Sample records for income growth rates

  1. Oil Prices, External Income, and Growth: Lessons from Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper extends the long-run growth model of Esfahani et al. (2009) to a labour exporting country that receives large inflows of external income - the sum of remittances, FDI and general government transfers - from major oil exporting economies...

  2. The Effect of Growth Volatility on Income Inequality Ho-Chuan (River) Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    positively affects growth. Barro (2000) uncovers a nonlinear inequality-growth nexus, with inequality growth in low-income ones. Rather than examining the volatility-growth or the inequality-growth linkages

  3. Can we estimate bacterial growth rates from ribosomal RNA content?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, P.F.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the quantity of RNA in bacterial cells and their growth rate under laboratory conditions. It may be possible to use this relationship to provide information on the activity of natural bacterial communities, and in particular on growth rate. However, if this approach is to provide reliably interpretable information, the relationship between RNA content and growth rate must be well-understood. In particular, a requisite of such applications is that the relationship must be universal among bacteria, or alternately that the relationship can be determined and measured for specific bacterial taxa. The RNA-growth rate relationship has not been used to evaluate bacterial growth in field studies, although RNA content has been measured in single cells and in bulk extracts of field samples taken from coastal environments. These measurements have been treated as probable indicators of bacterial activity, but have not yet been interpreted as estimators of growth rate. The primary obstacle to such interpretations is a lack of information on biological and environmental factors that affect the RNA-growth rate relationship. In this paper, the available data on the RNA-growth rate relationship in bacteria will be reviewed, including hypotheses regarding the regulation of RNA synthesis and degradation as a function of growth rate and environmental factors; i.e. the basic mechanisms for maintaining RNA content in proportion to growth rate. An assessment of the published laboratory and field data, the current status of this research area, and some of the remaining questions will be presented.

  4. The instantaneous radial growth rate of stellar discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzulli, Gabriele; Boissier, Samuel; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new and simple method to measure the instantaneous mass and radial growth rates of the stellar discs of spiral galaxies, based on their star formation rate surface density (SFRD) profiles. Under the hypothesis that discs are exponential with time-varying scalelengths, we derive a universal theoretical profile for the SFRD, with a linear dependence on two parameters: the specific mass growth rate $\

  5. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCC’s fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  6. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennings, Elise

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. Here we introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between $\\theta = \

  7. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska OutreachMakingPast SeaRate of Coral

  8. Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR

  9. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  10. Wall recession rates in cavity-growth modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grens, E.A. II; Thorsness, C.B.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predictions of resource utilization obtained from cavity-growth models depend on the methods used to represent the recession rates of the walls of the cavity. Under many circumstances the cavity is largely filled with a bed char rubble. Examination of the mechanisms for recession at walls adjacent to these char beds indicates that the recession rates are controlled by convective heat transfer from the bed to the walls coupled with the thermomechanical breakdown of the walls. A recession-rate representation has been developed, based on this concept, for use in cavity-growth simulation programs. This representation characterizes wall breakdown by either a failure temperature or by a thickness of char layer at failure, and determines rates from a model of heat transfer under these conditions. It gives recession rates that are functions of gas temperature and mass flow rate in the cavity, and depend on effective particle size in the char bed. Wall recession rates calculated for WIDCO, Hoe Creek, and Hanna coals are in the range of 0.1 to 0.8 m/day at a 1300 K cavity temperature, and are consistent with the general rates observed for field tests. 27 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  11. In situ growth rate measurements by normal-incidence reflectance during MOVPE growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, H.Q.; Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an in situ technique for monitoring metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth by normal-incidence reflectance. This technique is used to calibrate the growth rate periodically and to monitor the growth process routinely. It is not only a precise tool to measure the growth rate, but also very useful in identifying unusal problems during a growth run, such as depletion of source material, deterioration of surface morphology, and problems associated with an improper growht procedure. We will also present an excellent reproducibility ({+-}0.3% over a course of more than 100 runs) of the cavity wavelength of vertical-cavity surface emitting laser structures with periodic calibration by this in situ technique.

  12. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kmore »relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10¹²Mh?¹, compared to the dark matter at z – 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction –fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  13. GROWTH OF POSITIVE WORDS AND LOWER BOUNDS OF THE GROWTH RATE FOR THOMPSON'S GROUPS F(p)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burillo, José

    GROWTH OF POSITIVE WORDS AND LOWER BOUNDS OF THE GROWTH RATE FOR THOMPSON'S GROUPS F(p) JOS´E BURILLO AND VICTOR GUBA Abstract. Let F(p), p 2 be the family of generalized Thompson's groups. Here F(2) is the famous Richard Thompson's group usually denoted by F. We find the growth rate of the monoid of positive

  14. Effects of crowding on growth rate and symbiosis in green hydra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorp, James H.; Barthalamus, George T.

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    every 4 days. A significant inverse relationship between population density and population growth rate exists. In addition, hydras were found to increase or decrease their growth rates in response to rapid changes of density after acclimation to fixed...

  15. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jennings, David [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? – ? • ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  16. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  17. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Pirjol

    2015-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the long-run growth rate of the average value of a random multiplicative process $x_{i+1} = a_i x_i$ where the multipliers $a_i=1+\\rho\\exp(\\sigma W_i - \\frac12 \\sigma^2 t_i)$ have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion $W_i$. The average value $\\langle x_n\\rangle$ is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda(\\rho,\\beta) = \\lim_{n\\to \\infty} \\frac{1}{n} \\log \\langle x_n\\rangle$ at fixed $\\beta = \\frac12 \\sigma^2 t_n n$, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous first derivatives along a curve in the $(\\rho,\\beta)$ plane ending at a critical point $(\\rho_C,\\beta_C)$, which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit $n\\to \\infty$.

  18. Long-run growth rate in a random multiplicative model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirjol, Dan [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the long-run growth rate of the average value of a random multiplicative process x{sub i+1} = a{sub i}x{sub i} where the multipliers a{sub i}=1+?exp(?W{sub i}?1/2 ?²t{sub i}) have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion W{sub i}. The average value (x{sub n}) is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent ?=lim{sub n??}1/n log(x{sub n}), at fixed ?=1/2 ?²t{sub n}n, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous partial derivatives along a curve in the (?, ?) plane ending at a critical point (?{sub C}, ?{sub C}) which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit n ? ?.

  19. Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption and OffPeak Electricity Rates Peter Driving Smart Growth: Electric Vehicle Adoption Page 2 Executive Summary Reducing our dependence to electric vehicles (EVs)1 is core to reducing reliance on fossil fuels and driving smart growth

  20. Income Inequality, Race, and Place:  Does the Distribution of Race and Class within Neighborhoods affect Crime Rates?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hipp, John R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    James W. 1990. "Ethnic Inequality and the Rate of Homicide."Blau. 1982. "The Cost of Inequality: Metropolitan StructureSociology 83:26-54. —. 1987. Inequality and Heterogeneity :

  1. Constant Sustainable Consumption Rate in Optimal Growth with Exhaustible Resources*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Frederic Yui-Ming

    's criterion of maximum sustainable consumption rate, previously formulated as a minimum-resource-extraction or not the constant unit resource extraction cost vanishes. The related problem of maximizing the terminal capital appetite for the earth's finite stock of nonrenew- able resources, such as fossil fuel and minerals, have

  2. Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martone, Patrick T.

    Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline Algae of coralline algae. Decreases in coralline abundance may have cascading effects on marine ecosys- tems- mon species of articulated coralline algae (Bossiella plu- mosa, Calliarthron tuberculosum

  3. Growth rate and mortality of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, in four freshwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilde, Gene

    Growth rate and mortality of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, in four freshwater, Queensland, Australia Abstract Growth and total mortality of Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata impoundments, ranging from 5.0 to 7.8 cm yr)1 among fish 20-cm total length (TL) and 1.7 to 4.9 cm yr)1 among

  4. Quantum Coherence Conservation by Growth in Environmental Dissipation Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SaiToh, Akira; Nakahara, Mikio

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum coherence conservation is shown to be achieved by a very high rate of dissipation of an environmental system coupled with a principal system. This effect is not in the list of previously-known effects of noise suppression, such as Zeno effect, dynamical decoupling, quantum error correction code, and decoherence free subspace. An analytical solution is found for a simplified model of a single qubit coupled with an environmental single qubit dissipating rapidly. We also show examples of coherence conservation in a spin-boson linear coupling model with a numerical evaluation.

  5. Quantum Coherence Conservation by Growth in Environmental Dissipation Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akira SaiToh; Robabeh Rahimi; Mikio Nakahara

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum coherence conservation is shown to be achieved by a very high rate of dissipation of an environmental system coupled with a principal system. This effect is not in the list of previously-known strategies of noise suppression, such as Zeno effect, dynamical decoupling, quantum error correction code, and decoherence free subspace. An analytical solution is found for a simplified model of a single qubit coupled with an environmental single qubit dissipating rapidly. We also show examples of coherence conservation in a spin-boson linear coupling model with a numerical evaluation.

  6. Static growth in obesity rates among kids no reason to celebrate, health officials say

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Static growth in obesity rates among kids no reason to celebrate, health officials say By SONJA, Jan. 17, 2012 The growing girth of the nation's children has taken a pause, leaving us with an obesity obesity rate) is not going down, I don't find that comforting." Few health professionals do. Nearly one

  7. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, Steve A. [University of California San Diego

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.

  8. Regional Income Inequality in Post-1978 China: A Kaldorian Spatial Econometric Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Yongbok

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003), “Analyzing Regional Inequality in Post-Mao China in a1996), “Regional Income Inequality and Economic Growth inpermission Regional Income Inequality in Post-1978 China : A

  9. Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle WX Zhang JK Yuan treated wheat straw (AS), an untreated wheat straw (US), and a microbe-fermented wheat straw (MS). Thirty.544 (AS), 0.479 (US) and 0.551 (MS). It is concluded that both urea and microbe treated straw can

  10. Maximal Sum of Metabolic Exchange Fluxes Outperforms Biomass Yield as a Predictor of Growth Rate of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruppin, Eytan

    to CO2. CO2, the main product of cellular catabolism, was necessarily released from the cell in nearly.g., predictions of biomass yield using GEnome- scale metabolic Models (GEMs)] or notably require many empirical) in a genome-scale metabolic model. SUMEX successfully predicts relative microbial growth rates across species

  11. Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    to a production-scale tungsten chemical vapor deposition cluster tool for in situ process sensing. Process gasesReal-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic to achieve run-to-run process control of the deposited tungsten film thickness. © 2001 American Vacuum

  12. Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

  13. Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Micic; Kelly Holley-Bockelmann; Steinn Sigurdsson; Tom Abel

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses -- from seed black holes to SMBHs -- over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M_{SMBH}~10^6Msun at z~6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R_{max}=55 yr^-1 at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N_{ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2

  14. A closer look at interacting dark energy with statefinder hierarchy and growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Lu; Cui, Jing-Lei; Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the interacting dark energy models by using the diagnostics of statefinder hierarchy and growth rate of structure. We wish to explore the deviations from $\\Lambda$CDM and to differentiate possible degeneracies in the interacting dark energy models with the geometrical and structure growth diagnostics. We consider two interacting forms for the models, i.e., $Q_1=\\beta H\\rho_c$ and $Q_2=\\beta H\\rho_{de}$, with $\\beta$ being the dimensionless coupling parameter. Our focus is the I$\\Lambda$CDM model that is a one-parameter extension to $\\Lambda$CDM by considering a direct coupling between the vacuum energy ($\\Lambda$) and cold dark matter (CDM), with the only additional parameter $\\beta$. But we begin with a more general case by considering the I$w$CDM model in which dark energy has a constant $w$ (equation-of-state parameter). For calculating the growth rate of structure, we employ the "parametrized post-Friedmann" theoretical framework for interacting dark energy to numerically obtain the $\\epsil...

  15. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  16. The influence of prey consumption and demographic stochasticity on population growth rate of Isle Royale wolves Canis lupus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are often expressed as functions of per capita rate of consumption (Beddington et al. 1976), availability, or demographic stochasticity. To the extent that per capita consumption and population growth rate: 309Á/320, 2004 OIKOS 107:2 (2004) 309 #12;the relationship between per capita kill rate (consump- tion

  17. The number e^{(1/2)} is the ratio between the time of maximum value and the time of maximum growth rate for restricted growth phenomena?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zi-Niu Wu

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    For many natural process of growth, with the growth rate independent of size due to Gibrat law and with the growth process following a log-normal distribution, the ratio between the time (D) for maximum value and the time (L) for maximum growth rate (inflexion point) is then equal to the square root of the base of the natural logarithm (e^{1/2}). On the logarithm scale this ratio becomes one half ((1/2)). It remains an open question, due to lack of complete data for various cases with restricted growth, whether this e^{1/2} ratio can be stated as e^{1/2}-Law. Two established examples already published, one for an epidemic spreading and one for droplet production, support however this ratio. Another example appears to be the height of humain body. For boys the maximum height occurs near 23 years old while the maximum growth rate is at the age near 14, and there ratio is close to e^{1/2}. The main theoretical base to obtain this conclusion is problem independent, provided the growth process is restricted, such as public intervention to control the spreading of communicable epidemics, so that an entropy is associated with the process and the role of dissipation, representing the mechanism of intervention, is maximized. Under this formulation the principle of maximum rate of entropy production is used to make the production process problem independent.

  18. MATH 586 Theory and Practice of Fixed Income Modeling Course Description from Bulletin: The course covers basics of the modern interest rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    -factor Short Rate Models 6 6. Valuation Methods: Interest Rate Trees 6 7. Valuation Methods: The Monte Carlo Simulation 3 8. Valuation Methods: Finite Difference Schemes 3 9. Two-factor short rate models 3 10

  19. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4416 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4416 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr. Mofateh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr. Mofateh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  20. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...

  1. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-44 ICE-COVER GROWTH RATES AT NEARSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-44 ICE-COVER GROWTH RATES AT NEARSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE GREAT of such products is not authorized. ii #12;CONTENTS Abstract 1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE ICE GROWTH EQUATION 3. THE INFLUENCE OF SNOW COVER 4. THE DEGREE-DAY LINEAR MODEL 5. THE DATA SETS 5.1 Ice

  2. The trade-off between growth rate and yield in microbial communities and the consequences for under-snow soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    at the ecosystem and global scales, representing about half of total CO2 flux from soils (Hanson et al. 2000 of soil microbial communities. In particular, the rate and efficiency of growth determine how much CO2 unit substrate consumed) convert a larger fraction of substrate into CO2 during growth, and so respire

  3. Desiccation resistance and root growth rate of St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze 'Floratam') as influenced by potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiPaola, J. M

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and turfgrass quality of Floratam St. Augustinegrass were investigated in both field and greenhouse experiments. Both studies evaluated the influence of potassium on root growth and turfgrass quality from the establishment of sod, through an imposed water... in the fall field experiment, while no improvement was noted in the spring greenhouse study. The daily root growth rates were not influenced by potassium in the field study, while increased potassium fertilization rates resulted in greater daily root...

  4. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  5. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on...

  6. Effects of ion abundances on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave growth rate in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, F. D., E-mail: farranalfonso@gmail.com; Mace, R. L., E-mail: macer@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.

  7. Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT -Transition from no-flow CVD to normal ACCVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT - Transition from no-flow CVD a growth model [2]. In this study, the flow rate of ethanol during the CVD was controlled precisely. Figure 1 shows the growth curve of VA-SWNT film for various ethanol flow rates. In the figure, "No

  8. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 – 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  9. Crack growth rates of nickel alloy welds in a PWR environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In light water reactors (LWRs), vessel internal components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. A better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of this cracking may permit less conservative estimates of damage accumulation and requirements on inspection intervals. A program is being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the resistance of Ni alloys and their welds to environmentally assisted cracking in simulated LWR coolant environments. This report presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for Alloy 182 shielded-metal-arc weld metal in a simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment at 320 C. Crack growth tests were conducted on 1-T compact tension specimens with different weld orientations from both double-J and deep-groove welds. The results indicate little or no environmental enhancement of fatigue CGRs of Alloy 182 weld metal in the PWR environment. The CGRs of Alloy 182 in the PWR environment are a factor of {approx}5 higher than those of Alloy 600 in air under the same loading conditions. The stress corrosion cracking for the Alloy 182 weld is close to the average behavior of Alloy 600 in the PWR environment. The weld orientation was found to have a profound effect on the magnitude of crack growth: cracking was found to propagate faster along the dendrites than across them. The existing CGR data for Ni-alloy weld metals have been compiled and evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on CGRs in PWR environments. The results from the present study are compared with the existing CGR data for Ni-alloy welds to determine the relative susceptibility of the specific Ni-alloy weld to environmentally enhanced cracking.

  10. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1...

  11. Probing $f(R)$ cosmology with sterile neutrinos via measurements of scale-dependent growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we constrain the dimensionless Compton wavelength parameter $B_0$ of $f(R)$ gravity as well as the mass of sterile neutrino by using the cosmic microwave background observations, the baryon acoustic oscillation surveys, and the linear growth rate measurements. Since both the $f(R)$ model and the sterile neutrino generally predict scale-dependent growth rates, we utilize the growth rate data measured in different wavenumber bins with the theoretical growth rate approximatively scale-independent in each bin. The employed growth rate data come from the peculiar velocity measurements at $z=0$ in five wavenumber bins, and the redshift space distortions measurements at $z=0.25$ and $z=0.37$ in one wavenumber bin. By constraining the $f(R)$ model alone, we get a tight 95% upper bound of $\\log_{10}B_0<-4.1$. This result is slightly weakened to $\\log_{10}B_0<-3.8$ (at 2$\\sigma$ level) once we simultaneously constrain the $f(R)$ model and the sterile neutrino mass, due to the degeneracy between the...

  12. Mathematically strong subsystems of analysis with low rate of growth of provably recursive functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    Habilitationsschrift [22] which are devoted to determine the growth in proofs of standard parts of analysis to determine the growth in proofs of standard parts of analysis. Let U be a complete separable metric space, K

  13. Mathematically strong subsystems of analysis with low rate of growth of provably recursive functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

    Habilitationsschrift [22] which are devoted to determine the growth in proofs of standard parts of analysis Habilitationsschrift [22] which are devoted to determine the growth in proofs of standard parts of analysis. Let U

  14. Cross-nucleation between clathrate hydrate polymorphs: Assessing the role of stability, growth rate, and structure matching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Andrew H.; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-nucleation is a phenomenon where a new crystal nucleates and grows upon the surface of a different polymorph. Previous studies indicate that faster growth rate of the new crystal is a necessary but not sufficient condition for cross-nucleation. The thermodynamic stability of the different polymorphs can also affect cross-nucleation by modulating the rates of crystal growth. The interplay between thermodynamic stability of the polymorphs involved, the growth rate of the crystals, and the need for creation of an interfacial transition layer that seamlessly connects the two structures has not yet been fully elucidated. Predicting cross-nucleation is particularly challenging for clathrate hydrates, for which there are sometimes several polymorphs with similar stability and for which growth rates are not known. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate which factor (stability, growth rate, or formation of interfacial transition layer) controls cross-nucleation between the four known Frank-Kasper clathrate hydrate polymorphs: sI, sII, TS, and HS-I. We investigate the growth and cross-nucleation of these four hydrates filled with a set of guest molecules that produce different order of stabilities for the four crystal structures. We determine that the growth rate of sII clathrate is the fastest, followed by TS, HS-I, and sI. We find that cross-nucleation into or from sII clathrates is preceded by the formation of an interfacial transition layer at the seed crystal/liquid interface because sII does not share a crystal plane with sI, HS-I, or TS. Cross-nucleation between the latter three can occur seamlessly and is determined only by their growth rates. Our results indicate that nucleation of an interfacial transition layer between non-matching polymorphs can control cross-nucleation or lack thereof under conditions of small driving force. Under conditions of sufficient supercooling clathrate hydrate polymorphs cross-nucleate into the fastest growing phase even if that new phase is less stable and does not share a common crystal plane with the initial polymorph.

  15. Crack growth rates and fracture toughness of irradiated austenitic stainless steels in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In light water reactors, austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor core internal components because of their high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods degrades the fracture properties of these steels by changing the material microstructure (e.g., radiation hardening) and microchemistry (e.g., radiation-induced segregation). Experimental data are presented on the fracture toughness and crack growth rates (CGRs) of wrought and cast austenitic SSs, including weld heat-affected-zone materials, that were irradiated to fluence levels as high as {approx} 2x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 3 dpa) in a light water reactor at 288-300 C. The results are compared with the data available in the literature. The effects of material composition, irradiation dose, and water chemistry on CGRs under cyclic and stress corrosion cracking conditions were determined. A superposition model was used to represent the cyclic CGRs of austenitic SSs. The effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of these steels, as well as the effects of material and irradiation conditions and test temperature, have been evaluated. A fracture toughness trend curve that bounds the existing data has been defined. The synergistic effects of thermal and radiation embrittlement of cast austenitic SS internal components have also been evaluated.

  16. Generation and growth rates of nonlinear distortions in a traveling wave tube John G. Wohlbier, Ian Dobson, and John H. Booske

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    Generation and growth rates of nonlinear distortions in a traveling wave tube John G. Wo the generation of intermodulation frequencies and calculate their growth rates. The model describes the evolution rates is derived and compared to simulation results. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.66.056504 PACS number s : 52

  17. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Model for Metallic Alloys R. C. Dimitriu and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    and aluminium alloys. It appears therefore that a large proportion of the differences in the fatigue crack against iron, aluminium and titanium alloys; it does however require a prior knowledge of the thresholdFatigue Crack Growth Rate Model for Metallic Alloys R. C. Dimitriu and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

  18. A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas. I. Introduction Before it may. The dynamics of this process are the ones of standard anaerobic digestion, and depend on the type of organic quantities such as the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas. In [1, 2

  19. Catalyst proximity effects on the growth rate of Si nanowires S. T. Boles,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and a silane precursor in a cold-wall chemical vapor deposition CVD system, where the precursor decomposition and experimental design, we have identified a fundamental aspect of growth of Si nanowires using the VLS mechanism

  20. Farm Income Taxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEowen, Roger A.

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Income tax planning and management involves being aware of tax alternatives and knowing how to integrate them with other management data to accomplish the taxpayer's objectives. This publication discusses various alternatives for tax planning....

  1. Tolerance for Income Inequality and Redistributive Preferences: Cross-nation and Multilevel Perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tay, Thiam Chye

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Juzhong, ed. 2010. Poverty, Inequality, and Inclusive Growth2008. "Income, inequality, and electoral participation."In Democracy, Inequality, and Representation, ed. Pablo

  2. The genetic control of growth rate: a systems biology study in yeast.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pir, Pinar; Gutteridge, Alex; Wu, Jian; Rash, Bharat; Kell, Douglas B; Zhang, Nianshu; Oliver, Stephen G

    2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    in the fermentor. If the culture is growing faster than the rate imposed by the current dilution rate, then the biomass concentration will rise as a result of the positive difference between the biomass production rate and the rate of removal of cells from... and the cell pellet from two 20 ml samples was stored at 80oC until further processing. Fermentations Ten ml of the preculture was used to inoculate 1L of FPM or nitrogen-limited F1 medium in the sterilized fermentor vessels. The composition of FPM [4...

  3. Effects of pre-feedlot growth rate on carcass composition and meat tenderness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigman, Ivan Todd

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    & . 001) less backfat (. 75 vs 1. 08 and . 99+. 06 cm), and less (P & . 001) rib fat (24. 23 vs 29. 2 and 28. 72+. 7 '/o). Angus x Brahman steers compared to Simmental-sired steers and heifers had higher (P & . 001) quality grades (665. 33 vs 622. 12... realimentation. This was evidenced by the previously restricted compensatory growth (CG) cattle having a 24'/0 lighter gut fill than the unrestricted continuous growth (CON) cattle at a full body weight (FBW) of 300 kg and a 20/o heavier gut fill at a FBW...

  4. The Effects of Test Temperature, Temper, and Alloyed Copper on the Hydrogen-Controlled Crack Growth Rate of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully

    2000-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.

  5. Capping layer growth rate and the optical and structural properties of GaAsSbN-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulloa, J. M., E-mail: jmulloa@isom.upm.es; Utrilla, A. D.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A. [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM) and Dpto. Ingeniería Electrónica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Reyes, D. F.; Ben, T.; González, D. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing the growth rate during the heteroepitaxial capping of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) with a 5?nm-thick GaAsSbN capping layer (CL) strongly modifies the QD structural and optical properties. A size and shape transition from taller pyramids to flatter lens-shaped QDs is observed when the CL growth rate is decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 ML/s. This indicates that the QD dissolution processes taking place during capping can be controlled to some extent by the GaAsSbN CL growth rate, with high growth rates allowing a complete preservation of the QDs. However, the dissolution processes are shown to have a leveling effect on the QD height, giving rise to a narrower size distribution for lower growth rates. Contrary to what could be expected, these effects are opposite to the strong blue-shift and improvement of the photoluminescence (PL) observed for higher growth rates. Nevertheless, the PL results can be understood in terms of the strong impact of the growth rate on the Sb and N incorporation into the CL, which results in lower Sb and N contents at higher growth rates. Besides the QD-CL band offsets and QD strain, the different CL composition alters the band alignment of the system, which can be transformed to type-II at low growth rates. These results show the key role of the alloyed CL growth parameters on the resulting QD properties and demonstrate an intricate correlation between the PL spectra and the sample morphology in complex QD-CL structures.

  6. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    measured quantities ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate (natural manure) in the absence of oxygen [1, 2, 6]. The biogas is an additional energy source and the methane is a greenhouse gas

  7. A Quantitative Theory of Solid Tumor Growth, Metabolic Rate and Vascularization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Van M.

    of America, 3 Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America, 4 Theoretical Division, T-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America Abstract and tumor growth. Understanding how these are integrated and interconnected is crucial for developing

  8. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  9. Inequality and Growth: Why Differential Fertility Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Croix, David; Doepke, Matthias

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barro, Robert J. 2000. “Inequality and Growth in a Panel of1–25. Benabou, Roland. 1996. “Inequality and Growth. ” NBER1996. “Measuring Income Inequality: A New Database. ”

  10. Grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of iridium alloy DOP-26

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKamey, C.G.; Gubbi, A.N.; Lin, Y.; Cohron, J.W.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the new-process iridium-based DOP-26 alloy used for the Cassini space mission. This alloy was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1980`s and is currently used by NASA for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. Included within this report are data generated on grain growth in vacuum or low-pressure oxygen environments; a comparison of grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material with sheet material; effect of grain size, test temperature, and oxygen exposure on high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility; and grain growth in vacuum and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of welded DOP-26. The data for the new-process material is compared to available old-process data.

  11. Growth diagram of N-face GaN (0001{sup ¯}) grown at high rate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okumura, Hironori, E-mail: okumura@engineering.ucsb.edu; McSkimming, Brian M.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huault, Thomas; Chaix, Catherine [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Perier, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)] [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Perier, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    N-face GaN was grown on free-standing GaN (0001{sup ¯}) substrates at a growth rate of 1.5??m/h using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Difference in growth rate between (0001{sup ¯}) and (0001) oriented GaN depends on nitrogen plasma power, and the (0001{sup ¯}) oriented GaN had only 70% of the growth rate of the (0001) oriented GaN at 300?W. Unintentional impurity concentrations of silicon, carbon, and oxygen were 2?×?10{sup 15}, 2?×?10{sup 16}, and 7?×?10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3}, respectively. A growth diagram was constructed that shows the dependence of the growth modes on the difference in the Ga and active nitrogen flux, ?{sub Ga}????{sub N*}, and the growth temperature. At high ?{sub Ga}????{sub N*} (?{sub Ga}????{sub N*}), two-dimensional (step-flow and layer-by-layer) growth modes were realized. High growth temperature (780?°C) expanded the growth window of the two-dimensional growth modes, achieving a surface with rms roughness of 0.48?nm without Ga droplets.

  12. The effect of threadfin shad introduction on growth rates of largemouth bass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivings, Albert Eugene

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Nat. Hist. Surv. 24(3):377-412. Carlander, K. D. 1956. Fish growth studies: techniques and roles in surveys and management. Trans . N . Am . Wi ldl . Conf . 21: 262-274. 1973. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, Yol. 2, tecgemo th h ss, ~Mic o... of fishery science. Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca. 288 pp. Grizzell, R. A. , Jr. 1965. Diuron as an aquatic herbicide. Proc. Annu . Conf . Southeastern Assoc . Game and Fish Comm . 19: 194-197 . Neman, N. L. , R. S. Campbell, and L. C. Redmond. 1969...

  13. The effect of threadfin shad introduction on growth rates of largemouth bass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivings, Albert Eugene

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Nat. Hist. Surv. 24(3):377-412. Carlander, K. D. 1956. Fish growth studies: techniques and roles in surveys and management. Trans . N . Am . Wi ldl . Conf . 21: 262-274. 1973. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, Yol. 2, tecgemo th h ss, ~Mic o... of fishery science. Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca. 288 pp. Grizzell, R. A. , Jr. 1965. Diuron as an aquatic herbicide. Proc. Annu . Conf . Southeastern Assoc . Game and Fish Comm . 19: 194-197 . Neman, N. L. , R. S. Campbell, and L. C. Redmond. 1969...

  14. A physiological and morphological analysis of the effects of nitrogen supply on the relative growth rates of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, Corey Michael

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of nitrogen supply on relationships of relative growth rate (RGR) to leaf physiology, structural and non-structural carbon partitioning, and nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies were examined in loblolly pine ...

  15. Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Rate-Dependent Morphology of Li2O2 Growth in Li-O2 Batteries Birger Horstmann,1, 2, 3, 4 Betar continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory

  16. Fertility and rate of growth in a beef cattle herd in the 0rient of Venezuela 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Crespo, Justo Nicolas

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    status upon pregnancy rate in Venezuela. They calculated adjusted means of lactating and nonlactating cows to be 54. 3~~ and 89. 2~ respect. ively. Such results have been re- ported by . , everal authors in Bolivia (Plasse et aL. , 1975 and Bauer et a... and Huertas, 1974, in Colombia and Bauer, 1973, in Bolivia). Thc negative effect of lactation upon ferti. lity seems to be related to the plane of nutrition (IViltbank et al. , 1961, 1964; Villar et al, 1975; Stonaker et al, 1975 and Bazan et al. , 1975...

  17. Exceptional income from sale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pocket Guide 2005-06 Imperial College Income by Source 1997-2005 These statistics are the latest-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2005-06 2004-05 % change over Nos. % total Nos. % total 100.0 -10.7 -14.2 Part-Time Student Numbers 2005-06 2004-05 % change over Nos. total Nos. total 1 year

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C., E-mail: rond@lspm.cnrs.fr; Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A. [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux (LSPM), UPR3407 CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 Avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40??m/h with an H-atom density of 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  19. Exploring a new interaction between dark matter and dark energy using the growth rate of structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richarte, Martín G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a phenomenological interaction with a scale factor power law form which leads to the appearance of two kinds of perturbed terms, a scale factor spatial variation along with perturbed Hubble expansion rate. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution within the parametrized post-Friedmann scheme, obtaining that the exchange of energy-momentum can flow from dark energy to dark matter in order to keep dark energy and dark matter densities well defined at all times. We combine several measures of the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, redshift-space distortion data, JLA sample of supernovae, and Hubble constant for constraining the coupling constant and the exponent provided both parametrized the interaction itself. The joint analysis of ${\\rm Planck+WMAP9+BAO}$ ${\\rm +RSD+JLA+HST}$ data seems to favor large coupling constant, $\\xi_c = 0.34403427_{- 0.18907353}^{+ 0.14430125}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level, and prefers a power law interactio...

  20. Size of clearcut opening affects species composition, growth rate, and stand characteristics. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.E.; Smith, H.C.; Pearcy, J.N.

    1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s, a series of studies was installed in the central hardwood forest to determine if size of clearcut opening affects the growth rate and species composition of new stands. In 1991, about 30 years after cutting, stand data were collected in 89 openings ranging in size from 0.04 to 1.61 acres. The number of stems per acre increased with opening size; however, the number of shade-tolerant species constituted a greater proportion of the stand in small openings (<0.5 acre), while the porportion of shade-intolerant species increased in larger openings. Results of this study indicate that opening size has a major influence on stand characteristics after about 30 years.

  1. Population levels and growth rates of scleractinian corals within the Diploria-Montastrea-Porites zones of the East and West Flower Garden Banks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraemer, George Philip

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 3 m depth was significantly greater than that of D. ~ti, th, d pth. Th g th t f th p f kl annularis colony at 25. 9 m in depth was s1gnif1cantly greater than the growth rate of the side of the same colony. A decrease in M. annu- laris accretionary... growth rate with 1ncreasing depth was observed over the 21. 3-27. 4 m range. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I ws sh to express my appreciati on to Dr, Thomas J . Bright, cha1 r- man of my advisory committee, for his acceptance of me as a student, for h1s willingness...

  2. Harvest Your Retirement income options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    previous generations You're going to have a longer retirement (retire early, and live longer) YouHarvest Your Savings Retirement income options using your SFU Group LIF/RRIF #12;Agenda 1. Your retirement income needs 2. Where will your retirement money come from? 3. Retirement accounts and products 4

  3. A Bioreactor for Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Online Estimation of Specific Growth Rate and Biomass for the Deep-Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    Microbial Ecology A Bioreactor for Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Online Estimation production. The authors channeled the effluent gas of a bioreactor containing biogenic H2S purged from

  4. Derivation of a Langmuir type of model to describe the intrinsic growth rate of gas hydrates during crystallization from gas mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Derivation of a Langmuir type of model to describe the intrinsic growth rate of gas hydrates during de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint- Etienne, France Abstract Gas Hydrates 81 (2012) 28-37" DOI : 10.1016/j.ces.2012.06.016 #12;Keywords Gas Hydrates, Crystallisation

  5. Influences of gaseous environment on low growth-rate fatigue crack propagation in steels. Annual report No. 1, January 1980. Report No. FPL/R/80/1030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Suresh, S.; Toplosky, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of gaseous environment is examined on fatigue crack propagation behavior in steels. Specifically, a fully martensitic 300-M ultrahigh strength steel and a fully bainitic 2-1/4Cr-1Mo lower strength steel are investigated in environments of ambient temperature moist air and low pressure dehumidified hydrogen and argon gases over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, with particular emphasis given to behavior near the crack propagation threshold ..delta..K/sub 0/. It is found that two distinct growth rate regimes exist where hydrogen can markedly accelerate crack propagation rates compared to air, (1) at near-threshold levels below (5 x 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle) and (2) at higher growth rates, typically around 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle above a critical maximum stress intensity K/sub max//sup T/. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at higher growth rates is attributed to a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, with K/sub max//sup T/ nominally equal to K/sub Iscc/ (the sustained load stress corrosion threshold) in high strength steels, and far below K/sub Iscc/ in the strain-rate sensitive lower strength steels. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at near-threshold levels is attributed to a new mechanism involving fretting-oxide-induced crack closure generated in moist (or oxygenated) environments. The absence of hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms at near-threshold levels is supported by tests showing that ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in dry gaseous argon are similar to ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in hydrogen. The potential ramifications of these results are examined in detail.

  6. Income inequality, tax base and sovereign spreads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Tiongson, 2006, “Income inequality and redistributive2011, “Pre-industrial inequality,” Economic Journal, 121:255-272. Table 1: Income Inequality and Fiscal Space. This

  7. Economic Growth and Inequality: Drawing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    and policies in later sessions #12;Economic Growth and Inequality: The Famous Kuznets Curve #12;Income Inequality #12;The New Kuznets Curve #12;Income Inequality #12;From Income Inequality to Health #12;Percent the Channels) #12;Kuznets Curves for Socially Determined Health Outcomes David Bishai, MD,MPH, PhD Professor

  8. Parnassus Housing Incoming Package Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    Parnassus Housing Incoming Package Policy UCSF's Parnassus Housing Street tenants. Housing Services will sign for packages from all carriers. In order to provide the most efficient service, Housing Services receives

  9. Current trends in income statements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cass, Edwin Childers

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inancial st'atements (particularly published summaries) the use of tho comparative sheet is becoming more snd mors common?s . The development of the comparative statement is fortunate, . as such z sports sre of special value, , " A more recent...' . comparative statements? end it zzould certainly be desirable for companies generally, to oxhibit their earnings history fox' a pex iod of years?; Combined Income snd Sur lus Stat'ament The development of the combined income snd surplus state-- m ont...

  10. From Ultrananocrystalline Diamond to Single Crystal Diamond Growth in Hot Filament and Microwave Plasma-Enhanced CVD Reactors: a Unified Model for Growth Rates and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    From Ultrananocrystalline Diamond to Single Crystal Diamond Growth in Hot Filament and Microwave, Moscow State UniVersity, 119991 Moscow, Russia ReceiVed: April 29, 2008 CVD Diamond can now be deposited either in the form of single crystal homoepitaxial layers, or as polycrystalline films with crystal sizes

  11. Low-Income Weatherization: The Human Dimension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation focuses on how the human dimension saves energy within low-income weatherization programs.

  12. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sutter, Peter W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  13. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pdmore »deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.« less

  14. Determination of redox reaction rates and –orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sutter, Peter W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  15. Incomes of Migratory Agricultural Workers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Frederic O.; Metzler, William H.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This was despite the fact that half of them, mainly women and childre-n, were out of the labor market complete- ly at the home base. During 1956, the average earnings per worker were $781, but male heads of households averaged labor was a major source of their income. In the 446 households surveyed, there was a total...

  16. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  17. Beyond the growth rate of cosmic structure: Testing modified gravity models with an extra degree of freedom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burrage, Clare; Seery, David

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 'modified' gravity the observed acceleration of the universe is explained by changing the gravitational force law or the number of degrees of freedom in the gravitational sector. Both possibilities can be tested by measurements of cosmological structure formation. In this paper we elaborate the details of such tests using the Galileon model as a case study. We pay attention to the possibility that each new degree of freedom may have stochastically independent initial conditions, generating different types of potential well in the early universe and breaking complete correlation between density and velocity power spectra. This 'stochastic bias' can confuse schemes to parametrize the predictions of modified gravity models, such as the use of the growth parameter f alone. Using data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey we show that it will be possible to obtain constraints using information about the cosmological-scale force law embedded in the multipole power spectra of redshift-space distortions. As an examp...

  18. The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagar, Christopher Flint

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -5oC / hr) (Levitt, 1972) . During extracellular freezing, ice forms in intracellular spaces and / or extracellularly between cell walls and protoplasts (Asahina, 1978; Levitt, 1972) creating a vapor pressure gradient between the ice... lethal (Asahina, 1978; Burke et al. , 1976; Habeshaw, 1976; Levitt, 1978). This type of freezing results from rapid cooling rates and extensive supercooling (Burke et al. , 1976; Levitt, 1972; 1978). When plants freeze intracellulary, ice crystals...

  19. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  20. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L., E-mail: cxaplanteris@yahoo.com [Plasma Physics Laboratory, IMS, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece and Hellenic Army Academy, Vari Attica (Greece); Xaplanteris, L. C. [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Leousis, D. P. [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  1. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  2. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  3. Current trends in income statements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cass, Edwin Childers

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years 2 000 000 sy&i~9 Earnings of' prior years transferred to capital stock account. ' 99 dr 124, 4452088 Accumulated. earnings invested in plant facilitlss and added to zorking oaptta1 at ead od' year . ~189 4'14 919 An example of' the second...~the ?clams surplus theory, ?2 . ?& the ?all-inclusive income statement", , = or ths. "historical approach" ~ . And those who favor tbs second belief' are said to accept ths ?eiarning* power approach", oz the "current opera- ?, 5 ting perf'ozmance concept...

  4. INCOMING DOCUMENT CONTROL FORM DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION ORGANIZATIO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    INCOMING DOCUMENT CONTROL FORM DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION ORGANIZATIO )ATE COMPLETED: ACTION NUMBER: I I I DOCUMENT CONTROL DATE INITIALS DATA BASE: ACTION LOG: FILED: To : Doug...

  5. Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) provides resources to assist families with energy costs. This federally funded assistance helps in managing costs associated with:

  6. Income inequality, tax base and sovereign spreads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Tiongson, 2006, “Income inequality and redistributive2009), “Chapter 6: Inequality Measures,” in Handbookon Poverty and Inequality, pp. 101-120, published by World

  7. Inequality and Economic Growth: Bridging the Short-run and the Long-run

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grijalva, Diego F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    40, 1–46. Benabou, Roland, “Inequality and Growth,” in BenAkira Nishiyama, “Income Inequality and Growth - Does theU Relationship between Inequality and Long-run Growth,”

  8. EINSTEIN POLICY ON OUTSIDE PROFESSIONAL INCOME BACKGROUND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenny, Paraic

    EINSTEIN POLICY ON OUTSIDE PROFESSIONAL INCOME 1 BACKGROUND: The System of Appointments with the rules and regulations prescribed by the College of Medicine from time to time." The Albert Einstein to the management of professional fees or other outside income earned by individuals holding Einstein faculty

  9. Harvest Your 1. Your retirement income needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    to live longer than previous generations You're going to have a longer retirement (retire early, and liveHarvest Your Savings #12;Agenda 1. Your retirement income needs 2. Where will your retirement money come from? 3. Retirement accounts and products 4. Sun Life Financial's retirement services #12;Income

  10. Income and Poverty in a Developing Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K; Mallick, Sushanta K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a stochastic agent-based model for the distribution of personal incomes in a developing economy. We start with the assumption that incomes are determined both by individual labour and by stochastic effects of trading and investment. The income from personal effort alone is distributed about a mean, while the income from trade, which may be positive or negative, is proportional to the trader's income. These assumptions lead to a Langevin model with multiplicative noise, from which we derive a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the income probability density function (IPDF) and its variation in time. We find that high earners have a power-law income distribution while the low income groups have a Levy IPDF. Comparing our analysis with the Indian survey data (obtained from the world bank website) taken over many years we obtain a near-perfect data collapse onto our model's equilibrium IPDF. The theory quantifies the economic notion of ``given other things''. Using survey data to relate the IPDF to actual...

  11. Fixed Income Division Nomura International plc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macrina, Andrea

    Fixed Income Division © Nomura International plc Symmetry methods for quadratic Gaussian models International plc Outline Motivation The quadratic Gaussian distribution The quadratic Gaussian process The quadratic Gaussian model #12;Fixed Income Division 3© Nomura International plc Part 1 Motivation #12;Fixed

  12. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

  13. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  14. Top Incomes in the Long Run of History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Anthony B.; Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. B. and T. Piketty eds. Top Incomes over the TwentiethPress. Atkinson, Anthony B. (2010) “Top incomes in a rapidlyA. B. and T. Piketty eds. Top Incomes over the Twentieth

  15. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary More...

  16. Structure and Organizing Principles for Low Income Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Principles for Low Income Energy Efficiency Workgroup 1 Background As part of Post-2011-Review, BPA agreed to convene a low income energy efficiency workgroup. The...

  17. Proposed Structure and Organizing Principles for Low Income Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure and Organizing Principles for Low Income Energy Efficiency Workgroup 1 Background As part of Post-2011-Review, BPA agreed to convene a low income energy efficiency...

  18. Income Inequality and Population Health in Geographic Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Michael E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. (2004). Health and Inequality London: Sage Deininger,set measuring income inequality. World Bank Economic Review,Mortality and income inequality among economically developed

  19. Better Buildings Program San Jose - Serving Moderate Income Residents...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program San Jose - Serving Moderate Income Residents Better Buildings Program San Jose - Serving Moderate Income Residents Provides an overview of the program components and goals,...

  20. Submitted to J. Appl. Phys., revised October, 1999 1 A Rate Equation Model for the Growth of GaN on GaN(0001) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Philip I.

    Submitted to J. Appl. Phys., revised October, 1999 1 A Rate Equation Model for the Growth of GaN on GaN(000¯1) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy R.Held, B.E. Ishaug, A. Parkhomovsky, A.M. Dabiran, and P (October 7, 1999) GaN(000¯1)filmsweregrownbymolecularbeamepitaxyusingammoniaandelemental

  1. The State and income inequality in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medeiros, Marcelo; Souza, Pedro H.G.F.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cash Transfers in Brazil, Chile and Mexico: Impacts uponand income inequality in Brazil Journal. 1986;96(383):722–the inequality levels in Brazil would be much higher than

  2. Bringing good things to life : New Markets Tax Credits and the opening of low-income communities to investment, including a case study of Pittsfield, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGrath, Daniel J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program is designed to promote investment and economic growth in urban and rural low-income communities across the country. Created in 2000 as one of the last acts of the Clinton Administration, ...

  3. Income Statement -- A Financial Management Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klinefelter, Danny A.

    2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    (Accounts Receivable) Farm Cash Operating Expenses ? Change in Inventory Value of Accrued ? Expense, Production Supply Expense, and Accrued Interest Expense Depreciation Expenses ? Gain or Loss on Sale of Farm Capital Assets ? Gain or Loss Due... on Sale of Breeding ? Livestock Farm Business Receipts The principal source of farm income is the sale of livestock, grain and other farm products. Other income is from agricultural program pay- ments, custom work and dividends. Changes in Inventory...

  4. a poorer food conversion efficiency and survival rate. The lower survival rate (87~) of this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rate. 3. Survival and growth rates and food efficien- cies were excellent for trout reared in brackish

  5. Incomes of Rural Families in Northeast Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern, John H.; Hendrix, W. E.

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary i This study deals on a sample basis with the income levels, income sources and farm and human re- source characteristics of the 88,000 rural open-country families in a 24-county area of Northeast Texas. ) Low levels of living... mainly from small-scale crop to s~all- scale livestock farming. In 1955, 49,000 of the area's rural families were farm families and 39,000 were nonfarm families, or 55 percent and 45 percent, respectively. However, 21 percent of all farmers were full...

  6. Unrelated Business Income Tax (UBIT) Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to ensure that the Colorado School of Mines ("Mines") complies educational mission: instruction; research; and public service in energy, mineral engineering, and mineral subject it to income taxation by the state and federal government. Recent IRS audits of institutions

  7. Droop (Droop, 2002) points out that equation (3) of Baird et al. (Baird et al., 2001) contains the maximum growth rate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Mark

    Droop (Droop, 2002) points out that equation (3) of Baird et al. (Baird et al., 2001) contains. (Baird et al., 2001) is no longer Droop's original Cell Quota model, and should not have been referred COMMENT Reply to `In defence of the Cell Quota model of micro-algal growth' by M. R. Droop MARK BAIRD

  8. Life in low income families in Scotland: research report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKendrick, John H; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Backett-Milburn, Kathryn

    Living on a low income is a problem that the Scottish Executive and UK Parliament want to tackle. Previous work has focused on measuring the number of people living on a low income. This research was commissioned to ...

  9. The Farmer's Conundrum: Income from Biofuels or Protect the Soil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Farmer's Conundrum: Income from Biofuels or Protect the Soil? The Farmer's Conundrum: Income from Biofuels or Protect the Soil? July 1, 2010 - 11:39am Addthis Lindsay Gsell...

  10. EmPOWER Maryland Low Income Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD) EmPOWER Maryland Low Income Energy Efficiency Program helps qualifying low-income residents increase the energy efficiency of t...

  11. Income Inequality and Mortality: The Costa RIcan Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modrek, Sepideh

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    44-49). San Francisco Kuznets, S. (1955). Economic Growthin income inequality (Kuznets, 1955), but benefits from this

  12. Rates & Repayment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and...

  13. What Drives the Public Mood of Income Inequality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Rebekah M

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    on In co m e In eq ua lity , 1 97 1? 20 12 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Figure 3.1: Public Mood on Income Inequality, 1971-2012 23 Table 3.1: Do Economic Factors Drive Public Mood Towards Income Inequality? Public Mood of Income Inequalityt?1 0.813 (0...

  14. Evaluating Equality using Parametric Income Distribution Models An exploration of alternative effects using a Dagum Parametric Income Distribution Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Esther Ruiz

    to the study of income policy effects on the distribution of personal income. A parametric model of the Dagum on income data from several countries: Canada, the United States, Italy and Argentina. Therefore, the model and increased unemployment in most of the developed as well as developing countries. For policy- makers

  15. The effect of cover crop and fertilizer rate on the growth and survival of loblolly pine in East Texas mine spoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kee, David Dwayne

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /ha/year, fertilized with 0, 25 or 50 kg P/ha, were evaluated in the P study. CcnIpetition between cover crops and trees for light, water and nutrients influenced survival and growth of trees. Tree survival, after three years, was greatest in the subterranean... clover (42%), Coastal bermudagrass + 50 kg N/ha/year (45%) and Coastal bermudagrass + 0 kg N/ha (39%) plots. The highly competitive crops, Coastal bermudagrass + 100 kg N/ha/year and arrowleaf clover, had the lowest tree survival (14% and 13...

  16. Effect of milk consumption, forage availability and cow phenotype on rate of preweaning growth of calves in a semiarid Texas rangeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Susan Lynn

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    environments (Brown, 1986). In a study reported by DeNise and Ray (1987), which analyzed postweaning performance of Herefords in an Arizona range environment, the generalized growth pattern following fall weaning was: weight loss of approximately 10' from... Committee: Dr. John P. Walter Dr. Jerome F. Baker Data were collected on 200 Brahman-Hereford Fl cow/calf pairs in 1986, 1987 and 1988 (YR). At 15 mo of age (spring before first breeding season) females were stratified by weight and randomly assigned...

  17. LOW INCOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM OVERVIEW Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s - 16,3/14 LOW INCOME ENERGY

  18. Trade balance instability and the optimal exchange rate regime: The case of OPEC countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljerrah, M.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The OPEC members have experienced wide fluctuations in their trade balances. This can be attributed to several factors: (1) heavy dependence of national income and export earnings on a single primary export-oil; (2) instability of price and world demand for oil; and (3) the exchange rate regime practiced in recent years. An exchange rate policy can be used to minimize the fluctuations in trade balance, given the changes in exchange rates of major international currencies. The purpose of this study is two fold; first, examine the effects of fluctuations in trade balance on the OPEC economies, and second, propose appropriate exchange rate regime for selected OPEC members. The study is divided into two parts. The first part demonstrates the impact of trade balance changes on national income and other macroeconomic variables using a Keynesian framework. The second part involves using conventional trade models to search for the appropriate exchange rate regime to minimize the fluctuations in trade balance of each selective country. The study's findings are: first, fluctuations in trade balances had negative effects on the economics of Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Second, the current exchange rate regime of no sample country is optimal in minimizing trade balance fluctuations. Third, in contrast to expectations, U.S. dollar peg did not stabilize the trade balance of any OPEC member. Finally, the results show that the sample OPEC economies could have enjoyed faster - though with different degree - economic growth if they had pegged their currencies to the derived optimal exchange rate regime. These optimal exchange rate regimes are: the SDR for Algeria and the United Arab Emirates, the purchasing power parity for Libya and Saudi Arabia, and the real Yen for Kuwait.

  19. Effective Energy Behavior Change for Low-Income Weatherization Clients

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains the transcript for the Effective Energy Behavior Change for Low-Income Weatherization Clients webinar presented on May 31, 2012.

  20. Top Incomes in the Long Run of History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Anthony B.; Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spain Portugal Italy Top Percentile Share (in percent)India Singapore Top Percentile Share (in percent) Chinaof the century, top percentile incomes were overwhelmingly

  1. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family & Low-Income...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of choice, by providing information and options * Provide loan programs that fill market gaps * Offer resources * Make connections * Serve low- and moderate-income families...

  2. Income Inequality and Mortality: The Costa RIcan Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modrek, Sepideh

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Afflictions of Inequality. London: Routledge. Wilkinson,K. E. (2006). Income inequality and population health: AJ. (2005). Neighbourhood inequality, neighbourhood affluence

  3. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-Family and Low Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Family and Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance What kind of...

  4. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Approaches to Electric...

  5. Gauging Employment Growth in Wisconsin: State-By-State Comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Gauging Employment Growth in Wisconsin: State; 2 Employment growth in Wisconsin continues to lag both the national rate of job growth as well as the rates of employment increase in most other states

  6. Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy JOHN PEZZEY EEN0203 #12;Exact Measures of Income in a Hyperbolic Economy John C. V. Pezzey Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies Australian National.K. Draft of 23 January 2002 Abstract. Exact optimal paths are calculated for a closed economy with human

  7. MEASURING AND MODELING INCOME INEQUALITY IN GREECE Income inequality gains significance from its close relationship with social injustice, and it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatziantoniou, Damianos

    IN GREECE» ( ) Abstract Income inequality gains significance from its close relationship with social distribution in Greece utilizing alternative data sources and employing several statistic and econometric is the introduction. Chapter 2 presents a detailed literature review of income inequality in Greece. Data

  8. Retirement Income Plan Summary Yeshiva University's Retirement Income Plan, also known as the Basic Plan, is a defined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Scott

    Retirement Income Plan Summary Yeshiva University's Retirement Income Plan, also known as the Basic are immediately vested in your contributions to the any of the University's retirement plans. If you are eligible% early withdrawal penalty. Defaulted loans may also impact your eligibility to request additional loans

  9. On the Road: Access to Transportation Infrastructure and Economic Growth in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper estimates the effect of access to transportation networks on regional economic outcomes in China over a twenty-period of rapid income growth. It addresses the problem of the endogenous placement of networks by ...

  10. Invitation to Actively Participate in a Symposium on Hunger and Economic Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Invitation to Actively Participate in a Symposium on Hunger and Economic Growth Swedish University September: 8:30 to 14:00 Location: Undervisninghus, SLU, Ultuna Economic growth does not necessarily lead-income countries as the next frontier for trade and economic growth. Leaders worldwide are increasing

  11. IIFET 2000 Proceedings U.S. Income Distribution and Gorman Engel Curves for Food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

    annual time series data on quintile and top five percentile income ranges and intra-quintile and top five percentile mean incomes. Estimates for the year-to-year income distribution are combined with annual time

  12. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  13. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  14. "Table HC7.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than...

  15. Minnesota Energy Resources (Gas)- Low-Income New Construction Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota Energy Resources is now offering rebates for non-profits servicing low-income communities. New construction organizations can take advantage of rebates for efficient technologies if the...

  16. Empire District Electric- Low Income New Homes Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Empire District Electric offers rebates for the utilization of energy efficient measures and appliances in new, low-income homes. Rebates are available for several types of building insulation,...

  17. Income and Health Spending: Evidence from Oil Price Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    Health expenditures as a share of GDP in the United States have more than tripled over the past half-century. A common conjecture is that this is a consequence of rising income. We investigate this hypothesis by instrumenting ...

  18. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  19. Political competition and Mirrleesian income taxation: A first pass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierbrauer, Felix J.; Boyer, Pierre C.

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study Downsian competition in a Mirrleesian model of income taxation. The competing politicians may di er in competence. If politicians engage in vote-share maximization, the less competent politician's policy proposals are attractive...

  20. New constraints in absorptive capacity and the optimum rate of petroleum output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mallakh, R

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic policy in four oil-producing countries is analyzed within a framework that combines a qualitative assessment of the policy-making process with an empirical formulation based on historical and current trends in these countries. The concept of absorptive capacity is used to analyze the optimum rates of petroleum production in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. A control solution with an econometric model is developed which is then modified for alternative development strategies based on analysis of factors influencing production decisions. The study shows the consistencies and inconsistencies between the goals of economic growth, oil production, and exports, and the constraints on economic development. Simulation experiments incorporated a number of the constraints on absorptive capacity. Impact of other constraints such as income distribution and political stability is considered qualitatively. (DLC)

  1. Smooth Transitions into Medi-Cal: Ensuring Continuity of Coverage for Low Income Health Program Enrollees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lytle, Elizabeth C; Roby, Dylan H; Lucia, Laurel; Jacobs, Ken; Cabezas, Livier; Pourat, Naderah

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Care Coverage Initiative (HCCI) enrollees with incomes above2012 Total Enrollment (HCCI + MCE) December 2012 Alameda

  2. State zoning legislation and local adaptation : an evaluation on the implementation of Massachusetts Chapter 40R Smart Growth Legislation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Smart Growth Zoning Overlay District Act (M.G.L. Chapter 40R, the Legislation) was issued in March 2005 with the mission to substantially increase the supply of housing, especially for low- and moderate-income households, ...

  3. Estate-level facility provision and management in market-rate and resettlement coexisting housing compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Jie, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market-rate and resettlement coexisting housing compound (MRCHC) is a special model of mixed-income neighborhood merging with the dilapidated housing renewal in the major cities of China. The provision and management of ...

  4. Utility investments in low-income-energy-efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Beyer, M.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eisenberg, J.; Power, M. [Economic Opportunity Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Lapsa, E.J. [Manhattan Data Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to describe the energy-efficiency programs being operated by utilities for low-income customers. The study focuses, in particular, on programs that install major residential weatherization measures free-of-charge to low-income households. A survey was mailed to a targeted list of 600 utility program managers. Follow-up telephone calls were made to key non- respondents, and a random sample of other non-respondents also was contacted. Completed surveys were received from 180 utilities, 95 of which provided information on one or more of their 1992 low-income energy-efficiency programs for a total of 132 individual programs. These 132 utility programs spent a total of $140.6 million in 1992. This represents 27% of the total program resources available to weatherize the dwellings of low-income households in that year. Both the total funding and the number of programs has grown by 29% since 1989. A majority of the 132 programs are concentrated in a few regions of the country (California, the Pacific Northwest, the Upper Midwest, and the Northeast). Although a majority of the programs are funded by electric utilities, gas utilities have a significantly greater average expenditure per participant ($864 vs. $307 per participant). The most common primary goal of low-income energy-efficiency programs operating in 1992 was {open_quotes}to make energy services more affordable to low-income customers{close_quotes}. Only 44% of the programs were operated primarily to provide a cost-effective energy resource. Based on a review of household and measure selection criteria, equity and not the efficiency of resource acquisition appears to dominate the design of these programs.

  5. Income over variable costs in a pasture based dairy industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Kenneth Robert

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    farms according to past production levels relative to past quota assignment. Quota is lost if production falls below assignment for more than three payment periods (4 weeks per period) in a twelve month interval. Extra quota becomes available... herds. Parameter Units Physical Income/Expense Income Quota milk Manufacture milk Stock sales Other liters/month liters/month NA1 NA A$/month A$/month A$/month A$/month Inputs Milking cows Dry cows Replacements Land Labor Grain Hay...

  6. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dedyulin, Sergey N., E-mail: sdedyuli@uwo.ca; Goncharova, Lyudmila V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450–650?°C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  7. China Economy: Technology, Growth and Global Connections (3 Credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    China Economy: Technology, Growth and Global Connections (3 Credits) Instructor Susan Mays. It examines major trends in the economy and society, including trends in income, the workforce, trade, foreign, drivers, and challenges in China's unique and dynamic economy, in a global context. Topics 1. China

  8. 3. Growth and equity: Dismantling the KaldorKuznetsSolow consensus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    3. Growth and equity: Dismantling the Kaldor­Kuznets­Solow consensus Brendan P. Fisher and Jon D and Kuznets in particular helped establish the assumption that there is a trade off between reducing inequal policy around international income distribu- tion and growth. The net result of the Kaldor­Kuznets

  9. Optimum Income Taxation and Layo Taxes Pierre Cahucy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    provides public unemployment insurance and aims at redistributing income. The optimal layo¤ tax is equal to the social cost of job destruction, which amounts to the discounted value of the sum of unemployment bene in "Journal of Public Economics 92, 10-11 (2008) 2003-2019" DOI : 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.12.006 #12

  10. Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Low-Income

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    environmental measurements and collect energy consumption data. Based on analyses of the data collected fromEnergy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Low-Income Apartments ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Environmental Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/environmental August 2011 The Issue

  11. Techniques for Dynamic and Prioritized Bandwidth Allocation On Incoming Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to today, a network administrator has no control on the incoming traffic if the network service does]. This type of traffic appears in general to the network administrator (and to the high management activity of the organization will be called high priority traffic. As of today, a network administrator

  12. A Welcome to Incoming Optics Students from the Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Welcome to Incoming Optics Students from the Director It is my great pleasure to welcome you to The Institute of Optics, to join the training for the next generation of leaders in the field. Approximately half of all optics degrees awarded nationwide have been awarded by our institute since its founding

  13. MATERIALS TRANSFER AGREEMENT for incoming item(s)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    MATERIALS TRANSFER AGREEMENT for incoming item(s) To be used when an item(s) is being provided for demonstration or loaner purposes. This Materials Transfer Agreement ("Agreement") is made by and between, the University is interested in receiving from the Provider certain material(s), defined below

  14. Poor Nutrition and Health Concerns in Low Income Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and foodborne illness, reduced indigent health care costs and improved quality of life. Contact: Dean McPoor Nutrition and Health Concerns in Low Income Population An estimated one out of every six in 1995 as a cooperative endeavor among the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Texas Health and Human

  15. QER- Comment of Low-income Energy Affordability Network [MA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thank you, Secretary Moniz for the opportunity to submit testimony, I am entering this testimony to call attention to the Secretary and DOE staff, that DOE has operated a successful energy efficiency program for low income renters and home owners since DOE’s creation as a department, that leverages hundreds of millions of dollars in utility and other governmental and private investments...

  16. Family Moderate Income Homeowners In New York State

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Family Moderate Income Homeowners In New York State: Enhancing Resource Accessibility Through Process Improvement and Targeted Outreach," by Residential Energy Efficiency Solutions, July 10, 2012, Arlington, Virginia. Provides an overview of broadening accessibility to financing through process improvement and targeted outreach.

  17. Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, Debt, and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Statistical Mechanics of Money, Income, Debt, and Energy Consumption Physics Colloquium Presented in financial markets. Globally, data analysis of energy consumption per capita around the world shows@american.edu Similarly to the probability distribution of energy in physics, the probability distribution of money among

  18. air pollution income: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air pollution income First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The relationship between air...

  19. Bertrand's postulate and subgroup growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Rabee, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we investigate the L^1-norm of certain functions on groups called divisibility functions. Using these functions, their connection to residual finiteness, and integration theory on profinite groups, we define the residual average of a finitely generated group. One of the main results in this article is the finiteness of residual averages on finitely generated linear groups. Whether or not the residual average is finite depends on growth rates of indices of finite index subgroups. Our results on index growth rates are analogous to results on gaps between primes, and provide a variant of the subgroup growth function, which may be of independent interest.

  20. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tariff Rates FY 2015 Rates and Rate Schedules **Effective October 1, 2014** FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

  1. Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries (SREP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries (SREP) AgencyCompany...

  2. Popular urban settlements in Athens : a comparative study of low income housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitsiou, Triada

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is concerned with aspects of housing and urban development related to the lower income groups in the context of urbanization in Athens, Greece. It identifies and evaluates typical low income housing settlements ...

  3. "Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

  4. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2015 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule 2009 Rates and...

  5. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2015 Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process...

  6. CommunityOrganizedHouseholdWaterIncreasesNot Only Rural incomes, but AlsoMen’sWork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corw, Ben; Swallow, Brent; Asamba, Isabella

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    average incomes in this group of seven springs. Kipsotet, as1. Characteristics of the seven spring groups Spring Group

  7. Conceptual problems of national income accounting in underdeveloped countries with emphasis on Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Abdur Rashid

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of changes in output, income and expenditures of the major sectors. Pinally, one is enabled by these means to study the responses of various economic groups to different conditions over a given time period. National income estimates are, therefore... followed Petty in the late seventeenth century, was considered to be the first scientific estimator of national income. His estimates included national income, national expenditure, and national savings, as well as the distributi. on of these aggregates...

  8. Development of an income-based hedonic monetization model for the assessment of aviation-related noise impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Qinxian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aviation is an industry that has seen tremendous growth in the last several decades. With demand for aviation projected to rise at an annual rate of 5% over the next 20 to 25 years, it is important to consider technological, ...

  9. WORKING PAPER N 2007 -39 Income and wealth concentration in Spain in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    WORKING PAPER N° 2007 - 39 Income and wealth concentration in Spain in a historical and fiscal and Wealth Concentration in Spain in a Historical and Fiscal Perspective Facundo Alvaredo, Paris School of income and wealth in Spain over the 20th century using personal income and wealth tax return statistics

  10. TOP INCOMES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA OVER THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    TOP INCOMES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA OVER THE TWENTIETH CENTURY Emmanuel Saez University of California, Berkeley Abstract This paper presents top income shares series for the United States and Canada over the 20th century. In both countries, top income shares display a U-shaped pattern over the century

  11. Analysis of alternative marketing organizations for improving rice producer income

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillot, Patrick Dale

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Depart nt) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) December 1975 ABSTRACT Analysis of Alternative Marketing Organizations for Improving Rice Producer income. (December 1975) Patrick Dale Guillot, B. S. , Louisiana State University Chairman of Advisory... of the Blue Ribbon Rice Mills, Inc. This gives ARI milling and storage facilities. Also, AGA has acquired control and ownership of the MGC facilities. Both of these actions are definite moves toward a fully integrated and producer operated organization...

  12. What Drives the Public Mood of Income Inequality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Rebekah M

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    on Income Inequality Move Opinion? . . . 5 1.3.1 Presidential Agenda Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3.2 Can the President Move Opinion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3.3 Strategic Presidential Rhetoric... Inequality Move Opinion? 1.3.1 Presidential Agenda Setting The president is elected with expectations that he will implement the policies he advocated for in his platform during his campaign. These issues have been strate- gically predetermined...

  13. Lemniscate growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    May 8, 2012 ... [8], (mem)Brane theory [3], elliptic growth [11], and non-Newtonian Hele-Shaw flows [5]. ...... a loose connection to non-Newtonian fluids.

  14. III-V Nanowire Growth Mechanism: V/III Ratio and Temperature Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    ,17,18 The growth experiments reported in this paper were performed in a horizontal OMVPE growth tube using to be determined by the local V/III ratio, which is dependent on the input precursor flow rates, growth temperature to favor vapor-solid (VS) surface growth over VLS NW growth. By tuning both the group III flow rate

  15. Light and electron microscopic studies of the nanobenthic diatom, Nitzschia ovalis Arnott, Section Lanceolatae, as compared to related forms, and the effect of temperature and salinity on its growth rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medlin, Linda Karen

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selection and Maintenance of Diatoms to be Studied . 13 Preparation of Glassware and Culture Media. Preparation and Examination of Cells. Determination of Temperature and Salinity Tolerances and Optima for the growth of Nitzschia ovalis Arnott RESULTS... Light Microscopy. Electron Microscopy Salinity and Temperature Tolerances and Optima. DISCUSSION. Morphological Studies Physiological Studies SUMMARy LITERATURE. APPENDIX A. VITA. 15 18 20 24 24 46 110 124 124 131 139 141 149 BIST...

  16. Light and electron microscopic studies of the nanobenthic diatom, Nitzschia ovalis Arnott, Section Lanceolatae, as compared to related forms, and the effect of temperature and salinity on its growth rate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medlin, Linda Karen

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OP TABLES Number Page 1. Summary of changes made in the sections of the genus Nitzschia by Bustedt and Hasle. 2. Species of the genus 'Nitzschia obtained from Indiana Culture Collection (ICC) for compara- tive morphological studies with N... on cultures have facilitated the completion of life histories, illustrated developmental variances within a species, and revealed information on growth patterns (Schultz, 1971; Fryxell and Hasle, 1972; Fryxell, 1975, p. 22) . Results of studies...

  17. Income distribution impacts of climate change mitigation policy in the Susquehanna River Basin Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the cost-side income distribution impacts of a carbon tax in the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) Region of the United States utilizing a computable general equilibrium model. We find the aggregate impacts of a $25/ton carbon tax on the SRB economy are likely to be negative but modest-an approximately one-third of 1% reduction in Gross Regional Product (GRP) in the short-run and double that amount in the long-run. However, unlike many previous studies, we find that the carbon tax is mildly progressive as measured by income bracket changes, per capita equivalent variation, and Gini coefficient changes based on expenditure patterns. The dominant factors affecting the distributional impacts are the pattern of output, income and consumption impacts that affect lower income groups relatively less than higher income ones, an increase in transfer payments favoring lower income groups, and decreased corporate profits absorbed primarily by higher income groups.

  18. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Rates Loveland Area Projects Firm Power Rates Open Access Transmission Tariff Rates Chart of Loveland Area Projects Historical Transmission Rates...

  19. Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Laitner, S.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

  20. Trapped surfaces in vacuum arising dynamically from mild incoming radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xinliang An; Jonathan Luk

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the "minimal requirement" on the incoming radiation that guarantees a trapped surface to form in vacuum. First, we extend the region of existence in Christodoulou's theorem on the formation of trapped surfaces and consequently show that the lower bound required to form a trapped surface can be relaxed. Second, we demonstrate that trapped surfaces form dynamically from a class of initial data which are large merely in a scaling-critical norm. This result is motivated in part by the scaling in Christodoulou's formation of trapped surfaces theorem for the Einstein-scalar field system in spherical symmetry.

  1. Facts and Figures January 2007 INCOME AND EXPENDITURE (Excluding Press, CA & Trusts) 2005-06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis, Adrian

    Facts and Figures January 2007 INCOME AND EXPENDITURE (Excluding Press, CA & Trusts) 2005-06 2004,928 Breakdown of Research Grant Income 2005-06 £'000 % £'000 Total staff 8602 8570 8,623 Research Councils 89,095 Total 203,886 188,711 Total respondents 2,890 100.0% 3,227 100.0 Breakdown of HEFCE/TDA Income 2005-06

  2. Effect of Income on Appliances in U.S. Households, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Entails how people live, the factors that cause the most differences in home lifestyle, including energy use in geographic location, socioeconomics and household income.

  3. California Solar Initiative- Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) voted in October 2011 to create the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Thermal Low-Income program for single and multifamily residential properties....

  4. Incoming Graduate Students in the Social Sciences: How much do they really know about Library Research?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe-Gulick, Amalia; Petr, Julie

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Academic librarians provide information literacy instruction and research services to graduate student. To develop evidence-based library instruction and research services for incoming graduate students, the authors ...

  5. affect yeast growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were carried out under fixed dilution rate after batch growth in YPD as described... Pir, Pinar; Gutteridge, Alex; Wu, Jian; Rash, Bharat; Kell, Douglas B; Zhang, Nianshu;...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri). They exhibit low growth rates, specific obligate nutrient requirements (hydrogen as electron donor, acetate

  7. Low-income communities : technological strategies for nurturing community, empowerment and self-sufficiency at a low-income housing development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Bryant, Richard Louis, 1964-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are a number of historically familiar and unfamiliar forces at work in low-income communities in the United States. Recurrent forces include rapidly changing economic and demographic trends, Welfare Reform, and the ...

  8. China's Income Distribution, 1985-2001 Ximing Wu* and Jeffrey M. Perloff**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    China's Income Distribution, 1985-2001 Ximing Wu* and Jeffrey M. Perloff** February, 2005 We Bureau of Statistics of China, for explaining many features of the Chinese urban survey. Ximing Wu@are.berkeley.edu. #12;Abstract We employ a new method to estimate China's income distributions using publicly available

  9. Determinants and Income Effects of Commuting and Migration An empirical analysis for Germany after Unification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Determinants and Income Effects of Commuting and Migration An empirical analysis for Germany after differentials between East and West Germany led to massive commuting and migration flows. In this paper we: Human capital and income, Germany, commuting, migration, GSOEP JEL No.: J31, J61, O15 Address: Institute

  10. Enabling energy efficiency for low-income housing in Developing countries using MIT Design Advisor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Zehra (Zehra Hyder)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a great need to improve energy efficiency of low-income housing, since people who can afford it least have to pay a significant portion of their income to make their homes more habitable or else live with greater ...

  11. Incomes in South Africa since the fall of Apartheid Murray Leibbrandt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Incomes in South Africa since the fall of Apartheid by Murray Leibbrandt University of Cape Town in South Africa between 1995 and 2000. We document substantial declines--on the order of 40%--in real Africa #12;Incomes in South Africa since the fall of Apartheid Murray Leibbrandt University of Cape Town

  12. Marketing Compost A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Marketing Compost A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries Sandec #12;Marketing Compost A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries Jonathan Rouse Introduction 7 2 Background 11 2.1 What is marketing? 11 2.2 Why is marketing important for compost producers

  13. Income and Beyond: Taking the Measure of Child Deprivation in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salzman, Daniel

    not captured by more standard income poverty and material hardship measures. The paper concludes of deprivation . Poverty. Income Child Ind Res DOI 10.1007/s12187-014-9246-6 R. Ciula Italian Revenue Agency in Poverty, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA e-mail: skinner@nccp.org Author's personal copy #12

  14. Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    income and health care benefits for many low- income substance abusers. This paper examines functioning has been a point of contention among politicians, physicians, and sub- stance abuse treatment. Individuals with substan- tiated claims were mandated to substance abuse treatment, to having a representative

  15. ORNL/CON-486 WEATHERIZING THE HOMES OF LOW-INCOME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/CON-486 WEATHERIZING THE HOMES OF LOW-INCOME HOME ENERGY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM CLIENTS Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/CON-486 WEATHERIZING THE HOMES OF LOW-INCOME HOME ENERGY............................................................................................................................17 APPENDIX A RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS AND NO. 2 HEATING OIL PRICES AND HEATING DEGREE DAYS

  16. Scheduling incoming and outgoing trucks at cross docking terminals to minimize the storage cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadykov, Ruslan

    Scheduling incoming and outgoing trucks at cross docking terminals to minimize the storage cost Ruslan Sadykov June 14, 2012 Abstract Cross docking terminals allow companies to reduce storage and trans- portation costs in a supply chain. At these terminals, products of different types from incoming trucks

  17. The relationship of metabolic rate to rate of gain in young beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Kenneth Harold

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and growt? rate, and l7-keto steriods against growth rates, but when the two were combined a very signifi- cant correlation was reported. PROCEI3UBE The first trial was conducted during the spring of 1951 on young beef bulls which were the get of sires...

  18. Investigating the book-tax income gap : factors which affect the gap and details regarding its most significant component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidman, Jeri

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) In total, my thesis suggests that recent changes in the book-tax income gap may be exogenous and transitory, due to changes to the calculation of book income, general business conditions or other factors which ...

  19. Context Interchange Mediation for Semantic Interoperability and Dynamic Integration of Autonomous Information Sources in the Fixed Income Securities Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Michael

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine semantic interoperability problems in the fixed income securities industry and propose a knowledge representation architecture for context interchange ...

  20. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  1. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  2. The Interest Rate Conundrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and US Interest Rates,” NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

  3. Executive Summary Harrison County posted job, population, and per capita personal income gains during the past five

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    -2007, at 0.1 percent, which equaled the state rate but fell far below the national average. In addition. Harrison County showed strong job growth in manufacturing (2.7 percent per year) during the past five years. The aerospace sector contributed significantly to manufacturing job gains during the period. Also posting strong

  4. Florida Growth Fund (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

  5. The Impact of DOE Building Technology Energy Efficiency Programs on U.S. Employment, Income, and Investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.; Anderson, Dave M.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To more fully evaluate its programs to increase the energy efficiency of the U.S. residential and commercial building stock, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) assesses the macroeconomic impacts of those programs, specifically on national employment, wage income, and (most recently) investment. The analysis is conducted using the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model, a special-purpose 188-sector input-output model of the U.S. economy designed specifically to evaluate the impacts of energy efficiency investments and saving. For the analysis described in the paper, ImSET was amended to provide estimates of sector-by-sector capital requirements and investment. In the scenario of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 Buildings Technology (BT) program, the technologies and building practices being developed and promoted by the BT program have the prospect of saving about 2.9×1015 Btu in buildings by the year 2030, about 27% of the expected growth in buildings energy consumption by the year 2030. The analysis reported in the paper finds that, by the year 2030, these savings have the potential to increase employment by up to 446,000 jobs, increase wage income by $7.8 billion, reduce needs for capital stock in the energy sector and closely related supporting industries by about $207 billion (and the corresponding annual level of investment by $13 billion), and create net capital savings that are available to grow the nation’s future economy.

  6. Low-income communities in World Heritage Cities : revitalizing neighborhoods in Tunis and Quito

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, T. Luke, 1972-

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1970s, international preservation and funding agencies have promoted revitalization projects in developing countries aiming to, among other things, benefit low-income communities. For the most part, these projects ...

  7. Low-income housing : alternative strategies for building construction and project control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sultan, Javed

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Housing low-income groups, who cannot afford even the most minimal shelter, remains a dominant issue in most developing countries. However, all the solutions advanced so far depend on large investments, either by the ...

  8. Income generation through zakat : the Islamization impact on Malaysian religious institution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarif, Suhaili

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how the Islamization phenomenon has influenced zakat. The study shows that the distribution of the fund for income generation is a manifestation of the impact of Islamization on the ...

  9. Displacement, politics and governance : access to low-income housing in a Beirut suburb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou Akar, Hiba

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lebanon witnessed large-scale phases of internal displacement during and after its civil war (1975-1990). This study analyzes access to low-income housing for a Lebanese Shiites group which has already experienced two ...

  10. An alternative approach for low income housing in Algeria : housing cooperative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khellaf, Assia

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The population which suffers most directly from deficit in housing, in developing countries are the low income populations. Why has the problem been allowed to develop, and why have solutions been not forthcoming? There ...

  11. New Hampshire Electric Co-Op- Low-Income Energy Assistance Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Assistance Program is designed to help NHEC's income-qualified members manage energy use with the goal of lowering total energy costs. Qualified members living in an apartment or house,...

  12. A credit risk management model for a portfolio of low-income consumer loans in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiménez Montesinos, Jorge Alberto

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-income consumer lending (LICL) in Latin America has experienced a boom in recent years. This has attracted the interest of a large number of financial players eager to capture a portion in this still under-banked ...

  13. The relationship between income, health status, and health expenditures in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bueno, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between income and health has important implications for policy makers and businesses, and will continue to receive attention as healthcare reform takes hold in the U.S. Most existing literature looks at ...

  14. Key worker housing : a demand analysis of middle-income workforce housing in eastern Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacks, Sean D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Boston Metropolitan Area is one of the most expensive places to live in the United States. In recent years studies have speculated that middle-income workers have had to endure increased commute times as they have moved ...

  15. Promoting Enrollment of Low Income Health Program Participants in Covered California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lytle, Elizabeth C.; Roby, Dylan H.; Lucia, Laurel; Cabezas, Livier; Pourat, Nadereh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5. Estimate based on LIHP-HCCI enrollment trends from theCare Coverage Initiative (HCCI) enrollees with incomes abovechose to offer services to HCCI enrollees. 3 In December

  16. City of Tallahassee Utilities- Low-Income Energy Efficiency Grant Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Tallahassee Utilities offers two different grants that encourage low-income residents to improve the energy efficiency of homes. Both programs require a free home energy audit to be...

  17. Impacts of Climate Conditions and Adaptations on Agricultural Output and Household Income in Inner Mongolia, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wenjuan

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    between rural agricultural production/income generation, climate factors and adaptive activities in the dryland system. Two respective multiple regression models on grain and livestock production were built with secondary panel data in Inner Mongolia from...

  18. The forgotten class : reconceptualizing contemporary middle-income housing in New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchman, Karina (Karina Faye)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New York City's costly real estate poses housing affordability challenges for not only low- or even moderate-income households, but also for the so-called "middle class." Because New York is predominantly a renter's market, ...

  19. Higher occupancy humanism : the trade-offs for encouraging middle income housing in a global city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konishi, Ryunosuke, 1975-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In high density urban areas where the land acquisition and construction cost components are significant relative to total development costs, the market typically supplies a high-income housing product in order to justify ...

  20. Low income housing tax credit properties : non-profit disposition strategies in the Commonwealth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lew-Hailer, Lillian

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines how non-profit owners in Massachusetts have maintained affordability and ownership of Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) properties after the initial fifteen-year compliance period, at the lowest ...

  1. Urban settlement design, Seoul, Korea : a comparative study for low-income housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Je, Hae-Seong

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study proposes an alternative design approach for urban dwelling environments of the low-income sectors in Seoul, Korea, based upon a comparative evaluation of the physical and socio-economic performance of the existing ...

  2. Community transportation : alternative transportation provision in a low-income neighborhoods in southeast Atlanta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, James W., 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional transit agencies are ineffective at meeting many of the basic transportation needs of a clustered "Study Area" of low-income Atlanta neighborhoods. For transit dependant residents in the Study Area, getting to the ...

  3. Equitable economic energy efficiency : creating good jobs in low-income efficiency programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarin, Amit

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency is an important consideration in energy policy-making. So, a federal program aimed at funding "energy efficiency retrofits" for low-income households could be an important step in increasing the overall ...

  4. Global economic changes and income inequality: a test of four competing models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Theresa Marie

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GLOBAL ECONOMIC CHANGES AND INCOME INEQUALITY: A TEST OF FOUR COMPETING MODELS A Thesis by THERESA MARK MORRIS Submitted to the OIEce of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1996 Major Subject: Sociology GLOBAL ECONOMIC CHANGES AND INCOME INEQUALITY: A TEST OF FOUR COMPETING MODELS A Thesis by THERESA MARIE MORRIS Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  5. The Role of Acculturation in Nutrition Behaviors among Low Income Hispanic Women Living in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atehortua, Nelson

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    THE ROLE OF ACCULTURATION IN NUTRITION BEHAVIORS AMONG LOW INCOME HISPANIC WOMEN LIVING IN TEXAS A Dissertation by NELSON ALBERTO ATEHORTUA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... in Texas Copyright 2012 Nelson Alberto Atehortua THE ROLE OF ACCULTURATION IN NUTRITION BEHAVIORS AMONG LOW INCOME HISPANIC WOMEN LIVING IN TEXAS A Dissertation by NELSON ALBERTO ATEHORTUA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  6. Household income pooling and the demand for food: does family financial structure matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perusquia Corres, Ernesto

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    HOUSEHOLD INCOME POOLING AND THE DEMAND FOR FOOD: DOES FAMILY FINANCIAL STRUCTURE MATTER? A Dissertation by ERNESTO PERUSQUIA CORRES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2006 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics HOUSEHOLD INCOME POOLING AND THE DEMAND FOR FOOD: DOES FAMILY FINANCIAL STRUCTURE MATTER? A Dissertation by ERNESTO PERUSQUIA CORRES Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  7. Making It Happen: Achieving Energy Efficiency in Multi-Family Buildings Housing Low-Income Tenants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haun, C. R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    convert single-family, commercial, industrial, and public buildings into energy efficient structures have not been readily transferable to multi-family buildings. Consequently, with few exceptions, the knot has remained a complex tangle of variables...-family residences owned by low-income people, they undoubtedly would object to wide- spread public investment in commercial, income- producing properties. The excepi~ion to this generalization is the national Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank...

  8. Income Inequality, Race, and Place:  Does the Distribution of Race and Class within Neighborhoods affect Crime Rates?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hipp, John R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gorman, Dennis M. , Paul W. Speer, Paul J. Gruenewald, andand Parker 1998; Gorman, Speer, Gruenewald, and Labouvie

  9. Final Report: " Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurry, Peter H; Smith, James N

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists of archival journal articles that were written with support from this grant. Research objectives from the original proposal are given, along with papers that were written to meet each of those objectives. The papers are all available in the archival literature.

  10. algal growth rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed regional algorithm Bricaud, Annick 333 Assessment of the sustainability of bioenergy production from algal feedstock Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive...

  11. Some factors influencing digestion and growth rates of beef steers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gossett, John Warren

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ R? K~c P? 8? ~c H. 8? mLaohp 8? R? Ellis ani P? T? 1IarLon. 1943. Vitanin k studios in fattening feeder oalms ani yoarlingo ~ Tax? kgr ~ Exp? Sta Bul? 630? Jcnao? J? H?c J? 8? Jonclc G S? PcccPoc k? 8? K~orp R? 8? Dishes' C? 8, rioter and 8? R...

  12. assemblage growth rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface) with numerous colonies of the ascidian Diazona violacea, and the polychaete Sabella pavonina. This study highlights, also for a Mediterranean seamount, the potential...

  13. BCP Annual Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 BCP Annual Rate Process (FY 2016 Base Charge & Rate) Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 11, 2015 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4...

  14. Research Rate Liaison Rate for outside academic &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    as of 12/9/13 External Rate Spark Plasma Sintering ) Spark Plasma Sintering > 24 hrs 2 8 Vacuum Hot Press

  15. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  16. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012014 - 03312015 Mid-Year Change (if applicable) 10012014 - 09302015 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 70,091,227 CV-F13...

  17. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the FY Mid-Year Change 10012013 - 03312014 04012014 - 09302014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,441,557...

  18. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  19. WAPA-169 Rate Order

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    69 Rate Order Western is proposing adjustments to the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects firm power rate and the Colorado River Storage Project Transmission and ancillary...

  20. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  1. A general integrative model for scaling plant growth, carbon flux, and functional trait spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J.

    Carthy1 & Charles A. Price1 Linking functional traits to plant growth is critical for scaling attri- butes and biomass flux within and across plants is needed. Building on foundational work on relative growth rate4 are ultimately governed by the isometric scaling4,5,20,21 of whole-plant net biomass growth rate, d

  2. Strategic Rate Design: The Role of Industrial Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenblum, J. I.; House, R.

    STRA TEGIC RA TE DESIGN: THE ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL TARIFFS Jeffrey 1. Rosenblum Rate Design Section Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Strategic rate design refers to the use of deliberate pricing strategies... occurred in cogeneration capacity in Texas. The utilities use their rate tariffs strategically to influence the growth of self-generation. This paper will discuss several aspects of strategic rate design to influence industrial energy sales (measured...

  3. Income and Cost Analysis: Cooperative Cotton Gins and Cooperative Supply Associations of Texas, Season 1949-50.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulson, W. E.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Income and Cost Analysis Cooperative Cotton Gzns and Cooperative SuppLy * As~ociations of Texas, Season 1949-50 in cooperation with the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR.... COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS DIGEST There were significant changes in ginning incomes and ginning costs from the period 1932-38 to' the season 1949-50, For like volumes of ginning, costs increased by 300 percent; ginning income in- creased by 220 percent. I...

  4. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  5. Impact of the FY 2005 Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of 20 subprograms of the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program contained in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 228,000 jobs and about $3.1 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.

  6. Nonlinear relativistic single-electron Thomson scattering power spectrum for incoming laser of arbitrary intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R. F. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I.; Guasp, J.; Castejon, F. [Asociacion Euratom/Ciemat para Fusion, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical nonlinear incoherent Thomson scattering power spectrum from a single relativistic electron with incoming laser radiation of any intensity, investigated numerically by the present authors in a previous publication, displayed both an approximate quadratic behavior in frequency and a redshift of the power spectrum for high intensity incoming radiation. The present work is devoted to justify, in a more general setup, those numerical findings. Those justifications are reinforced by extending suitably analytical approaches, as developed by other authors. Moreover, our analytical treatment exhibits differences between the Doppler-like frequencies for linear and circular polarization of the incoming radiation. Those differences depend nonlinearly on the laser intensity and on the electron initial velocity and do not appear to have been displayed by previous authors. Those Doppler-like frequencies and their differences are validated by new Monte Carlo computations beyond our previuos ones and reported here.

  7. Impact of the FY 2005 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 21 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 396,000 jobs and about $5.6 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.

  8. Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about $3.7 billion in earned income (2007$) by the year 2025.

  9. Seeding rate and seed size as management techniques for ryegrass (Lolium Multiflorum, Lam) in winter wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Casey Lee

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher seeding rates and larger seed sizes could enhance the competitiveness of wheat with ryegrass. Growth room and field research evaluated the effects of wheat seeding rates and seed size in competition with Italian ryegrass. Winter wheat seeds...

  10. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  11. Impact of 2003 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2002-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs for improving the energy efficiency of the nation's building stock, this report uses the ImBuild II model to assess the future economic impacts of Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) FY 2003 portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The energy savings expected to be created by market penetration of the BTS programs have the potential of creating nearly 270,000 jobs and about $3.41 billion in wage income(1999$) by the year 2030.

  12. Global investments for sustainable growth in the wireless telecommunication industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuda, Osamu, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its establishment in 1992, NTT DoCoMo had accomplished rapid growth by developing innovative strategies and meeting consumer demands. However, the population-based penetration rate of Japanese wireless phones now ...

  13. U.S. Metropolitan Spatial Structure and Employment Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xiaoyan

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study explores the influence of US metropolitan spatial structure evolution on regional employment growth rate. The first part of this study investigates the evolution of US metropolitan spatial structures from 2000 to 2010. At the macro level...

  14. affects growth chemotaxis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants and the Growth Rate, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland Cabbage, Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata (cv Reddy, Gadi VP 45 An agarose-based...

  15. antibodies affect growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants and the Growth Rate, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland Cabbage, Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata (cv Reddy, Gadi VP 26 Seven in Absentia...

  16. Relationship Between Conformational Changes in Pol 's Active Site Upon Binding Incorrect Nucleotides and Mismatch Incorporation Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlick, Tamar

    Nucleotides and Mismatch Incorporation Rates Meredith C. Foley and Tamar Schlick* Department of Chemistry polymerase (pol ) utilizing dynamics simulation of the enzyme bound to incorrect incoming nucleotides nucleotide insertion opposite template adenine, with the exception of T:G, which may be more sensitive

  17. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

  18. WHAT HAS WELFARE REFORM ACCOMPLISHED? IMPACTS ON WELFARE PARTICIPATION, EMPLOYMENT, INCOME,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    WHAT HAS WELFARE REFORM ACCOMPLISHED? IMPACTS ON WELFARE PARTICIPATION, EMPLOYMENT, INCOME, POVERTY, and RAND for comments. #12;1 Abstract This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform

  19. Development of Energy-Efficient Housing for Low-Income Texas Residents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Kootin-Sanwu, V.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Center for Energy and Mineral Research (CEMR) funded study is to improve the energy use in low-income housing in the State of Texas. This study aims at achieving energy-efficiency by using a combination of measured data...

  20. Global Small Solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell System in the Absence of Incoming Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Calogero

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a modified version of the Vlasov-Maxwell system in which the usual Maxwell fields are replaced by their retarded parts. We show that solutions of this modified system exist globally for a small number of particles and that they describe a system without incoming radiation

  1. Business Model Innovation for Sanitation and Water Services in Low-income Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Business Model Innovation for Sanitation and Water Services in Low-income Countries PEAK Advanced- trepreneurs as well as private firms agree that the business model determines whether scaling up of water and sanitation services is successful or not. Business models can unlock the value potential of water

  2. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CPP-2 (Supersedes Schedule CPP-1) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR CUSTOM PRODUCT POWER Effective:...

  3. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  4. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  5. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

  6. Sorghum Growth and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth....

  7. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  8. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  9. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  10. Why electric-power growth will not resume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1983-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic structural changes now occurring in the US economy have irrevocably broken previously existing links between gross national product and the growth of sales of electricity. The author contends that the extent of the macroeconomic changes presently taking place are underestimated by many electric-utility planners and, as a result, forecasts projecting electricity growth rates about even with gross national product growth levels when the economy recovers are too high. The article states that electric-utility companies are entering an indefinite period of stagnant sales growth. But it closes on the positive note that electric-utility managements can take certain steps to make their businesses grow again. 8 figures.

  11. Weathering rates of marble in laboratory and outdoor conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yerrapragada, S.S.; Chirra, S.R.; Jaynes, J.H.; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Gauri, K.L. [Univ of Louisville, KY (United States); Li, S. [Metro Services Lab., Louisville, KY (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the modern urban atmosphere SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} attack calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) in marble exposed at rain-sheltered surfaces creating largely gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) crusts that eventually exfoliate. In combination with CO{sub 2} these gases erode the marble at unsheltered surfaces. the authors report the development of mathematical models to predict the rate of growth of crust and the rate of surface recession. To determine the rate of growth of crust the kinetic rate constant, diffusion rate, and the order of reaction were determined by the application of the shrinking-core model applied to data generated in laboratory experiments. Based on these parameters /and average ambient levels of 10 parts per billion (ppb) SO{sub 2} and 25 ppb NO{sub 2} in Louisville, Ky., the rate of crust formation for this metro area was calculated to be 1.8 {micro}m in the first year. However, the rate of recession was modeled from data obtained by exposing marble slabs to rainfalls. A surface recession of 15 {micro}m/yr was calculated. The models predicted well the rate of growth of crust observed at several sites in Louisville and the predicted surface recession compared well with values reported in the literature.

  12. 2010FirmRateAdj

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Firm Power Rates & Rate Schedules The Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division: Firm Electric Service Pick Sloan Missouri River -Eastern Division Rates Effective...

  13. The impact of forecasted energy price increases on low-income consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2005-2006. The forecast indicates significant increases in fuel costs, particularly for natural gas, propane, and home heating oil, for the year ahead. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation’s low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The statistics are intended for the use of policymakers in the Department of Energy’s Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2006 fiscal year.

  14. <RatesMiscInfo>

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates & Repayment Services Power Reporting MISCELLANEOUS REPORTING Power Supply Report October 2014 (59kb pdf) September 2014 (58kb pdf) August 2014 (47kb pdf) July 2014 (57kb pdf)...

  15. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  16. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  17. Energy consumption and expenditure projections by income quintile on the basis of the Annual Energy Outlook 1997 forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Allison, T.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impacts of the base-case scenario used in the Annual Energy Outlook 1997, published by the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, on income quintile groups. Projected energy consumption and expenditures, and projected energy expenditures as a share of income, for the period 1993 to 2015 are reported. Projected consumption of electricity, natural gas, distillate fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas over this period is also reported for each income group. 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  19. Hope, Humor and Quality of Life in a Low Income Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronan, Kathryn

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    & Olinger, 1993; Vilaythong, Arnau, Rosen, & Mascaro, 2003). Further research providing evidence for tools such as, hope and humor, which may increase the quality of life among the low income population, is of paramount importance. The economic solution... obtained higher correlations with negative life events and mood disturbances. Martin and Lefcourt provide substantial evidence for the stress buffering role of humor. Kuiper, Martin, and Olinger (1993) enhanced the study investigating the effects...

  20. A comparison of dietary intakes and obstetric performances among low income adolescents and women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna DeBaun

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , defined as low income by their participation in federally-funded programs (such as Medicaid or WIC). Dietary intake was measured by use of a three-day food record. A questionnaire completed by all participants supplied socioeconomic and medical... was gathered from the participants' medical records. Infant birthweight, length of pregnancy, one- and five-minute Apgar scores, method of infant delivery and the presence of labor and delivery complications were compared between the two subject groups...

  1. The Political-Economic and Demographic Causes of Metropolitan Income Inequality and Its Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, XI

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    by standardizing pay among them within industrial units, e.g. plant, factory, or firm, but also equalize pay across units and reduce inequality by narrowing the earning gap between blue collar workers and highly paid professionals and executives. Furthermore... in various industrial and occupational categories. The most widely discussed demand-side factors 22 in studies on income inequality include industrial and occupational structure, size of the public sector, racial inequality caused by discrimination...

  2. The Low-Income Housing Program in the Louisiana and Mississippi Gulf Opportunity Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christman, Casey; Johnson, David; Rho, Eunju; Stein, Eric; Taylor, Beth

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Texas A&M University The Bush School of Government and Public Service The Low-Income Housing Program in the Louisiana and Mississippi Gulf Opportunity Zone For The Congressional Research Service Contract... ............................................. 40? Table 24: Variance in Estimates - LIHTC Projects in Louisiana .......................... 40? 6 Table 25: Variance in Estimates - LIHTC Units in Selected Parishes ................. 42? Table 26: Proposed Block Counting (e.g. District Level...

  3. Implications of Alternative Methods for Determining Agricultural Price and Income Supports.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wesley, E.; Peterson, F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ...................................... 10 Conclusion ........................................ 12 Implications of Alternative Methods for Determining Agricultural Price and Income Supports INTRODUCTION In modern economies, prices are determined through market forces , administrative... implication of these notions is that prices should be determined by the market. However, market prices can be considered optimal on ly if certain conditions are met. The existence of monopolies, externalities and public goods, for example, results in a...

  4. Do the rich speak louder? : examining whether U.S. Senators differentially respond to their constituents by income across issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heaps, Elisha W. (Elisha Windi)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the relationship between public opinion and the way senators vote on specific issues, and how this "responsiveness" might vary across income groups. The independent variable of interest, state-level ...

  5. Youth and cities : planning with low-income youth and urban youth cultures in New York City and Paris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knorr, Lilian (Lilian M.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Are the cities of North America and Europe governed, built, and planned by authorities to encourage youth development or facilitate repression? Youth and Cities: Planning with Low- Income Youth and Urban Youth Cultures in ...

  6. A rationalized building system for low-income housing as a response to the issues of flexibility and participation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spinazzola, Aida

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis will focus on the design of a building system intending to approach the problem of low-income housing provision in developing countries.Two concepts will be proposed as a base for the development of the building ...

  7. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  8. Planar elliptic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  9. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  10. Robust Growth Determinants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious...

  11. QTL and Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Pinus Taeda L

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claire G. Williams

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reason for the project is to find the genetic factors which control growth at ages closer to commercial harvest (also known as QTL detection). To date, efforts to find genetic factors which control growth have been limited to seedlings. Because tree breeders want to find molecular markers which are linked to traits of direct economic value, finding linkage to factors controlling older-tree growth is more critical than seedling growth. Our current research interest includes both absolute height at ages 10-13 years but also growth trajectory or the rate of growth from seedling to half-rotation.

  12. Educational status orientations of Mexican American and Anglo American youth in selected low-income counties of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juarez, Rumaldo Zapata

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDUCATIONAL STATUS ORIENTATIONS OF MEXICAN AMERICAN AND ANGLO AMERICAN YOUTH IN SELECTED LOW-INCOME COUNTIES OF TEXAS A Thesis by RUMALDO Z, JUAREZ Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1968 Maj or Sub) ect: Sociology EDUCATIONAL STATUS ORIENTATIONS OF MEXICAN AMERICAN AND ANGLO AMERICAN YOUTH IN SELECTED LON-INCOME COUNTIES OF TEXAS A Thesis by RUMALDO Z. JUAREZ Approved...

  13. Prevalence of exposure to violence and PTSD symptoms in middle income undergraduate students representing three ethnic groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGruder, Anita Kay

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PREVALENCE OF EXPOSURE TO VIOLENCE AND PTSD SYMPTOMS IN MIDDLE INCOME UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS REPRESENTING THREE ETHNIC GROUPS A Thesis by ANITA KAY MCGRUDER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1995 Major Subject: Psychology PREVALENCE OF EXPOSURE TO VIOLENCE AND PTSD SYMPTOMS IN MIDDLE INCOME UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS REPRESENTING THREE ETHNIC GROUPS A Thesis by ANITA KAY...

  14. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  15. ADONIS, high count-rate HP-Ge {gamma} spectrometry algorithm: Irradiated fuel assembly measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pin, P. [AREVA NC La Hague - Nuclear Measurement Team, 50444 Beaumont-Hague Cedex (France); Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T. [CEA - Saclay, LIST, Electronics and Signal Processing Laboratory, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Normand, S. [CEA - Saclay, LIST, Sensors and Electronic Architectures Laboratory, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADONIS is a digital system for gamma-ray spectrometry, developed by CEA. This system achieves high count-rate gamma-ray spectrometry with correct dynamic dead-time correction, up to, at least, more than an incoming count rate of 3.10{sup 6} events per second. An application of such a system at AREVA NC's La Hague plant is the irradiated fuel scanning facility before reprocessing. The ADONIS system is presented, then the measurement set-up and, last, the measurement results with reference measurements. (authors)

  16. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  17. Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Silicon Carbide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhanaraj,G.; Dudley, M.; Chen, Y.; Ragothamachar, B.; Wu, B.; Zhang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon carbide (SiC) epitaxial layers have been grown in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Silicon tetrachloride-propane as well as silane-propane were used as precursor gases. The hot zone was designed based on simulation by using numerical modeling. Growth rates up to 200 {mu}m could be achieved. A new growth-assisted hydrogen etching was developed to show the distribution of the micropipes present in the substrate. Higher growth rate was observed on off-axis (0 0 0 1) 4 H SiC compared to the on-axis (0 0 0 1) wafer and growth mechanism was explained.

  18. Farm records: a study of their relationship to farm management and federal income taxation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Steve Pearce

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    charges incurred in acquirin' the 6o . ds vill m ice up the inventory value. In ce. . e of products produced on the f- rm th~ co. t b. si. will include co. t of raw m=. teri-l;, dir~ct labor =nd indirect expenses. l For ex mple, the co. t of . e..., to ~irect 1-)or for the entire farm ~nd pplying thi. ratio to the di- rect 1;, tor cost for the 10 acre plot, Indirect expense. m. , y be lioc. :t~d by any m thod which will conform to -cce. ted accountin~ pr ctice an& cle rly reflect. income, ' 1 Feder...

  19. Modelling of InGaP nanowires morphology and composition on molecular beam epitaxy growth conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakhr, A., E-mail: fakhrad@mcmaster.ca; Haddara, Y. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical kinetic model has been developed within this framework to describe the growth of ternary III-V semiconductor nanowires. The key to apply the model is to divide the ternary system into two separate binary systems and model each binary system separately. The model is used to describe the growth of InGaP nanowires. The growth conditions were varied among several samples, and the model was able to predict the temperature and growth rate behaviors. The model predicts the axial and radial elemental distribution along the nanowires and the dependence of the elemental distribution on the nanowire's diameter size for all growth rates. The model reveals the limitations of In incorporation into the nanowires for high temperatures or low growth rates and the effects of the group-V elements on the In incorporation.

  20. Arch.Hydrobiol. 167 1-4 467-487 Stuttgart.September2006 Stoichiometry and growth kinetics in the "smallest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H.

    growth rate is predicted to vary with both food quantity and quality (in terms of nutrient element). The rate at which consumers produce new biomass through growth and reproduction is then simply related in stored nutrients, in terms of both identity and quantity, and their subsequent use in growth

  1. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  2. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergy InnovationRecentPreviouspower-rates

  3. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergytransmission-rates Sign In About |

  4. Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siccardi, Anthony Joseph, III

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This study utilized two diets (25 and 35% crude protein) fed at 10 different rates to produce differences in shrimp specific growth rate which were regressed against daily digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) intake to estimate daily...

  5. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  6. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  7. Local debts, international authority : rating agencies' emergence in regulating subnational debt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathe, Ommeed S. (Ommeed Sanjay)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the growth of subnational debt ("SND") and the different regulatory responses to this debt. It focuses on the recent emergence of credit rating agencies (e.g. Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch) as ...

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the rate of change in a mixed deciduous forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , growth, and mortality rate of the different species. Moreover, the type, frequen- cy, and intensity of the disturbance, e.g., wind, fire, avalanches, or flooding and the sensitivity of the present trees

  9. Real-time variable rate Pix® application system using a plant height sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Andy Dwayne

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . A cotton growth regulator (Pix) was applied at uniform and biomass-based variable rates in a replicated study that included two cotton fields. Plant mapping data was collected during the season. Plant heights were significantly shorter in areas...

  10. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign In About |

  11. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign

  12. [FIXED RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS]

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @JoinEnergy ZEROFIXED RATE GUARANTEED

  13. Settlement PF Exchange Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSetting the Stage for the Next SolarRate

  14. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    salt and the upper layer representing the overlying sediment, is used to study the mechanics of growth in the early stages of salt dome formation. Three cases of this model, each representing a particular rate of removal of the surface topography..., are examined to determine which case best fits observations of salt domes in East Texas, Northwest Germany, and the North Sea. These observations include the spacing and growth rate of the dome and the amount of deformation of the sediments above the dome...

  15. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  16. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico Carlos of a model of balance-of-payments-constrained growth for Mexico, with disaggregated exports (manufactured for the slowdown in Mexico's actual growth during the early phase of trade liberalization and macro stabilization

  17. Effects of Temperature on Rates of Herbivory and Predation: Consequences for a Trophic Cascade?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    for Undergraduates Program Cold Water and Kelp Growth ·Cold water upwelling associated with increased kelp growth- controlled rooms at 10°C and 15°C ·Measurement of grazing rates on giant kelp, Macrocystis ·Two trials, each, Strongylocentrotus Kelp crab, Pugettia Brown turban snail, Tegula Methods Water bath chilled to 10°C Tanks

  18. Illinois Jobs Index release 11/28/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For August Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Thomas D.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 11/28/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For August Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth. The Illinois Job Index Positive Sep 2011­ Oct 2011 Last 12 months Oct 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs

  19. Illinois Jobs Index release 10/31/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For August Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Thomas D.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 10/31/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For August Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth. The Illinois Job Index Positive Aug 2011­ Sep 2011 Last 12 months Sep 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs

  20. Illinois Jobs Index release 01/31/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For November Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Thomas D.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 01/31/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For November Illinois Job Index, the state and the Nation had positive job growth, the RMW had negative job growth. The Illinois Job Index Negative Nov 2011­ Dec 2011 Last 12 months Dec 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs

  1. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  2. Eco-Growth: A Framework for Sustainable Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanco, Edgar E.

    Growth is imperative for corporate success and yet the environmental impact of this growth is not sustainable. In this paper we offer a framework for thinking about the stages of tackling the environmental sustainability ...

  3. A Minimal Model for Large-scale Epitaxial Growth Kinetics of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huijun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be $C_{1}$-attachment for concave growth front segments and $C_{5}$-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  4. Control Mechanisms for the Growth of Isolated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, Vladimir I [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Guillorn, M. A. [Cornell University; Lowndes, Douglas H [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have been grown using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the effects of the growth conditions on VACNF morphology and composition have been determined in substantial detail. The dependence of the growth rate, tip and base diameters, and chemical composition of isolated VACNFs on the growth parameters is described, including the effects of plasma power and gas mixture. Phenomenological models explaining the observed growth behavior are presented. The results indicate the importance of plasma control for the deterministic growth of isolated VACNFs, which are promising elements for the fabrication of practical nanoscale devices.

  5. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, they can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%. 4 figs.

  6. Small Enterprise Growth Fund (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Enterprise Growth Fund is a professionally-managed venture capital fund that invests in Maine companies which demonstrate high potential for growth and public benefit. The fund has...

  7. Geometry of Valley Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  8. Vertical Village : towards a new typology of high-density low-income urban housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, Caleb Benjamin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apocalyptic global urbanization is old news. For generations statistically supported oracles have warned against the rising tide of rapid urban growth, one must only casually search the keywords "urban slum" on Goggle to ...

  9. Tracing public space : a participatory approach to transform public spaces in low-income communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas, Ana Cristina, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid urban growth has challenged our traditional planning methods. It has been a driver for the increase of overcrowded informal settlements in major cities of the developing world, which shelter one third of the world ...

  10. Shared savings and low income homeowners: Results of a demonstration project in Hennepin County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.D.; Ford, J.M.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1984 Hennepin County, with financial support from the US Department of Energy and as part of the Year Five energy program of the Urban Consortium's Energy Task Force, initiated a Residential Shared Savings Demonstration Project (RSSDP) for single family homeowners. Shared savings, or performance contracting, occurs when an energy service company (ESCo) finances and installs energy improvements in a customer's property and receives a share of the savings that result over time as their compensation. Chapter 1 of this report provides general background on the project, including a brief description of Hennepin County, the energy environment within which the project was conducted, and the Residential Shared Savings Demonstration Project. Chapter 2 describes the efforts to market the RSSDP to low income homeowners, the results of those efforts and the findings from an extensive market assessment effort. Chapter 3 summarizes the significant lessons learned during the project. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

  12. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  13. Growth curve analysis of Rambouillet ewes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathenge, James Mwai

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for this study. However, most of the results were reported for 152 observations; a subset of the 283 records that contained the smst complete set of weighted' Type of birth and rearing was the single most significant source of variation for preweaning body... weights and growth rates. Estimation of mature weight obtained for 184 records was 59. 6 + . 77 kilograms. Based upon analysis of yearly weights, ewes had reached maturity by 42 months of age. Birth and 120-day weight were lower than those reported...

  14. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancillary Services Rate Data (2.4mb pdf) Transmission and Ancillary Services 2011 Rate True-up Calculation (3.4mb pdf) Power Reporting Miscellaneous Information If you have any...

  15. Endocrine manipulation of growth and tissue development of broiler chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borbolla Sosa, Arturo German

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .5 % reduction in fat pad weight in males. The effect of manipulating estrogen status in ovo on posthatch growth rate and skeletal development was examined by two trials in experiment 2. Effects of in ovo administration of tamoxifen citrate (T) or 17f3-estradiol...

  16. Decelerating growth in tropical forest trees Kenneth J. Feeley,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    significantly at both forests regardless of initial size or organizational level (species, community or stand poorly understood. We examined changes in tree growth rates over the past two decades for all species productivity caused by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and carbon fertilization (Melillo et al. 1993

  17. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  18. Effect of oxygen potential on high temperature crack growth in alloy 617

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, Julian K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure on crack growth rates in Alloy 617 has been studied using both static and fatigue loading at 650°C. Tests were conducted at a constant stress intensity factor, K, for static loading ...

  19. AGE AND GROWTH OF SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSUWONUS PELAMIS, AND YELLOWFIN TUNA, THUNNUS ALBACARES, AS INDICATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (1971), Marcille and Stequert (1976a), and Diaz3 determined growth rate and estimated the age et al. (1969), Le Guen and Sakagawa (1973), and Marcille and Stequert (1976b) have estimated age

  20. E000308 economic development and the environment Economic development in low-income economies is initially highly resource-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coxhead, Ian

    E000308 economic development and the environment Economic development in low-income economies sources of emissions that contribute to global climate change. Economic development depends on sustained drawdowns, may affect economic development in a dynamic interaction. This feedback is hard to quantify

  1. An Analysis of Low Cost, Energy Efficient, Housing for Low-income Residents of How and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kootin-Sanwu, Victor

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the implementation of cost-effective construction of low-income housing using volunteer labor. The research uses a case study approach where a base-line energy use is established using a comparative Princeton Score Keeping Method (PRISM) analysis and measurements...

  2. INCOMING WIRE/ACH University units expecting to receive funds via wire or ACH (Automated Clearing House) should inform the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    INCOMING WIRE/ACH University units expecting to receive funds via wire or ACH (Automated Clearing form. The Bursar's Office cannot properly record there funds until University units provide deposit Transmittal and fax the completed form to 706-583-0832. OUTGOING WIRES University units needing to wire funds

  3. "Smoking Cessation Interventions and Program Availability for Drug and Alcohol Addicted Low Income Populations in Substance Abuse Treatment"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    "Smoking Cessation Interventions and Program Availability for Drug and Alcohol Addicted Low Income. The first aim examines longitudinally the availability of EBTs for smoking among those seeking treatment for co-occurring substance abuse and explores the predictors of changes in service availability over time

  4. Left to Our Own Devices – Financing Efficiency for Small Business and Low-Income Families (2009 Environmental Defense Fund Report)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a widely known gap between cost-effective behavior, consumption patterns and actual marketplace conditions. This •engineering gap/efficiency gap is particularly the case for low-income households and small businesses, which tend to depend on older, inefficient equipment. This study identifies the limitations of current and potential of relatively new mechanisms for efficiency investment micro-financing.

  5. An Analysis of Low Cost, Energy Efficient, Housing for Low-income Residents of How and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kootin-Sanwu, Victor

    the implementation of cost-effective construction of low-income housing using volunteer labor. The research uses a case study approach where a base-line energy use is established using a comparative Princeton Score Keeping Method (PRISM) analysis and measurements...

  6. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  7. Economic Impacts of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania: Employment and Income in 2009 2011 Penn State Extension and Penn College www.msetc.org 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Economic Impacts of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania: Employment and Income in 2009 ©2011 Penn State Extension and Penn College www.msetc.org 1 Economic Impacts of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania: Employment and Income in 2009 August 2011 www.msetc.org The Marcellus Shale Education & Training Center (MSETC

  8. A NON-ISOTHERMAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH LAW FOR THE A356-T7 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A NON-ISOTHERMAL FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH LAW FOR THE A356-T7 ALUMINUM ALLOY E. Merhy 1,2,3* , L rate, Damage tolerant design, Life time prediction, A356 cast alloy ABSTRACT Fatigue crack growth period in cylinder heads of A356-T7 casting alloy has been found to constitute an important part

  9. Hexagonal Growth Spirals on GaN Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Kinetics vs Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Philip I.

    prepared, Ga-polar GaN(0001) templates. The surface morphology was studied using reflection high-energy-edge energy of 0.26 eV/Ã?. They suggest that local conditions at step edges dominate the growth. 1 conducted ex situ using AFM. Desorption mass spectrometry (DMS) was used to measure the GaN growth rate. Our

  10. Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest, the availability of light and nitrogen (N) limits the rate of woody plant growth in the forest understory and N to the availability of these resources could affect the species composition of forest communities. While many studies

  11. Efficiency Discounted Exponential Growth (EDEG) Approach to Modeling the Power Progression of a Historical Dynasty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciotola, Mark P A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various approaches to model the progression of a dynasty in terms of power are discussed. The efficiency-discounted exponential growth (EDEG) approach is presented, and the effects of changing decay type and growth rate are demonstrated. The Russian Romanov dynasty is utilized as an example for several of the approaches.

  12. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heaton Armed- Deep Vadose ZonescheduleGrowth,

  13. The Information Economy and American Cities. Matthew P. Drennan. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. 153pp, 3 Figs., 34 Tables, Index, US $35.-. ISBN 0-8018-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oort, Frank van

    in American urban regions, discussing its relevance for economic growth, for income convergence and poverty) have lower poverty rates and lower growth in poverty population than cities with other

  14. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  15. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  16. Illinois Jobs Index release 3/14/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For January Illinois Job Index, the Nation, RMW and the state all had positive job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 3/14/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For January Illinois Job Index, the Nation, RMW and the state all had positive job growth. The monthly Illinois Job Index and MSA Report months Jan 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs Growth Rate% Number of Jobs Shadow

  17. Illinois Jobs Index release 4/25/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For March Illinois Job Index, the Nation, RMW and the state all had positive job growth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    Illinois Jobs Index release 4/25/2011 www.real.illinois.edu page 1 For March Illinois Job Index, the Nation, RMW and the state all had positive job growth. The monthly Illinois Job Index and MSA Report months Mar 2011 Total non-farm employment Growth Rate % Number of Jobs Growth Rate% Number of Jobs Shadow

  18. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  19. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CRSP Transmission 9162013 WAPA-161 FRN, CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates extension Letter announcing two-year extension to CRSP transmission and ancillary...

  20. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  1. Integrating Photovoltaic Systems into Low-Income Housing Developments: A Case Study on the Creation of a New Residential Financing Model and Low-Income Resident Job Training Program, September 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Smith-Dreier, C.; Mekonnen, G.; Hawthorne, W.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This case study covers the process of successfully integrating photovoltaic (PV) systems into a low-income housing development in northeast Denver, Colorado, focusing specifically on a new financing model and job training. The Northeast Denver Housing Center (NDHC), working in cooperation with Del Norte Neighborhood Development Corporation, Groundwork Denver, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was able to finance the PV system installations by blending private equity funding with utility rebates, federal tax credits, and public sector funding. A grant provided by the Governor's Energy Office allowed for the creation of the new financing model. In addition, the program incorporated an innovative low-income job training program and an energy conservation incentive program.

  2. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) December 1988 A Mechanical Analysis of Early Salt Dome Growth. (December 1988) Frank Albert Irwin, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Raymond C. Fletcher A two-layer superposition model, the lower layer representing... of the sediments results in growth rates much higher than those observed. Analysis of the case with a diffusivity of 104m2/Ka agrees with all observa- tions. A range of diffusivities which will produce a realistic salt dome model is then determined. The lower...

  3. Strain rate sensitive constitutive equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Charles Edward

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Computed Constants For Far'ous . Baterials 47 LIST OF FIGURFS Pace Figure I Comparison of Rate Data For Commercially Pure Aluminum Figure 2 Dynamic Loading Regimes 17 Figure 3 Yield Criteria 32 Figure 4 Uni-axial Stress-Strain Rate...

  4. RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    NATIONAL RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by: Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. Market Research and Statistics Division Chicago, Illinois July 2003 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER #12;BCI RECYCLING RATE STUDY TABLE ....................................................................................................1 II. METHODOLOGY A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries

  5. Rate making for Electric Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Carl Falster

    1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a given size in Texas may be dif­ ferent from that of a same size town in Massachusetts. This growing demand depends upon two factors: The educating of the people to the use of electricity for light and power, and the probable growth...

  6. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  7. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilizeRural PublicRates > Rate Cases > Rates

  8. Effects of commercialized deer hunting arrangements on ranch organization, management, costs, and income--the Llano Basin of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Nathan Kelly

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Income and Expense Summary Leasing Arrangements Used to Operate Shooting Preserves Description of Hunting Systems Season lease Day lease Season lease with doe hunting option Season and day lease combination Relative Profitability of the Various.... and Llano Basins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7, Percent calf crop for each of the modal ranch 's 41 Cattle sales per acre for each representative ranch , . 43 9. Cash costs invol. ved in operating a season lease hunting system on each...

  9. Status orientations toward family development: A racial comparison of adolescent girls from low-income rural areas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obordo, Angelita Sauco

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ To my parents without whose many sacrifices this thetis would not have been possible, I extend my sincere gratitude and appreciation. Finally, I am grateful to my husband, Romeo, for his encouragement and understanding throughout the duration of my... and Measurements ~ . Age at Marriage Family Size . ~ Husband's Income . . . ~ ~ Husband's Job ? Work After Marriage ~ Social Class Heasure ~ . . . , . ~ Outline of Analysis ~ . Data Processing and Statistical Analysis ~ . . ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20 20 21...

  10. Supernova rates and stellar populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Mannucci

    2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the results about the nature of type Ia Supernovae that can be derived by studying their rates in different stellar populations. While the evolution of SN photometry and spectra can constrain the explosion mechanism, the SN rate depends on the progenitor system. We review the current available data on rates as a function of parent galaxy color, morphology, star formation rate, radio luminosity and environment. By studying the variation of the rates with the color of the parent galaxy, a strong evidence was established that type Ia SNe come from both young and old stars. The dependence of the rates with the radio power of the parent galaxy is best reproduced by a bimodal distribution of delay time between the formation of the progenitor and its explosion as a SN. Cluster early-type galaxies show higher type Ia SN rate with respect to field galaxies, and this effect can be due either to traces of young stars or to differences in the delay time distribution.

  11. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic...

  12. Exploring the impacts of assets and vulnerabilities of families experiencing multidimensional poverty and income inequality on children's early cognitive, social, emotional and behavioural developmental outcomes in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treanor, Morag

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Living in poverty and persistent low income has detrimental impacts on many facets of the lives of parents and children. During the early years of the new millennium this was of primary concern to the Scottish and UK ...

  13. Education, Income and Ethnic Differences in Cumulative biological Risk Profiles in a National Sample of US Adults: NHANES III (1988-1994)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeman, Teresa E.; Stein Merkin, Sharon; Crimmins, Eileen; Koretz, Brandon; Charrette, Sue; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groups avg. AL Education Poverty Income Ratio (PIR) GradeSch/PIRPIR=3-3.99 Some HS/PIR=1-1.99 College/PIR=4 HS/

  14. Swap meets, flea markets, and open-air public markets : a community and economic development model for low-income and underserved neighborhoods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juarez, Jeffrey Edwin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Swap meets, a type of public marketplace, are sites that provide low income and minority communities a place to buy and sell affordable merchandise, as well as create a regular meeting space. In particular, open-air swap ...

  15. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  16. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  17. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  18. Normal Growth of Range Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence)

    1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of surplus stock unless home-grown supplemental feed is cheap and abundant or the price to be obtained for the cattle the following spring is much higher per pound than can be had in the fall. Fall sale also lessens the danger of over-grazing in the late... of growth. Naturally the feed supply is the first thing considered as a cause of growth and it is the cause which is usually most nearly under control. Diseases or minor differences in health are just as obvious in controlling growth as are changes...

  19. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    "ELECTRIC RATE ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl... PERSPECTIVE Gulf States Utilities was incorporated in 1925 and is primarily in the business of generating. transmitting and distributing electricity to 555.000 customers in southeast Texas and south Louisiana. The service area extends 350 miles westward...

  20. Evolution of Massive Protostars with High Accretion Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hosokawa; Kazuyuki Omukai

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation of massive stars by accretion requires a high accretion rate of > 10^-4 M_sun/yr to overcome the radiation pressure barrier of the forming stars. Here, we study evolution of protostars accreting at such high rates, by solving the structure of the central star and the inner accreting envelope simultaneously. The protostellar evolution is followed starting from small initial cores until their arrival at the stage of the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) stars. An emphasis is put on evolutionary features different from those with a low accretion rate of 10^-5 M_sun/yr, which is presumed in the standard scenario for low-mass star formation. With the high accretion rate of 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the protostellar radius becomes very large and exceeds 100 R_sun. It is not until the stellar mass reaches 40 M_sun that hydrogen burning begins and the protostar reaches the ZAMS phase, and this ZAMS arrival mass increases with the accretion rate. At a very high accretion rate of > 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the total luminosity of the protostar becomes so high that the resultant radiation pressure inhibits the growth of the protostars under steady accretion before reaching the ZAMS stage. Therefore, the evolution under the critical accretion rate 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr gives the upper mass limit of possible pre-main-sequence stars at 60 M_sun. The upper mass limit of MS stars is also set by the radiation pressure onto the dusty envelope under the same accretion rate at 250 M_sun. We also propose that the central source enshrouded in the Orion KL/BN nebula has effective temperature and luminosity consistent with our model, and is a possible candidate for such protostars growing under the high accretion rate. (abridged)

  1. Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Gavin Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

  2. Nonlinear fast growth of water waves under wind forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunetti, Maura; Berti, Nicolas; Kasparian, Jérôme

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind-driven wave regime, the Miles mechanism gives an estimate of the growth rate of the waves under the effect of wind. We consider the case where this growth rate, normalised with respect to the frequency of the carrier wave, is of the order of the wave steepness. Using the method of multiple scales, we calculate the terms which appear in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (NLS) equation in this regime of fast-growing waves. We define a coordinate transformation which maps the forced NLS equation into the standard NLS with constant coefficients, that has a number of known analytical soliton solutions. Among these solutions, the Peregrine and the Akhmediev solitons show an enhancement of both their lifetime and maximum amplitude which is in qualitative agreement with the results of tank experiments and numerical simulations of dispersive focusing under the action of wind.

  3. Lid for improved dendritic web growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S. (Penn Hills, PA); Kochka, Edgar L. (Greentree, PA); Piotrowski, Paul A. (Monroeville, PA); Seidensticker, Raymond G. (Forest Hills, PA)

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A lid for a susceptor in which a crystalline material is melted by induction heating to form a pool or melt of molten material from which a dendritic web of essentially a single crystal of the material is pulled through an elongated slot in the lid and the lid has a pair of generally round openings adjacent the ends of the slot and a groove extends between each opening and the end of the slot. The grooves extend from the outboard surface of the lid to adjacent the inboard surface providing a strip contiguous with the inboard surface of the lid to produce generally uniform radiational heat loss across the width of the dendritic web adjacent the inboard surface of the lid to reduce thermal stresses in the web and facilitate the growth of wider webs at a greater withdrawal rate.

  4. Commodity Price Volatility and the Sources of Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V.; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    -2000, show that higher levels of exchange rate volatility can stunt growth, especially in countries with thin capital markets. Bleaney and Greenaway (2001) estimate a panel data model for a sample of 14 sub-Saharan African countries over 1980-1995 and show... countries, we set t0 to this year.5 Furthermore, we assume a depreciation rate, #14;, of six percent and compute the subsequent values of the capital stock as: Kit = (1#0; #14;)Kit#0;1 + Iit: (6) 3.3 Human Capital Stock To calculate the level of human...

  5. Time resolved measurement of film growth during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitschker, Felix; Benedikt, Jan; Maszl, Christian; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth rate during reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of titanium nitride is measured with a temporal resolution of up to 25 us using a rotating shutter concept. According to that concept a 200 um slit is rotated in front of the substrate synchronous with the HIPIMS pulses. Thereby, the growth flux is laterally distributed over the substrate. By measuring the resulting deposition profile with profilometry and with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the temporal variation of the titanium and nitrogen growth flux per pulse is deduced. The analysis reveals that film growth occurs mainly during a HIPIMS pulse, with the growth rate following the HIPIMS phases ignition, current rise, gas rarefaction, plateau and afterglow. The growth fluxes of titanium and nitrogen follow slightly different behaviors with titanium dominating at the beginning of the HIPIMS pulse and nitrogen at the end of the pulse. This is explained by the gas rarefaction effect resulting in a dense initial metal plasma and...

  6. A Statistical Physics Perspective on Web Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. Krapivsky; S. Redner

    2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches from statistical physics are applied to investigate the structure of network models whose growth rules mimic aspects of the evolution of the world-wide web. We first determine the degree distribution of a growing network in which nodes are introduced one at a time and attach to an earlier node of degree k with rate A_ksim k^gamma. Very different behaviors arise for gamma1. We also analyze the degree distribution of a heterogeneous network, the joint age-degree distribution, the correlation between degrees of neighboring nodes, as well as global network properties. An extension to directed networks is then presented. By tuning model parameters to reasonable values, we obtain distinct power-law forms for the in-degree and out-degree distributions with exponents that are in good agreement with current data for the web. Finally, a general growth process with independent introduction of nodes and links is investigated. This leads to independently growing sub-networks that may coalesce with other sub-networks. General results for both the size distribution of sub-networks and the degree distribution are obtained.

  7. Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hal

    Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith 1 Simple Models Bacteria are the dominant form of life on the planet the concentration of the nutrient in the media (grams/liter) and N(t) de

  8. Vermont Employment Growth Incentive (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Employment Growth Incentive (VEGI) is to encourage job creation in Vermont by a Vermont company, a Vermont division of a company that plans to grow and expand in Vermont, a...

  9. Exploration of the multiparameter space of nanosecond-laser damage growth in fused silica optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, Raluca A.; Liao, Zhi M.; Abdulla, Ghaleb M.; Cross, David A.; Norton, Mary A.; Carr, Christopher W.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the rate at which laser-induced damage sites grow on the exit surface of SiO{sub 2} optics under subsequent illumination with nanosecond-laser pulses of any wavelength was believed to depend solely on laser fluence. We demonstrate here that much of the scatter in previous growth observations was due to additional parameters that were not previously known to affect growth rate, namely the temporal pulse shape and the size of a site. Furthermore, the remaining variability observed in the rate at which sites grow is well described in terms of Weibull statistics. The effects of site size and laser fluence may both be expressed orthogonally in terms of Weibull coefficients. In addition, we employ a clustering algorithm to explore the multiparameter growth space and expose average growth trends. Conversely, this analysis approach also identifies sites likely to exhibit growth rates outside the norm. The ability to identify which sites are likely to grow abnormally fast in advance of the manifestation of such behavior will significantly enhance the accuracy of predictive models over those based on average growth behaviors.

  10. Public Capital, Growth and Welfare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (t) + I(t) (0,1): depreciation rate. K(t+1) = (1 - )K(t) + I(t) (0,1): efficiency/governance services Private capital Rate of time preference Consumption saving decisions Investment in physical and sanitation--increase in enrolment rates (especially for girls, rural areas). 2. Electricity

  11. High-Purity Germanium Spectroscopy at Rates in Excess of 10^{6} Events/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanDevender, Brent A.; Dion, Michael P.; Fast, James E.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Wilen, Christopher D.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wright, Michael E.

    2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—In gamma spectroscopy, a compromise must be made between energy resolution and event-rate capability. Some foreseen nuclear material safeguards applications require a spectrometer with energy resolution typical of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, operated at rates up to and exceeding 106 events per second. We report the performance of an HPGe spectrometer adapted to run at such rates. Our system consists of a commercial semi-coaxial HPGe detector, a modified high-voltagerail, resistive-feedback, charge-sensitive preamplifier and a continuous waveform digitizer. Digitized waveforms are analyzed offline with a novel time-variant trapezoidal filter algorithm. Several time-invariant trapezoidal filters are run in parallel and the slowest one not rejected by instantaneous pileup conditions is used to measure each pulse height. We have attained full-widthat- half-maximum energy resolution of less than 8 keV measured at 662 keV with 1:08*106 per second incoming event rate and 38% throughput. An additional constraint on the width of the fast trigger filter removes a significant amount of edge pileup that passes the first pileup cut, reducing throughput to 26%. While better resolution has been reported by other authors, our throughput is over an order of magnitude higher than any other reported HPGe system operated at such an event rate.

  12. The Political Economy of Rule of Law in Middle-Income Countries: A Comparison of Eastern Europe and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peerenboom, Randall

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    loading the Costs of Political Reform, in CHINA, INDIA ANDincluding China). Aggregate growth has also come at a costcost of severe restrictions on civil and political rights. China's

  13. Direct estimation of decoherence rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimír Bužek; Peter Rapcan; Jochen Rau; Mario Ziman

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The decoherence rate is a nonlinear channel parameter that describes quantitatively the decay of the off-diagonal elements of a density operator in the decoherence basis. We address the question of how to experimentally access such a nonlinear parameter directly without the need of complete process tomography. In particular, we design a simple experiment working with two copies of the channel, in which the registered mean value of a two-valued measurement directly determines the value of the average decoherence rate. No prior knowledge of the decoherence basis is required.

  14. Incentive Rates- At What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaeffer, S. C.

    's impact. In fact, I doubt that one can truly know the exact impact of a rate even after its inclusion in a tariff, assuming of course, that someone uses it. My own judgment is that there are currently examples of both effective and not so effective... tem see a positive impact on their rates from any successes with this tariff, over the expected life of the new facility. We did not count societal benefits like high tax bases for local authorities when reviewing existing ratepayer benefit - only...

  15. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCODepartmentEnergy April 20138Rate Schedules Rate Schedules

  16. Initial Studies Toward Real-Time Transmission Path Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Diao, Ruisheng; Cai, Niannian; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuck, Brian; Guo, Xinxin

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand continues to increase while transmission line construction is being constrained by multiple factors— economic, environmental, and political. Effective and efficient utilization of transmission lines is thus of great importance in an open access environment. Large blocks of power are transferred from areas with inexpensive generation to heavy load demand areas or areas with high generation costs. This results in some transmission paths being loaded closer to their path ratings, which limits further power transfer between areas. Traditionally, rating of important paths was determined off line by assuming the worst-case study scenario; once determined, it could be used for years. With increasing uncertainty arising from rapid growth of renewable energy and smart technologies, path rating studies are needed in near-real time to account for the latest system status and support a reliable and economic power grid. This paper adopts a simplified procedure based on standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to determine total transfer capability (TTC) or transfer limit for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and necessity of real-time path rating. Initial studies are conducted to compute TTC of a two-area test system and a 39-bus test system. Results indicate that path rating can be significantly affected by loading conditions, generator schedules, system topology and other factors.

  17. Instability statistics and mixing rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Artuso; Cesar Manchein

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We claim that looking at probability distributions of \\emph{finite time} largest Lyapunov exponents, and more precisely studying their large deviation properties, yields an extremely powerful technique to get quantitative estimates of polynomial decay rates of time correlations and Poincar\\'e recurrences in the -quite delicate- case of dynamical systems with weak chaotic properties.

  18. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  19. Economic Growth and Development Economics 777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

  20. Finance for Low Income Communities: Possible Applications of US Experience for India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffman-Cole, Sandra; Du, Minghua; Hattan, Justin; Powers, Shawn; Rubenstein, Sarah; Santos, Araceli; Slupski, Steve

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit strategists in anticipation of India‘s future. Finally, the relationships between CRF and the credit rating agencies are different than those in India. CRF hires investment bankers like Piper Jaffray which bring an insider‘s perspective...‘s investment in the deal. Piper Jaffray, CRF‘s investment banker, utilizes a complex financial model to determine the 3 SPV is the commonly used term for securitization but CRF prefers the term warehouse...

  1. Fertility and rate of growth in a beef cattle herd in the 0rient of Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Crespo, Justo Nicolas

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to express his utmost gratitude to Venezuela for giving him the opportunity to work toward the Master of Science degree through a scholarship of the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientzficas (CONICIT) and the Universidad de Oriente. Special...

  2. Size-dependent standard deviation for growth rates: Empirical results and theoretical modeling Boris Podobnik*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podobnik, Boris

    , Croatia; Zagreb School of Economics and Management, Zagreb, Croatia; and Center for Polymer Studies of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Fabio Pammolli Faculty of Economics

  3. Economics Letters 60 (1998) 335341 Scaling the volatility of GDP growth rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Canning , L.A.N. Amaral , Y. Lee , M. Meyer , H.E. Stanley a Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, UK b links between agents. For example, in network models with interactions between neighbors (see Stanley

  4. Effect of nutritional programs on growth rate and body fat of broilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hargis, Phillip Herbert

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was in the form of abdominal fat in the female. In experiment two, 2750 day-old Hubbard/Hubbard broiler chicks were fed diets containing 24%, 27% and 30% protein and 2860 kcal ME/kg (no supplemental energy for the first seven days), 2860 kcal ME/kg, and 3080... kcal ME/kg from 0-49 days of age. Feeding no supplemental energy in the diet for the first seven days resulted in a decrease in the percent abdominal fat at 49 days of age. Higher protein levels were found to be beneficial in maximizing performance...

  5. Dynamic estimation of specific growth rates and concentrations of bacteria for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at- tractive method for the treatment and recycling of organic wastes. Successful combination. Keywords: Waste treatment, Biotechnology, Observer, Estimation theory, Algebraic systems theory 1 out in continuously stirred tank bioreactors, the organic matter is depolluted by mi- croorganisms

  6. Growth Rate of Marine Microalgal Species using Sodium Bicarbonate for Biofuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, Matthew

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    With additional research on species characteristics and continued work towards cost effective production methods, algae are viewed as a possible alternative biofuel crop to current feedstocks such as corn. Current open pond production methods...

  7. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited growth rate effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachs, Julian P.

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and spe- cies. Organic Geochemistry. Two species of freshwater green algae, Eudorina unicocca and Volvox aureus, were grown in batch

  8. Growth Rate of Marine Microalgal Species using Sodium Bicarbonate for Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, Matthew

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    With additional research on species characteristics and continued work towards cost effective production methods, algae are viewed as a possible alternative biofuel crop to current feedstocks such as corn. Current open pond production methods...

  9. The rate of germination and growth of certain range grasses under experimental conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxnam, Herbert Richard

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ;"ficienqp co stra~i~~ cry'; rr11 of vP!M dao ~ ~~+9~& for . ". t! acor arrdcm&rrrL!irr, o oc'~tv ic rosa% n. mf ~ ~rrctS. rrn 8xrrm. ". " . "-x' ~'. "~":rx r r 390'3b& "orror'I oro. 'Q sr ud&c !xg . 'oorro. " (1". 1' XXO'!, os~ (13%) srr3 ";~r, ' Vl an '- ~m...$il 'Aqgg5$5 g q gg Q 'Q Q Q 'Q Q Q '4@ 8'44ZC QQQ QSSQQ gang QQSQS 8%$8 %RA~ i 4'4/8 QRR R~gg WH C CC g 0 lac ~ ~ IIC 0 %SASH 8888 gQ gQ Cll W IA g ~gg ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C4 0Ig QQ'QQ88 QQSQQ ~f Q 'RNCQ a" OO N i4%O ch ~ De...

  10. System for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, P.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary or rotating substrates includes a combination of some or all of the elements including a photodiode sensor for detecting the intensity of incoming light and converting it to a measurable current, a lens for focusing the RHEED pattern emanating from the phosphor screen onto the photodiode, an interference filter for filtering out light other than that which emanates from the phosphor screen, a current amplifier for amplifying and convening the current produced by the photodiode into a voltage, a computer for receiving the amplified photodiode current for RHEED data analysis, and a graphite impregnated triaxial cable for improving the signal to noise ratio obtained while sampling a stationary or rotating substrate. A rotating stage for supporting the substrate with diametrically positioned electron beam apertures and an optically encoded shaft can also be used to accommodate rotation of the substrate during measurement. 16 figs.

  11. System for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, P.

    1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary or rotating substrates includes a combination of some or all of the elements including a photodiode sensor for detecting the intensity of incoming light and converting it to a measurable current, a lens for focusing the RHEED pattern emanating from the phosphor screen onto the photodiode, an interference filter for filtering out light other than that which emanates from the phosphor screen, a current amplifier for amplifying and converting the current produced by the photodiode into a voltage, a computer for receiving the amplified photodiode current for RHEED data analysis, and a graphite impregnated triaxial cable for improving the signal-to-noise ratio obtained while sampling a stationary or rotating substrate. A rotating stage for supporting the substrate with diametrically positioned electron beam apertures and an optically encoded shaft can also be used to accommodate rotation of the substrate during measurement. 16 figs.

  12. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  13. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  14. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  15. An Empirical Growth Model for Major Oil Exporters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esfahani, Hadi Salehi; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Pesaran, M. Hashem

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    . The existence of long-run relations between real output, foreign output and real oil income is established for six of the nine economies considered. The exceptions, Mexico and Norway, do not possess sufficient oil reserves for oil income to have lasting impacts...

  16. The growth of luminous red galaxies by merging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morad Masjedi; David W. Hogg; Michael R. Blanton

    2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the role of major and minor mergers in the mass growth of luminous red galaxies. We present small-scale ($0.01luminous early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample ($0.16luminous than $\\Lstar$. We integrate the luminosity accretion rate from mergers over all companion galaxy subsamples and find that LRGs are growing by $[1.7\\pm 0.1]$ percent per $\\Gyr$, on average, from merger activity at redshift $z\\sim 0.25$. This rate is almost certainly an over-estimate because we have assumed that all close pairs are merging as quickly as dynamical friction allows; nonetheless it is on the low side of the panoply of measurements in the literature, and lower than any rate predicted from theory.

  17. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos structural changes in the composition of Mexico's trade and the parameters that affect it across five-of-payments constraint may account for the post-liberalization slowdown in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods

  18. Water-Splitting Photoelectrolysis Reaction Rate via Microscopic Imaging of Evolved Oxygen Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    manuscript received June 16, 2010. Published July 19, 2010. The production of hydrogen using solar energy electrochemical probe near the surface10 that can even include local illumination through an optical fiber,11 of the gas-evolving reaction rate. Optical microscopy was used to record the bubble growth on single

  19. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods of the post-liberalization era, and that the impact the recent crisis), Mexico stands out for having fully embraced trade liberalization and undergoing deep

  20. Palladium chloride to palladium metal two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, H.C. de; Carlin, R.T. [Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction of a monolayer of surface-bound Pd(II) to Pd(0) on a palladium substrate reveals two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena. Using well-known 2D nucleation-growth theories, this reduction is shown to proceed by an instantaneous nucleation and growth mechanism. However, when a submonolayer of Pd(II) is present, this mechanism fails to account for the experimentally observed high cathodic currents seen at zero time. A model incorporating preexisting Pd(0) cylindrical sites on the partially oxidized Pd(0) surface has been successfully applied to account for the discrepancy between the experimental results and current 2D theories. Using this modified 2D model, values for the mathematical product of cylindrical growth rate and the square root of the nucleation site densities have been determined, and the overpotential dependence of the growth rate has been confirmed and quantified. These 2D nucleation-growth phenomena have practical consequences on the performance of the Pd(II)/Pd(0) system as a faradaic supercapacitor, and probably on the performance of other 2D faradaic supercapacitor systems. In addition, because many electrodes undergo monolayer surface oxidation-reduction reactions in other solvent systems, especially aqueous electrolytes, these 2D nucleation-growth phenomena may play a role in these important surface-modifying redox systems as well.

  1. Intraclass Price Elasticity & Electric Rate Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gresham, K. E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric rate design relies on cost incurrance for pricing and pricing structures. However, as utilities move into a marketing mode, rate design needs to respond more to customer reactions to pricing changes. Intraclass price elasticities aid rate...

  2. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges

  3. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges1

  4. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges11

  5. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 - March

  6. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 - March3

  7. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 -

  8. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA2 -5 -

  9. added tax rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    budgetary expenses must be paid attention strictly. Because coefficients of value-added tax and corporate income tax are positive and significant, an increase in value-added tax...

  10. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods instead of from vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B.; Seals, Roland D.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Fan, Xudong

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed chase matrix material instead of from vacor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  11. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  12. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  13. Study of small-scale cavity growth mechanisms for UCG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeary, D.L.; Riggs, J.B.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate previously proposed small-scale cavity growth mechanisms in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). Quarried blocks of lignite from Rockdale, Texas, and subbituminous coal from Hanna, Wyoming, were exposed to high-temperature gases in a refractory chamber in order to access their behavior under UCG conditions. Effects of gas temperature, gas composition, and gas flow rate on the surface recession rates were studied for coal samples using the bedding plan orientation of the side wall of the cavity. The effect of gas temperature on the surface recession rate with cavity roof bedding plane orientation was also studied. For the side wall tests, structural failure of the char or ash was not observed. In addition, the surface recession rate was round to increase significantly with gas temperature and gas flow rate. These results indicate that the surface recession process was heat transfer controlled gasification. For the tests conducted using the bedding plane orientation of the cavity roof, it was found that significant structural failure of the lignite resulted while no structural failure of the subbituminous coal was observed. As a result, the surface recession rate for lignite was three times that for subbituminous coal at 1300/sup 0/K. It is theorized that the structural failure of the lignite is caused by clay stringers present in the lignite.

  14. The Cutaneous Epidermal Growth Factor Network: Can it be Translated Clinically to Stimulate Hair Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of epidermal growth factor on hair growth in the mouse. Jstem cell character in hair follicles. Science. 2006;312:Notch signalling pathway in hair growth. Mech Dev. 1998;78:

  15. Evolution of the galaxy merger rate in model universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abilio Mateus

    2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy merger rate predicted by two semi-analytical galaxy formation models implemented on the Millennium Simulation of dark matter structure growth. The fraction of merging galaxy pairs at each time-step of the simulation is derived from the galaxy catalogues obtained by the models and the results are compared with various observational estimates of merger fractions taken from the literature. We find a good match between the pair fractions derived from the simulation and the observed counting of galaxy pairs obtained by different sources in the redshift range 0 evolution of the number of galaxy mergers per Gyr grows with redshift as an exponential rate proportional to (1+z)^m, with m ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 for 0 evolution in the fraction of galaxy mergers since z ~ 1.2. The weak evolution predicted for the galaxy merger rate in an hierarchical model universe shows that the mass assembly evolution of galaxies through mergers does not follow the rapid evolution of the halo merger rate obtained in previous studies.

  16. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  17. Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding in model cohesive suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Buscall; Peter J. Scales; Anthony D. Stickland; Hui-En Teo; Tiara E. Kusuma; Daniel R. Lester

    2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental system has been found recently, a coagulated CaCO3 suspension system, which shows very variable yield behaviour depending upon how it is tested and, specifically, at what rate it is sheared. At P\\'eclet numbers Pe > 1 it behaves as a simple Herschel Bulkley liquid, whereas at Pe < 1 highly non-monotonic flow curves are seen. In controlled stress testing it shows hysteresis and shear banding and in the usual type of stress scan, used to measure flow curves in controlled stress mode routinely, it can show very erratic and irreproducible behaviour. All of these features will be attributed here to a dependence of the solid phase, or, yield stress, on the prevailing rate of shear at the yield point. Stress growth curves obtained from step strain-rate testing showed that this rate-dependence was a consequence of P\\'eclet number dependent strain softening. At very low Pe, yield was cooperative and the yield strain was order-one, whereas as Pe approached unity, the yield strain reduced to that needed to break interparticle bonds, causing the yield stress to be greatly reduced. It is suspected that rate-dependent yield could well be the rule rather than the exception for cohesive suspensions more generally. If so, then the Herschel-Bulkley equation can usefully be generalized to read (in simple shear). The proposition that rate-dependent yield might be general for cohesive suspensions is amenable to critical experimental testing by a range of means and along lines suggested.

  18. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  19. The Taxman Tools Up: An Event History Study of the Introduction of the Personal Income Tax in Western Europe, 1815 - 1941

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aidt, Toke S; Jensen, Peter S

    , a¤ected not only by the constituency of government and the party composition of parliament, but also by how easy it is to contest political power by di¤erent factions in society. Given that the income tax is a potentially powerful tool for redistri... that might have in?uenced the decision to adopt the income tax is the degree of political competition. By political competition, we mean the extent to which political power can be contested by organized factions and the executive can be held accountable...

  20. Dissolution and growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Plaisted, Trevor J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Hrma, Pavel R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of dissolution and growth of settling crystals of spinel was measured optically in a borosilicate melt that was pre-heated at a temperature above liquidus to erase the effects of previous history. The Hixson-Crowell equation, which is based on Fick's first law, was used to determine mass-transfer coefficients (kH) for dissolution and growth; both were found to fit the same Arrhenius function of temperature (T). An attempt was made to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D) and the concentration-boundary-layer thickness (d). The calculated values of d compared well with experimental results and observations. The D vs. T function was similar to a literature function obtained for the dissolution of magnetite in sodium disilicate glass.

  1. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  2. An analysis of international grain freight rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnala, Sneha Latha

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the dependent variable was included in the model as an explanatory variable. The estimated econometric model was designed to explain ocean freight rates for grain. Results indicate rates increase at a decreasing rate with distance and rates decrease at a...

  3. 7, 29612989, 2007 Predicting arene rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    software or computing power. Measured gas-phase rate coefficients for the reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons

  4. Composite Fringe Benefit Rates Nancy R. Lewis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    January 1, 2015 Retirement Eligible FY 2014-15 Rate FY 2015-16 Rate FY 2016-17 Rate B Healthcomp Faculty of Research #12;New Rates · Provided by the Budget Office for use when planning proposal budgets for contract and grants · Effective for use in proposals submitted to sponsors January 1, 2015 and thereafter · Title

  5. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  6. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  7. Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojala, Ira O

    Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

  8. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier6Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerChargeInformation Rate Jump to: navigation,

  9. GALAXY GROWTH BY MERGING IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Tao; Hogg, David W.; Blanton, Michael R., E-mail: david.hogg@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the mass growth rate by merging for a wide range of galaxy types. We present the small-scale (0.014 h {sup -1} {sub 70} Mpc < r < 11 h {sub 70} {sup -1} Mpc) projected cross-correlation functions w(r {sub p}) of galaxy subsamples from the spectroscopic sample of the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} galaxies of redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.15) with galaxy subsamples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} galaxies). We use smooth fits to de-project the two-dimensional functions w(r {sub p}) to obtain smooth three-dimensional real-space cross-correlation functions {xi}(r) for each of several spectroscopic subsamples with each of several imaging subsamples. Because close pairs are expected to merge, the three-space functions and dynamical evolution time estimates provide galaxy accretion rates. We find that the accretion onto massive blue galaxies and onto red galaxies is dominated by red companions, and that onto small-mass blue galaxies, red and blue galaxies make comparable contributions. We integrate over all types of companions and find that at fixed stellar mass, the total fractional accretion rates onto red galaxies ({approx}3 h {sub 70} percent per Gyr) are greater than that onto blue galaxies ({approx}1 h {sub 70} percent per Gyr). These rates are almost certainly overestimates because we have assumed that all close pairs merge as quickly as the merger time that we used. One conclusion of this work is that if the total growth of red galaxies from z = 1 to z = 0 is mainly due to merging, the merger rates must have been higher in the past.

  10. TILT STABILITY, UNIFORM QUADRATIC GROWTH, AND STRONG ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Tilt stability, variational analysis, subdifferentials, quadratic growth, strong metric .... Some convex analysis. ..... Example 3.5 (Failure of subdifferential continuity).

  11. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  12. Economic Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Indian Experience of Reforms and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    of Kuznets' (1955) hypothesis that income inequality increases during the early stages of development and decreases at later stages. Kuznets found an inverted U-shaped relation between income inequality and GNP per

  13. Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

  14. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  15. Gas-bubble growth mechanisms in the analysis of metal fuel swelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During steady-state irradiation, swelling rates associated with growth of fission-gas bubbles in metallic fast reactor fuels may be expected to remain small. As a consequence, bubble-growth mechanisms are not a major consideration in modeling the steady-state fuel behavior, and it is usually adequate to consider the gas pressure to be in equilibrium with the external pressure and surface tension restraint. On transient time scales, however, various bubble-growth mechanisms become important components of the swelling rate. These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or ''punchout''; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

  16. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Chen, Jin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Energy Plant Research Lab., Dept. of Computer Science; Anozie, Fransisca C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Morales, Alejandro [Wageningen Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Center for Crop Systems Analysis; Weise, Sean E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Sharkey, Thomas D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  17. From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change and Gumpert, 1985), and virtually all economic models of business creation follow firm birth with firm growth models of new business growth assume a limited number of distinct stages through #12;3 which businesses

  18. Computer Recommendations for incoming students in 2012-2013 The college of Engineering and Computer Science does not require students to have their own

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Computer Recommendations for incoming students in 2012-2013 The college of Engineering and Computer Science does not require students to have their own personal computer. Students will have access to computers through their department, college, and university here on campus. However we do feel that having

  19. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  20. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 BudgetGoals andSenate | DepartmentGroundwaterGrowingGrowth in

  1. The differential effects of Ligula intestinalis (L.) plerocercoids on host growth in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Benjamin

    populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.) Un resumen en espanÃ? ol se incluye detraÃ? s del texto principal de natural populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.). Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2002: 11: 168 cestode, Ligula intestinalis, on the growth rates of three fish populations of the roach, Rutilus rutilus

  2. Analysis of calorimetric measurements of grain growth L. C. Chena) and F. Spaepen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spaepen, Frans A.

    solidification4 or vapor deposition,' or in some of the materials prepared by gas condensation and compaction,6Analysis of calorimetric measurements of grain growth L. C. Chena) and F. Spaepen Division. The Kissinger' analysis of the shift of the transformation peaks as a function of heating rate is perhaps

  3. Nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at a very rapid and constant rate 100 nm/s that decreases sharply after the catalyst Co particles become. Experi- ments performed, mostly on individual nanotubes, show that they have extraordinary electrical conditions such as substrate, catalyst, feed gas, and temperature, the growth model proposed by several

  4. 069 MCNITORINGTHE GROWTH OF SEODNDARYPRECIPITATES UPON METALSORPTICN CM CLAY MINERALS AND ALUMINUM OXIDES USING X-RAY ABSORPTICN FINE STRUCIURE (XAFS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    069 MCNITORINGTHE GROWTH OF SEODNDARYPRECIPITATES UPON METALSORPTICN CM CLAY MINERALS AND ALUMINUM and oxide minerals is typically fast initially, then the rates gradually diminish. In the literature on surfaces of clay minerals and aluminum oxides. #12;

  5. Grain growth in a conventional titanium alloy during rapid, continuous heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semiatin, S.L. (Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)); Soper, J.C. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)); Sukonnik, I.M. (Texas Instruments, Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present work was to analyze the kinetics of beta grain growth during rapid, continuous heating of a conventional alpha-beta titanium alloy. The analysis was based on approximate, closed-form theoretical expressions derived by Bourell and Kaysser and Soper and Semiatin as well as a fully numerical, computer-based approach. The problem and approach discussed here differs from previous investigations of grain growth during continuous heating and cooling, most of which have been for austenite grain growth in the heat-affected zone during welding of steels. In this regard, the main features of the present work are the very high heating rates involved, the avoidance of the application of complex numerical integration schemes, and the avoidance of using isothermal grain growth kinetic data to fit continuous heating results.

  6. Spallation in ductile void growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model of ductile void growth under the application of a mean tensile stress is applied to the problem of spallation in solids. Calculation of plate-impact spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 29 kbar) shows good agreement with the dynamically measured spall signal. A second calculation, using identical material parameters, of explosively produced spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 250 kbar) does very well in reproducing experimentally observed multiple spall thicknesses as observed by dynamic x-radiographic techniques. This theoretical model thus appears applicable to a wide range of dynamic uniaxial-strain loading conditions, bridging a gap that has been thought to exist for some time.

  7. Fostering Growth | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget FossilThirdFostering Growth

  8. 2012 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the meaning given such term in section 3.3.5. "COU Parties' PF Rate" means any BPA wholesale power rate for service to COUs' "general requirements" (as defined in section...

  9. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONVERGENCE RATES OF ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q-rates in terms of the di erential properties of v and in terms of the ... schemes of this kind is to assure that they converge at a provably fast rate to a point.

  10. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) offers interest rate reductions to home buyers purchasing new and existing homes with 5 Star and 5 Star Plus energy ratings. All homes constructed on...

  11. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin

    2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  12. Fluorescence assay for polymerase arrival rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  13. Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J.C.

    climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials...

  14. Private Sector Rates (FY 2015) Instrument Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    Source Laser $150 $175 Nanophoton Raman 11 Raman Spectroscopy $150 $175 Newport Solar Simulator Solar Rates for the Material Research Laboratory Facilities Rates for Private Sector companies and researchers

  15. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  16. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  17. Optimization Online - Faster convergence rates of relaxed ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damek Davis

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 19, 2014 ... Faster convergence rates of relaxed Peaceman-Rachford and ADMM under regularity assumptions. Damek Davis (damek ***at*** ...

  18. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  19. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  20. WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY* JEFFREY SACHS In an open economy with a floaLing exchange rate, the efficacy of fiscal and monetary policy depends fundamentally on the wage rate depreciation, while fiscal expansion has no output effect. These results hold only when real wages