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    travel by electric and hybrid vehicles. SAE Technical PapersIn contrast to a hybrid vehicle which combines multipleElectric, Hybrid and Other Alternative Vehicles. A r t h u r

  10. Domestic electricity consumption is con-tinuously increasing and now accounts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domestic electricity consumption is con- tinuously increasing and now accounts for about one third") enable detailed electricity consumption infor- mation to be captured, processed, and communicated electricity consumption infor- mation in real-time, enabling occupants to better understand their electricity

  11. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for DR and demand side management, along with operationalresponse), DSM (demand side management), DR strategy, air

  12. They must respond to growing demands for good affordable housing, to increasing urbanisation, and to calls for higher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    growing communities. They confront new challenges as the demand for sustainable building grows, and as new

  13. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  14. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2Energy Second Quarter Report 2014

  15. Electrical Properties of Mineral Surfaces for Increasing Water Sorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the presence of O2.2,4,5 In addition to controlling Mn concentrations, the nanostructures sequester heavy-metal and the associated toxic metals can be remobilized. N the electrical properties of mineral surfaces and thereby affect reactions with charged species such as metal

  16. Floating offshore wind farms : demand planning & logistical challenges of electricity generation .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nnadili, Christopher Dozie, 1978-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Floating offshore wind farms are likely to become the next paradigm in electricity generation from wind energy mainly because of the near constant high wind… (more)

  17. Converting 15-Minute Interval Electricity Load Data into Reduced Demand, Energy Reduction and Cash Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrin, D. G.

    , store managers are intimidated. 5 So what are the solutions? • A data acquisition system. • Pro-active with alarming and demand-response. Is there staff to maintain and ensure a response? • Passive. Acquire the data and then evaluate and assess... is not required, this will prevent the requirement for additional costs of installing an OAT sensor at the building and potentially adding costs to the datalogger hardware or configuration. If possible, it is best to use and on-site OAT sensor. If a demand-response...

  18. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy giants', a phenomenon that is expected to continue, accelerate and spread to other countries. This paper explores the potential for slowing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector in developing countries and evaluates the potential of energy savings and emissions mitigation through market transformation programs such as, but not limited to Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L). The bottom-up methodology used allows one to identify which end uses and regions have the greatest potential for savings.

  19. Analysis of Michigan's demand-side electricity resources in the residential sector: Volume 3, End-use studies: Revised final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, F.; Brown, J.; Connell, D.; DuPont, P.; Greely, K.; Meal, M.; Meier, A.; Mills, E.; Nordman, B.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume of the ''Analysis of Michigan's Demand-Side Electricity Resources in the Residential Sector'' contains end-use studies on various household appliances including: refrigerators, freezers, lighting systems, water heaters, air conditioners, space heaters, and heat pumps. (JEF)

  20. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    annual per-capita electricity consumption by demand15 California electricity consumption projections by demandannual per-capita electricity consumption by demand

  1. Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

  2. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Director, PIER Demand Response Research CenterAssessment of Demand Response & Advanced Metering, staffPower Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air

  3. Electric Demand Reduction for the U.S. Navy Public Works Center San Diego, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated the profitability of operating a Navy ship's generators (in San Diego) during high electricity price periods rather than the ships hooking up to the Base electrical system for power. Profitability is predicated on the trade-off between the operating and maintenance cost incurred by the Navy for operating the ship generators and the net profit associated with the sale of the electric power on the spot market. In addition, PNNL assessed the use of the ship's generators as a means to achieve predicted load curtailments, which can then be marketed to the California Independent System Operator.

  4. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-TemperatureEnergy Maine09 BalanceStorage and Managing

  5. The increasing world energy demand, depletion and unequal distribution of fossil resources, and the dangers caused by climate change are the driving forces for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    Summary Summary The increasing world energy demand, depletion and unequal distribution of fossil demand, many nations have established new regimes on renewable energy. For instance, the European of alternative energy sources. In view of the GHG emission reduction target agreed upon in the Kyoto protocol

  6. Quantifying Changes in Building Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electric loads to deliver load following and regu- lation,6], and regulation/load following [7]), and as DR is used toload as a function of time-of-week and outdoor air temperature. Following

  7. Floating offshore wind farms : demand planning & logistical challenges of electricity generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nnadili, Christopher Dozie, 1978-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Floating offshore wind farms are likely to become the next paradigm in electricity generation from wind energy mainly because of the near constant high wind speeds in an offshore environment as opposed to the erratic wind ...

  8. Dynamic pricing and stabilization of supply and demand in modern electric power grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roozbehani, Mardavij

    The paper proposes a mechanism for real-time pricing of electricity in smart power grids, with price stability as the primary concern. In previous publications the authors argued that relaying the real-time wholesale market ...

  9. NREL Uses Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL analysis identifies potential cost-effective scenarios for using small fuel cell power units to increase the range of medium-duty battery electric vehicles.

  10. Testing Electric Vehicle Demand in "Hybrid Households" Using a Reflexive Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Thomas; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EV market studies In the absenceof data on actual sales,EV, then we expect 16 to 18% annual of of light-duty vehicle salesEV experiments indicate there is still more than adequatepotential marketsfor electric vehicles to have , exceededthe former 1998CARB mandatefor sales

  11. Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power "on demand"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    . Solar One used water as a working fluid to generate the steam required to drive a conven- tional turbine steam, and electricity is produced by a conventional steam turbine. After the molten salt has cooled with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technical Achievement Solar Two represents a major technical

  12. Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY A 20-year forecast of electricity demand is a required of any forecast of electricity demand and developing ways to reduce the risk of planning errors that could arise from this and other uncertainties in the planning process. Electricity demand is forecast

  13. Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    interstate natural gas pipeline transmission system across a range of future natural gas demand scenarios that drive increased electric power sector natural gas use. To perform...

  14. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power systems with demand response and wind power.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Liu, C.; Ton, D.; Zhou, Y.; Kim, J.; Vyas, A. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( ES); (ED); (Kyungwon Univ.)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper uses a new unit commitment model which can simulate the interactions among plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), wind power, and demand response (DR). Four PHEV charging scenarios are simulated for the Illinois power system: (1) unconstrained charging, (2) 3-hour delayed constrained charging, (3) smart charging, and (4) smart charging with DR. The PHEV charging is assumed to be optimally controlled by the system operator in the latter two scenarios, along with load shifting and shaving enabled by DR programs. The simulation results show that optimally dispatching the PHEV charging load can significantly reduce the total operating cost of the system. With DR programs in place, the operating cost can be further reduced.

  15. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-warehouse can include cold storage space pre-cooling,off equipment, increasing cold storage area temperature set

  16. Peak-Coincident Demand Savings from Behavior-Based Programs: Evidence from PPL Electric's Behavior and Education Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, James

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Review. Energy Policy 38 PPL Electric. 2012. First AnnualBased Programs: Evidence from PPL Electric’s Behavior andreports on the effects of PPL Electric’s behavior-based

  17. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response Research Center Staff Scientist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron, Building

  18. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad CatĂłlica de Chile)

    techniques. Index Terms--Demand Side Management, direct load control, peak demand control, genetic algorithms in order to evaluate the suitability of the decision chosen. The Demand Side Management (DSM) plans attempt for central air conditioning systems in commercial buildings, hence allowing a measured control of peak demand

  19. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad CatĂłlica de Chile)

    techniques. Index Terms--Demand Side Management, direct load control, peak demand control, genetic algorithms in order to evaluate the suitability of the decision chosen. Demand Side Management (DSM) plans attempt for central air conditioning systems in commercial buildings, hence allowing a measured control of peak demand

  20. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and D. Kathan (2009). Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityEnergy Financial Group. Demand Response Research Center [2008). Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering.

  1. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. Atanasiu (2006). Electricity Consumption and Efficiencywill see their electricity consumption rise significantly.the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing

  2. A Hierarchical Demand Response Framework for Data Center Power Cost Optimization Under Real-World Electricity Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    1 A Hierarchical Demand Response Framework for Data Center Power Cost Optimization Under Real bills. Our focus is on a subset of this work that carries out demand response (DR) by modulating

  3. A Hierarchical Demand Response Framework for Data Center Power Cost Optimization Under Real-World Electricity Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    1 A Hierarchical Demand Response Framework for Data Center Power Cost Optimization Under Real for optimizing their utility bills. Our focus is on a subset of this work that carries out demand response (DR

  4. Composites for Aerospace and Transportation As the fuel costs and environment concerns continue to increase, so does the demand for composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Composites for Aerospace and Transportation As the fuel costs and environment concerns continue to increase, so does the demand for composite materials for aerospace and transportation applications. Polymer composites are inherited lighter than their metallic counterparts resulting in significant weight reduction

  5. Electrical Demand Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fetters, J. L.; Teets, S. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bination of a 2200 ton, the 1200 ton and the 800 ton units or by two 2200 ton units. We sought to di sp 1ace the 1200 ton or part of a 2200 ton unit with two steam turbi ne chill ers duri ng peak hours at a total reduced cost for supplying all building...

  6. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Domestic Electric Storage Water Heater (DESWH) Test Methodsby products 5 , and water heaters. Appliance diffusion isor endorsement levels. Water Heaters The share of electric

  7. Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

  8. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand.Oglesby Executive Director #12;i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The demand forecast is the combined product estimates. Margaret Sheridan provided the residential forecast. Mitch Tian prepared the peak demand

  9. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand Robert P. Oglesby Executive Director #12;i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The demand forecast is the combined provided estimates for demand response program impacts and contributed to the residential forecast. Mitch

  10. Planning for electric utility solar applications: the effects on reliability and production cost estimates of the variability in demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fegan, G.R.; Percival, C.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have shown the necessity of the consideration of hourly variability in the output from the intermittent generation source. However, the studies did not take into account the variability in the demand. A result is presented which shows that under general conditions the variability due to randomness can be ignored except in the neighborhood of the peak and minimum demands.

  11. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply; Executive Summary (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a 21-page summary of the 200+ page analysis that explores one clearly defined scenario for providing 20% of our nation's electricity demand with wind energy by 2030 and contrasts it to a scenario of no new U.S. wind power capacity.

  12. Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson C.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The restructuring of regional and national electricity markets in the U.S. and around the world has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators to control and manage the load patterns of wholesale and retail end-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called Load Management, have re-emerged as an important element in the fine-tuning of newly restructured electricity markets. During the summers of 1999 and 2001 they played a vital role in stabilizing wholesale markets and providing a hedge against generation shortfalls throughout the U.S.A. Demand Response Programs include ''traditional'' capacity reservation and interruptible/curtailable rates programs as well as voluntary demand bidding programs offered by either Load Serving Entities (LSEs) or regional Independent System Operators (ISOs). The Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) has been monitoring the development of new types of Demand Response Programs both in the U.S. and around the world. This paper provides a survey and overview of the technologies and program designs that make up these emerging and important new programs.

  13. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  14. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wholesale Electricity Demand Response Program Comparison,J. (2009) Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsin Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services.

  15. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model to project hourly wholesale electricity market pricesSecond, based on the wholesale electricity market pricesthe temporal trends in wholesale market electricity prices.

  16. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  17. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  18. The use of electrical resistance in the plant stem to measure plant response to soil moisture tension and evaporative demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Box, James E.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . , . . . . . . ~. . . . . . . . . 30 10- Diurnal cotton plant stem electrical resistance readings as recorded simultaneously from three soil moisture levels. ~ 36 Flot 1-P (cotton), Diurnal cotton plant stem electrical resistance readings with soil moisture tension equal to 13... atsespheresl ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ta ~ I ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ae ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ 37 13 ' Electrical resistance in the plant stem, and evapotrans- piration in non-irrigated and irrigated cotton plots during one diurnal period. . ~ 39 Plots...

  19. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity20, 2012. I. Dincer, On thermal energy storage systems andin research on cold thermal energy storage, International

  20. Demand Response-Enabled Model Predictive HVAC Load Control in Buildings using Real-Time Electricity Pricing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avci, Mesut

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??A practical cost and energy efficient model predictive control (MPC) strategy is proposed for HVAC load control under dynamic real-time electricity pricing. The MPC strategy… (more)

  1. Techno-economic Assessment of Wind Energy to Supply the Demand of Electricity for a Residential Community in Ethiopia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yebi, Adamu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The electricity sector is a major source of carbon dioxide emission that contributes to the global climate change. Over the past decade wind energy… (more)

  2. Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility...

  3. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Keywords: demand response, buildings, electricity use, Interface  Automated Demand Response  Building Automation of demand response in  commercial buildings.   One key 

  4. Statewide Emissions Reduction, Electricity and Demand Savings from the Implementation of Building-Energy-Codes in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J.; Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Zilbershtein, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    residences in Texas by climate zone as well as the average statewide electricity price ( /kWh). The ratio of electric/gas and heat pump houses constructed in Texas was determined using the annual surveys, National Association of Home Builders (NAHB... of Home Builders. Upper Marlboro, MD: NAHB Research Center. NREL. 2001. Building America House Performance Analysis Procedures. (NREL/TP-550-27754) Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. p.34 Paquette, Z., J. Miller, and M. DeWein. 2010...

  5. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  6. Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the increasing demands for electricity arising from continued growth in U.S. productivity, shifts in and continued expansion of national cultural imperatives (e.g., the...

  7. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small office; and 5) simulated energy savings and peak demand reduction by energy conservation measures using the TMY3 weather data can be significantly underestimated or overestimated. It is crucial to run multi-decade simulations with AMY weather data to fully assess the impact of weather on the long-term performance of buildings, and to evaluate the energy savings potential of energy conservation measures for new and existing buildings from a life cycle perspective.

  8. INCREASE

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interdisciplinary Consortium for Research and Educational Access in Science and Engineering (INCREASE), assists minority-serving institutions in gaining access to world-class research facilities.

  9. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commission (FERC) 2008a. “Wholesale Competition in RegionsDemand Response into Wholesale Electricity Markets,” (URL:1 2. Wholesale and Retails Electricity Markets in

  10. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized. In regions with centrally organized wholesale electricity markets, demand response can help stabilize volatile electricity prices...

  11. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand-side management (DSM) framework presented in Table x provides three major areas for changing electric loads in buildings:

  12. Combined cycle meets Thailand's growing power demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheets, B.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Takabut, K. (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how an ample supply of natural gas led the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) to choose gas-fired combustion turbines. Thailand's rapid industrialization, which began in the late 1980's, placed a great strain on the country's electricity supply system. The demand for electricity grew at an astonishing 14% annually. To deal with diminishing reserve capacity margins, the EGAT announced, in 1988, a power development program emphasizing gas-fired combined cycle power plants. Plans included six 320-MW combined cycle blocks at three sites, and an additional 600-MW gas- and oil-fired thermal plant at Bang Pakong. As electricity demand continued to increase, EGAT expanded its plans to include two additional 320-MW combined cycle blocks, a 600-MW combined cycle block, and a 650-MW gas- and oil-fired thermal plant. All are currently in various stages of design and construction.

  13. Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MARKETS – REVIEW OF DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS IN THE U.S. ANDMARKETS – REVIEW OF DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS IN THE U.S. ANDend-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called

  14. EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Max electricity demand across all days Min electricity demand across all days Electricity demand on single calendar day with highest peak Charging Unit Usage Residential Level 2...

  15. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industrial demand response (DR) with energy efficiency (EE) to most effectively use electricity and natural gas

  16. Increased

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300AptamersstabilityIncreased confinement

  17. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of electricity retail rates or on the private economics ofelectricity rates and hence the customer economics of residential, behind-the-meter PV. We calculate the private

  18. California Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advanced Energy Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s natural gas and electricity sectors within the timeframeto California’s electricity sector led to rolling blackoutsimpacts on the electricity sector is the hourly demand

  19. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  20. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrated solar power (CSP), and wind penetrations in theis met by wind, solar PV, concentrating solar power with 6schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in

  1. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2014­2024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand in this report. #12;i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The demand forecast is the combined product of the hard work to the residential forecast. Mitch Tian prepared the peak demand forecast. Ravinderpal Vaid provided the projections

  2. REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022 Volume 2: Electricity Demand by Utility ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The staff demand forecast is the combined product of the hard work and expertise of numerous the residential forecast. Mitch Tian prepared the peak demand forecast. Ravinderpal Vaid provided the projections

  3. REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022 Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand in this report. #12;i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The staff demand forecast is the combined product of the hard work Sheridan provided the residential forecast. Mitch Tian prepared the peak demand forecast. Ravinderpal Vaid

  4. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand The demand forecast is the combined product of the hard work and expertise of numerous California Energy for demand response program impacts and contributed to the residential forecast. Mitch Tian prepared

  5. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2014­2024 REVISED FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand in this report. #12;i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The demand forecast is the combined product of the hard work provided estimates for demand response program impacts and contributed to the residential forecast. Mitch

  6. Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    ABSTRACT Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial. Demands by the public, environ- mentalists, and governments to reduce aircraft environmental impact, have technologies can reduce the environmental impact of air travel per passenger-mile flown. However, with current

  7. Evaluating Policies to Increase the Generation of Electricity from Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    Focusing on the U.S. and the E.U., this essay seeks to advance four main propositions. First, the incidence of the short-run costs of programs to subsidize the generation of electricity from renewable sources varies with ...

  8. Industrial Equipment Demand and Duty Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, E. S.; Heffington, W. M.

    Demand and duty factors have been measured for selected equipment (air compressors, electric furnaces, injection molding machines, centrifugal loads, and others) in industrial plants. Demand factors for heavily loaded air compressors were near 100...

  9. Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response & Energy Efficiency International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 2 ?Less than 5... for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 5 What is Demand Response? ?The temporary reduction of electricity demanded from the grid by an end-user in response to capacity shortages, system reliability events, or high wholesale...

  10. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy. “Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity MarketsEnergy Efficiency and Demand Response?7 3.1.Demand Response in Commercial

  11. California DREAMing: the design of residential demand responsive technology with people in mind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peffer, Therese E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced Metering and Demand Response in ElectricityChen, X. (2008). Demand Response-enabled Autonomous Controlfor Thermal Comfort, Demand Response, and Reduced Annual

  12. Cooperative Demand Response Using Repeated Game for Price-Anticipating Buildings in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. El-Saadany, “A summary of demand response in electricityYang, and X. Guan, “Optimal demand response scheduling withwith application to demand response,” IEEE Transactions on

  13. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercial and Industrial Customers: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan, Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. “Electricity Demand Side Management Study: Review ofEpping/North Ryde Demand Side Management Scoping Study:Energy Agency Demand Side Management (IEA DSM) Programme:

  14. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response in Commercial Buildings 3.1. Demand Response in Commercial Buildings ElectricityDemand Response: Understanding the DR potential in commercial buildings

  15. Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and Variability in Automated Response to Dynamic Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand response and energy ef?ciency in commercial buildings,”building control strategies and techniques for demand response,”building electricity use with application to demand response,”

  16. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PA. 3. DEMAND RESPONSE IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS ElectricityDemand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial BuildingsDemand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

  17. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high.  Demand response helps to manage building electricity Building  Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response.  Non?Residential Building in California.   Demand Response 

  18. Cooperative Demand Response Using Repeated Game for Price-Anticipating Buildings in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Demand response with price-anticipating buildings. C.one-stage demand response because all the building managersbuilding electricity use, with application to demand response,”

  19. Harnessing the power of demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  20. Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJunoMedanosElectric Co Ltd Jump to:Rural Electrification

  1. Electricity Monthly Update - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    increased electric demand and wholesale and retail prices over last February. Coal consumption rose across the U.S. and out competed natural gas on price in the East. A gas...

  2. Demand Response This is the first of the Council's power plans to treat demand response as a resource.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response This is the first of the Council's power plans to treat demand response the resource and describes some of the potential advantages and problems of the development of demand response. WHAT IS DEMAND RESPONSE? Demand response is a change in customers' demand for electricity corresponding

  3. EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    all days Percentage of charging units connected on single calendar day with peak electricity demand Charging Demand: Range of Aggregate Electricity Demand versus Time of Day...

  4. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  5. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    San Francisco, CA, 2010 (6) National Renewable EnergyLaboratory (NREL), Renewable Resource Data Center, Website:Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on

  6. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CA, 2010 (6) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations onProceedings, for the World Renewable Energy Forum, Denver,

  7. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Response Controls for HVAC Systems Clifford Federspiel,tests. Figure 5: Specific HVAC electric power consumptioncontrol, demand response, HVAC, wireless Executive Summary

  8. Demand Control Utilizing Energy Management Systems - Report of Field Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, B. D.; Heller, R. P.; Perry, L. W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Management systems and particularly demand controllers are becoming more popular as commercial and light industrial operations attempt to reduce their electrical usage and demand. Numerous techniques are used to control energy use and demand...

  9. Security and privacy in demand response systems in smart grid.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paranjpe, Mithila

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Demand response programs are used in smart grid to improve stability of the electric grid and to reduce consumption of electricity and costs during peak… (more)

  10. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant...

  11. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Side Management Framework for Industrial Facilities provides three major areas for changing electric loads in industrial buildings:

  12. Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

  13. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao H.

    2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was two fold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  14. The Case for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    land Press, 1995 TESTING ELECTRIC VEHICLE DEMAND IN " HYBRIDThe Case for Electric Vehicles DanieI Sperlmg Reprint UCTCor The Case for Electric Vehicles Darnel Sperling Institute

  15. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity forecast is the combined product of the hard work and expertise of numerous staff members in the Demand prepared the peak demand forecast. Ravinderpal Vaid provided the projections of commercial floor space

  16. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers. California Energy

  17. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  18. Abstract--The profound change in the electric industry worldwide in the last twenty years assigns an increasing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad CatĂłlica de Chile)

    Value. I. INTRODUCTION He reformed electric industry scheme sets the transmission sector at the center

  19. Near-Optimal Execution Policies for Demand-Response Contracts in Electricity Markets Vineet Goyal1, Garud Iyengar1 and Zhen Qiu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Vineet

    -side participation including time of use pricing, real-time pricing for smart appliances and interruptible demand-AR0000235 the real-time spot price that can be significantly higher than the day-ahead price, especially contracts (if any) to offset the imbalance instead of paying the real-time spot price. Therefore

  20. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  1. Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage by Yangfang Zhou Submitted to the Tepper, and to meet increasing electricity demand without harming the environment. Two of the most promising solutions for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable

  2. Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    #12;#12;2008 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering Staff Report Federal Energy metering penetration and potential peak load reduction from demand response have increased since 2006. Significant activity to promote demand response or to remove barriers to demand response occurred at the state

  3. Reliability implications of price responsive demand : a study of New England's power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitaker, Andrew C. (Andrew Craig)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With restructuring of the traditional, vertically integrated electricity industry come new opportunities for electricity demand to actively participate in electricity markets. Traditional definitions of power system ...

  4. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  5. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  6. Energy technologies and their impact on demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drucker, H.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the uncertainties, energy demand forecasts must be made to guide government policies and public and private-sector capital investment programs. Three principles can be identified in considering long-term energy prospects. First energy demand will continue to grow, driven by population growth, economic development, and the current low per capita energy consumption in developing countries. Second, energy technology advancements alone will not solve the problem. Energy-efficient technologies, renewable resource technologies, and advanced electric power technologies will all play a major role but will not be able to keep up with the growth in world energy demand. Third, environmental concerns will limit the energy technology choices. Increasing concern for environmental protection around the world will restrict primarily large, centralized energy supply facilities. The conclusion is that energy system diversity is the only solution. The energy system must be planned with consideration of both supply and demand technologies, must not rely on a single source of energy, must take advantage of all available technologies that are specially suited to unique local conditions, must be built with long-term perspectives, and must be able to adapt to change.

  7. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Daylighting, dimming, and the electricity crisis in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Neils, Danielle; Colak, Nesrin

    2001-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Dimming controls for electric lighting have been one of the mainstays of the effort to use daylighting to reduce annual lighting energy consumption. The coincidence of daylighting with electric utility peak demand makes daylighting controls an effective strategy for reducing commercial building peak electric loads. During times of energy shortage, there is a greatly increased need to reduce electricity use during peak periods, both to ease the burden on electricity providers and to control the operating costs of buildings. The paper presents a typical commercial building electric demand profile during summer, and shows how daylighting-linked lighting controls and load shedding techniques can reduce lighting at precisely those times when electricity is most expensive. We look at the importance of dimming for increasing the reliability of the electricity grid in California and other states, as well as examine the potential cost-effectiveness of widespread use of daylighting to save energy and reduce monthly electricity bills.

  9. Towards a systematic characterization of the potential of demand side management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinhans, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With an increasing share of electric energy produced from non-dispatchable renewable sources both energy storage and demand side management might gain tremendously in importance. While there has been significant progress in general properties and technologies of energy storage, the systematic characterization of features particular to demand side management such as its intermittent, time-dependent potential seems to be lagging behind. As a consequence, the development of efficient and sustainable strategies for demand side management and its integration into large-scale energy system models are impeded. This work introduces a novel framework for a systematic time-resolved characterization of the potential for demand side management. It is based on the specification of individual devices both with respect to their scheduled demand and their potential of load shifting. On larger scales sector-specific profiles can straightforwardly be taken into account. The potential for demand side management is then specifie...

  10. Manuscript submitted to Electricity Journal 6/2/2006 Steven Letendre Richard Perez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    Manuscript submitted to Electricity Journal 6/2/2006 Steven Letendre Richard Perez The Prometheus of the U.S. electric grid has become increasingly complex as it has been called upon to accommodate growth in total electricity consumption of 75%, accompanied by an increase in non-coincident peak demand in excess

  11. Draft for Public Comment Appendix A. Demand Forecast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draft for Public Comment A-1 Appendix A. Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY A 20-year forecast of electricity demand is a required component of the Council's Northwest Regional Conservation had a tradition of acknowledging the uncertainty of any forecast of electricity demand and developing

  12. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) is a demand-side management strategy to reduce electricity use during times of high peak electric loads;1 Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest

  13. Demand Response Programs for Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wholesale prices and looming shortages in Western power markets in 2000-01, Portland General Electric programs for large customers remain, though they are not active at current wholesale prices. Other programs demand response for the wholesale market -- by passing through real-time prices for usage above a set

  14. Reduce Demand Rather than Increase Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoup, Donald C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2) parking cash out, and (3) car sharing. TRANSIT PASSES INis a good investment. CAR SHARING Another possible in-lieua car when needed. The car-sharing organization would also

  15. Marketing Demand-Side Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, M. L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand-Side Management is an organizational tool that has proven successful in various realms of the ever changing business world in the past few years. It combines the multi-faceted desires of the customers with the increasingly important...

  16. Driving on the Interior of Campus An increased number of vehicles and small electric/gas carts on campus, both State and private,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Driving on the Interior of Campus An increased number of vehicles and small electric/gas carts on campus, both State and private, have created an increased risk to pedestrians and has damaged walkways Director or the designee. · Private and vendor vehicles are restricted at all times. Vehicles requiring

  17. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forMeasuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forpilots have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads

  18. Quantifying the Variable Effects of Systems with Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Quantifying the Variable Effects of Systems with Demand Response Resources Anupama Kowli and George in the electricity industry. In particular, there is a new class of consumers, called demand response resources (DRRs

  19. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and Electricity: Public-Private Partnershipand electricity demands. • Foster Public-Private Partnershipand electricity demands. • Foster Public-Private Partnership

  20. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tariff-driven demand response in these buildings. By usingbuilding electricity costs distributed energy resources costs fuel costs demand responsebuilding energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response.

  1. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.

  2. A Vision of Demand Response - 2016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Roger

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Envision a journey about 10 years into a future where demand response is actually integrated into the policies, standards, and operating practices of electric utilities. Here's a bottom-up view of how demand response actually works, as seen through the eyes of typical customers, system operators, utilities, and regulators. (author)

  3. ASSESSMENT OF VARIABLE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMS WITH DEMAND RESPONSE RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    ASSESSMENT OF VARIABLE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMS WITH DEMAND RESPONSE RESOURCES BY ANUPAMA SUNIL KOWLI B of consumers - called demand response resources (DRRs) - whose role has become increasingly important

  4. Electric Vehicle Deployment: Policy Questions and Impacts to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    regarding policy questions and impacts to the electric grid from the energy demands of electric vehicles. EAC - Electric Vehicle Deployment - Impacts to the US Electric Grid -...

  5. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrated solar power (CSP), and wind penetrations in theis met by wind, solar PV, concentrating solar power with 6schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in

  6. Transportation Energy: Supply, Demand and the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Transportation Energy: Supply, Demand and the Future http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CUTS//2050/energy05 as a source of energy. Global supply and demand trends will have a profound impact on the ability to use our) Transportation energy demand in the U.S. has increased because of the greater use of less fuel efficient vehicles

  7. Automated demand response applied to a set of commercial facilities.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lincoln, Donald F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Commercial facility demand response refers to voluntary actions by customers that change their consumption of electric power in response to price signals, incentives, or… (more)

  8. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited demand response resources, both conventional and renewable, to integrate more effectively with electric...

  9. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstrati...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited demand response resources, both conventional and renewable, to integrate more effectively with electric...

  10. Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services. ” Incan be used to link wholesale and retail real-time prices.11 Wholesale Electricity Market Information

  11. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  12. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response:both the avoided energy costs (and demand charges) as wellCoordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response,

  13. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  14. Modular machinery arrangement and its impact in early-stage naval electric ship design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurkiewicz, David J. (David James)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power demands for naval surface combatants are projected to rise with the development of increasingly complex and power intensive combat systems. This trend also coincides with the need of achieving maximum fuel ...

  15. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels onof Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar EnergyImpact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on

  16. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels onEfficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar Energy TechnologiesImpact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on

  17. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefits of Demand Side Management (DSM) are insufficient toefficiency, demand side management (DSM) cost effectivenessResearch Center Demand Side Management Demand Side Resources

  18. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  19. AMI Communication Requirements to Implement Demand-Response: Applicability of Hybrid Spread Spectrum Wireless

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    While holistically defining the smart grid is a challenge, one area of interest is demand-response. In 2009, the Department of Energy announced over $4 billion in grant and project funding for the Smart Grid. A significant amount of this funding was allotted to utilities for cost sharing projects to deploy Smart Grid technologies, many of whom have deployed and are deploying advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI is an enabler to increase the efficiency of utilities and the bulk power grid. The bulk electrical system is unique in that it produces electricity as it is consumed. Most other industries have a delay between generation and consumption. This aspect of the power grid means that there must be enough generation capacity to meet the highest demand whereas other industries could over produce during off-peak times. This requires significant investment in generation capacity to cover the few days a year of peak consumption. Since bulk electrical storage doesn't yet exist at scale another way to curb the need for new peak period generation is through demand-response; that is to incentivize consumers (demand) to curtail (respond) electrical usage during peak periods. Of the various methods proposed for enabling demand-response, this paper will focus on the communication requirements for creating an energy market using transactional controls. More specifically, the paper will focus on the communication requirements needed to send the peak period notices and receive the response back from the consumers.

  20. Demand Response Enabling Technologies and Approaches for Industrial Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.; Schmidt, C.; Seryak, J.; Smith, C.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the higher of either $500/MWH, or the wholesale electricity price in the customer?s area, during the time of the event. Exact payment arrangements differ by program provider. Day-Ahead Demand Response Program Day-Ahead Demand Response Program (DADRP...), offers retail electricity customers a chance to bid load reduction capability in New York State?s wholesale electricity market. To participate, companies bid their load reduction capability, on a day-ahead basis, into the wholesale electricity market...

  1. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter, electric power accounts for 30% to 40% of the factory cost of producing primary aluminum. In the continental United States, Alcoa Inc. currently owns and/or operates ten aluminum smelters and many associated fabricating facilities with a combined average load of over 2,600 MW. This presents Alcoa Inc. with a significant opportunity to respond in areas where economic opportunities exist to help mitigate rising energy costs by supplying demand response services into the energy system. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction and discusses the intention of this report. The second chapter contains the background. In this chapter, topics include: the motivation for Alcoa to provide demand response; ancillary service definitions; the basics behind aluminum smelting; and a discussion of suggested ancillary services that would be particularly useful for Alcoa to supply. Chapter 3 is concerned with the independent system operator, the Midwest ISO. Here the discussion examines the evolving Midwest ISO market structure including specific definitions, requirements, and necessary components to provide ancillary services. This section is followed by information concerning the Midwest ISO's classifications of demand response parties. Chapter 4 investigates the available opportunities at Alcoa's Warrick facility. Chapter 5 involves an in-depth discussion of the regulation service that Alcoa's Warrick facility can provide and the current interactions with Midwest ISO. Chapter 6 reviews future plans and expectations for Alcoa providing ancillary services into the market. Last, chapter 7, details the conclusion and recommendations of this paper.

  2. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  3. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  4. A Successful Implementation with the Smart Grid: Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    1 A Successful Implementation with the Smart Grid: Demand Response Resources Contribution of intelligent line switching, demand response resources (DRRs), FACTS devices and PMUs is key in the smart grid events as a result of voluntary load curtailments. Index Terms--Electricity Markets, Demand Response re

  5. Opportunities and Challenges for Data Center Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    Opportunities and Challenges for Data Center Demand Response Adam Wierman Zhenhua Liu Iris Liu of renewable energy into the grid as well as electric power peak-load shaving: data center demand response. Data center demand response sits at the intersection of two growing fields: energy efficient data

  6. An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control Michael LeMay, Rajesh for the MGA and ZigBee wireless communications. Index Terms Demand Response, Advanced Meter Infrastructure. In principle this can be done with demand response techniques in which electricity users take measures

  7. Towards Continuous Policy-driven Demand Response in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Prashant

    Towards Continuous Policy-driven Demand Response in Data Centers David Irwin, Navin Sharma, and Prashant Shenoy University of Massachusetts, Amherst {irwin,nksharma,shenoy}@cs.umass.edu ABSTRACT Demand response (DR) is a technique for balancing electricity sup- ply and demand by regulating power consumption

  8. Demand Response Providing Ancillary A Comparison of Opportunities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5958E Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services A Comparison of Opportunities Government or any agency thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response System Reliability, Demand Response (DR), Electricity Markets, Smart Grid Abstract Interest in using

  9. LEED Demand Response Credit: A Plan for Research towards Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand-side management activities and commercial buildings’demand-side management (DSM) framework presented in Figure 1 provides continuous energy management concepts for shaping electric loads in buildings,demand-side management activities, DR methods and levels of automation. We highlight OpenADR as a standard for commercial buildings

  10. Multi-Agent Based Techniques for Coordinating the Distribution of Electricity in a Micro-Grid Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    an increasing demand for electric heating technolo- gies such as ground-source and air-source heat pumps (Dep, such as the electrification of home heating and vehi- cles, will need to be introduced. This increase in demand emmissions, the majority of which is a consequence of heating living spaces and water (Gov, 2009). Currently

  11. Electric Efficiency Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 2009, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission's (IURC) ordered utilities to establish demand-side management (DSM) electric savings goals leading to 2.0% reduction of electricity...

  12. Feasible Café Standard Increases Using Emerging Diesel and Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Abeles, Ethan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USING EMERGING DIESEL AND HYBRID-ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FORusing Emerging Diesel and Hybrid- Electric Technologies forusing Emerging Diesel and Hybrid- Electric Technologies for

  13. Feasible CAFE Standard Increases Using Emerging Diesel and Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Abeles, Ethan C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USING EMERGING DIESEL AND HYBRID-ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FORusing Emerging Diesel and Hybrid- Electric Technologies forusing Emerging Diesel and Hybrid- Electric Technologies for

  14. The Clean Air Act's Impact on Environmental Regulation and Electric Power Conservation and Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, H.

    The demand for electric power in Texas is expected to grow at about 2.3 percent over the next 15 years. Utilities plan to satisfy this demand by increasing the number of power generating facilities and improving energy conservation programs. New...

  15. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting operation of sludge-processing equipment besides centrifuges, and utilizing schedulable self-generation.

  16. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technology investments and more permanent behavior change. Both objectives also address foundational energy usage

  17. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential as-available renewable over generation issues,examining many of the roadmap renewable integration options.integration of significant renewable resources into the HECO

  18. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination Table 1. HECO Water Heater Direct Control –Reliability Table 2. HECO Water Heater Direct Control –criteria for current water heater and air conditioning

  19. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000Implications ofU.S. Energy

  20. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    development effort. While storage water heater options beganany load reduction. 36 Water heater storage capability, ifstrategies based on water heater storage capacity 37 – the

  1. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings,Demand Response Infrastructure for Commercial Buildings",demand response and energy efficiency functions into the design of buildings,

  2. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  3. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also provides ancillary services within its own balancing authority. The relationship between BPA and SCL creates a unique opportunity to create DR programs that address both BPA's and SCL's markets simultaneously. Although simultaneously addressing both market could significantly increase the value of DR programs for BPA, SCL, and the end user, establishing program parameters that maximize this value is challenging because of complex contractual arrangements and the absence of a central Independent System Operator or Regional Transmission Organization in the northwest.

  4. Variability in Automated Responses of Commercial Buildings and Industrial Facilities to Dynamic Electricity Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    building control strategies and techniques for demand response,”demand response and energy ef?ciency in commercial buildings,”building electricity use with application to demand response,”

  5. Hydrogen and electricity: Parallels, interactions,and convergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts of marginal electricity demand for CA hydrogenUS DOE, 2007. EIA. Electricity data. [cited 2007 March 2,F. Decarbonized hydrogen and electricity from natural gas.

  6. Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidof Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidhigh demand for gasoline-hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)?

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study End-use Electricity Demand Volume 3 of 4 Volume 2 PDF Volume 3;Renewable Electricity Futures Study Edited By Hand, M.M. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Baldwin, S. U Sandor, D. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Suggested Citations Renewable Electricity Futures Study

  8. A Simulation Study of Demand Responsive Transit System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dessouky, Maged

    A Simulation Study of Demand Responsive Transit System Design Luca Quadrifoglio, Maged M. Dessouky changed the landscape for demand responsive transit systems. First, the demand for this type of transit experiencing increased usage for demand responsive transit systems. The National Transit Summaries and Trends

  9. Because Horry County attracts a large level of spending by visitors and because of the growing consumer demand for locally produced food, the region is in a position to grow the local food system, increase the incomes of local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    gap between consumers and producers; and estimate the costs of required physical infrastructure to strengthen their ability to satisfy wholesale, retail, and institutional demand." The shared cost and working capital. Project coordinators will conduct producer and distributor surveys along with an analysis

  10. Demand management : a cross-industry analysis of supply-demand planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Peng Kuan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Globalization increases product variety and shortens product life cycles. These lead to an increase in demand uncertainty and variability. Outsourcing to low-cost countries increases supply lead-time and supply uncertainty ...

  11. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve

  12. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully-Automated Demand Response Test in Large Facilities14in DR systems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercialof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”

  13. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Demand Response in Commercial Buildings”, Lawrencesystems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercial BuildingsDemand Response Test in Large Facilities13 National Conference on Building

  14. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  15. Modeling Framework and Validation of a Smart Grid and Demand Response System for Wind Power Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broeer, Torsten; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, David P.; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity generation from wind power and other renewable energy sources is increasing, and their variability introduces new challenges to the power system. The emergence of smart grid technologies in recent years has seen a paradigm shift in redefining the electrical system of the future, in which controlled response of the demand side is used to balance fluctuations and intermittencies from the generation side. This paper presents a modeling framework for an integrated electricity system where loads become an additional resource. The agent-based model represents a smart grid power system integrating generators, transmission, distribution, loads and market. The model incorporates generator and load controllers, allowing suppliers and demanders to bid into a Real-Time Pricing (RTP) electricity market. The modeling framework is applied to represent a physical demonstration project conducted on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA, and validation simulations are performed using actual dynamic data. Wind power is then introduced into the power generation mix illustrating the potential of demand response to mitigate the impact of wind power variability, primarily through thermostatically controlled loads. The results also indicate that effective implementation of Demand Response (DR) to assist integration of variable renewable energy resources requires a diversity of loads to ensure functionality of the overall system.

  16. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2006-2016 STAFF ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2006-2016 STAFF ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST Demand Forecast report is the product of the efforts of many current and former California Energy-2 Demand Forecast Disaggregation......................................................1-4 Statewide

  17. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency EIA Energy Information Administration EMS Energy Management Systems ERCOT Electric Reliability Council of Texas EV Electric Vehicle FERC Federal Energy Regulatory...

  18. Industrial Demand Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Boiler, Steam, and Cogeneration (BSC) Component. The BSC Component satisfies the steam demand from the PA and BLD Components. In some industries, the PA Component produces...

  19. Demand Response In California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the demand response in California and is given at the FUPWG 2006 Fall meeting, held on November 1-2, 2006 in San Francisco, California.

  20. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Global energy demand to 2060

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, C. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The projection of global energy demand to the year 2060 is of particular interest because of its relevance to the current greenhouse concerns. The long-term growth of global energy demand in the time scale of climatic change has received relatively little attention in the public discussion of national policy alternatives. The sociological, political, and economic issues have rarely been mentioned in this context. This study emphasizes that the two major driving forces are global population growth and economic growth (gross national product per capita), as would be expected. The modest annual increases assumed in this study result in a year 2060 annual energy use of >4 times the total global current use (year 1986) if present trends continue, and >2 times with extreme efficiency improvements in energy use. Even assuming a zero per capita growth for energy and economics, the population increase by the year 2060 results in a 1.5 times increase in total annual energy use.

  3. CONSULTANT REPORT DEMAND FORECAST EXPERT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONSULTANT REPORT DEMAND FORECAST EXPERT PANEL INITIAL forecast, end-use demand modeling, econometric modeling, hybrid demand modeling, energyMahon, Carl Linvill 2012. Demand Forecast Expert Panel Initial Assessment. California Energy

  4. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  5. Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) Electrical energy can be generated from renewable resources the potential to meet the worldwide demand of electricity and they contribute to the total generation

  6. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Maureen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Price Reduction Offsetting demand for natural gas in the electricity sector by increasing wind energy’price reductions, and water savings. Index Terms—power system modeling, wind energywind energy to offset coal- and natural gas-based electricity generation analyzed here include decreased natural gas prices,

  8. POWERTECH 2009, JUNE 28 -JULY 2, 2009, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA 1 Incorporation of Demand Response Resources in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    POWERTECH 2009, JUNE 28 - JULY 2, 2009, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA 1 Incorporation of Demand Response, IEEE, Abstract--The use of demand-side resources, in general, and demand response resources (DRRs concerns. Integration of demand response resources in the competitive electricity markets impacts resource

  9. A residential energy demand system for Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labandeira Villot, Xavier

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sharp price fluctuations and increasing environmental and distributional concerns, among other issues, have led to a renewed academic interest in energy demand. In this paper we estimate, for the first time in Spain, an ...

  10. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the boom: a simulation study of power plant constructionLEDGE-CA simulations, about 22 GW of NGCT power plants arepower plant type (by prime mover), location, and ownership. Simulation

  11. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    121]. Like other renewable resources and nuclear power, inhydro, nuclear, or renewable resources, and average GHGsupplied by each renewable resource and the capacity of

  12. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    109 Figure 57. Assumed natural gas and coal prices in LEDGE-in Figure 57. The coal price stays relatively constantAssumed natural gas and coal prices in LEDGE-CA [152]. It

  13. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wind turbines, biomass, or geothermal power. By 2050, thebiomass, geothermal, and nuclear power plants arebiomass Nuclear, geothermal, and biomass power plants are

  14. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation from wind and solar power plants can be highlygrid. When wind stops blowing, another power plant must bethan intermittent wind availability or uncertain power plant

  15. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the state come renewable resources by 2010 [26]. Thegeneration to come from renewable resources by 2020 [27].loads until the renewable resource is available. Tehachapi

  16. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    103 Figure 52. Relative solar thermal generation foris obscured. Future solar thermal power plants may have theThe SEGS facility is a solar thermal facility that can be

  17. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high fraction of coal generation, greenhouse gas emissionsimports in 2005 from [111]; instate coal generation adjustedaccordingly Instate coal generation set equal to 2005 value,

  18. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from existing power plants without CCS technology declines.from existing NGCC and NGCT plants without CCS technology.Mixed technology grid profiles, existing nuclear plants are

  19. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass Geothermal Small Hydro Solar Wind Statewide CA-N CA-with a relatively small hydro resource require additionaldairy Photovoltaic Parabolic Small hydro Wind Hydro 1 Steam

  20. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle NGCT Natural gas combustion turbine NGST Natural gasfrom NGCC and natural gas combustion turbine (NGCT) powerfrom average natural gas combustion turbine (NGCT) plants.

  1. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plant dispatched – a nuclear plant, for example – ratherCalifornia’s two nuclear plants represent 8% of capacity,are coal facilities, one is a nuclear plant, and one is

  2. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    turbine NGST Natural gas steam turbine NWPP Northwest Powerfrom natural gas steam turbine (NGST) and natural gasNGST = Natural gas steam turbine; NWPP = Northwest Power

  3. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fractions of coal power, marginal emissions rates could beon coal power in LADWP leads to higher average emissionscoal-fired power plants, respectively, median hourly GHG emissions

  4. Electric Drive Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    pricing encourages off-peak energy * Smart Grid Integration o Charging stations with Demand Response, Time-of-Use Pricing, and AMI compatible with the modern electric grid *...

  5. Reduces electric energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BENEFITS · Reduces electric energy consumption · Reduces peak electric demand · Reduces natural gas consumption · Reduces nonhazardous solid waste and wastewater generation · Potential annual savings products for the automotive industry, electrical equipment, and miscellaneous other uses nationwide. ALCOA

  6. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

  7. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. , and James M. Gri˘ n. 1983. Gasoline demand in the OECDof dynamic demand for gasoline. Journal of Econometrics 77(An empirical analysis of gasoline demand in Denmark using

  8. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

  9. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.

  10. Satisfiability of Elastic Demand in the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomozei, Dan-Cristian

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a stochastic model of electricity production and consumption where appliances are adaptive and adjust their consumption to the available production, by delaying their demand and possibly using batteries. The model incorporates production volatility due to renewables, ramp-up time, uncertainty about actual demand versus planned production, delayed and evaporated demand due to adaptation to insufficient supply. We study whether threshold policies stabilize the system. The proofs use Markov chain theory on general state space.

  11. Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellington, Andre

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (Interoperability Project) was awarded to Con Edison in 2009. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited Demand Response resources to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies and regional transmission organizations.

  12. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sterner. 1991. Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: A2011. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and incomeMutairi. 1995. Demand for gasoline in Kuwait: An empirical

  13. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

  14. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several

  15. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    services. Power generation Coal increasingly dominates28 Thermal coal electricity generation efficiency alsostudy examines four coal-thermal generation technology types

  16. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

  17. Electric Power annual 1996: Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a summary of electric power industry statistics. Data are included on electric utility retail sales of electricity, revenues, environmental information, power transactions, emissions, and demand-side management.

  18. On Demand Guarantees in Iran.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahvenainen, Laura

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??On Demand Guarantees in Iran This thesis examines on demand guarantees in Iran concentrating on bid bonds and performance guarantees. The main guarantee types and… (more)

  19. Power system balancing with high renewable penetration : the potential of demand response .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Critz, David Karl

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study investigated the ability of responsive demand to stabilize the electrical grid when intermittent renewable resources are present. The WILMAR stochastic unit commitment model… (more)

  20. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  1. Real-Time Demand Side Energy Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor, A.; Brodkorb, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Real-Time Demand Side Energy Management Annelize Victor Michael Brodkorb Sr. Business Consultant Business Development Manager Aspen Technology, Inc. Aspen Technology Espańa, S.A. Houston, TX Barcelona, Spain ABSTRACT To remain... competitive, manufacturers must capture opportunities to increase bottom-line profitability. The goal of this paper is to present a new methodology for reducing energy costs – “Demand-Side Energy Management.” Learn how process manufacturers assess energy...

  2. Energy Demand Staff Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    Energy Demand in China Lynn Price Staff Scientist February 2, 2010 #12;Founded in 1988 Focused on End-Use Energy Efficiency ~ 40 Current Projects in China Collaborations with ~50 Institutions in China Researcher #12;Talk OutlineTalk Outline · Overview · China's energy use and CO2 emission trends · Energy

  3. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, MIchael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    owned integrated hydro electricity utilities prevail,s Loading Order for Electricity Resources”, Staff Report,International Developments in Electricity Demand Management

  4. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  5. HOTSPOTS OF CLIMATEDRIVEN INCREASES IN RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This paper provides reduced form estimates of changes in electricity consumption due to increased use to higher projections of electricity consumption. These increases in projected electricity consumption were: climate change, vulnerability, electricity consumption, heating, cooling Please use the following citation

  6. ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT Companion Report to the California Energy Demand 2006-2016 Staff Energy Demand Forecast Report STAFFREPORT June 2005 CEC-400 .......................................................................................................................................1-1 ENERGY DEMAND FORECASTING AT THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION: AN OVERVIEW

  7. Emerging Technologies for Industrial Demand-Side Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neely, J. E.; Kasprowicz, L. M.

    as demand-side management strategies for industrial consumers of electricity. An alternative strategy to replacing aging electric motors with high efficiency or ASD motors is a turbine let-down. A turbine letdown is a turbine which uses pressure reduction...

  8. Guidelines for Marketing Demand-Side Management in the Commercial Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, S. S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past decade, electric and gas utilities throughout the nation, not just in hot and humid climates, have promoted energy efficiency through a variety of demand-side management (DSM) programs. In 1984, the Electric Power Research Institute...

  9. Potential For Energy, Peak Demand, and Water Savings in California Tomato Processing Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trueblood, A. J.; Wu, Y. Y.; Ganji, A. R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of electrical energy in these plants will be shown. Results from potential electrical efficiency, demand response, and natural gas efficiency measures that have applications in tomato processing facilities will be presented. Additionally, water conservation...

  10. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs EV battery degradation costs electricity sales fixedand sales, DER capital costs, fuel costs, demand response measures and EV

  11. Outline Introduction Literature Review Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    .S., electric power generation accounts for significant portions of fuel demands 30% of the natural gas demand (over 50% in the summer) 90% of the coal demand over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand #12;OutlineOutline Introduction Literature Review Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions

  12. Introduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    of fuel demands 30% of the natural gas demand (over 50% in the summer) 90% of the coal demand over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand. #12;Introduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply ChainsIntroduction Literature Review Integrated Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples

  13. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  14. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  15. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  16. California's electricity crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collapse of California's electricity restructuring and competition program has attracted attention around the world. Prices in California's competitive wholesale electricity market increased by 500% between the second ...

  17. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  18. Changing the spatial location of electricity generation to increase water availability in areas with drought: a feasibility study and quantification of air quality impacts in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacsi, Adam P

    The feasibility, cost, and air quality impacts of using electrical grids to shift water use from drought-stricken regions to areas with more water availability were examined. Power plant cooling represents a large portion ...

  19. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEST PRACTICES AND RESULTS OF DR IMPLEMENTATION . 31 Encouraging End-User Participation: The Role of Incentives 16 Demand Response

  20. Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services by Simon Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services by Simon Christopher Parkinson B highly-distributed sustainable demand- side infrastructure, in the form of heat pumps, electric vehicles

  1. Tracking Progress Last updated 5/7/2014 Statewide Energy Demand 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dollars) to $1.8 trillion in 2012 (2012 dollars). Forecast Electricity Demand Although the California Energy Commission's energy demand forecast includes multiple scenarios, the Energy Commission worked together1 to agree upon a single managed demand forecast that incorporates all energy efficiency

  2. Residential Demand Response under Uncertainty Paul Scott and Sylvie Thiebaux and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiébaux, Sylvie

    Residential Demand Response under Uncertainty Paul Scott and Sylvie Thi´ebaux and Menkes van den stochastic optimisation in residential demand response. 1 Introduction Electricity consumption in residential participate in smart grid activities such as demand response where loads are shifted to times favourable

  3. Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems with Variable Resources Electric Energy System #12;#12;Quantifying Benefits of Demand Response and Look-ahead Dispatch in Systems benefits correspond to a real-world power system, as we use actual data on demand-response and wind

  4. Demo Abstract: Toward Data-driven Demand-Response Optimization in a Campus Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    Demo Abstract: Toward Data-driven Demand-Response Optimization in a Campus Microgrid Yogesh Simmhan-driven demand response optimization (DR) in the USC campus microgrid, as part of the Los An- geles Smart Grid of this project is to investigate techniques for demand-response optimization (DR) ­ cur- tailing the electricity

  5. energy: Supply, Demand, and impacts CooRDinATinG LeAD AUThoR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    240 chapter 12 energy: Supply, Demand, and impacts CooRDinATinG LeAD AUThoR Vincent C. Tidwell the potential to impact the production, demand, and delivery of energy in a number of ways. Chapter citation;energy: supply, demand, and impacts 241 · Delivery of electricity may become more vulnerable

  6. Demand-Side Load Scheduling Incentivized by Dynamic Energy Hadi Goudarzi, Safar Hatami, and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Demand-Side Load Scheduling Incentivized by Dynamic Energy Prices Hadi Goudarzi, Safar Hatami growth in electrical energy consumption under worst- case demand conditions [1]. To avoid expending 90089 {hgoudarz, shatami, pedram}@usc.edu Abstract--Demand response is an important part of the smart

  7. Multi-period Optimal Procurement and Demand Responses in the Presence of Uncertain Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Smart Grid involves changes in both the demand side and supply side. On the supply side, more renewable energy will be integrated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollution. On the demand side, smarter demand management systems will be available to respond to the electricity price and improve

  8. The Impact of Technological Change and Lifestyles on the Energy Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steininger, Karl W.

    demand into a model of total private consumption. Private consumption is determined by economic variables of technological and socio- demographic variables on the demand for gasoline/diesel, heating and electricity. Key, households' electricity and heat consumption are growing rapidly despite of technological progress

  9. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData Files Data FilesFeFe-HydrogenaseDemand

  10. Customer focused collaborative demand planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jha, Ratan (Ratan Mohan)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many firms worldwide have adopted the process of Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP) process where internal departments within a firm collaborate with each other to generate a demand forecast. In a collaborative demand ...

  11. Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

  12. Please cite this article in press as: Hughes L, Meeting residential space heating demand with wind-generated electricity, Renewable Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.renene.2009.11.014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    , or compressed air (Blarke and Lund 2008). Energy suppliers are forced to go to these lengths when integrating. The benefits as well as the limitations of the approach are discussed in detail. Keywords: Energy storage- generated electricity, Renewable Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j.renene.2009.11.014 ERG/200909 Meeting

  13. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

  14. 1.0 Motivation............................................................................................................2 1.1Overview of Energy Supply and Demand in the 21st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ............................................................................................................2 1.1Overview of Energy Supply and Demand in the 21st Century..........................2 1.2 UK Energy ...................................................................................24 6.6 Correlation between Wind Strength and Demand for Electricity..................24 6

  15. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand-Side Management Framework for Commercial BuildingsTimes (NYT) Building and Its Demand-Side Management Lawrencedemand-side management (DSM) framework presented in Table 1 provides three major areas for changing electric loads in buildings:

  16. TRAVEL DEMAND AND RELIABLE FORECASTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    TRAVEL DEMAND AND RELIABLE FORECASTS FOR TRANSIT MARK FILIPI, AICP PTP 23rd Annual Transportation transportation projects § Develop and maintain Regional Travel Demand Model § Develop forecast socio in cooperative review during all phases of travel demand forecasting 4 #12;Cooperative Review Should Include

  17. Demand Forecasting of New Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    Demand Forecasting of New Products Using Attribute Analysis Marina Kang A thesis submitted Abstract This thesis is a study into the demand forecasting of new products (also referred to as Stock upon currently employed new-SKU demand forecasting methods which involve the processing of large

  18. Assessment of Demand Response Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for PGE and Pacific Power Prepared for: Portland January 15, 2004 K:\\Projects\\2003-53 (PGE,PC) Assess Demand Response\\Report\\Revised Report_011504.doc #12;#12;quantec Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for I-1 PGE and Pacific Power I. Introduction

  19. Other utilities, not IPPs key concern for electric executives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Driscoll, M.

    1994-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolving competitive electric utility world is making executives more cautious and focused on their core businesses at the expense of high-profile issues like international investment, global warming, demand side management and electric and magnetic fields, a new survey shows. The 1994 Electric Utility Outlook, conducted by the Washington International Energy Group, also shows growing concern about utility-on-utility competition and a decline of the independent power producer threat, a growing but grudging acknowledgement of retail wheeling and increasing discomfort with nuclear power.

  20. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  1. As technology advances, the need for electricity increases, and as a result, more energy is being consumed on a daily basis. Consequently, the strain on energy and economic resources becomes more evident. Currently, the average energy consumer can see his

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebling, Michael

    , Branton Horsley PowWow Energy Groups Users and companies will be able to create a sense of community amongOverview As technology advances, the need for electricity increases, and as a result, more energy is being consumed on a daily basis. Consequently, the strain on energy and economic resources becomes more

  2. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 11: Climate Change Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    demand and change precipitation patterns, river flows, and hydroelectric generation. Second, policies-reduction goals. The issue of potential changes to electricity demand and hydroelectric generation is discussed

  3. Case Study-Talquin Electric Cooperative

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    substation during a winter peak event and saved 12,000 in demand charges from their wholesale electricity provider. Mr. Eugene Kanikovsky, Director of Finance, believes it is...

  4. Energy Department - Electric Power Research Institute Cooperation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy efficiency and promoting the widespread adoption of electric energy demand response programs in an effort to curtail energy use during peak periods. "Through ongoing...

  5. Energy Department - Electric Power Research Institute Cooperation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by improving energy efficiency and promoting the widespread adoption of electric energy demand response programs in an effort to curtail energy use during peak periods. "Through...

  6. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert

    2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response (DR) can be defined as actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies and congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, or market conditions raise supply costs. California utilities have offered price and reliability DR based programs to customers to help reduce electric peak demand. The lack of knowledge about the DR programs and how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs, as is the lack of automation of DR systems. Most DR activities are manual and require people to first receive notifications, and then act on the information to execute DR strategies. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows. Manual Demand Response involves a labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. We refer to this as Auto-DR (Piette et. al. 2005). Auto-DR for commercial and industrial facilities can be defined as fully automated DR initiated by a signal from a utility or other appropriate entity and that provides fully-automated connectivity to customer end-use control strategies. One important concept in Auto-DR is that a homeowner or facility manager should be able to 'opt out' or 'override' a DR event if the event comes at time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. Therefore, Auto-DR is not handing over total control of the equipment or the facility to the utility but simply allowing the utility to pass on grid related information which then triggers facility defined and programmed strategies if convenient to the facility. From 2003 through 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) developed and tested a series of demand response automation communications technologies known as Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In 2007, LBNL worked with three investor-owned utilities to commercialize and implement Auto-DR programs in their territories. This paper summarizes the history of technology development for Auto-DR, and describes the DR technologies and control strategies utilized at many of the facilities. It outlines early experience in commercializing Auto-DR systems within PG&E DR programs, including the steps to configure the automation technology. The paper also describes the DR sheds derived using three different baseline methodologies. Emphasis is given to the lessons learned from installation and commissioning of Auto-DR systems, with a detailed description of the technical coordination roles and responsibilities, and costs.

  7. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  8. What China Can Learn from International Experiences in Developing a Demand Response Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increases in electricity consumption. To meet the surgingthe efficiency of electricity consumption in industrial2008 had lowered electricity consumption in China, a massive

  9. Abstract --Cybersecurity research demands extensive experimentation to be validated. This experimentation is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faber, Ted

    1 Abstract -- Cybersecurity research demands extensive experimentation to be validated to modern society, concerns about cybersecurity become increasingly important. The challenge of securing. In response to these factors, the cybersecurity research community demands increasingly realistic

  10. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframes—incentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales —making the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  11. Energy Demand (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth in U.S. energy use is linked to population growth through increases in demand for housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, manufacturing, and services. This affects not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels and consumption by sector.

  12. MTBE demand as a oxygenated fuel additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MTBE markets are in the state of flux. In the U.S. the demand has reached a plateau while in other parts of the world, it is increasing. The various factors why MTBE is experiencing a global shift will be examined and future volumes projected.

  13. Market-based airport demand management : theory, model and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Terence P

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever-increasing demand for access to the world's major commercial airports combined with capacity constraints at many of these airports have led to increasing air traffic congestion. In particular, the scarcity of ...

  14. The strategic use of renewables to achieve demand-side management impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, N.; Hauser, S.; Potter, T.; Westby, R.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to both the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), utilities in the United States are now spending about $2 billion per year on demand-side management (DSM) activities. By the year 2000, EPRI and EEI predict that utilities will be spending $10 to $15 billion per year on DSM. If this expenditure is matched by consumers, total expenditures -- $30 billion a year -- will equal what the nation spent on power plant construction during the peak 1970s power plant building era. Historically, DSM programs at utilities utilize technologies that reduce the demand for electricity and energy used by their customers. This is accomplished primarily by increasing the efficacy of lighting, improving the conversion efficiency of heating, cooling, and process equipment, and reducing thermal losses through the building envelope. A broader definition of DSM -- one that incorporates renewable energy resources -- will greatly enhance the opportunity to impact customer loads. Renewable energy technologies use resources that are not depleted, such as heat and light from the sun, the force of winds, falling water, biomass, and geothermal heat from the earth. As related to utility systems, renewable technologies can contribute in three main ways: (1) the more traditional ``supply-side`` role as central generating plants or independent power producers, (2) as distributed generation (supply-side variation), and (3) as demand-side options. Distributed generation is being seriously studied by several utilities as a means of serving remote loads and reducing transmission and distribution costs, but is not discussed further in this paper. Demand-side renewable technologies (DSR) are technologies that utilize renewable energy to reduce the end-use load of a customer. In this paper we will describe specific DSR options, characterize their potential load impact, and recommend a method for effectively integrating them into current DSM programs.

  15. Energy and Security in Northeast Asia: Supply and Demand, Conflict and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fesharaki, Fereidun; Banaszak, Sarah; WU, Kang; Valencia, Mark J.; Dorian, James P.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increased to 18 percent, nuclear power's to 15 percent, andgovernment is promoting nuclear power to meet the demand for

  16. Water Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems, private water well screening, and soil nutrient management. Water conservation programs of Agri, efficient use, sustainable practices, watershed management and environmental stewardship. Through 660 and utilizing water-conservation practices will be essential to sustain the state's water supply

  17. Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15,2015Department of Energy onACQUISITIONReport: IG-0449|the

  18. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  19. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    23 ii Retail Demand Response in SPP List of Figures and10 Figure 3. Demand Response Resources by11 Figure 4. Existing Demand Response Resources by Type of

  20. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for each day type for the demand response study - moderate8.4 Demand Response Integration . . . . . . . . . . .for each day type for the demand response study - moderate

  1. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their partnership in demand response automation research andand Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.

  2. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities”of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  3. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 2.0 Demand ResponseFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  4. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Energy demand-side management energy information systemdemand response. Demand-side management (DSM) program goalsa goal for demand-side management (DSM) coordination and

  5. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 2.1 Demand-Side Managementbuildings. The demand side management framework is discussedIssues 2.1 Demand-Side Management Framework Forecasting

  6. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    District Small Business Summer Solutions: Energy and DemandSummer Solutions: Energy and Demand Impacts Monthly Energy> B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

  7. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World: Renewable Energy and Demand Response Proliferation intogether the renewable energy and demand response communityimpacts of renewable energy and demand response integration

  8. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings DavidStrategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings Davidadjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The

  9. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response Systems National Conference on BuildingDemand Response Systems National Conference on BuildingDemand Response Systems National Conference on Building

  10. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In terms of demand response capability, building operatorsautomated demand response and improve building energy andand demand response features directly into building design

  11. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

  12. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEMAND RESPONSE .7 Wholesale Marketuse at times of high wholesale market prices or when systemenergy expenditure. In wholesale markets, spot energy prices

  13. Uranium 2014 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. It presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Long-term projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major changes in the industry.

  14. Uranium 2005 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major c...

  15. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Peng, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE)

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

  16. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  17. Results and commissioning issues from an automated demand responsepilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, Dave; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya

    2004-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a research project to develop and test Automated Demand Response hardware and software technology in large facilities. We describe the overall project and some of the commissioning and system design problems that took place. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability purposes, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. There were a number of specific commissioning challenges in conducting this test including software compatibility, incorrect time zones, IT and EMCS failures, and hardware issues. The knowledge needed for this type of system commissioning combines knowledge of building controls with network management and knowledge of emerging information technologies.

  18. Driving Demand | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    strategies, results achieved to date, and advice for other programs. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements. This guide, developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National...

  19. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    workshop agendas, presentation materials, and transcripts. For the background to the Demand Response Technology Roadmap and to make use of individual roadmaps, the reader is...

  20. Demand Response Technology Roadmap M

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between May 2014 and February 2015. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Demand Response Executive Sponsor Team decided upon the scope of the project in May. Two subsequent...

  1. Reducing power transients in diesel-electric dynamically positioned ships using re-positioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Reducing power transients in diesel-electric dynamically positioned ships using re--A thrust allocation method with a functionality to assist power management systems by using the hull the power consumption in the thrusters when a sharp increase in power consumption is demanded elsewhere

  2. Mobile applications constantly demand additional memory, and traditional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    . This remote access could reduce local storage space, thereby reducing energy demands on the mobile plat- form60 Mobile applications constantly demand additional memory, and traditional designs increase- port connected ubiquitous environments. Engineers attempt to minimize network use because of its

  3. LEED Demand Response Credit: A Plan for Research towards Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the need and methods for commercial building sector involvement in demand response (DR). We summarize, including architects, engineers, consultants, contractors, and building owners and managers. Finally, we in the US increased the focus on the need for flexible demand-side resources to address four major

  4. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data Collection for Demand-side Management for QualifyingPrepared by Demand-side Management Task Force of the

  5. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility,...

  6. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  7. Using Whole-Building Electric Load Data in Continuous or Retro-Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Electricity Use, With Application to Demand Response,”Demand Response Research Center and a Program Manager in the Buildingand demand response. For example: Does the building use too

  8. China, India demand cushions prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, M.

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

  9. Applications of Nash Equilibria In Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    customers in smaller quantities on the retail electricity market. #12;Clearing Price Auctions determine in the stack, while high price offers are promising during peak demand. The electricity price is thereforeApplications of Nash Equilibria In Electricity Markets Term Paper Seminar Electrical Power Networks

  10. Electric power annual 1995. Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes pertinent statistics on various aspects of the U.S. electric power industry for the year and includes a graphic presentation. Data is included on electric utility retail sales and revenues, financial statistics, environmental statistics of electric utilities, demand-side management, electric power transactions, and non-utility power producers.

  11. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  12. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  13. Nordic TSOs' Action Plans in enhancing and monitoring Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    improvment ­ activate the energy efficiency actors 13 5. SYSTEMATIC MONITORING OF REALISED DEMAND RESPONSE 13 report to about 12 000 MW in total. Every 10 % of the potential that can be activated (1 200 MW) equals. In the report "Peak Production Capabil- ity and Peak Load in the Nordic Electricity Market" (Summary

  14. Outline Introduction Literature Review Electric Power Supply Chains Empirical Examples Conclusions An Integrated Electric Power Supply Chain and Fuel Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chains and Fuel Markets In the U.S., electric power generation accounts for 30% of the natural gas demand (over 50% in the summer), 90% of the coal demand, and over 45% of the residual fuel oil demand, the wholesale electricity price in New England decreased by 38% mainly because the delivered natural gas price

  15. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  16. A dynamic model of industrial energy demand in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haji, S.H.H. [Gothenburg Univ. (Sweden)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyses the effects of input price movements, technology changes, capacity utilization and dynamic mechanisms on energy demand structures in the Kenyan industry. This is done with the help of a variant of the second generation dynamic factor demand (econometric) model. This interrelated disequilibrium dynamic input demand econometric model is based on a long-term cost function representing production function possibilities and takes into account the asymmetry between variable inputs (electricity, other-fuels and Tabour) and quasi-fixed input (capital) by imposing restrictions on the adjustment process. Variations in capacity utilization and slow substitution process invoked by the relative input price movement justifies the nature of input demand disequilibrium. The model is estimated on two ISIS digit Kenyan industry time series data (1961 - 1988) using the Iterative Zellner generalized least square method. 31 refs., 8 tabs.

  17. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

  18. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  19. Workshop on Demand Response, Ballerup, 7. February 2006 1 Monte Carlo Simulations of the Nordic Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Nordic power market · Time resolution: Hour · Simulates the electricity and heat markets based on: · Heat and electricity demand prognoses · Technical and economic data for power plants · Power and heat capacities · Fuel Power System · How to estimate the value of demand response? · Method · Model · Setup · Results Stine

  20. Full Rank Rational Demand Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T; Pope, Rulon D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as a nominal income full rank QES. R EFERENCES (A.84)S. G. Donald. “Inferring the Rank of a Matrix. ” Journal of97-102. . “A Demand System Rank Theorem. ” Econometrica 57 (