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  1. Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201) Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201) Better Buildings ...

  2. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    WHITE HOUSE WASHINGTON February 11, 1994 MEMORANDUM FOR THE HEADS OF ALL DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES SUBJECT: Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low- Income Populations Today I have issued an Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. That order is designed to focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority communities and

  3. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Populations (1994) | Department of Energy 2898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) To focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority communities and low-income communities with the goal of achieving environmental justice. That order is also intended to promote nondiscrimination in Federal programs substantially affecting

  4. Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Tailored Marketing for Low-Income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201), call slides and discussion summary.

  5. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Documents Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 32 Wednesday, February 16, 1994 Title 3- The President Executive Order 12898 of February 11, 1994 Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1-1.Implementation. 1-101. Agency Responsibilities. To the greatest extent practicable and per- mitted by law,

  6. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority communities and low-income communities with the goal of achieving environmental justice. That order is also...

  7. New Contract Helps Portsmouth GDP Cleanup

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To accelerate the Portsmouth GDP cleanup efforts left over from the Cold War, the Department of Energy made a huge step forward in our nuclear environmental cleanup efforts.

  8. Accommodation of GDP-Linked Sugars in the Active Site of GDP-Perosamine Synthase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Paul D.; Carney, Amanda E.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2009-01-12

    Perosamine (4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-mannose), or its N-acetylated form, is one of several dideoxy sugars found in the O-antigens of such infamous Gram-negative bacteria as Vibrio cholerae O1 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. It is added to the bacterial O-antigen via a nucleotide-linked version, namely GDP-perosamine. Three enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of GDP-perosamine starting from mannose 1-phosphate. The focus of this investigation is GDP-perosamine synthase from Caulobacter crescentus, which catalyzes the final step in GDP-perosamine synthesis, the conversion of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose to GDP-perosamine. The enzyme is PLP-dependent and belongs to the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily. It contains the typically conserved active site lysine residue, which forms a Schiff base with the PLP cofactor. Two crystal structures were determined for this investigation: a site-directed mutant protein (K186A) complexed with GDP-perosamine and the wild-type enzyme complexed with an unnatural ligand, GDP-3-deoxyperosamine. These structures, determined to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively, revealed the manner in which products, and presumably substrates, are accommodated within the active site pocket of GDP-perosamine synthase. Additional kinetic analyses using both the natural and unnatural substrates revealed that the K{sub m} for the unnatural substrate was unperturbed relative to that of the natural substrate, but the k{sub cat} was lowered by a factor of approximately 200. Taken together, these studies shed light on why GDP-perosamine synthase functions as an aminotransferase whereas another very similar PLP-dependent enzyme, GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-mannose 3-dehydratase or ColD, catalyzes a dehydration reaction using the same substrate.

  9. Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority and Low-Income Populations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Environmental Protection, Sustainability Support & Corporate Safety Analysis Sustainability Support Information Brief HS-21-IB-2012-28 (November 2012) 1 What is environmental justice? Environmental justice is defined as the "fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. Fair treatment means that no group of

  10. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-11-01

    Abstract: Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCCs fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  11. Structures of NodZ ?1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-02-01

    Crystal structures of the bacterial ?1,6-fucosyltransferase NodZ in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose are presented. Rhizobial NodZ ?1,6-fucosyltransferase (?1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5?-diphosphate-?-l-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two ?1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of ?1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzymeproduct complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-l-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among ?1,2-, ?1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand ?C2 and helix ?C3. In addition, there is a shift of the ?C3 helix itself upon GDP-Fuc binding.

  12. Structures of NodZ [alpha]1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-03-26

    Rhizobial NodZ {alpha}1,6-fucosyltransferase ({alpha}1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-{beta}-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signaling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two {alpha}1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of {alpha}1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 {angstrom} resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 {angstrom} resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among {alpha}1,2-, {alpha}1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand {beta}C2 and helix {alpha}C3. In addition, there is a shift of the {alpha}C3 helix itself upon GDP-Fuc binding.

  13. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) To ...

  14. Rate Of Oxidation Of Plasma Polymer (GDP or CH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, B; Letts, S; Fearon, E

    2005-10-26

    There has been concern and uncertainty about the level of O incorporation in plastic shells prepared by coating mandrels with plasma polymer (GDP) and the Ge-doped analogs. In FY05 we undertook a controlled study of the rate of oxidation under various conditions, both to quantify the levels and to determine methods for restricting the le levels. Our results are shown in the Figure below. In summary, the level can be kept to less than 0.2 atom % by pyrolyzing the shells at 300 C (which is necessary for the removal of the P{alpha}MS mandrel), and then restricting the exposure to air to less than about 100 hours, which is easy to do. Based on this result we believe the NIF capsule specification for O can safely be lowered to 0.2 atom %, and this level should be used in future design calculations.

  15. Roughness Optimization at High Modes for GDP CHx Microshells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, M.; Dumay, B.; Chicanne, C.; Barnouin, J.; Legaie, O.; Baclet, P.

    2004-03-15

    For the ''Megajoule'' Laser (LMJ) facility of the CEA, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) is the nominal ablator to be used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. These capsules contain the fusible deuterium-tritium mixture to achieve ignition. Coatings are prepared by glow discharge polymerization (GDP) with trans-2-butene and hydrogen. The films properties have been investigated. Laser fusion targets must have optimized characteristics: a diameter of about 2.4 mm for LMJ targets, a thickness up to 175 {mu}m, a sphericity and a thickness concentricity better than 99% and an outer and an inner roughness lower than 20 nm at high modes. The surface finish of these laser fusion targets must be extremely smooth to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities.Movchan and Demchishin, and later Thornton introduced a structure zone model (SZM) based on both evaporated and sputtered metals. They investigated the influence of base temperature and the sputtering gas pressure on structure and properties of thick polycrystalline coatings of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide. An original cross-sectional analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows amorphous materials characterization and permits to make an analogy between the amorphous GDP material and the existing model (SZM). The purpose of this work is to understand the relationship between the deposition parameters, the growing structures and the surface roughness.The coating structure as a function of deposition parameters was first studied on plane silicon substrates and then optimized on PAMS shells. By adjusting the coating parameters, the structures are modified, and in some case, the high modes roughness decreases dramatically.

  16. Cloning and characterization of GDP-perosamine synthetase (Per) from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and synthesis of GDP-perosamine in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Guohui; Liu Jun; Liu Xiang; Chen Min; Zhang Houcheng Wang, Peng George

    2007-11-23

    GDP-perosamine synthetase (Per, E.C. not yet classified) is important to the synthesis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 O-antigen. The mutant in per gene can disrupt the synthesis of O157 O-antigen. In this study, GDP-perosamine synthetase was cloned from E. coli O157:H7 and over-expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant His-tagged Per fusion protein was a decamer with molecular weight of 431 kDa. The optimal pH value of this recombinant protein was 7.5. The divalent ions had no significant effect on Per-catalyzed reaction. The K{sub m} and K{sub cat}/K{sub m} for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose were 0.09 mM and 2.1 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} S{sup -1}, and those for L-glutamate were 2 mM and 0.52 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1}S{sup -1}, respectively. Per was used to synthesize GDP-perosamine from GDP-mannose together with recombinant GDP-mannose dehydratase (GMD, E.C. 4.2.1.47). The purified GDP-perosamine was identified by MS and NMR. In summary, this work provided a feasible approach for the synthesis of GDP-perosamine which can lead to the study of LPS biosynthesis of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Thin GDP Shells Used as Cryogenic Direct Drive Targets at OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikroo, A.; Czechowicz, D.G.; Chen, K.C.; Dicken, M.; Morris, C.; Andrews, R.; Greenwood, A.; Castillo, E.

    2004-03-15

    Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D{sub 2} and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D{sub 2}. In this paper, we present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters ('standard GDP') using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters ('strong GDP') of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells.

  18. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; CHEN,K.C; DICKEN,M; MORRIS,C; ANDREWS,R; GREENWOOD,A.L; CASTILLO,E

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D{sub 2} and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D{sub 2}. In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells.

  19. Biochemical characterization of GDP-L-fucose de novo synthesis pathway in fungus Mortierella alpina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Yan; Perepelov, Andrei V.; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hao; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-22

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil, which is able to produce large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. L-Fucose is an important sugar found in a diverse range of organisms, playing a variety of biological roles. In this study, we characterized the de novo biosynthetic pathway of GDP-L-fucose (the nucleotide-activated form of L-fucose) in M. alpina. Genes encoding GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (GMER) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were produced as His-tagged fusion proteins. Conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose by GMD and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose to GDP-L-fucose by GMER were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The k{sub m} values of GMD for GDP-mannose and GMER for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose were determined to be 0.77 mM and 1.047 mM, respectively. Both NADH and NADPH may be used by GMER as the coenzyme. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 37 {sup o}C and pH 9.0 (GMD) or pH 7.0 (GMER). Divalent cations are not required for GMD and GMER activity, and the activities of both enzymes may be enhanced by DTT. To our knowledge this is the first report on the characterization of GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  20. Crystal structure of a tetrameric GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase from a bacterial GDP-D-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, N.A.; Mulichak, A.M.; Lam, J.S.; Rocchetta, H.L.; Garavito, R.M.

    2010-03-08

    D-Rhamnose is a rare 6-deoxy monosaccharide primarily found in the lipopolysaccharide of pathogenic bacteria, where it is involved in host-bacterium interactions and the establishment of infection. The biosynthesis of D-rhamnose proceeds through the conversion of GDP-D-mannose by GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose, which is subsequently reduced to GDP-D-rhamnose by a reductase. We have determined the crystal structure of GMD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in complex with NADPH and GDP. GMD belongs to the NDP-sugar modifying subfamily of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes, all of which exhibit bidomain structures and a conserved catalytic triad (Tyr-XXX-Lys and Ser/Thr). Although most members of this enzyme subfamily display homodimeric structures, this bacterial GMD forms a tetramer in the same fashion as the plant MUR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The cofactor binding sites are adjoined across the tetramer interface, which brings the adenosyl phosphate moieties of the adjacent NADPH molecules to within 7 {angstrom} of each other. A short peptide segment (Arg35-Arg43) stretches into the neighboring monomer, making not only protein-protein interactions but also hydrogen bonding interactions with the neighboring cofactor. The interface hydrogen bonds made by the Arg35-Arg43 segment are generally conserved in GMD and MUR1, and the interacting residues are highly conserved among the sequences of bacterial and eukaryotic GMDs. Outside of the Arg35-Arg43 segment, residues involved in tetrameric contacts are also quite conserved across different species. These observations suggest that a tetramer is the preferred, and perhaps functionally relevant, oligomeric state for most bacterial and eukaryotic GMDs.

  1. A Rac1--GDP trimer complex binds zinc with tetrahedral and octahedral coordination, displacing magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prehna, G.; Stebbins, C

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3221 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  2. A Rac1-GDP Trimer Complex Binds Zinc with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Coordination, Displacing Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prehna,G.; Stebbins, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3{sub 2}21 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  3. Low Income Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Meeting 5, November 5, 2015 in Portland, Oregon Agenda BPA Low Income Benchmarking and October 2015 IM Updates Presentation Side by Side Comparison of BPA Measures...

  4. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Bacillus subtilis GTPase YphCGDP complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ling; Muench, Stephen P.; Roujeinikova, Anna; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Rice, David W.

    2006-05-01

    Crystals of a selenomethionine-incorporated YphCGDP complex have been grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. The Bacillus subtilis YphC gene encodes an essential GTPase thought to be involved in ribosome binding and whose protein product may represent a target for the development of a novel antibacterial agent. Sequence analysis reveals that YphC belongs to the EngA family of GTPases, which uniquely contain two adjacent GTP-binding domains. Crystals of a selenomethionine-incorporated YphCGDP complex have been grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.71, b = 65.05, c = 110.61 , and have one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Data sets at three different wavelengths were collected on a single crystal to 2.5 resolution at the Daresbury SRS in order to solve the structure by MAD. Ultimately, analysis of YphC in complex with GDP may allow a greater understanding of the EngA family of essential GTPases.

  5. Characterization of a Ras Mutant with Identical GDP- and GTP-Bound Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, B.; Boykevisch, S; Zhao, C; Kunzelmann, S; Bar-Sagi, D; Herrmann, C; Nassar, N

    2009-01-01

    We previously characterized the G60A mutant of Ras and showed that the switch regions of the GTP-bound but not the GDP-bound form of this mutant adopt an 'open conformation' similar to that seen in nucleotide-free Ras. Here, we mutate Lys147 of the conserved {sup 145}SAK{sup 147} motif in the G60A background and characterize the resulting double mutant (DM). We show that RasDM is the first structure of a Ras protein with identical GDP- and GTP-bound structures. Both structures adopt the open conformation of the active form of RasG60A. The increase in the accessible surface area of the nucleotide is consistent with a 4-fold increase in its dissociation rate. Stopped-flow experiments show no major difference in the two-step kinetics of association of GDP or GTP with the wild type, G60A, or RasDM. Addition of Sos fails to accelerate nucleotide exchange. Overexpression of the G60A or double mutant of Ras in COS-1 cells fails to activate Erk and shows a strong dominant negative effect. Our data suggest that flexibility at position 60 is required for proper Sos-catalyzed nucleotide exchange and that structural information is somehow shared among the switch regions and the different nucleotide binding motifs.

  6. Structural basis of GDP release and gating in G protein coupled Fe[superscript 2+] transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guilfoyle, Amy; Maher, Megan J.; Rapp, Mikaela; Clarke, Ronald; Harrop, Stephen; Jormakka, Mika

    2009-09-29

    G proteins are key molecular switches in the regulation of membrane protein function and signal transduction. The prokaryotic membrane protein FeoB is involved in G protein coupled Fe{sup 2+} transport, and is unique in that the G protein is directly tethered to the membrane domain. Here, we report the structure of the soluble domain of FeoB, including the G protein domain, and its assembly into an unexpected trimer. Comparisons between nucleotide free and liganded structures reveal the closed and open state of a central cytoplasmic pore, respectively. In addition, these data provide the first observation of a conformational switch in the nucleotide-binding G5 motif, defining the structural basis for GDP release. From these results, structural parallels are drawn to eukaryotic G protein coupled membrane processes.

  7. BENTON PUD LOW INCOME CONSERVATION PROGRAM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    result in a preference being given to households with incomes below 125% of Federal Poverty Guidelines (FPG) Upper low income households with incomes between 125 and 200%...

  8. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations To focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority ...

  9. Mutational, Structural, and Kinetic Evidence for a Dissociative Mechanism in the GDP-mannose Mannosyl Hydrolase Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia,Z.; Azurmendi, H.; lairson, L.; Withers, S.; Gabelli, S.; Bianchet, M.; Amzel, L.; Mildvan, A.

    2005-01-01

    GDP-mannose hydrolase (GDPMH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of GDP-{alpha}-D-sugars by nucleophilic substitution with inversion at the anomeric C1 atom of the sugar, with general base catalysis by H124. Three lines of evidence indicate a mechanism with dissociative character. First, in the 1.3 Angstrom X-ray structure of the GDPMH-Mg{sup 2+}-GDP{center_dot}Tris{sup +} complex, the GDP leaving group interacts with five catalytic components: R37, Y103, R52, R65, and the essential Mg{sup 2+}. As determined by the effects of site-specific mutants on k{sub cat}, these components contribute factors of 24-, 100-, 309-, 24-, and {ge}10{sup 5}-fold, respectively, to catalysis. Both R37 and Y103 bind the {beta}-phosphate of GDP and are only 5.0 Angstroms apart. Accordingly, the R37Q/Y103F double mutant exhibits partially additive effects of the two single mutants on k{sub cat}, indicating cooperativity of R37 and Y103 in promoting catalysis, and antagonistic effects on K{sub m}. Second, the conserved residue, D22, is positioned to accept a hydrogen bond from the C2-OH group of the sugar undergoing substitution at C1, as was shown by modeling an {alpha}-D-mannosyl group into the sugar binding site. The D22A and D22N mutations decreased k{sub cat} by factors of 10{sup 2.1} and 10{sup 2.6}, respectively, for the hydrolysis of GDP-{alpha}-D-mannose, and showed smaller effects on K{sub m}, suggesting that the D22 anion stabilizes a cationic oxocarbenium transition state. Third, the fluorinated substrate, GDP-2F-{alpha}-D-mannose, for which a cationic oxocarbenium transition state would be destabilized by electron withdrawal, exhibited a 16-fold decrease in k{sub cat} and a smaller, 2.5-fold increase in K{sub m}. The D22A and D22N mutations further decreased the k{sub cat} with GDP-2F-{alpha}-D-mannose to values similar to those found with GDP-{alpha}-D-mannose, and decreased the K{sub m} of the fluorinated substrate. The choice of histidine as the general base over glutamate, the preferred base in other Nudix enzymes, is not due to the greater basicity of histidine, since the pK{sub a} of E124 in the active complex (7.7) exceeded that of H124 (6.7), and the H124E mutation showed a 10{sup 2.2}-fold decrease in k{sub cat}and a 4.0-fold increase in K{sub m} at pH 9.3. Similarly, the catalytic triad detected in the X-ray structure (H124---Y127---P120) is unnecessary for orienting H124, since the Y127F mutation had only 2-fold effects on k{sub cat} and K{sub m} with either H124 or E124 as the general base. Hence, a neutral histidine rather than an anionic glutamate may be necessary to preserve electroneutrality in the active complex.

  10. WPN 13-3: 2013 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2013 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  11. WPN 03-3: 2003 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2003 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  12. WPN 06-5: Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2006 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  13. WPN 07-3: Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2007 poverty income guidelines and definition of income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  14. WPN 04-5: 2004 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2004 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  15. WPN 98-5- 1998 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 1998 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  16. WPN 02-3: 2002 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2002 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  17. WPN 00-3- 2000 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2000 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  18. Helix Dipole Movement and Conformational Variability Contribute to Allosteric GDP Release in G[alpha] Subunits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preininger, Anita M.; Funk, Michael A.; Oldham, William M.; Meier, Scott M.; Johnston, Christopher A.; Adhikary, Suraj; Kimple, Adam J.; Siderovski, David P.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Iverson, Tina M.

    2009-06-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (Galphabetagamma) transmit signals from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream effectors through a guanine nucleotide signaling cycle. Numerous studies indicate that the carboxy-terminal alpha5 helix of Galpha subunits participates in Galpha-receptor binding, and previous EPR studies suggest this receptor-mediated interaction induces a rotation and translation of the alpha5 helix of the Galpha subunit [Oldham, W. M., et al. (2006) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13, 772-777]. On the basis of this result, an engineered disulfide bond was designed to constrain the alpha5 helix of Galpha(i1) into its EPR-measured receptor-associated conformation through the introduction of cysteines at position 56 in the alpha1 helix and position 333 in the alpha5 helix (I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1)). A functional mimetic of the EPR-measured alpha5 helix dipole movement upon receptor association was additionally created by introduction of a positive charge at the amino terminus of this helix, D328R Galpha(i1). Both proteins exhibit a dramatically elevated level of basal nucleotide exchange. The 2.9 A resolution crystal structure of I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) in complex with GDP-AlF(4)(-) reveals the shift of the alpha5 helix toward the guanine nucleotide binding site that is anticipated by EPR measurements. The structure of the I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) subunit further revealed altered positions for the switch regions and throughout the Galpha(i1) subunit, accompanied by significantly elevated crystallographic temperature factors. Combined with previous evidence in the literature, the structural analysis supports the critical role of electrostatics of the alpha5 helix dipole and overall conformational variability during nucleotide release.

  19. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonetti, Angelita; Fabbretti, Attilio; Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue.

  20. WPN 14-3: 2014 Poverty Income Guidance and Definition of Income |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 25, 2014 To provide Grantees with the 2014 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). PDF icon WPN 14-3: 2014 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income More Documents & Publications WPN 12-8: 2012 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income WPN 15-3: 2015 Poverty Income Guidelines

  1. WPN 15-3: 2015 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 19, 2015 To provide Grantees with the 2015 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). PDF icon WPN 15-3: 2015 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income More Documents & Publications WPN 12-8: 2012 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income WPN 14-3: 2014 Poverty Income Guidance

  2. X-ray, NMR, and Mutational Studies of the Catalytic Cycle of the GDP-Mannose Mannosyl Hydrolase Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabelli,S.; Azurmendi, H.; Bianchet, M.; Amzel, L.; Mildva, A.

    2006-01-01

    GDP-mannose hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolysis with inversion of GDP-{alpha}-D-hexose to GDP and {beta}-D-hexose by nucleophilic substitution by water at C1 of the sugar. Two new crystal structures (free enzyme and enzyme-substrate complex), NMR, and site-directed mutagenesis data, combined with the structure of the enzyme-product complex reported earlier, suggest a four-stage catalytic cycle. An important loop (L6, residues 119-125) contains a ligand to the essential Mg{sup 2+} (Gln-123), the catalytic base (His-124), and three anionic residues. This loop is not ordered in the X-ray structure of the free enzyme due to dynamic disorder, as indicated by the two-dimensional 1H-15N HMQC spectrum, which shows selective exchange broadening of the imidazole nitrogen resonances of His-124 (k{sub ex} = 6.6 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}). The structure of the enzyme-Mg{sup 2+}-GDP-mannose substrate complex of the less active Y103F mutant shows loop L6 in an open conformation, while the structure of the enzyme-Mg{sup 2+}-GDP product complex showed loop L6 in a closed, 'active' conformation. 1H-15N HMQC spectra show the imidazole N of His-124 to be unprotonated, appropriate for general base catalysis. Substituting Mg{sup 2+} with the more electrophilic metal ions Mn{sup 2+} or Co{sup 2+} decreases the pK{sub a} in the pH versus k{sub cat} rate profiles, showing that deprotonation of a metal-bound water is partially rate-limiting. The H124Q mutation, which decreases k{sub cat} 103.4-fold and largely abolishes its pH dependence, is rescued by the Y103F mutation, which increases k{sub cat} 23-fold and restores its pH dependence. The structural basis of the rescue is the fact that the Y103F mutation shifts the conformational equilibrium to the open form moving loop L6 out of the active site, thus permitting direct access of the specific base hydroxide from the solvent. In the proposed dissociative transition state, which occurs in the closed, active conformation of the enzyme, the partial negative charge of the GDP leaving group is compensated by the Mg2+, and by the closing of loop L2 that brings Arg-37 closer to the -phosphate. The development of a positive charge at mannosyl C1, as the oxocarbenium-like transition state is approached, is compensated by closing the anionic loop, L6, onto the active site, further stabilizing the transition state.

  3. Low-Income Weatherization: The Human Dimension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation focuses on how the human dimension saves energy within low-income weatherization programs.

  4. The Structure of the MUR1 GDP-mannose 4,67-deydratase from A. thaliana: Implications for Ligand Binding Specificity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulichak, A.M.; Bonin, C.P.; Reiter, W.-D.; Garavito, R.M.

    2010-03-08

    GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase catalyzes the first step in the de novo synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, the activated form of L-fucose, which is a component of glycoconjugates in plants known to be important to the development and strength of stem tissues. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the MUR1 dehydratase isoform from Arabidopsis thaliana complexed with its NADPH cofactor as well as with the ligands GDP and GDP-D-rhamnose. MUR1 is a member of the nucleoside-diphosphosugar modifying subclass of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme family, having homologous structures and a conserved catalytic triad of Lys, Tyr, and Ser/Thr residues. MUR1 is the first member of this subfamily to be observed as a tetramer, the interface of which reveals a close and intimate overlap of neighboring NADP{sup +}-binding sites. The GDP moiety of the substrate also binds in an unusual syn conformation. The protein-ligand interactions around the hexose moiety of the substrate support the importance of the conserved triad residues and an additional Glu side chain serving as a general base for catalysis. Phe and Arg side chains close to the hexose ring may serve to confer substrate specificity at the O2 position. In the MUR1/GDP-D-rhamnose complex, a single unique monomer within the protein tetramer that has an unoccupied substrate site highlights the conformational changes that accompany substrate binding and may suggest the existence of negative cooperativity in MUR1 function.

  5. Messaging Strategies for Low-Income Participants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Messaging Strategies for Low-Income Participants Messaging Strategies for Low-Income Participants Better Buildings Neighborhood Program, BetterBuildings Low-Income Peer Exchange ...

  6. WPN 05-4a- 2005 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income to Exclude Combat Zone Pay

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2005 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  7. Novel protein and Mg[superscript 2+] configurations in the Mg[superscript 2+] GDP Complex of the SRP GTPase ffh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Focia, Pamela J.; Alam, Hena; Lu, Thanh; Ramirez, Ursula D.; Freymann, Douglas M.

    2010-03-05

    Ffh is the signal sequence recognition and targeting subunit of the prokaryotic signal recognition particle (SRP). Previous structural studies of the NG GTPase domain of Ffh demonstrated magnesium-dependent and magnesium-independent binding conformations for GDP and GMPPNP that are believed to reflect novel mechanisms for exchange and activation in this member of the GTPase superfamily. The current study of the NG GTPase bound to Mg{sup 2+} GDP reveals two new binding conformations - in the first the magnesium interactions are similar to those seen previously, however, the protein undergoes a conformational change that brings a conserved aspartate into its second coordination sphere. In the second, the protein conformation is similar to that seen previously, but the magnesium coordination sphere is disrupted so that only five oxygen ligands are present. The loss of the coordinating water molecule, at the position that would be occupied by the oxygen of the {gamma}-phosphate of GTP, is consistent with that position being privileged for exchange during phosphate release. The available structures of the GDP-bound protein provide a series of structural snapshots that illuminate steps along the pathway of GDP release following GTP hydrolysis.

  8. Effects of federal income taxes on the cash flow, operating revenue, and net income of electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    The idea to do this research was suggested by the efforts of some consumer groups and others to seek passage of a law in the United States to exempt investor-owned electric utilities from federal income taxes. The goal of the consumer groups is to reduce the charges to utility customers (which is measured in this study by the amount of the operating revenues of the utilities) while not causing any harm to the utilities. The population of interest consisted of all investor-owned electric utilities included on a current Compustat utility tape. In the analysis of the data, the changes in cash flow, operating revenue, and net income were summarized by the 89 utilities as a total group and by the division of the utilities into smaller groups or combinations which used the same accounting methods during the test period. The results of this research suggest the following conclusions concerning the change to a situation in which electric utilities are not subject to federal income taxes: (1) as a group, the decrease in cash flow would be significant, (2) as a group, the decrease in operating revenue (charges to customers) would not be significant, (3) as a group, the increase in net income would be significant, and (4) in analyzing the effects of any financial adjustments or changes on electric utilities, the accounting policies used to the utilities are an important factor.

  9. Structural Studies of the Nudix GDP-mannose Hydrolase from E. coli Reveals a New Motif for Mannose Recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Boto; W Xu; J Jakoncic; A Pannuri; T Romeo; M Bessman; S Gabelli; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    The Nudix hydrolase superfamily, characterized by the presence of the signature sequence GX5EX7REUXEEXGU (where U is I, L, or V), is a well-studied family in which relations have been established between primary sequence and substrate specificity for many members. For example, enzymes that hydrolyze the diphosphate linkage of ADP-ribose are characterized by having a proline 15 amino acids C-terminal of the Nudix signature sequence. GDPMK is a Nudix enzyme that conserves this characteristic proline but uses GDP-mannose as the preferred substrate. By investigating the structure of the GDPMK alone, bound to magnesium, and bound to substrate, the structural basis for this divergent substrate specificity and a new rule was identified by which ADP-ribose pyrophosphatases can be distinguished from purine-DP-mannose pyrophosphatases from primary sequence alone. Kinetic and mutagenesis studies showed that GDPMK hydrolysis does not rely on a single glutamate as the catalytic base. Instead, catalysis is dependent on residues that coordinate the magnesium ions and residues that position the substrate properly for catalysis. GDPMK was thought to play a role in biofilm formation because of its upregulation in response to RcsC signaling; however, GDPMK knockout strains show no defect in their capacity of forming biofilms.

  10. Low Income Energy Efficiency Workgroup Meeting #1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for a session at the Efficiency Exchange conference in April and is looking for winning strategies for acquiring low income energy efficiency. The first session focused on...

  11. Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) provides resources to assist families with energy costs. This federally funded assistance helps in managing costs associated with:

  12. WPN 12-8: 2012 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide Grantees with the 2012 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  13. LIEE (LOW-INCOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY) GRANT PROGRAM VERSUS THE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    614 LIEE (LOW-INCOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY) GRANT PROGRAM VERSUS THE UTILITY LOW-INCOME WEATHERIZATION & DUCT SEALING PROGRAM Program Requirements and Specifications Grant Program-...

  14. Proposed Structure and Organizing Principles for Low Income Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure and Organizing Principles for Low Income Energy Efficiency Workgroup 1 Background As part of Post-2011-Review, BPA agreed to convene a low income energy efficiency...

  15. GDP-L-fucose: .beta.-D-galactoside 2-.alpha.-L-fucosyltransferases, DNA sequences encoding the same, method for producing the same and a method of genotyping a person

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowe, John B. (3125 Bolgos Cir., Ann Arbor, MI 48105); Lennon, Gregory (8309 Norris Canyon, Castro Valley, CA 94552); Rouquier, Sylvie (5, rue du Cannau, 34000 Montpellier, FR); Giorgi, Dominique (5, rue du Cannau, 34000 Montpellier, FR); Kelly, Robert J. (3164 Concord, Trenton, MI 48183)

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding GDP-L-fucose: .beta.-D-Galactoside 2-.alpha.-L-fucosyltransferase has been cloned, and a mutation in this gene has been found to be responsible for an individual being a non-secretor.

  16. GDP-L-fucose: {beta}-D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-Lfucosyltransferases, DNA sequences encoding the same, method for producing the same and a method of genotyping a person

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowe, J.B.; Lennon, G.; Rouquier, S.; Giorgi, D.; Kelly, R.J.

    1998-09-15

    The gene encoding GDP-L-fucose: {beta}-D-Galactoside 2-{alpha}-Lfucosyltransferase has been cloned, and a mutation in this gene has been found to be responsible for an individual being a non-secretor. 30 figs.

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.9 Low-Income Housing

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Weatherization Population Facts - Roughly 25% of Federally eligible households move in and out of poverty "classification" each year. - The average income of Federally eligible households in FY 2005 was $16,264, based on RECS and Bureau of the Census' Current Population Survey (CPS) data. - States target the neediest, especially the elderly, persons with disabilities, and families with children. - Since the inception of the Weatherization Assistance Program in 1976, over 6.3 million

  18. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  19. The R6A-1 peptide binds to switch II of G{alpha}{sub i1} but is not a GDP-dissociation inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willard, Francis S. . E-mail: fwillard@med.unc.edu; Siderovski, David P.

    2006-01-27

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches that convert signals from membrane receptors into changes in intracellular physiology. Recently, several peptides that bind heterotrimeric G-protein {alpha} subunits have been isolated including the novel G{alpha}{sub i1} . GDP binding peptides R6A and KB-752. The R6A peptide and its minimized derivative R6A-1 interact with G{alpha}{sub i1} . GDP. Based on spectroscopic analysis of BODIPYFL-GTP{gamma}S binding to G{alpha}{sub i1}, it has been reported that R6A-1 has guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) activity against G{alpha}{sub i1} [W.W. Ja, R.W. Roberts, Biochemistry 43 (28) (2004) 9265-9275]. Using radioligand binding, we show that R6A-1 is not a GDI for G{alpha}{sub i1} subunits. Furthermore, we demonstrate that R6A-1 reduces the fluorescence quantum yield of the G{alpha}{sub i1}-BODIPYFL-GTP{gamma}S complex, thus explaining the previously reported GDI activity as a fluorescence artifact. We further show that R6A-1 has significant sequence similarity to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor peptide KB-752 that binds to switch II of G{alpha}{sub i1}. We use competitive binding analysis to show that R6A-1 also binds to switch II of G{alpha} subunits.

  20. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30

    Achieving Chinas goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  1. EmPOWER Maryland Low Income Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD) EmPOWER Maryland Low Income Energy Efficiency Program helps qualifying low-income residents increase the energy efficiency of t...

  2. Messaging Strategies for Low-Income Participants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Messaging Strategies for Low-Income Participants Messaging Strategies for Low-Income Participants Better Buildings Neighborhood Program, BetterBuildings Low-Income Peer Exchange Call: Messaging and Messaging Strategies for Low-Income Program Participants, May 12, 2011. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications How to Design and Market Energy Efficiency Programs to Specific Neighborhoods Working With Weatherization Assistance Programs Outreach to Faith--Based

  3. Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income In the annual Consumer Expenditure Survey, household incomes are grouped into five equal parts called quintiles (each quintile is 20%). Households in the second and third quintiles consistently have a higher share of spending on gasoline each year than households in the other quintiles. Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Quintile Bar graph

  4. The Denver Energy Challenge-- Serving Moderate Income Residents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an overview of the Denver Energy Challenge and how services were expanded to moderate income residents including challenges and next steps.

  5. Effective Energy Behavior Change for Low-Income Weatherization Clients

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains the transcript for the Effective Energy Behavior Change for Low-Income Weatherization Clients webinar presented on May 31, 2012.

  6. Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Provides state and local policymakers with information on successful approaches to the design and implementation of residential efficiency programs for households ineligible for low-income programs.

  7. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/ Low Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Multi-family Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Information Technology ... your program using for project information, marketing, assessment, tracking or evaluation? ...

  8. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Approaches...

  9. Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Income Tax...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Personal) Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Income Tax Deduction (Personal) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar...

  10. Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Income Tax...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corporate) Alternative Energy and Energy Conservation Patent Income Tax Deduction (Corporate) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar...

  11. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-Family and Low Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Family and Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and ... can affect program efficiency * Liability issues may become more complex * Inertia may be ...

  12. 55,"Aberdeen City of",5,1,479437,"Taxes Other Than Income Taxes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 14, less line 19)" 230,"Albany Water Gas & Light Comm",5,1,4930279,"Taxes Other Than Income Taxes, Operating Income (408.1)" 230,"Albany Water Gas & Light Comm",5,2,0,"Income ...

  13. 55,"Aberdeen City of",5,1,482619,"Taxes Other Than Income Taxes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 14, less line 19)" 230,"Albany Water Gas & Light Comm",5,1,4952607,"Taxes Other Than Income Taxes, Operating Income (408.1)" 230,"Albany Water Gas & Light Comm",5,2,0,"Income ...

  14. Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low- and Moderate-Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Better Buildings ...

  15. Figure ES2. Annual Indices of Real Disposable Income, Vehicle...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ES2 Figure ES2. Annual Indices of Real Disposable Income, Vehicle-Miles Traveled, Consumer Price Index (CPI-U), and Real Average Retail Gasoline Price, 1978-2004, 1985100...

  16. Federal options for low-income electricity policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1998-06-01

    Protection of low-income consumers remains an important public policy concern in a restructuring electricity industry. Policies are needed to ensure that low-income households have enough affordable electricity to protect their health and safety, and that they are not victimized by unscrupulous suppliers. In this paper, the author presents three broad federal roles in setting low-income electricity policy, and discuss three more specific policy areas: universal service, electricity assistance, and health and safety. He discusses the key policy issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives and draw upon reviews of proposed low-income policies from restructuring proposals in eight states--California, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin.

  17. Income Tax Deduction for Energy-Efficient Products | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    may deduct from their taxable personal income an amount equal to 20% of the sales taxes paid for certain energy efficient equipment. The incentive is capped at 500. This...

  18. The Farmer's Conundrum: Income from Biofuels or Protect the Soil?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Selling crop residues for bioenergy could provide farmers with an extra source of income, but leaving some residue on the fields has benefits too. So how can land managers find this balance?

  19. Empire District Electric- Low Income New Homes Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Empire District Electric offers rebates for energy efficient measures and appliances in new, low-income homes. Rebates are available for several types of building insulation, heat pumps, central...

  20. Income Tax Deduction for the Installation of Building Insulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A residential taxpayer is entitled to an Indiana income tax deduction on the materials and labor used to install insulation in a taxpayer’s principal place of residence in Indiana. 

  1. Better Buildings Program San Jose -- Serving Moderate Income Residents |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Program San Jose -- Serving Moderate Income Residents Better Buildings Program San Jose -- Serving Moderate Income Residents Provides an overview of the program components and goals, including the whole neighborhood approach pilot which aims to streamline participant, contractor, and administration processes for neighborhood retrofitting in order to reduce high transaction costs created by the current one-off delivery model. PDF icon San Jose Program Presentation More

  2. Revenue phase-in plans equal deferred taxable income

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, D.E.

    1994-04-01

    Recently, utilities seeking rate increases have submitted innovative petitions for phase-in rate relief to state regulators. According to the Edison Electric Institute, the industry has seen almost 80 phase-in rate orders issued nation-wide in the last six years. For financial reporting purposes, deferred revenues under phase-in plans must be recognized as current income in the first year of the phase-in. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) at the Industry Coordinator level, however, recently accepted the position that deferred phase-in revenues accrued for book purposes are not immediately taxable income to the utility.

  3. Family Moderate Income Homeowners In New York State

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Family Moderate Income Homeowners In New York State: Enhancing Resource Accessibility Through Process Improvement and Targeted Outreach," by Residential Energy Efficiency Solutions, July 10, 2012, Arlington, Virginia. Provides an overview of broadening accessibility to financing through process improvement and targeted outreach.

  4. QER- Comment of Low-income Energy Affordability Network [MA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thank you, Secretary Moniz for the opportunity to submit testimony, I am entering this testimony to call attention to the Secretary and DOE staff, that DOE has operated a successful energy efficiency program for low income renters and home owners since DOE’s creation as a department, that leverages hundreds of millions of dollars in utility and other governmental and private investments...

  5. BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada The number of British Columbia, Canada, households ...

  6. Table HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  7. Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low- and Moderate-Income

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Households | Department of Energy Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Low- / Moderate-Income Peer Exchange Call: Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, October 11, 2011. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Loan Programs

  8. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications EcoHouse Program Overview Strengthening Relationships Between Energy Programs and Housing Programs Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low- and Moderate-Income Households

  9. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households March 13, 2014 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Featured Participants  Becca Harmon Murphy (Indianapolis Neighborhood Housing Partnership)  Discussion:  What strategies or approaches has your program used to build interest in your loan programs for moderate- and low-income households? What has worked well, and why do you think it was effective?  What

  10. Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Laitner, S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

  11. Wind Development Found to Increase County-Level Personal Income |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2012 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) joined forces with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to complete a first-of-its-kind study that quantifies the impact of wind energy development on county-level employment and personal income in the rural areas of the Great Plains and Rocky

  12. A structural analysis of natural gas consumption by income class from 1987 to 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This study had two major objectives: (1) assess and compare changes in natural gas consumption between 1987 and 1993 by income group and (2) assess the potential influence of energy policy on observed changes in natural gas consumption over time and across income groups. This analysis used U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data files and involved both the generation of simple descriptive statistics and the use of multivariate regression analysis. The consumption of natural gas by the groups was studied over a six-year period. The results showed that: (1) natural gas use was substantially higher for the highest income group than for the two lower income groups and (2) natural gas consumption declined for the lowest and middle income quintiles and increased for the highest income quintile between 1987 and 1990; between 1990 and 1993, consumption increased for the lowest and middle income quintile, but remained relatively constant for the highest income quintile. The relative importance of the structural and variable factors in explaining consumption changes between survey periods varies by income group. The analysis provides two major energy policy implications: (1) natural gas intensity has been the highest for the lowest income group, indicating that this group is more vulnerable to sudden changes in demand-indicator variables, in particular weather-related variables, than increase natural gas consumption, and (2) the fall in natural gas intensity between 1987 and 1993 may indicate that energy policy has had some impact on reducing natural gas consumption. 11 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada The number of British Columbia, Canada, households eligible for Better Buildings Residential Network member BC Hydro's Energy Conservation Assistance Program (ECAP) just doubled. British Columbia Energy Minister Bill Bennett recently announced an increase in the low-income qualification cutoff for BC Hydro's free home energy-saving kits and

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.9 Low-Income Housing

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Program Definitions DOE Weatherization: Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program DOE Weatherization Eligible Households: Households with incomes at or below 125% of the Federal poverty level, which varies by family size; however, a State may instead elect to use the LIHEAP income standard if its State LIHEAP income standard is at least 125% of the Federal poverty level. Data listed in this chapter include previously weatherized units. DOE Weatherization Eligible Households are a

  15. Maldives-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  16. Nepal-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  17. Honduras-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  18. Kenya-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  19. Mali-Program for Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Low Income Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    number of low income countries for energy efficiency, renewable energy and access to modern sustainable energy. The SREP stimulates economic growth through the scaled-up...

  20. California Solar Initiative- Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) voted in October 2011 to create the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Thermal Low-Income program for single and multifamily residential properties....

  1. Forum on Enhancing the Delivery of Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Households: Discussion Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-09-20

    Summarizes discussions and recommendations from a forum for practitioners and policymakers aiming to strengthen residential energy efficiency program design and delivery for middle income households.

  2. Effect of Income on Appliances in U.S. Households, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Entails how people live, the factors that cause the most differences in home lifestyle, including energy use in geographic location, socioeconomics and household income.

  3. Microbial Populations in CAVES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microbial Populations in CAVES: A Comparison of Sulfur Biosignatures Annette Summers Engel, Department of Geology and Geophysics Compare Frasassi (Italy) and Lower Kane (Wyoming) CAVES

  4. Energy Systems and Population Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy to rural and urban health facilities allows increased delivery and coverage of 3 various health services and interventions such as tests and treatments, better storage of medicine and vaccines, disinfection of medical equipment by boiling or radiation, and more frequent and efficient health system encounters through mobile clinics or longer working hours; and so on. In fact, while the dominant view of development-energy-health linkages has been that improvements in energy and health are outcomes of the socioeconomic development process (e.g., the ''energy ladder'' framework discussed below), it has even been argued that access to higher quality energy sources and technologies can initiate a chain of demographic, health, and development outcomes by changing the household structure and socioeconomic relationships. For example, in addition to increased opportunities for food and income production, reduced infant mortality as a result of transition to cleaner fuels or increased coverage of vaccination with availability of refrigerators in rural clinics may initiate a process of ''demographic transition'' to low-mortality and low-fertility populations (14). Such a transition has historically been followed with further improvements in maternal and child health and increased female participation in the labor markets and other economic activities.

  5. Parallel grid population

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  6. EPA Webinar - Solar for All: Making it Happen in Low-Income Communities |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy EPA Webinar - Solar for All: Making it Happen in Low-Income Communities EPA Webinar - Solar for All: Making it Happen in Low-Income Communities April 13, 2016 12:00PM to 1:30PM MDT Hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this webinar is the third in a multi-part series highlighting efforts by state and local agencies, nonprofits, and utilities to bring energy efficiency and renewable energy to low-income households. Speakers will provide a nationwide

  7. Department of Energy Provides Nearly $88 Million to Low-Income Families for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Weatherization | Department of Energy 88 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization Department of Energy Provides Nearly $88 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization June 29, 2007 - 2:36pm Addthis Funding is Second Installment of $200 Million in Total Weatherization Grants for FY 2007 WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $88 million in weatherization grants to 20 states to make energy efficiency improvements in homes of low-income

  8. DOE Provides $96.4 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy $96.4 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization DOE Provides $96.4 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization July 6, 2006 - 2:50pm Addthis Funding is Second Installment of $243 Million in Total Weatherization Grants for FY 2006 WASHINGTON, D.C. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced $96.4 million in weatherization program grants to 19 states to make energy efficiency improvements in homes of low-income

  9. Oregon State Energy-Efficiency Appliance Rebate Program Helps Low-Income

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Families | Department of Energy Oregon State Energy-Efficiency Appliance Rebate Program Helps Low-Income Families Oregon State Energy-Efficiency Appliance Rebate Program Helps Low-Income Families April 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The State Energy-Efficient Appliance Rebate Program (SEEARP) provides low-income Oregon homeowners with rebates on energy-efficient equipment. SEEARP began in January 2010 with a 70% reimbursement (up to $2,000) on ENERGY STAR® qualified heat pumps and furnaces. It

  10. Table 5.8. U.S. Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family Income, 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  11. Table 5.9. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Family Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  12. EPA Webinar: Bringing Energy Efficiency and Renewable Housing to Low-Income Households

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, this webinar will explore the topic of linking and leveraging energy efficiency and renewable energy programs for limited-income households, including the need to coordinate with other energy assistance programs.

  13. New Hampshire Electric Co-Op- Low-Income Energy Assistance Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Assistance Program is designed to help NHEC's income-qualified members manage energy use with the goal of lowering total energy costs. Qualified members living in an apartment or house,...

  14. Energy data report: Sales, Revenue, and Income of Electric Utilities. Monthly report, October 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, T.F.

    1982-01-19

    This is the last issue of Sales, Revenue, and Income of Electric Utilities. The data contained in this report are being published in Section 10 of the Electric Power Monthly.

  15. Low-income energy assistance programs: a profile of need and policy options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This second report of the Fuel Oil Marketing Advisory Committee (FOMAC) of DOE is twofold: to update information on the energy needs of low-income persons and governmental response to such needs; and to emphasize the need for energy-conservation programs that may alleviate the enormous financial burden placed on low-income people by rising energy prices. FOMAC has continued to develop further and refine its initial energy-conservation recommendations. Mainly, the updated assessment document finds that the poor will expend at least 35% of their income directly on energy and will spend at least 21% of their income on household energy. Other economic impacts of rising energy costs on low-income groups are summarized. Appropriations and stipulations by Congress to aid the lo-income people are reviewed. After careful review of various program designs, FOMAC continues to support the income indexing/vendor line of credit approach. This design provides assistance to elgible households based on: energy needed, cost of fuel, and percentage of income. The cost of implementing the FOMAC design nationally would, according to estimates, range from $3.5 to $4.6 billion for the 1980-1981 winter heating season. A figure of $1.6 to $2.2 billion is being discussed in the Congress. Meeting the ongoing energy needs of the poor will require a coherent national policy which consists of aid in paying energy bills and aid in the poor's effort to conserve energy. The report seeks to promote such policies. Needs assessment, government response, FOMAC model, comments on the programs, projected cost of 1980-1981 Energy Assistance Program, need for conservation programs, and program financing are discussed.

  16. Dual Integrated Appliances as an Energy and Safety Solution for Low Income

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherization Webinar | Department of Energy Dual Integrated Appliances as an Energy and Safety Solution for Low Income Weatherization Webinar Dual Integrated Appliances as an Energy and Safety Solution for Low Income Weatherization Webinar Slides from the Building America webinar presented by the NorthernSTAR team. PDF icon webinar_northernstar_dual_appliances_20111019.pdf More Documents & Publications Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in

  17. WPN 10-15a: Guidance Regarding Accrual of Benefits to Low-Income Tenants in

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Buildings Under the Weatherization Assistance Program | Department of Energy April 8, 2010 To issue guidance for Grantees on establishing procedures to ensure that the benefits of weatherization assistance in connection with multifamily buildings compromised of rental units will accrue primarily to the low-income tenants residing in such units. PDF icon WPN 10-15a: Guidance Regarding Accrual of Benefits to Low-Income Tenants in Multifamily Buildings Under the Weatherization

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.9 Low-Income Housing

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Energy Burden Definitions Energy burden is an important statistic for policy makers who are considering the need for energy assistance. Energy burden can be defined broadly as the burden placed on household incomes by the cost of energy, or more simply, the ratio of energy expenditures to household income. However, there are different ways to compute energy burden, and different interpretations and uses of the energy burden statistics. DOE Weatherization primarily uses mean individual burden

  19. SEED Initiative Aims to Increase Energy Education in Low-Income Communities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy SEED Initiative Aims to Increase Energy Education in Low-Income Communities SEED Initiative Aims to Increase Energy Education in Low-Income Communities October 7, 2015 - 9:00am Addthis The SEED Coalition is inspiring young minds with STEM activities that teach energy literacy. Here students visit Washington, DC to tour the Smithsonian. The SEED Coalition is inspiring young minds with STEM activities that teach energy literacy. Here students visit Washington, DC to tour

  20. Population attribute compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James M. (Los Alamos, NM); Faber, Vance (Los Alamos, NM); Saltzman, Jeffrey S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  1. Feral Cat Population Decline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feral Cat Population Decline Fun in the Sun Control methods lead to lower number of strays. New 3D technology aids in retrofit, remodel projects. Picnic, BBQ attracts hundreds of NvE employees. In December 2015, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will celebrate a storied 65-year history of atomic testing and homeland security support. OneVoice is paying tribute to the men and women who supported that mission with stories each month that look back at special events. See page 4. See page 7.

  2. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiggins, Brandon K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: dwhalen1999@gmail.com [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ?} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ? 20 in the first generation of stars.

  3. Population Density by County, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Map showing a United States profile including race, population by sex and age, housing tenure, and more.

  4. Energy Department Provides $140.3 Million to Low-Income Families for Home

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Weatherization | Department of Energy 140.3 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization Energy Department Provides $140.3 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization April 3, 2006 - 9:55am Addthis Funding is first installment of $243 million in total weatherization grants for FY 2006 WASHINGTON, D.C. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced $140.3 million in weatherization program grants to 31 states and the Navajo Nation to make

  5. Department of Energy Provides Nearly $112 Million to Low-Income Families

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for Home Weatherization | Department of Energy 112 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization Department of Energy Provides Nearly $112 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization March 29, 2007 - 12:17pm Addthis Funding is First Installment of $204.5 Million in Total Weatherization Grants for FY 2007 WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $111.6 million in weatherization grants to 30 states and the Navajo Nation to make energy efficiency

  6. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  7. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  8. Evaluation of DOE's Partnership in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.W.; Lee, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    In July 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded competitive grants to five states to conduct pilot projects to establish partnerships and use resource leveraging to stimulate support for low-income residential energy retrofits. The projects were conducted under DOE's Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. These projects have been monitored and analyzed through a concurrent process evaluation conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This study reports the findings of that evaluation. The overriding goal of the PILIRR Program was to determine whether the states could stimulate support for low-income residential energy improvements from non-federal sources. The goal for the process evaluation was to conduct an assessment of the processes used by the states and the extent to which they successfully established partnerships and leveraged resources. Five states were selected to participate in the program: Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington. Each state proposed a different approach to promote non-federal support for low-income residential weatherization. Three of the five states--Florida, Iowa, and Washington--established partnerships that led to retrofits during the monitoring period (October 1986--October 1988). Kentucky established its partnership during the monitoring period, but did not accomplish its retrofits until after monitoring was complete. Oklahoma completed development of its marketing program and had begun marketing efforts by the end of the monitoring period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis of the annual energy outlook 1999 forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Balsley, J.H.

    2000-01-07

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impact of the base-case scenario used in Annual Energy Outlook 1999 on different population groups. Projections of energy consumption and expenditures, as well as energy expenditure as a share of income, from 1996 to 2020 are given. The projected consumption of electricty, natural gas, distillate fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas during this period is also reported for each population group. In addition, this report compares the findings of the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 report with the 1998 report. Changes in certain indicators and information affect energy use forecasts, and these effects are analyzed and discussed.

  10. The impact of forecasted energy price increases on low-income consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel F.

    2005-10-31

    The Department of Energys Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2005-2006. The forecast indicates significant increases in fuel costs, particularly for natural gas, propane, and home heating oil, for the year ahead. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nations low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The statistics are intended for the use of policymakers in the Department of Energys Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2006 fiscal year.

  11. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Low/Moderate Income Peer Exchange Call: Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low and Moderate Income Households Call Slides and Discussion Summary, October 11, 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0, 2011 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Low/Moderate Income Peer Exchange Call: Targeted Marketing and Program Design for Low and Moderate Income Households Call Slides and Discussion Summary Participating Grant Programs * Austin, TX * Bainbridge Is., WA * Carrboro, NC * Chicago, IL * Connecticut * Phoenix, AZ * Portland, OR * NYSERDA (Long Island, NY) * Michigan * New Hampshire * Indianapolis, IN * San Diego, CA * San Jose, CA * Seattle, WA 8/17/2014 2 Agenda * Call Logistics and

  12. CNS donations help lower-income Appalachian families | Y-12 National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Complex CNS donations help ... CNS donations help lower-income Appalachian families Posted: December 21, 2015 - 1:44pm Y-12 Historian and ADFAC board member Ray Smith (left) and Y-12 Site Manager Bill Tindal present Annie Cacheiro, ADFAC executive director, a donation from CNS. A year ago, the Aid to Distressed Families of Appalachian Counties', or ADFAC's, School Supply Program was able to serve a record breaking 2,808 children, providing necessary school supplies to students in 29

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.9 Low-Income Housing

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Weatherization Program Facts - PY 2010 weatherization funding breakdown: DOE 18.3%, LIHEAP 59.6%, others 22.1%.(1) - The Federal Government's outlay for fuel subsidies runs from $4.0 to 4.4 billion per year. The major two agencies dispensing fuel subsidies are HUD and HHS (through LIHEAP). - In 2006, HUD spent over $1.43 billion annually to pay all or part of the total utility bills (including water/sewer) for 1.2 million low-income units. Utilities (including water) made up approximately 23%

  14. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2010-03-01

    Policymakers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and accommodate future demands; to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-alleviating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel was not part of the survey. New York State participated in the 2001 NHTS by procuring additional 12,000 sample households. These additional sample households allowed New York State to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas that are significantly smaller than what the national NHTS data allowed. The final sample size for New York State was 13,423 usable households. In this report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identifies and analyzes differences, if any, in travel patterns that are attributable to demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, race and ethnicity), household characteristics (e.g., low income households, zero and one car households), modal characteristics and geographic location. Travel patterns of those who work at home are examined and compared to those of conventional workers, as well as those who do not work. Focus is given to trip frequency, travel by time of day, trip purpose, and mode choice. For example, included in this analysis is the mobility of the elderly population in New York State. The American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a greater percentage of older individuals in the population. In addition to demographic changes, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort did a decade ago. Cohort differences in driving are particularly apparent - not only are more of today's elderly population licensed to drive than their age cohort two decades ago, they also drive more. Equally important are the increase in immigration and in racial and cultural diversity. This report also discusses vehicle availability, socioeconomic characteristics, travel trends (e.g., miles travelled, distance driven, commute patterns), and the transportation accessibility of these populations. Specifically, this report addresses in detail the travel behavior of the following special populations: (1) the elderly, defined as those who were 65 years old or older, (2) low-income households, (3) ethnic groups and immigrants, and (4) those who worked at home.

  15. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting This report documents population density studies of selected sites in the Hampton Roads, Virginia area. PDF icon Population...

  16. Motor vehicle output and GDP, 1968-2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Poyer, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the performance of the BEA series 'value of motor vehicle output' as an indicator of the business cycle over the period 1968-2007. We statistically assess the causal relationship between real motor vehicle output (RMVO) and real gross domestic product (RGDP). This is accomplished by standard estimation and statistical methods used to assess vector autoregressive models. This assessment represents the initial results of a more encompassing research project, the intent of which is to determine the dynamic interaction of the transport sector with the overall economy. It's a start to a more comprehensive assessment of how transport and economic activity interrelate.

  17. H. R. 1671: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to the treatment of foreign oil and gas income, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 9, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The bill explains special rules for foreign tax credit with respect to foreign oil and gas income by amending the following sections: certain taxes not creditable; separate baskets for foreign oil and gas extraction income and foreign oil related income; and elimination of deferral for foreign oil and gas extraction income. The effective date would be December 31, 1991.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.9 Low-Income Housing

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    9 2005 Housing Unit Ownership, by Income Level and Weatherization Eligibility (Millions) Single-Family Multi-Family Unit Mobile Home 2005 Household Income Own Rent Own Rent Own Rent Less than $15,000 6.1 2.4 0.3 7.1 1.6 N.A. $15,000 to $30,000 11.0 3.0 0.4 5.8 2.2 0.3 $30,000 to $49,999 15.7 2.5 N.A 3.9 1.2 N.A. All Households 68.2 10.7 4.2 20.1 5.7 1.0 Federally Eligible 10.9 4.5 1.1 9.4 2.5 0.6 Federally Ineligible 57.3 6.2 3.1 10.7 3.2 0.4 Below 100% Poverty Line 5.3 2.4 0.7 6.1 1.5 0.3

  19. Weatherization assistance for low-income households: An evaluation of local program performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweitzer, M.; Rayner, S.; Wolfe, A.K.; Mason, T.W.; Ragins, B.R.; Cartor, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds local agencies to provide weatherization services to low-income households. This report describes the most salient features of this program, examines relationships between organization and program outcomes, and presents recommendations for the program's further development. Data were collected by written surveys administered to local weatherization agencies, a telephone survey of 38 states and eight DOE support offices, and site visits to selected local agencies. Locally controlled factors found to be significantly related to program performance include the amount of the weatherization director's time spent on program administration, the use of established client selection criteria, the frequency of evaluation of local goal attainment, and the type of weatherization crews used. Factors controlled at the state or federal levels that influence program performance include delays in state reimbursements of local agency expenditures and local flexibility in the choice of weatherization measures. Data-gathering difficulties experienced during this project indicate a need for possible improvements in goal-setting and record-keeping procedures.

  20. Integrating Photovoltaic Systems into Low-Income Housing Developments: A Case Study on the Creation of a New Residential Financing Model and Low-Income Resident Job Training Program, September 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Smith-Dreier, C.; Mekonnen, G.; Hawthorne, W.

    2011-09-01

    This case study covers the process of successfully integrating photovoltaic (PV) systems into a low-income housing development in northeast Denver, Colorado, focusing specifically on a new financing model and job training. The Northeast Denver Housing Center (NDHC), working in cooperation with Del Norte Neighborhood Development Corporation, Groundwork Denver, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was able to finance the PV system installations by blending private equity funding with utility rebates, federal tax credits, and public sector funding. A grant provided by the Governor's Energy Office allowed for the creation of the new financing model. In addition, the program incorporated an innovative low-income job training program and an energy conservation incentive program.

  1. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado Jesse Dean and Otto VanGeet National Renewable Energy Laboratory Scott Simkus Boulder County Housing Authority Mark Eastment Mountain Energy Partnership Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-51450 March 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable

  2. ORISE Resources: Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Health Planners A newly released guide from the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sets the standard for population monitoring after a radiation emergency. The second edition of Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Public Health Planners was released in April and presented at the National Association of County and City Health

  3. ORISE Resources: Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Health Planners A newly released guide from the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for...

  4. Covered Sites/Populations | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Covered Sites/Populations Covered Sites/Populations Construction Worker Screening Projects Construction Worker Projects, Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) Production Worker Screening Projects Production Worker Projects, Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) National Supplemental Screening Program National Supplemental Screening Program Beryllium Vendor Screening Program Defunct Beryllium Vendor Screening Program

  5. Special Population Planner for Emergency Management

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-17

    The SPP is a tool for use by emergency management agencies in creating plans for possible events requiring their attention. It incorporates extensive data including those on special needs populations so that this segment of the population will be considered in general plans.

  6. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-Family and Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities, February 2, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Family and Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  What kind of partnerships does your program have for multi-family or low income outreach or service delivery? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Kelvin Keraga, NYSERDA, EmPower New York  Jeanine Otte, CNT Energy, Chicago  Rosemary Olsen, Community Development Corporation of Long Island, Long Island Green Homes * Discussion: 

  7. Hanford Site Regional Population - 2010 Census

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Erin L.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Population dose estimates must be performed to provide a measure of the impact from site radiological releases. Results of the U.S. 2010 Census were used to determine counts and distributions for the residential population located within 50-miles of several operating areas of the Hanford Site. Year 2010 was the first census year that a 50-mile population of a Hanford Site operational area exceeded the half-million mark.

  8. Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jochem, Warren C; Sims, Kelly M; Bright, Eddie A; Urban, Marie L; Rose, Amy N; Coleman, Phil R; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

  9. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  10. The Impact of Wind Development on County-Level Income and Employment: A Review of Methods and an Empirical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Lantz

    2012-09-21

    To gain an understanding of the long-term county-level impacts from a large sample of wind power projects and to understand the potential significance of methodological criticisms, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently joined efforts to complete a first-of-its-kind study that quantifies the annual impact on county-level personal income resulting from wind power installations in nearly 130 counties across 12 states. The results of this study as well as a comparison with the prior county-level estimates generated from input-output models, are summarized in the fact sheet.

  11. Method for spatially distributing a population

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bright, Edward A [Knoxville, TN; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [Knoxville, TN; Coleman, Phillip R [Knoxville, TN; Dobson, Jerome E [Lawrence, KS

    2007-07-24

    A process for spatially distributing a population count within a geographically defined area can include the steps of logically correlating land usages apparent from a geographically defined area to geospatial features in the geographically defined area and allocating portions of the population count to regions of the geographically defined area having the land usages, according to the logical correlation. The process can also include weighing the logical correlation for determining the allocation of portions of the population count and storing the allocated portions within a searchable data store. The logically correlating step can include the step of logically correlating time-based land usages to geospatial features of the geographically defined area. The process can also include obtaining a population count for the geographically defined area, organizing the geographically defined area into a plurality of sectors, and verifying the allocated portions according to direct observation.

  12. Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The density of the population in the U.S., measured as the number of people per square mile, affects the way goods and people are transported. The newly released 2010 Census data show that, on a...

  13. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  14. Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense Dirac Fermions in Graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond Population Inversion and...

  15. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater ...

  16. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Home Electronics Characteristics"

  17. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Living Space Characteristics"

  18. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Housing Unit Characteristics"

  19. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Space Heating Characteristics"

  20. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Air Conditioning Characteristics"

  1. The Impact of DOE Building Technology Energy Efficiency Programs on U.S. Employment, Income, and Investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.; Anderson, Dave M.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-07-31

    To more fully evaluate its programs to increase the energy efficiency of the U.S. residential and commercial building stock, the U.S. Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) assesses the macroeconomic impacts of those programs, specifically on national employment, wage income, and (most recently) investment. The analysis is conducted using the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model, a special-purpose 188-sector input-output model of the U.S. economy designed specifically to evaluate the impacts of energy efficiency investments and saving. For the analysis described in the paper, ImSET was amended to provide estimates of sector-by-sector capital requirements and investment. In the scenario of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 Buildings Technology (BT) program, the technologies and building practices being developed and promoted by the BT program have the prospect of saving about 2.91015 Btu in buildings by the year 2030, about 27% of the expected growth in buildings energy consumption by the year 2030. The analysis reported in the paper finds that, by the year 2030, these savings have the potential to increase employment by up to 446,000 jobs, increase wage income by $7.8 billion, reduce needs for capital stock in the energy sector and closely related supporting industries by about $207 billion (and the corresponding annual level of investment by $13 billion), and create net capital savings that are available to grow the nations future economy.

  2. Left to Our Own Devices – Financing Efficiency for Small Business and Low-Income Families (2009 Environmental Defense Fund Report)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a widely known gap between cost-effective behavior, consumption patterns and actual marketplace conditions. This engineering gap/efficiency gap is particularly the case for low-income households and small businesses, which tend to depend on older, inefficient equipment. This study identifies the limitations of current and potential of relatively new mechanisms for efficiency investment micro-financing.

  3. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations of relatedness will not and enzootic outbreaks noted through international outbreak surveillance systems, and 'representative' genetic sequences from each outbreak. (5) Interpretation of genetic comparisons between an attack strain and reference strains requires a model for the network structure of maintenance foci, enzootic outbreaks, and human outbreaks of that disease, coupled with estimates of mutational rate constants. Validation of the model requires a set of sequences from exemplary outbreaks and laboratory data on mutation rates during animal passage. The necessary number of isolates in each validation set is determined by disease transmission network theory, and is based on the 'network diameter' of the outbreak. (6) The 8 bacteria in this study can be classified into 4 categories based on the complexity of the transmission network structure of their natural maintenance foci and their outbreaks, both enzootic and zoonotic. (7) For B. anthracis, Y. pestis, E. coli O157, and Brucella melitensis, and their primary natural animal hosts, most of the fundamental parameters needed for modeling genetic change within natural host or human transmission networks have been determined or can be estimated from existing field and laboratory studies. (8) For Burkholderia mallei, plausible approaches to transmission network models exist, but much of the fundamental parameterization does not. In addition, a validated high-resolution typing system for characterizing genetic change within outbreaks or foci has not yet been demonstrated, although a candidate system exists. (9) For Francisella tularensis, the increased complexity of the transmission network and unresolved questions about maintenance and transmission suggest that it will be more complex and difficult to develop useful models based on currently available data. (10) For Burkholderia pseudomallei and Clostridium botulinum, the transmission and maintenance networks involve complex soil communities and metapopulations about which very little is known. It is not clear that these pathogens can be brought into the in

  4. Obstacle to populating the string theory landscape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Matthew C; Larfors, Magdalena

    2008-12-15

    We construct domain walls and instantons in a class of models with coupled scalar fields, determining, in agreement with previous studies, that many such solutions contain naked timelike singularities. Vacuum bubble solutions of this type do not contain a region of true vacuum, obstructing the ability of eternal inflation to populate other vacua. We determine a criterion that potentials must satisfy to avoid the existence of such singularities and show that many domain wall solutions in type IIB string theory are singular.

  5. Review of water, lighting, and cooling energy efficiency measures for low-income homes located in warm climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, M.A.; Gettings, M.B.

    1998-02-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Weatherization Assistance Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has performed a literature review of weatherization measures applicable for homes located in warm climate regions. Sources for this information included: (1) documented engineering estimates, (2) vendor information, (3) reported performance from research and field tests, and (4) direct discussions with researchers, vendors, and field reporters. Estimated savings are extrapolated from reported energy savings and applied to the end-use energy consumption for low-income homes reported by the Energy Information Administration. Additionally, installation costs, savings-to-investment ratios, and parameters indicating performance sensitivity to issues such as occupancy, construction, client education, and maintenance requirements are presented. The report is comprised of two sections: (1) an overview of measure performance, and (2) an appendix. The overview of measures is in a tabular format, which allows for quick reference. More detailed discussions and references for each measure are presented in the Appendix and it is highly recommended that these be reviewed prior to measure selection.

  6. The reionization of galactic satellite populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocvirk, P.; Gillet, N.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2014-10-10

    We use high-resolution simulations of the formation of the local group, post-processed by a radiative transfer code for UV photons, to investigate the reionization of the satellite populations of an isolated Milky Way-M31 galaxy pair in a variety of scenarios. We use an improved version of ATON which includes a simple recipe for radiative feedback. In our baseline models, reionization is initiated by low-mass, radiatively regulated halos at high redshift, until more massive halos appear, which then dominate and complete the reionization process. We investigate the relation between reionization history and present-day positions of the satellite population. We find that the average reionization redshift (z {sub r}) of satellites is higher near galaxy centers (MW and M31). This is due to the inside out reionization patterns imprinted by massive halos within the progenitor during the epoch of reionization, which end up forming the center of the galaxy. Due to incomplete dynamical mixing during galaxy assembly, these early patterns survive to present day, resulting in a clear radial gradient in the average satellite reionization redshift, up to the virial radius of MW and M31 and beyond. In the lowest emissivity scenario, the outer satellites are reionized about 180 Myr later than the inner satellites. This delay decreases with increasing source model emissivity, or in the case of external reionization by Virgo or M31, because reionization occurs faster overall and becomes spatially quasi-uniform at the highest emissivity.

  7. A Population Health Model for Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a project to develop a population health model so we can extend the scenarios included in the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios to include population health status.

  8. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small Modular Reactor Siting | Department of Energy Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting This report documents population density studies of selected sites in the Hampton Roads, Virginia area. PDF icon Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting More Documents &

  9. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Tenant Education and Training Call Slides and Discussion Summary, July 28, 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Tenant Education and Training Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  What tenant education questions or needs do you have? * Tenant Education Resources and Program Experience:  Emily Mitchell, Enterprise Community Partners (ECP)  William Ho, ECP, Alameda County, CA * Grant Project Discussion: * What is your program doing? * How can tenant education complement other

  10. Better Buildings Residential Multifamily/Low-Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Outreach to Multifamily Landlords and Tenants Call Slides and Discussion Summary, May 8, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily/Low- Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Outreach to Multifamily Landlords and Tenants Call Slides and Discussion Summary May 8, 2014 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  BBRN and Peer Exchange Call Overview  Featured Speakers  Dan Curry - Clean Energy Durham  Jaime Gomez and Brian Kennedy - Austin Energy  Discussion  What approaches have you tried to reach out to landlords? To reach out to tenants? What approaches were effective?  Did your organization try

  11. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Strengthening Relationships between Energy and Housing Programs, October 31, 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Family/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Strengthening Relationships between Energy and Housing Programs October 31, 2013 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Discussion:  What are some examples of energy and housing programs working together?  What are the benefits of pursuing housing and energy goals simultaneously?  What strategies are there for strengthening the relationship between energy and housing programs?  Are there challenges with this approach?  Other

  12. Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Cost-Effective Modeling and Savings Projections for Multifamily Projects June 26, 2014 Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda  Welcome  Call Logistics and Introductions  Residential Network and Peer Exchange Call Overview  Featured Speakers:  Brian Kennedy, Austin Energy  Steve O'Malley, Vermont Energy Investment Corporation  Discussion:  What experience has your organization had with modeling, projecting

  13. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  14. Low Income Workgroup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heber SnoPUD Pat Didion Milton-Freewater Paul Rich ESG Rogelio Cortes MWVCAA 2 Sarah Moore BPA Sherrie Smith Community Energy Project Shawn Collins The Energy Project of...

  15. Low-Income Weatherization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expand Projects & Initiatives Finance & Rates Expand Finance & Rates Involvement & Outreach Expand Involvement & Outreach Doing Business Expand Doing Business...

  16. Detailed Income Statement Descriptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Description Sales Sales under the Transmission Rate Schedules Miscellaneous Revenue Sales that are not subject to Transmission rates schedules Inter-Business Unit...

  17. Slovenia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Slovenia Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SI 3-letter ISO code SVN Numeric ISO code...

  18. Peru: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Peru Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code PE 3-letter ISO code PER Numeric ISO code...

  19. Guadeloupe: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Guadeloupe Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.03 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GP 3-letter ISO code GLP Numeric ISO...

  20. Marshall Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Marshall Islands Population 56,429 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MH 3-letter ISO code MHL Numeric ISO code...

  1. Australia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Australia Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AU 3-letter ISO code AUS Numeric ISO code...

  2. San Marino: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name San Marino Population 32,576 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SM 3-letter ISO code SMR Numeric ISO code...

  3. Anguilla: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Anguilla Population 13,452 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AI 3-letter ISO code AIA Numeric ISO code...

  4. Gambia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Gambia Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GM 3-letter ISO code GMB Numeric ISO code...

  5. Antigua and Barbuda: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Antigua and Barbuda Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AG 3-letter ISO code ATG Numeric ISO code...

  6. Thailand: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Thailand Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TH 3-letter ISO code THA Numeric ISO code...

  7. Sierra Leone: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Sierra Leone Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SL 3-letter ISO code SLE Numeric ISO code...

  8. Djibouti: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Djibouti Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code DJ 3-letter ISO code DJI Numeric ISO code...

  9. Saint Barthlemy: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Saint Barthlemy Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BL 3-letter ISO code BLM Numeric ISO code...

  10. Taiwan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Taiwan Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TW 3-letter ISO code TWN Numeric ISO code...

  11. Georgia (country): Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Georgia Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.17 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GE 3-letter ISO code GEO Numeric ISO...

  12. France: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name France Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 11.29 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code FR 3-letter ISO code FRA Numeric ISO...

  13. Croatia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Croatia Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code HR 3-letter ISO code HRV Numeric ISO code...

  14. Palau: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Palau Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code PW 3-letter ISO code PLW Numeric ISO code...

  15. Uganda: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Uganda Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.04 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code UG 3-letter ISO code UGA Numeric ISO...

  16. Tuvalu: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Tuvalu Population 10,837 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TV 3-letter ISO code TUV Numeric ISO code...

  17. Ireland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Ireland Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.69 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code IE 3-letter ISO code IRL Numeric ISO...

  18. Cayman Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Cayman Islands Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KY 3-letter ISO code CYM Numeric ISO code...

  19. Myanmar: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Myanmar Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MM 3-letter ISO code MMR Numeric ISO code...

  20. Armenia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Country Profile Name Armenia Population Unavailable GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.22 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AM 3-letter ISO...

  1. Special population planner, version 4.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Tanzman, E.; Metz, W.

    2007-03-26

    Emergencies happen every day. Many are caused by storms or auto accidents and can be planned for, if not predicted. Emergencies resulting from natural hazards often affect a large number of people, and planning for them can be difficult, since knowledge of the needs of the people involved is generally unavailable. Emergencies resulting from accidents at industrial and military facilities can also be large scale in nature if people must be evacuated or sheltered in place. Federal planning for large scale emergencies is the responsibility of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which provides assistance to various emergency management agencies at the national, state and local level. More information about FEMA is available at http://www.fema.gov/. The purpose of the Special Population Planner (SPP) is to help emergency planners address the needs of persons with special needs. The exact definition of 'special population' is a policy decision. Policymakers have included a variety of groups in this term, such as persons with disabilities, those who do not have vehicles with which to evacuate, children who are unattended at times (latchkey children), and many others. The SPP was developed initially for the Alabama Emergency Management Agency as part of its Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), which aids emergency planning and preparedness in communities surrounding military installations across the United States where chemical weapons are stored pending their destruction under federal law. Like that specialized application, this open-source version contains a set of specialized Geographic Information System (GIS) tools to facilitate emergency planning on behalf of persons with special needs, regardless of how the term is defined. While the original SPP system was developed for emergency planning relating to chemical hazards, it can be applied to other threats as well. It is apparent from Hurricane Katrina and other natural and man-made disasters that many of the problems posed by emergency planning for a chemical weapons agent release are shared by other hazards as well. The notion that emergency planning shares common functions underlies the decision by FEMA to include the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) in its 'all-hazards' planning approach. The CSEPP's official planning guidance operationalizes this approach by suggesting that state and local CSEPP emergency plans 'should be appended to the existing all-hazards emergency plan.' The SPP is programmed as a set of tools within an ESRI ArcMap 9.1 project. ArcMap is a component of both ESRI ArcGIS 9.1 and ESRI ArcView 9.1, and it provides a rich GIS user interface for viewing spatial and tabular data, analyzing it, and producing output reports and maps. This GIS interface has been augmented with the SPP tools for a user interface that provides custom functionality for emergency planning. The system as released also includes some hypothetical example records for special needs populations, facilities, resources, control points and sirens sufficient for showing how the system would work with real information. A GIS database is included with some publicly available example layers. The SPP is designed to support emergency planners as they address emergency management issues, and includes capabilities that support the collection and importing of data, the review of data in a spatial context, and GIS tools for emergency planning. The SPP system allows for the identification and categorization of response zones to allow for multiple levels of preparedness. An Immediate Response Zone (IRZ) might be designated as the area 0 to 10 miles from a facility where the response would be the most urgent. SPP can support more than one set of planning zones to accommodate different types of emergencies or the different jurisdictions of emergency response organizations. These areas can be delineated by any number of criteria that make sense for the area. An area like New Orleans might designate response zones based on the depth above/below s

  2. Longwall population holds steady at 52

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-02-15

    The overall population stands at 48 mines operating 53 longwalls. CONSOL Energy remains the leading US longwall operator with 12 installations. With the acquisition of the Andalex properties in Utah, Robert E Murray now owns eight longwall mines followed by Arch Coal (5) and Massey Energy (4). West Virginia remains the leading longwall mining state with 14 faces in 2005, followed by Pennsylvania (8), Alabama (6), Utah (6) and Colorado (5). A detailed table gives for each longwall installation, the ownership, seam height, cutting height, panel width and length, overburden, number of gate entries, depth of cut, model of equipment used (shearer, haulage system, roof support, face conveyor, stage loader, crusher, electrical controls and voltage to face). The most striking difference between the 2007 US Longwall Census and past reports carried out by Coal Age is the increased number of longwall operators that believe they have the most productive operation. Several operators have purchased or intend to purchase new equipment or upgrade the technology of the faces. Longwall mining in the US has reached a balanced state. 1 photo., 1 tab.

  3. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  4. LandScan 2003 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  5. LandScan 2007 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  6. LandScan 2010 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  7. LandScan 2002 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  8. LandScan 2008 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  9. LandScan 2005 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  10. LandScan 2009 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  11. LandScan 2004 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  12. LandScan 2006 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  13. Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 M {sub ☉} die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new

  14. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  15. The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations, call slides and discussion summary. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Staged Upgrades - Homeowner-focused Strategies for Encouraging Energy Upgrades over Time Strengthening

  16. ARM - Lesson Plans: Expansion of Population and Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expansion of Population and Environment Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Expansion of Population and Environment Objective The objective is to highlight the future population of the world in order to estimate its effect on the environment and on climate change.

  17. LandScan 2011 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-11-19

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  18. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  19. LandScan 2000 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  20. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  1. Core-Collapse Supernovae and Host Galaxy Stellar Populations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Core-Collapse Supernovae and Host Galaxy Stellar Populations Authors: Kelly, Patrick L. ; KIPAC, Menlo Park SLAC ; Kirshner, Robert P. ; Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. ...

  2. Greater Sage-Grouse Populations and Energy Development in Wyoming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    development affects greater sage-grouse populations in Wyoming. Authors Renee C. Taylor, Matthew R. Dzialak and Larry D. Hayden-Wing Published Taylor, Dzialak and...

  3. United Nations Population Information Network | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Focus Area: People and Policy Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.un.orgpopin Cost: Free United Nations Population Information Network Screenshot References: United Nations...

  4. Impact of Wind Development on County-Level Income and Employment: A Review of Methods and an Empirical Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    To gain an understanding of the long-term county-level impacts from a large sample of wind power projects and to understand the potential significance of methodological criticisms, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and NREL recently joined efforts to complete a first-of-its-kind study that quantifies the annual impact on county-level personal income resulting from wind power installations in nearly 130 counties across 12 states. The results of this study, as well as a comparison with the prior county-level estimates generated from input-output models, are summarized here.

  5. Rate Of Oxidation Of Plasma Polymer (GDP or CH) (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Based on this result we believe the NIF capsule specification for O can safely be lowered to 0.2 atom %, and this level should be used in future design calculations. Authors: Cook, ...

  6. LandCast 2030 High-Resolution Population Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2030 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitute/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast 2030 data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  7. LandCast 2030 High-Resolution Population Projection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2030 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitute/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on landmore »cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast 2030 data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.« less

  8. LandCast 2050 High-Resolution Population Projection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2050 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2050 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on landmore »cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.« less

  9. Energy efficient low-income housing demonstration with Houston Habitat for Humanity. Final status report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-30

    Using DOE grant funds, the Alliance to Save Energy developed and managed an award-winning low-income housing demonstration in cooperation with Houston Habitat for Humanity at the 1996 and 1997 annual NAHB Builders Show in Houston, Texas. Using a unique group of over 30 national, state and local partners, the energy design of Houston Habitat houses was permanently upgraded to the Energy Star Homes Program threshold. Meeting Energy Star Homes Program criteria, the partner design team increased the level of efficiency approximately 30% over the 1992 Model Energy Code. This innovative design using commercially available materials added approximately $1,400 in cost-effective energy upgrades with an estimated payback of less than 8 years. The 30 public-private partners successfully demonstrated energy and resource efficient housing techniques to the 65,000 NAHB home show attendees and the over 3,000 Habitat affiliates. This project resulted in the Houston Habitat affiliate becoming the nation`s first low-income Energy Star Homes Program home builder. By the year 2000, Houston Habitat anticipates building over 500 homes to this new level of efficiency as well as set an example for other Habitat affiliates nationwide to follow. The 1997 demonstration house utilized an all-women volunteer builders team to construct a 3 bedroom home in Houston Habitat`s Woodglen Subdivision. Energy consumption was remotely metered by Texas A and M.

  10. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  11. Diversity waves in collapse-driven population dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maslov, Sergei; Sneppen, Kim

    2015-09-14

    Populations of species in ecosystems are often constrained by availability of resources within their environment. In effect this means that a growth of one population, needs to be balanced by comparable reduction in populations of others. In neutral models of biodiversity all populations are assumed to change incrementally due to stochastic births and deaths of individuals. Here we propose and model another redistribution mechanism driven by abrupt and severe collapses of the entire population of a single species freeing up resources for the remaining ones. This mechanism may be relevant e.g. for communities of bacteria, with strain-specific collapses caused e.g.more » by invading bacteriophages, or for other ecosystems where infectious diseases play an important role. The emergent dynamics of our system is cyclic ‘‘diversity waves’’ triggered by collapses of globally dominating populations. The population diversity peaks at the beginning of each wave and exponentially decreases afterwards. Species abundances are characterized by a bimodal time-aggregated distribution with the lower peak formed by populations of recently collapsed or newly introduced species while the upper peak - species that has not yet collapsed in the current wave. In most waves both upper and lower peaks are composed of several smaller peaks. This self-organized hierarchical peak structure has a long-term memory transmitted across several waves. It gives rise to a scale-free tail of the time-aggregated population distribution with a universal exponent of 1.7. We show that diversity wave dynamics is robust with respect to variations in the rules of our model such as diffusion between multiple environments, species-specific growth and extinction rates, and bet-hedging strategies.« less

  12. The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    III star (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star The formation of supermassive Population III stars with masses ≳10,000 M{sub ☉} in primeval galaxies in strong ultraviolet backgrounds at z ∼ 15 may be the most viable pathway to the formation of supermassive black holes by z ∼ 7.

  13. H. R. 3516: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide a refundable income tax credit for the recycling of hazardous wastes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, October 24, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 3516 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide a refundable income tax credit for the recycling of hazardous wastes.

  14. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    population parameters, and the same sampling cadences and radial velocity errors as ... we apply the method to a sample of approx4000 WDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. ...

  15. Sandia Energy - CFD-Populated Empirical Turbine Wake Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parameters that effect tidal turbine wakes, such as yaw angle to incident flow and vertical blockage ratio, may be incorporated as part of future revisions of the CFD populated...

  16. National Population, Economic, and Infrastructure Impacts of Pandemic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influenza with Strategic Recommendations | NISAC SheetsNational Population, Economic, and Infrastructure Impacts of Pandemic Influenza with Strategic Recommendations content top National Population, Economic, and Infrastructure Impacts of Pandemic Influenza with Strategic Recommendations Results of NISAC's two-year study on the potential impacts of pandemic influenza in the United States were published in October 2007 and released to the public in 2008. The summary report and supplemental

  17. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA We present a method to characterize statistically the parameters of a detached binary sample-binary fraction, separation distribution, and mass-ratio distribution-using noisy radial

  18. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Greater Prairie-Chickens | Department of Energy Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in

  19. ch_4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Low-income populations are identified using statistical poverty thresholds from the Bureau of Census Current Population Reports, Series P-60 on Income and Poverty. In identifying ...

  20. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  1. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Dan; Sayler, Gary Steven; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Cellular population dynamics are routinely monitored across many diverse fields for a variety of purposes. In general, these dynamics are assayed either through the direct counting of cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. While both viable methods, here we describe a novel technique that allows for the automated, non-destructive tracking of cellular population dynamics in real-time. This method, which relies on the detection of a continuous bioluminescent signal produced through expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette, provides a low cost, low time-intensive means for generating additional data compared to alternative methods.

  2. The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China A changing climate will affect the energy system in a number of

  3. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  4. "Table HC15.13 Lighting Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lighting Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Lighting Usage ...

  5. "Table HC15.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Water Heating ...

  6. Populations Voss, R.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Ajello...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS...

  7. TWO POPULATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, P. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T., E-mail: Paul.Hancock@Sydney.edu.au [Also at Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. (Australia)

    2013-10-20

    The detection rate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows is ?30% at radio wavelengths, much lower than in the X-ray (?95%) or optical (?70%) bands. The cause of this low radio detection rate has previously been attributed to limited observing sensitivity. We use visibility stacking to test this idea, and conclude that the low detection rate is instead due to two intrinsically different populations of GRBs: radio-bright and radio-faint. We calculate that no more than 70% of GRB afterglows are truly radio-bright, leaving a significant population of GRBs that lack a radio afterglow. These radio-bright GRBs have higher gamma-ray fluence, isotropic energies, X-ray fluxes, and optical fluxes than the radio-faint GRBs, thus confirming the existence of two physically distinct populations. We suggest that the gamma-ray efficiency of the prompt emission is responsible for the difference between the two populations. We also discuss the implications for future radio and optical surveys.

  8. Special population planner 4 : an open source release.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Metz, W.; Tanzman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Emergencies like Hurricane Katrina and the recent California wildfires underscore the critical need to meet the complex challenge of planning for individuals with special needs and for institutionalized special populations. People with special needs and special populations often have difficulty responding to emergencies or taking protective actions, and emergency responders may be unaware of their existence and situations during a crisis. Special Population Planner (SPP) is an ArcGIS-based emergency planning system released as an open source product. SPP provides for easy production of maps, reports, and analyses to develop and revise emergency response plans. It includes tools to manage a voluntary registry of data for people with special needs, integrated links to plans and documents, tools for response planning and analysis, preformatted reports and maps, and data on locations of special populations, facility and resource characteristics, and contacts. The system can be readily adapted for new settings without programming and is broadly applicable. Full documentation and a demonstration database are included in the release.

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2013: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 The current-dollar gross domestic product (GDP) data used in the U.S. Energy Information Administration State Energy Data System (SEDS) to calculate total energy consumed per current dollar of output are shown in Tables B1 and B2. The data are the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, current-dollar GDP estimates by state, beginning in 1997. The estimates are released June of each year. For the United States, the national current-dollar GDP series from the National Income

  10. ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Testing Beryllium Vendor Populations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Beryllium Testing Vendor Populations When former employees at 25 closed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) beryllium vendor companies needed an entity to provide medical screening and tests related to their beryllium exposure, the agency chose the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to manage the program. ORISE administers a brief health questionnaire and a blood test known as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) to

  11. The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations September 10, 2015 Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda  Call Logistics and Opening Poll  Residential Network and Peer Exchange Call Overview  Featured Speakers  Alan Shedd, Energy Solutions Director, Touchstone Energy Cooperatives, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA)  Elizabeth Ogg, Economic Developer, Bates County, Missouri GUEP Program (Residential Network Member)  Christine Grant,

  12. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  13. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Information Technology Tools for Multi-family Building Programs Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 15, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Information Technology Tools for Multi-family Building Programs Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  What information technology tools is your program using for project information, marketing, assessment, tracking or evaluation? What do you wish you had? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Heather Larson, StopWaste.org, Energy Upgrade California  Adam Palmer,

  14. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multi-family Buildings Call Slides and Discussion Summary, April 26, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    26, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi- family/Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multi-family Buildings Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  How are you working with owners and tenants on multi-family upgrades? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Michael Croston, Repower Bremerton * Discussion:  What are some of the key challenges for working with rental properties?  What are effective

  15. Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Multifamily Programs: Whats Working and Whats Challenging Call Slides and Discussion Summary, January 9, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Multifamily Programs: What's Working and What's Challenging Call Slides and Discussion Summary January 9, 2014 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Featured Participants  Brian Kennedy (Austin Energy)  Faith Graham (MPower Oregon)  Discussion:  What strategies or approaches has your program used to build interest in multifamily energy efficiency? What has worked well, and why do you think it was effective? 

  16. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  17. Center for Advanced Separation Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Technical Report: Center for Advanced Separation Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Center for Advanced Separation Technology The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation's GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry

  18. Center for Advanced Separation Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Connect Center for Advanced Separation Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Center for Advanced Separation Technology The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation's GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well

  19. THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY: PROSPECTS FOR RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Baslio X.; Girardi, Lo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Ramos, Beatriz; de Simoni, Fernando; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Desai, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Mohr, J. J.; Tucker, D. L.

    2011-06-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  20. THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY: PROSPECTS FOR RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Baslio X.; Girardi, Lo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; et al

    2011-06-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of themoreGalaxy.less

  1. Population of 195Os via a deep-inelastic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Wheldon, C.; Regan, P.H.; Langdown, S.D.; Yamamoto, A.D.; Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.; Hua, H.; Teng, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Svensson, C.E.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Freeman, S. J.; Smith, J.F.

    2004-09-13

    The present work reports on the {sub 76}{sup 195}Os isotope, which is the most neutron-rich osmium isotope for which transitions have been measured. It has been populated following a multi-nucleon transfer reaction between a thin {sub 78}{sup 198}Pt target and an 850-MeV {sub 54}{sup 136}Xe beam. Evidence from {gamma}-ray coincidences has been found for an I{sup {pi}} = ((27/2){sup -}) isomeric state with a measured half-life of 26 {+-} 9ns.

  2. Population and community ecology of the rare plant amsinckia grandiflora

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    Research was conducted between the fall of 1992 and the spring on the population and community ecology of the rare annual plant, Amsinckia glandiflora (Gray) Kleeb. ex Greene (Boraginaceae). The research goal was to investigate the causes of the species rarity, data useful to restorative efforts. The work focused on the examination of competitive suppression by exotic annual grasses; comparisons with common, weedy congener; and the role of litter cover and seed germination and seedling establishment. Annual exotic grasses reduced A. grandiflora reproductive output to a greater extent than did the native perennial bunch grass.

  3. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Peterson, Douglas L.

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in amphipod prey and sturgeon eggs. These did not exceed EPA guidelines. Finally, we developed a PVA model that including linkages between shortnose sturgeon growth, reproduction, and survival and each remaining threat; All three had significant influences. Preliminary simulations suggest that elevated temperatures under future climate will extirpate this population and add support to the hypothesis that this species requires access to spawning habitat far upstream to persist.

  4. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) | Department of Energy 2898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994). Directs each federal agency to make

  5. Population exposure dose reconstruction for the Urals Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Khokhryakov, V.V.; Suslova, K.G.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.

    1996-06-01

    This presentation describes the first preliminary results of an ongoing joint Russian-US pilot feasibility study. Many people participated in workshops to determine what Russian and United States scientists could do together in the area of dose reconstruction in the Urals population. Most of the results presented here came from a joint work shop in St. Petersburg, Russia (11-13 July 1995). The Russians at the workshop represented the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), the Mayak Industrial Association, and Branch One of the Moscow Biophysics Institute. The US Collaborators were Dr. Anspaugh of LLNL, Dr. Nippier of PNL, and Dr. Bouville of the National Cancer Institute. The objective of the first year of collaboration was to look at the source term and levels of radiation contamination, the historical data available, and the results of previous work carried out by Russian scientists, and to determine a conceptual model for dose reconstruction.

  6. The RR Lyrae variable population in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ordoez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Yang, Soung-Chul, E-mail: a.ordonez@ufl.edu, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: sczoo@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-10

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of (P {sub ab}) = 0.60 0.03 days and (P{sub c} ) = 0.353 0.002 days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of ([Fe/H]) = 1.68 0.06 dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix RR Lyraes appears similar to that of an Oosterhoff type I system. Using the RRab stars, we also study the chemical enrichment law for Phoenix. We find that our metallicity distribution is reasonably well fitted by a closed-box model. The parameters of this model are compatible with the findings of Hidalgo et al., further supporting the idea that Phoenix appears to have been chemically enriched as a closed-box-like system during the early stage of its formation and evolution.

  7. Remarkable waxing, waning, and wandering of populations of Mimulus guttatus: An unexpected example of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vickery, R.K. Jr.

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the dynamics of a meta-population of Mimulus guttatus. Changes in size and location of 16 original populations and the new populations established in their vicinities in Big Cottonwood Canyon, Salt Lake county, Utah, were observed for 25 yr. Twenty-three new populations appeared. Seven original populations and 13 new populations had become extinct by the end of the observation period in 1996. Many populations died out and were reestablished, often repeatedly, during the observation period. Altogether there were 54 population disappearances and 34 reappearances. Many populations changed size as much as 100-fold or more from year to year. There were spectacular examples of populations expanding to fill newly available, large habitats. Frequent extinctions were due overwhelmingly to the canyon drying trend, which led to the drying up of most Mill D North drainage springs, creeks, and ponds. Precipitation and minimum temperatures increased moderately during the observation period. The growing season lengthened almost 50%, a typical consequence of global warming. The drying trend, lengthened growing season, and disappearance of Mimulus populations in Big Cottonwood Canyon appear to be a clear, local example of global warming.

  8. Locally-Adaptive, Spatially-Explicit Projection of U.S. Population for 2030 and 2050

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McKee, Jacob J; Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A; Huynh, Timmy N; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2015-01-01

    Localized adverse events, including natural hazards, epidemiological events, and human conflict, underscore the criticality of quantifying and mapping current population. Moreover, knowing the spatial distribution of future population allows for increased preparation in the event of an emergency. Building on the spatial interpolation technique previously developed for high resolution population distribution data (LandScan Global and LandScan USA), we have constructed an empirically-informed spatial distribution of the projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 and 2050. Whereas most current large-scale, spatially explicit population projections typically rely on a population gravity model to determine areas of future growth, our projection modelmore » departs from these by accounting for multiple components that affect population distribution. Modelled variables, which included land cover, slope, distances to larger cities, and a moving average of current population, were locally adaptive and geographically varying. The resulting weighted surface was used to determine which areas had the greatest likelihood for future population change. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census s projection methodology with the U.S. Census s official projection as the benchmark. Applications of our model include, but are not limited to, suitability modelling, service area planning for governmental agencies, consequence assessment, mitigation planning and implementation, and assessment of spatially vulnerable populations.« less

  9. Locally-Adaptive, Spatially-Explicit Projection of U.S. Population for 2030 and 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, Jacob J; Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A; Huynh, Timmy N; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2015-01-01

    Localized adverse events, including natural hazards, epidemiological events, and human conflict, underscore the criticality of quantifying and mapping current population. Moreover, knowing the spatial distribution of future population allows for increased preparation in the event of an emergency. Building on the spatial interpolation technique previously developed for high resolution population distribution data (LandScan Global and LandScan USA), we have constructed an empirically-informed spatial distribution of the projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 and 2050. Whereas most current large-scale, spatially explicit population projections typically rely on a population gravity model to determine areas of future growth, our projection model departs from these by accounting for multiple components that affect population distribution. Modelled variables, which included land cover, slope, distances to larger cities, and a moving average of current population, were locally adaptive and geographically varying. The resulting weighted surface was used to determine which areas had the greatest likelihood for future population change. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census s projection methodology with the U.S. Census s official projection as the benchmark. Applications of our model include, but are not limited to, suitability modelling, service area planning for governmental agencies, consequence assessment, mitigation planning and implementation, and assessment of spatially vulnerable populations.

  10. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  11. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of estimating these frequencies for future work. Modeling of nuisance source populations is only useful if it helps in understanding detector system performance in real operational environments. Examples of previous studies in which nuisance source models played a key role are briefly discussed. These include screening of in-bound urban traffic and monitoring of shipping containers in transit to U.S. ports.

  12. Solomon Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Solomon Islands Population 523,000 GDP 840,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SB 3-letter ISO code SLB Numeric ISO...

  13. Kenya: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Kenya Population 38,610,097 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.21 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KE 3-letter ISO code KEN Numeric ISO...

  14. Madagascar: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Madagascar Population 12,238,914 GDP 10,025,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.05 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MG 3-letter ISO code MDG Numeric ISO...

  15. Mauritius: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    "","visitedicon":"" Country Profile Name Mauritius Population 1,236,817 GDP 14 Energy Consumption 0.06 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MU 3-letter ISO code MUS Numeric ISO...

  16. Senegal: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Senegal Population 13,508,715 GDP 13,864,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.09 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SN 3-letter ISO code SEN Numeric ISO...

  17. Greenland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Greenland Population 56,968 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GL 3-letter ISO code GRL Numeric ISO...

  18. Maldives: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Maldives Population 393,500 GDP 1,944,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MV 3-letter ISO code MDV Numeric ISO...

  19. United States: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    page. Country Profile Name United States Population 320,206,000 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 99.53 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code US 3-letter ISO code USA Numeric ISO...

  20. Tanzania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    "","visitedicon":"" Country Profile Name Tanzania Population 44,928,923 GDP 37 Energy Consumption 0.12 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TZ 3-letter ISO code TZA Numeric ISO...

  1. Syria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Syria Population 17,951,639 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.84 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SY 3-letter ISO code SYR Numeric ISO...

  2. Saint Lucia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Saint Lucia Population 173,765 GDP 1,239,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LC 3-letter ISO code LCA Numeric ISO...

  3. Yemen: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Yemen Population 19,685,000 GDP 36,700,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.31 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code YE 3-letter ISO code YEM Numeric ISO...

  4. Seychelles: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Seychelles Population 84,000 GDP 2,760,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SC 3-letter ISO code SYC Numeric ISO...

  5. South Korea: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name South Korea Population 51,302,044 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KR 3-letter ISO code KOR Numeric ISO code...

  6. Guyana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Guyana Population 747,884 GDP 2,788,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GY 3-letter ISO code GUY Numeric ISO...

  7. Albania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Albania Population 2,821,977 GDP 14,000,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.11 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AL 3-letter ISO code ALB Numeric ISO...

  8. Romania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Romania Population 20,121,641 GDP 191,581,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.68 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code RO 3-letter ISO code ROU Numeric ISO...

  9. Morocco: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Morocco Population 33,250,000 GDP 114,700,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.56 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MA 3-letter ISO code MAR Numeric ISO...

  10. Dominica: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Dominica Population 72,301 GDP 497,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code DM 3-letter ISO code DMA Numeric ISO...

  11. Tonga: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Tonga Population 103,036 GDP 439,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TO 3-letter ISO code TON Numeric ISO...

  12. Antigua and Barbuda: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Antigua and Barbuda Population 81,799 GDP 1,176,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AG 3-letter ISO code ATG Numeric ISO...

  13. Cape Verde: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Cape Verde Population 512,096 GDP 2,071,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CV 3-letter ISO code CPV Numeric ISO...

  14. Burundi: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Burundi Population 8,053,574 GDP 3,037,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BI 3-letter ISO code BDI Numeric ISO...

  15. Somalia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Somalia Population 10,428,043 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SO 3-letter ISO code SOM Numeric ISO...

  16. Ethiopia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Ethiopia Population 73,750,932 GDP 51,000,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.12 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code ET 3-letter ISO code ETH Numeric ISO...

  17. Montserrat: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Montserrat Population 4,900 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MS 3-letter ISO code MSR Numeric ISO...

  18. Faroe Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Faroe Islands Population 48,351 GDP 2,450,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code FO 3-letter ISO code FRO Numeric ISO...

  19. Nepal: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Nepal Population 26,494,504 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.08 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code NP 3-letter ISO code NPL Numeric ISO...

  20. Panama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Panama Population 3,608,431 GDP 49,142,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.24 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code PA 3-letter ISO code PAN Numeric ISO...

  1. Iran: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Iran Population 77,176,930 GDP 402,700,000,000 Energy Consumption 8.12 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code IR 3-letter ISO code IRN Numeric ISO...

  2. Nauru: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "","visitedicon":"" Country Profile Name Nauru Population 9,275 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code NR 3-letter ISO code NRU Numeric ISO...

  3. Guinea: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Guinea Population 10,628,972 GDP 5,212,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GN 3-letter ISO code GIN Numeric ISO...

  4. Tunisia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Tunisia Population 10,982,754 GDP 45,611,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.35 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TN 3-letter ISO code TUN Numeric ISO...

  5. Lithuania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Lithuania Population 3,043,429 GDP 51,002,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.39 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LT 3-letter ISO code LTU Numeric ISO...

  6. Northern Mariana Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Northern Mariana Islands Population 53,833 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MP 3-letter ISO code MNP Numeric ISO code...

  7. Cambodia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Cambodia Population 13,388,910 GDP 17,250,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.07 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KH 3-letter ISO code KHM Numeric ISO...

  8. Kosovo: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Kosovo Population 1,733,842 GDP 7,813,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code XK 3-letter ISO code XKX Numeric ISO code N...

  9. Togo: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Togo Population 5,337,000 GDP 3,685,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.04 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TG 3-letter ISO code TGO Numeric ISO...

  10. Guinea-Bissau: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Guinea-Bissau Population 1,345,479 GDP 870,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GW 3-letter ISO code GNB Numeric ISO...

  11. Uruguay: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Uruguay Population 3,286,314 GDP 58,283,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.17 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code UY 3-letter ISO code URY Numeric ISO...

  12. Turks and Caicos Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Turks and Caicos Islands Population 31,458 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TC 3-letter ISO code TCA Numeric ISO...

  13. Rwanda: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Rwanda Population 10,515,973 GDP 7,431,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code RW 3-letter ISO code RWA Numeric ISO...

  14. Grenada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Grenada Population 109,590 GDP 790,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GD 3-letter ISO code GRD Numeric ISO...

  15. Burkina Faso: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Burkina Faso Population 14,017,262 GDP 13,000,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BF 3-letter ISO code BFA Numeric ISO...

  16. Iraq: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Iraq Population 36,004,552 GDP 164,600,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.36 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code IQ 3-letter ISO code IRQ Numeric ISO...

  17. Benin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Benin Population 9,983,884 GDP 7,429,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.05 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BJ 3-letter ISO code BEN Numeric ISO...

  18. Portugal: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Portugal Population 10,562,178 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 1.06 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code PT 3-letter ISO code PRT Numeric ISO...

  19. Oman: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Oman Population 2,773,479 GDP 78,788,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.71 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code OM 3-letter ISO code OMN Numeric ISO...

  20. Angola: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Angola Population 18,498,000 GDP 129,785,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.20 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AO 3-letter ISO code AGO Numeric ISO...

  1. Lebanon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Lebanon Population 4,965,914 GDP 44,967,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.20 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LB 3-letter ISO code LBN Numeric ISO...

  2. Belize: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Belize Population 324,528 GDP 1,554,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BZ 3-letter ISO code BLZ Numeric ISO...

  3. Republic of Macedonia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Republic of Macedonia Population 2,022,547 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MK 3-letter ISO code MKD Numeric ISO code...

  4. Slovakia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Slovakia Population 5,397,036 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.80 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SK 3-letter ISO code SVK Numeric ISO...

  5. Bhutan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Bhutan Population Unavailable GDP 1,488,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.05 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BT 3-letter ISO code BTN Numeric ISO...

  6. Comoros: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Comoros Population 798,000 GDP 655,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KM 3-letter ISO code COM Numeric ISO...

  7. Finland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Finland Population 5,180,000 GDP 276,275,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.29 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code FI 3-letter ISO code FIN Numeric ISO...

  8. Latvia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Latvia Population 2,070,371 GDP 34,118,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.16 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LV 3-letter ISO code LVA Numeric ISO...

  9. Cuba: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Cuba Population 11,210,064 GDP 78,694,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.42 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CU 3-letter ISO code CUB Numeric ISO...

  10. Barbados: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Barbados Population 277,821 GDP 4,490,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BB 3-letter ISO code BRB Numeric ISO...

  11. Cyprus: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Cyprus Population 838,897 GDP 23,006,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.13 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CY 3-letter ISO code CYP Numeric ISO...

  12. Kiribati: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Kiribati Population 103,500 GDP 167,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KI 3-letter ISO code KIR Numeric ISO...

  13. Saint Helena: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Saint Helena Population 4,255 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SH 3-letter ISO code SHN Numeric ISO...

  14. Brunei: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Brunei Population 415,717 GDP 17,092,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.19 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BN 3-letter ISO code BRN Numeric ISO...

  15. Kuwait: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Kuwait Population 2,213,403 GDP 173,438,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.19 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KW 3-letter ISO code KWT Numeric ISO...

  16. Malaysia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Malaysia Population 28,334,135 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 2.45 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MY 3-letter ISO code MYS Numeric ISO...

  17. New Zealand: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name New Zealand Population 4,242,048 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code NZ 3-letter ISO code NZL Numeric ISO code...

  18. Zimbabwe: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    "","visitedicon":"" Country Profile Name Zimbabwe Population 13,061,239 GDP 11 Energy Consumption 0.16 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code ZW 3-letter ISO code ZWE Numeric ISO...

  19. Togo: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Togo Population 7,154,237 GDP 3,685,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.04 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TG 3-letter ISO code TGO Numeric ISO...

  20. Estonia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Estonia Population 1,294,486 GDP 27,410,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.24 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code EE 3-letter ISO code EST Numeric ISO...

  1. Suriname: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Suriname Population 492,829 GDP 5,273,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.04 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SR 3-letter ISO code SUR Numeric ISO...

  2. Bulgaria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Bulgaria Population 7,364,570 GDP 57,596,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.83 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BG 3-letter ISO code BGR Numeric ISO...

  3. Switzerland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Switzerland Population 7,954,700 GDP 679,028,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.32 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CH 3-letter ISO code CHE Numeric ISO...

  4. Jordan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Jordan Population 5,611,202 GDP 33,516,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.31 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code JO 3-letter ISO code JOR Numeric ISO...

  5. Costa Rica: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Costa Rica Population 4,586,353 GDP 52,968,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.20 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CR 3-letter ISO code CRI Numeric ISO...

  6. Guatemala: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Guatemala Population 15,806,675 GDP 49,880,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.21 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GT 3-letter ISO code GTM Numeric ISO...

  7. Liechtenstein: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Liechtenstein Population 37,132 GDP 5,155,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LI 3-letter ISO code LIE Numeric ISO code...

  8. Gabon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Gabon Population 1,475,000 GDP 20,664,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.05 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GA 3-letter ISO code GAB Numeric ISO...

  9. Niger: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Niger Population 17,138,707 GDP 6,022,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code NE 3-letter ISO code NER Numeric ISO...

  10. Singapore: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ","visitedicon":"" Country Profile Name Singapore Population 5,469,700 GDP 298 Energy Consumption 2.38 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SG 3-letter ISO code SGP Numeric ISO...

  11. Cameroon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Cameroon Population 17,463,836 GDP 30,000,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.10 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CM 3-letter ISO code CMR Numeric ISO...

  12. Honduras: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    Country Profile Name Honduras Population 7,529,403 GDP 19,567,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.13 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code HN 3-letter ISO code HND Numeric ISO...

  13. Federated States of Micronesia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

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    Profile Name Federated States of Micronesia Population 106,104 GDP 277,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code FM 3-letter ISO code FSM Numeric ISO code...

  14. Pakistan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Pakistan Population 196,174,380 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 2.48 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code PK 3-letter ISO code PAK Numeric ISO...

  15. Moldova: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Moldova Population Unavailable GDP 8,738,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.14 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MD 3-letter ISO code MDA Numeric ISO...

  16. Jamaica: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Jamaica Population 2,889,187 GDP 15,569,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.17 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code JM 3-letter ISO code JAM Numeric ISO...

  17. Hungary: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Hungary Population 9,937,628 GDP 145,153,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.11 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code HU 3-letter ISO code HUN Numeric ISO...

  18. Paraguay: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Paraguay Population 6,800,284 GDP 30,558,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.44 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code PY 3-letter ISO code PRY Numeric ISO...

  19. Algeria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Algeria Population 37,900,000 GDP 227,802,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.71 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code DZ 3-letter ISO code DZA Numeric ISO...

  20. Bangladesh: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Bangladesh Population 156,594,962 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.87 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BD 3-letter ISO code BGD Numeric ISO...

  1. Nigeria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Nigeria Population 140,431,790 GDP 594,257,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.09 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code NG 3-letter ISO code NGA Numeric ISO...

  2. Chad: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Chad Population 6,279,921 GDP 15,986,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code TD 3-letter ISO code TCD Numeric ISO...

  3. Eritrea: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Eritrea Population 6,380,803 GDP 3,881,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code ER 3-letter ISO code ERI Numeric ISO...

  4. Bolivia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Bolivia Population 10,556,102 GDP 29,802 Energy Consumption 0.25 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BO 3-letter ISO code BOL Numeric ISO...

  5. Andorra: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Andorra Population 85,458 GDP 4,510,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AD 3-letter ISO code AND Numeric ISO code...

  6. Liberia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Liberia Population 3,476,608 GDP 1,735,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LR 3-letter ISO code LBR Numeric ISO...

  7. Bahamas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name The Bahamas Population 254,685 GDP 8,043,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BS 3-letter ISO code BHS Numeric ISO code...

  8. Ivory Coast: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Ivory Coast Population 15,366,672 GDP 32,000,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CI 3-letter ISO code CIV Numeric ISO code...

  9. Mauritania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Mauritania Population 3,537,368 GDP 4,547,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.04 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MR 3-letter ISO code MRT Numeric ISO...

  10. Dominican Republic: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Dominican Republic Population 9,378,818 GDP 62,484,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.30 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code DO 3-letter ISO code DOM Numeric ISO...

  11. Bahrain: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Bahrain Population 1,234,571 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.55 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BH 3-letter ISO code BHR Numeric ISO...

  12. Laos: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    bel":"","visitedicon":"" Country Profile Name Laos Population 4,574,848 GDP 11 Energy Consumption 0.04 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LA 3-letter ISO code LAO Numeric ISO...

  13. Qatar: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Qatar Population 1,699,435 GDP 213,784,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code QA 3-letter ISO code QAT Numeric ISO...

  14. Lesotho: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Lesotho Population 2,031,348 GDP 2,616,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LS 3-letter ISO code LSO Numeric ISO...

  15. Sweden: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Sweden Population 9,658,301 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 2.22 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SE 3-letter ISO code SWE Numeric ISO...

  16. Vanuatu: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Vanuatu Population 243,304 GDP 743,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code VU 3-letter ISO code VUT Numeric ISO...

  17. Afghanistan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    nlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Country Profile Name Afghanistan Population 15,500,000 GDP 21,747,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AF 3-letter...

  18. Azerbaijan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Azerbaijan Population 9,494,600 GDP 73,537,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.68 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AZ 3-letter ISO code AZE Numeric ISO...

  19. Mongolia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Mongolia Population 3,000,000 GDP 11,516,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.09 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MN 3-letter ISO code MNG Numeric ISO...

  20. Sierra Leone: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Sierra Leone Population 6,190,280 GDP 3,777,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code SL 3-letter ISO code SLE Numeric ISO...

  1. Negative terahertz conductivity in disordered graphene bilayers with population inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svintsov, D.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-03-16

    The gapless energy band spectra make the structures based on graphene and graphene bilayer with the population inversion to be promising media for the interband terahertz (THz) lasing. However, a strong intraband absorption at THz frequencies still poses a challenge for efficient THz lasing. In this paper, we show that in the pumped graphene bilayer, the indirect interband radiative transitions accompanied by scattering of carriers by disorder can provide a substantial negative contribution to the THz conductivity (together with the direct interband transitions). In the graphene bilayer on high-? substrates with point charged defects, these transitions substantially compensate the losses due to the intraband (Drude) absorption. We also demonstrate that the indirect interband contribution to the THz conductivity in a graphene bilayer with the extended defects (such as the charged impurity clusters) can surpass by several times the fundamental limit associated with the direct interband transitions, and the Drude conductivity as well. These predictions can affect the strategy of the graphene-based THz laser implementation.

  2. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  3. Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 M {sub ?} die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new two-dimensional simulations of primordial pair-instability supernovae done with the CASTRO code. Our simulations begin at earlier times than previous multidimensional models, at the onset of core contraction, to capture any dynamical instabilities that may be seeded by core contraction and explosive burning. Such instabilities could enhance explosive yields by mixing hot ash with fuel, thereby accelerating nuclear burning, and affect the spectra of the supernova by dredging up heavy elements from greater depths in the star at early times. Our grid of models includes both blue supergiants and red supergiants over the range in progenitor mass expected for these events. We find that fluid instabilities driven by oxygen and helium burning arise at the upper and lower boundaries of the oxygen shell ?20-100 s after core bounce. Instabilities driven by burning freeze out after the SN shock exits the helium core. As the shock later propagates through the hydrogen envelope, a strong reverse shock forms that drives the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In red supergiant progenitors, the amplitudes of these instabilities are sufficient to mix the supernova ejecta.

  4. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones`s plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... using the annual statistical poverty thresholds from the Census Bureau's Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P60-239, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance ...

  6. LandScan 2001 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  7. LandScan 2014 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  8. Chemical constraints on the contribution of population III stars to cosmic reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rollinde, Emmanuel; Vangioni, Elisabeth, E-mail: girish@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, UPMC, Paris VI, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-20

    Recent studies have highlighted that galaxies at z = 6-8 fall short of producing enough ionizing photons to reionize the intergalactic medium, and suggest that Population III stars could resolve this tension, because their harder spectra can produce ?10 more ionizing photons than Population II. We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which tracks galactic chemical evolution, to gauge the impact of Population III stars on reionization. Population III supernovae produce distinct metal abundances, and we argue that the duration of the Population III era can be constrained by precise relative abundance measurements in high-z damped Ly? absorbers (DLAs), which provide a chemical record of past star formation. We find that a single generation of Population III stars can self-enrich galaxies above the critical metallicity Z {sub crit} = 10{sup 4} Z {sub ?} for the Population III-to-II transition, on a very short timescale t {sub self-enrich} ? 10{sup 6} yr, owing to the large metal yields and short lifetimes of Population III stars. This subsequently terminates the Population III era, so they contribute ? 50% of the ionizing photons only for z ? 30, and at z = 10 contribute <1%. The Population III contribution can be increased by delaying metal mixing into the interstellar medium. However, comparing the resulting metal abundance pattern to existing measurements in z ? 6 DLAs, we show that the observed [O/Si] ratios of absorbers rule out Population III stars being a major contributor to reionization. Future abundance measurements of z ? 7-8 QSOs and gamma-ray bursts should probe the era when the chemical vestiges of Population III star formation become detectable.

  9. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative experiments. Unusually high acorn production in Fall 1994 resulted in increased P. leucopus numbers at one Fermilab site due to immigration since survivorship or reproduction were unaffected. A food supplementation experiment during October 1994-March 1995 induced a strong increase in P. leucopus numbers, due again to immigration, although reproduction also was advanced by two months.

  10. Perspective: The Climate-Population-Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation Fertile Area for New Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Walker, Kimberly A; Fu, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change and extreme weather to energy production and delivery is a challenge to communities worldwide. As climate conditions change, populations will shift, and demand will re-locate; and networked infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers, and, hopefully, minimize vulnerability to natural disaster. Climate effects such as sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters, force populations to move locations. Displaced population creates new demand for built infrastructure that in turn generates new economic activity that attracts new workers and associated households to the new locations. Infrastructures and their interdependencies will change in reaction to climate drivers as the networks expand into new population areas and as portions of the networks are abandoned as people leave. Thus, infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Forecasting the location of these vulnerabilities by combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for defining these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. By combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory it has been only recently possible to examine electricity demand response to increased climactic temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. These emerging results suggest a research agenda of coupling these disparate modelling approaches to understand the implications of climate change for protecting the nation s critical infrastructure.

  11. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qai, Qiang [University of Iowa; Rushton, Gerald [University of Iowa; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  12. The LandScan Global Population Distribution Project: Current State of the Art and Prospective Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing, dasymetric mapping techniques, and the ever-increasing availability of spatial datasets have enhanced global human population distribution databases. These datasets demonstrate an enormous improvement over the conventional use of choropleth maps to represent population distribution and are vital for analysis and planning purposes including humanitarian response, disease mapping, risk analysis, and evacuation modeling. Dasymetric mapping techniques have been employed to address spatial mismatch, but also to develop finer resolution population distributions in areas of the world where subnational census data are coarse or non-existent. One such implementation is the LandScan Global model which provides a 30 arc-second global population distribution based on ancillary datasets such as land cover, slope, proximity to roads, and settlement locations. This work will review the current state of the LandScan model, future innovations aimed at increasing spatial and demographic resolution, and situate LandScan within the landscape of other global population distribution datasets.

  13. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

  14. Spatial Estimation of Populations at Risk from Radiological Dispersion Device Terrorism Incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T.

    2008-07-01

    Delineation of the location and size of the population potentially at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the key analytical challenges in estimating accurately the severity of the potential health effects associated with a radiological terrorism incident. Regardless of spatial scale, the geographical units for which population data commonly are collected rarely coincide with the geographical scale necessary for effective incident management and medical response. This paper identifies major government and commercial open sources of U.S. population data and presents a GIS-based approach for allocating publicly available population data, including age distributions, to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical response strategies. In summary: The gravity model offers a straight-forward, empirical tool for estimating population flows, especially when geographical areas are relatively well-defined in terms of accessibility and spatial separation. This is particularly important for several reasons. First, the spatial scale for the area impacted by a RDD terrorism event is unlikely to match fully the spatial scale of available population data. That is, the plume spread typically will not uniformly overlay the impacted area. Second, the number of people within the impacted area varies as a function whether an attack occurs during the day or night. For example, the population of a central business district or industrial area typically is larger during the day while predominately residential areas have larger night time populations. As a result, interpolation techniques that link population data to geographical units and allocate those data based on time-frame at a spatial scale that is relevant to enhancing preparedness and response. The gravity model's main advantage is that it efficiently allocates readily available, open source population data to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical monitoring strategies. The importance of being able to link population estimates to geographic areas during the course of an RDD incident can be understood intuitively: - The spatial distribution of actual total dose equivalents of ionizing radiation is likely to vary due to changes in meteorological parameters as an event evolves over time; - The size of the geographical area affected also is likely to vary as a function of the actual release scenario; - The ability to identify the location and size of the populations that may be exposed to doses of ionizing radiation is critical to carrying out appropriate treatment and post-event medical monitoring; - Once a spatial interaction model has been validated for a city or a region, it can then be used for simulation and prediction purposes to assess the possible human health consequences of different release scenarios. (authors)

  15. The Panama Canal: It's all about connectivity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Panama Canal: It's all about connectivity Panama at a glance GDP growth rate - last 10 years 7.5% GDP estimated- 2013 (dollars) 38,6b GDP per capita - 2013 estimated (in dollars) 13,032 Population (million) 3.5 Unemployment rate (in %) 4.0 Inflation rate - 2013 (in %) 4.08 It's all about Connectivity * 144 trade routes * 1,700 ports * 160 countries The Panama Canal's value added service The Panama Canal Service Package Reliability Sustainability Connectivity Economies of Scale * Opens 24 hours a

  16. Inequivalence of Single-Particle and Population Lifetimes in a Cuprate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Superconductor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Inequivalence of Single-Particle and Population Lifetimes in a Cuprate Superconductor Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on June 14, 2016 Title: Inequivalence of Single-Particle and Population Lifetimes in a Cuprate Superconductor Authors: Yang, S.-L. ; Sobota, J. A. ; Leuenberger, D. ; He, Y. ; Hashimoto, M. ; Lu, D. H. ; Eisaki, H. ; Kirchmann, P. S. ; Shen, Z.-X. Publication Date: 2015-06-15

  17. OGLE-ing the Magellanic system: stellar populations in the Magellanic Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skowron, D. M.; Jacyszyn, A. M.; Udalski, A.; Szyma?ski, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Koz?owski, S.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzy?ski, G.; Soszy?ski, I.; Mrz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, ?.

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of a young stellar bridge that forms a continuous connection between the Magellanic Clouds. This finding is based on number density maps for stellar populations found in data gathered by OGLE-IV that fully cover over 270 deg{sup 2} of the sky in the Magellanic Bridge area. This is the most extensive optical survey of this region to date. We find that the young population is present mainly in the western half of the MBR, which, together with the newly discovered young population in the eastern Bridge, form a continuous stream of stars connecting both galaxies along ? ? 73.5 deg. The young population distribution is clumped, with one of the major densities close to the SMC and the other fairly isolated and located approximately mid-way between the Clouds, which we call the OGLE island. These overdensities are well matched by H I surface density contours, although the newly found young population in the eastern Bridge is offset by ?2 deg north from the highest H I density contour. We observe a continuity of red clump stars between the Magellanic Clouds which represent an intermediate-age population. Red clump stars are present mainly in the southern and central parts of the Magellanic Bridge, below its gaseous part, and their presence is reflected by a strong deviation from the radial density profiles of the two galaxies. This may indicate either a tidal stream of stars, or that the stellar halos of the two galaxies overlap. On the other hand, we do not observe such an overlap within an intermediate-age population represented by the top of the red giant branch and the asymptotic giant branch stars. We also see only minor mixing of the old populations of the Clouds in the southern part of the Bridge, represented by the lowest part of the red giant branch.

  18. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report, May 2005 | Department of Energy U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 The U.S. industrial and commercial sectors consume large quantities of energy. Much of this energy is used in boilers to generate steam and hot water. This 2005 report characterizes the boilers in the industrial and commercial sector in terms of number of units, aggregate capacity,

  19. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Leitherer, Claus

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the H?, H?, and Br? recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ?} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  20. Crab trapping causes population decline and demographic changes in diamondback terrapins over two decades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorcas, M.E., J.D. Willson and J.W. Gibbons

    2007-01-01

    Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are thought to be declining throughout their range. Although many factors have been proposed to contribute to terrapin declines, including increased predation of nests and adults, habitat loss and degradation, road mortality, commercial harvest for food, and mortality as bycatch in crab traps, few studies have provided evidence linking these agents to population declines. Because male and small female terrapins are most susceptible to mortality in crab traps, population declines should coincide with shifts in the age and size distributions of the population and a shift to a more female-biased sex ratio. We used twenty-one years of mark-recapture data (>2800 captures of 1399 individuals) from a declining diamondback terrapin population in South Carolina to test the prediction that the decline is the result of mortality in crab traps. Since the 1980s, the modal size of both male and female terrapins has increased substantially and the proportion that are females is higher than in earlier samples. Additionally, the population now contains more old and fewer young individuals than before. The changes in demography and sex ratio we observed suggest that this terrapin population has declined as a result of selective mortality of smaller individuals in crab traps. The use of bycatch-reduction devices on crab traps may help prevent terrapins from entering the traps, but current models are too large to prevent mortality of males and many females in this population. Future research should focus on design and testing of effective bycatch-reduction devices for specific regions and other methods to prevent terrapin mortality in crab traps.

  1. Energetic neutral atoms measured by the interstellar boundary explorer (IBEX): Evidence for multiple heliosheath populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, M. I.; Allegrini, F. A.; Dayeh, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sok?, J. M.; Funsten, H.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Zirnstein, E. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) provide powerful diagnostics about the origin of the progenitor ion populations and the physical mechanisms responsible for their production. In this paper, we extend the work of Desai et al. and Fuselier et al. and combine and compare ENA spectra from the first 3 yr of observations by the IBEX-Hi and -Lo ENA imagers along the lines-of-sight (LOSs) from the inner heliosphere through to the locations of Voyager 1 and 2 with results from an updated physics-based model of the three-dimensional heliosphere and its constituent ion populations. Our results show that (1) IBEX ENA fluxes and spectra above ?0.7 keV measured along the LOSs of the Voyagers are consistent with several models in which the parent pickup ion (PUI) populations originate in the inner heliosheath, and (2) a significant fraction of lower energy ENAs between ?0.1-0.5 keV may originate from interstellar neutral gas charge-exchanging with a non-thermalized (hot) population of PUIs in the outer heliosheath beyond the heliopause. We discuss the implications of ENAs observed by IBEX originating from distinct parent populations as well as from two distinct locations in the heliospheric interface. These results indicate that ENA spectral measurements at various energies can be used to remotely probe distinct physical processes operating in vastly different regions of the distant heliosphere.

  2. Local population impacts of geothermal energy development in the Geysers: Calistoga region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haven, K.F.; Berg, V.; Ladson, Y.W.

    1980-09-01

    The country-level population increase implications of two long-term geothermal development scenarios for the Geysers region in California are addressed. This region is defined to include the counties of Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino and Napa, all four in northern California. The development scenarios include two components: development for electrical energy production and direct use applications. Electrical production scenarios are derived by incorporating current development patterns into previous development scenarios by both industry and research organizations. The scenarios are made county-specific, specific to the type of geothermal system constructed, and are projected through the year 2000. Separate high growth rate and low growth rate scenarios are developed, based on a set of specified assumptions. Direct use scenarios are estimated from the nature of the available resource, existing local economic and demographic patterns, and available experience with various separate direct use options. From the composite development scenarios, required numbers of direct and indirect employees and the resultant in-migration patterns are estimated. In-migration patterns are compared to current county level population and ongoing trends in the county population change for each of the four counties. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions of geothermal resource development to future population levels and the significance of geothermally induced population increase from a county planning perspective.

  3. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  4. Modeling the influence of polls on elections: a population dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, James M; Restrepo, Juan M; Rael, Rosalyn C

    2009-01-01

    We propose a population dynamics model for quantifying the effects of polling data on the outcome of multi-party elections decided by a majority-rule voting process. We divide the population into two groups: committed voters impervious to polling data, and susceptible voters whose decision to vote is influenced by data, depending on its reliability. This population-based approach to modeling the process sidesteps the problem of upscaling models based upon the choices made by individuals. We find releasing poll data is not advantageous to leading candidates, but it can be exploited by those closely trailing. The analysis identifies the particular type of voting impetus at play in different stages of an election and could help strategists optimize their influence on susceptible voters.

  5. Long-term variation of fiddler crab populations in North Carolina salt marshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cammen, L.M.; Seneca, E.D.; Stroud, L.M.

    1984-06-01

    As part of the environmental monitoring of possible effects of the Brunswick nuclear power plant fiddle crab populations were sampled in several salt marshes in the lower Cape Fear River estuary, North Carolina for five years. Total biomass of the fiddler crabs Uca Pugnax and U. minax in four Spartina marshes declined by 65 to 70% between the summers of 1974-1975 and 1976-1977 with no significant decrease in population density; there was evidence of a recovery in summer of 1978 to the 1974-1975 levels. The cause of these fluctuations is unknown, but such a degree of variability in intertidal populations emphasizes the need for caution in using one or two-year baseline studies to evalute potential environmental impacts. 1 figure, 2 table.

  6. Table HC1-7a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.7 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 7.1 -- -- -- NF New England

  7. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga (Conference) | SciTech Connect Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga Authors: Wong, J. ; Holt, M. ; Hong, H. ; Wall, M. ; Schwartz, A. ; Zschack, P. ; Chiang, T.-C. Publication Date: 2016-01-20 OSTI Identifier: 1235452 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference:

  8. On the mechanism of populating 3p levels of neon under pumping by a hard ioniser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khasenov, M U

    2011-03-31

    The effect of quenching additives on the luminescence properties of helium - neon mixtures under pumping by {alpha} particles emitted from {sup 210}Po atoms is considered. It is concluded that, under excitation by a heavy charged particle, the population of the 3p'[1/2]{sub 0} level of neon is not related to the dissociative recombination of molecular ions. It is suggested that the most likely channels for populating the 3p level are the excitation transfer from metastable helium atoms to neon atoms and direct excitation of neon by nuclear particles and secondary electrons. (lasers and active media)

  9. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on promoting the ability for anadromous salmonids to respond to change by assuring that the genetic diversity to facilitate such responses is present. The key in developing an effective recovery program for chinook salmon and steelhead is to recognize that multiple life history forms associated with temperature characterize the species in the Columbia Basin, and recovery measures taken must address the biological requirements of the population unit within the environmental template identified. Unless such measures are given first and highest priority, establishment of biologically self-sustaining populations will be restrained.

  10. Low Income Energy Efficiency Workgroup Meeting #1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collett CSC WX (CPA for Linn and Benton Co.) in person Josh Warner BPA in person Kathy Grey EWEB in person Kathy L. Moore Umatilla ElectricHermiston by phone Ken Robinette South...

  11. Agricultural Biomass Income Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The credit is effective for biomass originating between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2020. The credit is worth $5 per wet ton. Eligible projects must apply to the Taxation and Revenue...

  12. Agricultural Biomass Income Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The credit is effective for biomass originating between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2020. The credit is worth $5 per wet ton. Eligible projects must apply to the Taxation and Revenue...

  13. FOIA-INCOMING Request March 2009

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  14. Income Tax Deduction for Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers should claim the deduction on forms from the Idaho State Tax Commission; contact the Idaho State Tax Commission for the most recent form.

  15. Targeting Contractors That Target Moderate Income Homeowners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an overview of the services provided by EGIA including business development webinars, a contractor exchange, and contractor recognition.

  16. Residential Renewable Energy Income Tax Credit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The credit is available to any owner or tenant of residential property. For a newly constructed home, the credit is available to the original owner/occupant. Joint owners of a residential property...

  17. Incoming request from Carpenter.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  18. LOW INCOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM OVERVIEW Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The reports include number of units (homes) served, as well as appliances installed. Demographic information is also provided, including the number of children, elderly, and tribal...

  19. LOW INCOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM OVERVIEW Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forum guidelines used by BPA's utilities for determining cost effectiveness. Demographic information is also provided, including the number of children, elderly, and tribal...

  20. Progress Report Workgroup #3 Low Income

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have a long-standing working relationship with their local Community Action Program (CAP Agency). However, other Utilities have not worked closely with the CAP Agency that...

  1. Low Income Workgroup Meeting Notes Portland, Oregon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tri-cities, so the utility runs workshop ads out right after that first big bill. Has a prop house and Todd installs the entire kit. Funds come from public information budget...

  2. INCOMING DOCUMENT CONTROL FORM DOCUMENT DESCRIPTION ORGANIZATIO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AH 10 05 00 0; NEAHOOl) RESULTS OF 'I-HE RADIOLOGICAL SURV AT THE FORMER ORE STORAGE SITEi ... by MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, I for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under Contract No. ...

  3. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    2013-05-22

    This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

  4. LandScan 2012 High Resolution Global Population DataSet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-17

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x20" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts at sub-national level were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets.

  5. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: General population training manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to: Describe the Paducah Plant Earthquake Preparedness Program, characterize the earthquake threat for the region, describe the actions which should be taken by the plant population during and after an earthquake to reduce the risk of injury, and explain the program which exists to help the plant prepare for and rapidly respond/recover from the effects of an earthquake.

  6. The effect of acidity variations in cloud droplet populations on aqueous-phase sulfate production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurciullo, C.S.; Pandis, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    The majority of global atmospheric sulfate production occurs in clouds. Experimental evidence suggests that significant chemical heterogeneities exist in cloud droplet populations. Both theoretical and field studies suggest that the acidity of a cloud droplet population can differ by 1 pH unit or more between the smallest and largest droplets. Traditionally, cloud chemistry has been studied using bulk models that assume that the aqueous- phase chemistry can be accurately modeled using {open_quotes}mean droplet{close_quotes} properties. The average droplet population pH is then used as the basis for calculating reaction rates. Using this bulk chemistry approach in cloud or fog models may lead to significant errors in the predicted aqueous-phase reaction rates. We prove analytically that the use of a droplet Population`s average pH always results in the underestimation of the rate of sulfate production. In order to examine the magnitude of this error, we have developed two aqueous-phase chemistry models: a droplet size-resolved model and a bulk chemistry model. The discrepancy between the results of these two models indicates the degree of error introduced by assuming bulk aqueous-phase properties. The magnitude of this error depends on the availability of SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and acidity, and can range from zero to a factor of three for reasonable ambient conditions. A modeling approach that combines the accuracy of the size-resolved model and the low computing requirements of the bulk model is developed.

  7. The OH rotational population and photodissociation of H{sub 2}O in DG Tauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan R.

    2014-06-10

    We analyze the OH rotational emission in the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared spectrum of the T Tauri star DG Tau. OH is observed in emission from upper level energies of 1900 K to 28,000 K. The rotational diagram cannot be fit with any single combination of temperature and column density and has slopes that correspond to excitation temperatures ranging from 200 K to 6000 K. The relative ?-doublet population within each rotational level is not equal, showing that the OH population is not in thermal equilibrium. The symmetric ?-doublet state is preferred in all rotational states, with an average of 0.5 for the population ratio of the anti-symmetric to symmetric state. We show that the population distribution of the high rotational lines and the ?-doublet ratio are consistent with the formation of OH following the photo-dissociation of H{sub 2}O by FUV photons in the second absorption band of water (?1150-1400 ), which includes Ly?. Other processes, OH formation from either photo-dissociation of water in the first absorption band (1450-1900 ) or the reaction O({sup 1} D) + H{sub 2}, or collisional excitation, cannot explain the observed emission in the high rotational states but could potentially contribute to the population of lower rotational levels. These results demonstrate that the photodissociation of water is active in DG Tau and support the idea that the hot rotational OH emission commonly observed in Classical T Tauri stars is due to the dissociation of H{sub 2}O by FUV radiation.

  8. INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canalizo, Gabriela; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

  9. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S. S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Cunha, C. E.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = 38.140.08 (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of ?? = 129.510.17. We find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ?24+96 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.

  10. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; et al

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = –38.14°±0.08° (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of θ₀ = 129.51°±0.17°. Wemore » find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 ± 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 ± 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 ± 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ≃24+9–6 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.« less

  11. Reduced Spill at Hydropower Dams: Opportunities for More Generation and Increased Fish Population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutant, Charles C; Mann, Roger; Sale, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    This report indicates that reduction of managed spill at hydropower dams can speed implementation of technologies for fish protection and achieve economic goals. Spill of water over spillways is managed in the Columbia River basin to assist downstream-migrating juvenile salmon, and is generally believed to be the most similar to natural migration, benign and effective passage route; other routes include turbines, intake screens with bypasses, and surface bypasses. However, this belief may be misguided, because spill is becoming recognized as less than natural, with deep intakes below normal migration depths, and likely causing physical damages from severe shear on spillways, high turbulence in tail waters, and collisions with baffle blocks that lead to disorientation and predation. Some spillways induce mortalities comparable to turbines. Spill is expensive in lost generation, and controversial. Fish-passage research is leading to more fish-friendly turbines, screens and bypasses that are more effective and less damaging, and surface bypasses that offer passage of more fish per unit water volume than does spill (leaving more water for generation). Analyses by independent economists demonstrated that goals of increased fish survival over the long term and net gain to the economy can be obtained by selectively reducing spill and diverting some of the income from added power generation to research, development, and installation of fish-passage technologies. Such a plan would selectively reduce spill when and where least damaging to fish, increase electricity generation using the water not spilled and use innovative financing to direct monetary gains to improving fish passage.

  12. Part VII: Section J: List of Documents, Exhibits, and Other Attachment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    12898 - Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations EO 13112 - Invasive Species 1999 EO 13186 - Responsibilities of Federal...

  13. "Table HC15.3 Household Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Household Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Household Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Household Size" "1 Person",30,1.8,1.9,2,3.2 "2 Persons",34.8,2.2,2.3,2.4,3.2 "3 Persons",18.4,1.1,1.3,1.2,1.8

  14. The ArcSDE GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool for Savannah River Site Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCLANE, TRACY; JONES, DWIGHT

    2005-10-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile Department of Energy site located near Aiken, South Carolina. With a workforce of over 10,000 employees and subcontractors, SRS emergency personnel must be able to respond to an emergency event in a timely and effective manner, in order to ensure the safety and security of the Site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides the technology needed to give managers and emergency personnel the information they need to make quick and effective decisions. In the event of a site evacuation, knowing the number of on-site personnel to evacuate from a given area is an essential piece of information for emergency staff. SRS has developed a GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool to quickly communicate real-time information that summarizes employee populations by facility area and building and then generates dynamic maps that illustrate output statistics.

  15. Table HC15.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 Total.................................................................................... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 0.6 0.5 0.8 1.4 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 1.4 1.5 2.0 3.1 Once a Day...................................................................

  16. Transient population and polarization gratings induced by (1+1)-dimensional ultrashort dipole soliton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Keyu; Niu, Yueping; Li, Ruxin; Jin, Shiqi; Gong, Shangqing

    2007-05-15

    An ultrafast transient population grating induced by a (1+1)-dimensional, ultrashort dipole soliton is demonstrated by solving the full-wave Maxwell-Bloch equations. The number of lines and the period of the grating can be controlled by the beam waist and the area of the pulse. Of interest is that a polarization grating is produced. A coherent control scheme based on these phenomena can be contemplated as ultrafast transient grating techniques.

  17. Ex-ante modeling, Load Scheduling and Differentiated Service Models for Populations of Flexible Loads

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ex-ante modeling, Load Scheduling and Differentiated Service Models for Populations of Flexible Loads Anna Scaglione (UC Davis) GSR: Mahnoosh Alizadeh CERTS Review Meeting 2014 1 / 42 Main objectives of the project Objectives: Modeling control mechanisms and economic value for aggregated load flexibility Evaluation: Theory and validation by simulations 2 / 42 Residential/personal appliances potential Observation: Costs include that of recruiting customers The "Internet of things" will

  18. Framework for assessing impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction on a harbour seal population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Hastie, Gordon D.; Nedwell, Jeremy; Barham, Richard; Brookes, Kate L.; Cordes, Line S.; Bailey, Helen; McLean, Nancy

    2013-11-15

    Offshore wind farm developments may impact protected marine mammal populations, requiring appropriate assessment under the EU Habitats Directive. We describe a framework developed to assess population level impacts of disturbance from piling noise on a protected harbour seal population in the vicinity of proposed wind farm developments in NE Scotland. Spatial patterns of seal distribution and received noise levels are integrated with available data on the potential impacts of noise to predict how many individuals are displaced or experience auditory injury. Expert judgement is used to link these impacts to changes in vital rates and applied to population models that compare population changes under baseline and construction scenarios over a 25 year period. We use published data and hypothetical piling scenarios to illustrate how the assessment framework has been used to support environmental assessments, explore the sensitivity of the framework to key assumptions, and discuss its potential application to other populations of marine mammals. -- Highlights: We develop a framework to support Appropriate Assessment for harbour seal populations. We assessed potential impacts of wind farm construction noise. Data on distribution of seals and noise were used to predict effects on individuals. Expert judgement linked these impacts to vital rates to model population change. We explore the sensitivity of the framework to key assumptions and uncertainties.

  19. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, Kriste M; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  20. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1987. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 70 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for reach of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mrem to a high of 0.009 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year). 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Hong; Cordero, Otto X.; Camas, Francisco M.; Trimble, William; Meyer, Folker; Guglielmini, Julien; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Polz, Martin F.

    2015-05-05

    Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells. Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.

  2. The massive star population in M101. II. Spatial variations in the recent star formation history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta M. E-mail: roberta@umn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We investigate star formation history (SFH) as a function of radius in M101 using archival Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry. We derive the SFH from the resolved stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to stellar populations traced by H?, far-ultraviolet, and near-ultraviolet emission, we find that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in H? is 15%-35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of H? emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our five annuli, examine the effects that a metallicity gradient and variable SFH have on the predicted ratios, and compare to the observed values. We find that the radial behavior of our modeled blue to red supergiant ratios is highly sensitive to both spatial variations in the SFH and metallicity. Incorporating the derived SFH into modeled ratios, we find that we are able to reproduce the observed values at large radii (low metallicity), but at small radii (high metallicity) the modeled and observed ratios are discrepant.

  3. ASTEROSEISMIC CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR POPULATIONS AMONG 13,000 RED GIANTS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; White, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars; Paxton, Bill; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Mosser, Benoit

    2013-03-10

    Of the more than 150,000 targets followed by the Kepler Mission, about 10% were selected as red giants. Due to their high scientific value, in particular for Galaxy population studies and stellar structure and evolution, their Kepler light curves were made public in late 2011. More than 13,000 (over 85%) of these stars show intrinsic flux variability caused by solar-like oscillations making them ideal for large-scale asteroseismic investigations. We automatically extracted individual frequencies and measured the period spacings of the dipole modes in nearly every red giant. These measurements naturally classify the stars into various populations, such as the red giant branch, the low-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 1.8) helium-core-burning red clump, and the higher-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}> 1.8) secondary clump. The period spacings also reveal that a large fraction of the stars show rotationally induced frequency splittings. This sample of stars will undoubtedly provide an extremely valuable source for studying the stellar population in the direction of the Kepler field, in particular when combined with complementary spectroscopic surveys.

  4. Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xue, Hong; Cordero, Otto X.; Camas, Francisco M.; Trimble, William; Meyer, Folker; Guglielmini, Julien; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Polz, Martin F.

    2015-05-05

    Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells.more » Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.« less

  5. CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY (CAST) PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Hull, Christopher

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations.

  6. H. R. 1272: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide a refundable income tax credit for the recycling of hazardous wastes, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, March 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on March 7, 1991 to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide a refundable income tax credit for the recycling of hazardous wastes. A credit of 2 cents is allowed for each pound of qualified hazardous waste recycled during the taxable year. To qualify as hazardous the waste must be listed by the EPA under section 3001 of the Solid Waste Act and is a waste product generated by the taxpayer in a trade or business.

  7. Population Estimates for Chum Salmon Spawning in the Mainstem Columbia River, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawding, Dan; Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-11-15

    Accurate and precise population estimates of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning in the mainstem Columbia River are needed to provide a basis for informed water allocation decisions, to determine the status of chum salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and to evaluate the contribution of the Duncan Creek re-introduction program to mainstem spawners. Currently, mark-recapture experiments using the Jolly-Seber model provide the only framework for this type of estimation. In 2002, a study was initiated to estimate mainstem Columbia River chum salmon populations using seining data collected while capturing broodstock as part of the Duncan Creek re-introduction. The five assumptions of the Jolly-Seber model were examined using hypothesis testing within a statistical framework, including goodness of fit tests and secondary experiments. We used POPAN 6, an integrated computer system for the analysis of capture-recapture data, to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of standard model parameters, derived estimates, and their precision. A more parsimonious final model was selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Final chum salmon escapement estimates and (standard error) from seining data for the Ives Island, Multnomah, and I-205 sites are 3,179 (150), 1,269 (216), and 3,468 (180), respectively. The Ives Island estimate is likely lower than the total escapement because only the largest two of four spawning sites were sampled. The accuracy and precision of these estimates would improve if seining was conducted twice per week instead of weekly, and by incorporating carcass recoveries into the analysis. Population estimates derived from seining mark-recapture data were compared to those obtained using the current mainstem Columbia River salmon escapement methodologies. The Jolly-Seber population estimate from carcass tagging in the Ives Island area was 4,232 adults with a standard error of 79. This population estimate appears reasonable and precise but batch marks and lack of secondary studies made it difficult to test Jolly-Seber assumptions, necessary for unbiased estimates. We recommend that individual tags be applied to carcasses to provide a statistical basis for goodness of fit tests and ultimately model selection. Secondary or double marks should be applied to assess tag loss and male and female chum salmon carcasses should be enumerated separately. Carcass tagging population estimates at the two other sites were biased low due to limited sampling. The Area-Under-the-Curve escapement estimates at all three sites were 36% to 76% of Jolly-Seber estimates. Area-Under-the Curve estimates are likely biased low because previous assumptions that observer efficiency is 100% and residence time is 10 days proved incorrect. If managers continue to rely on Area-Under-the-Curve to estimate mainstem Columbia River spawners, a methodology is provided to develop annual estimates of observer efficiency and residence time, and to incorporate uncertainty into the Area-Under-the-Curve escapement estimate.

  8. Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Singer, H. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Loto'aniu, T. M.; Ali, A. F.; Elkington, S. R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Claudepierre, S. G.; et al

    2015-09-09

    Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August–September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13–22more » September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. Furthermore, if any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.« less

  9. FAINT POPULATION III SUPERNOVAE AS THE ORIGIN OF THE MOST IRON-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi, E-mail: miho.ishigaki@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-09-10

    The most iron-poor stars in the Milky Way provide important observational clues to the astrophysical objects that enriched the primordial gas with heavy elements. Among them, the recently discovered iron-deficient star SMSS J031300.36670839.3 shows a remarkable chemical composition with a non-detection of iron ([Fe/H] <7.1) and large enhancement of carbon and magnesium relative to calcium. We investigate supernova yields of metal-free (Population III) stars to interpret the abundance pattern observed in this star. We report that the high [C/Ca] and [C/Mg] ratios and upper limits of other elemental abundances are well reproduced with the yields of core-collapse supernovae (which have normal kinetic energies of explosion E of E {sub 51} = E/10{sup 51}erg=1) and hypernovae (E {sub 51} ? 10) of Population III 25 M {sub ?} or 40 M {sub ?} stars. The best-fit models assume that the explosions undergo extensive matter mixing and fallback, leaving behind a black hole remnant. In these models, Ca is produced by static/explosive O burning and incomplete Si burning in the Population III supernova/hypernova, in contrast to the suggestion that Ca is originated from the hot-CNO cycle during pre-supernova evolution. Chemical abundances of four carbon-rich iron-poor stars with [Fe/H] <4.5, including SMSS J031300.36670839.3, are consistently explained by faint supernova models with ejected masses of {sup 56}Ni less than 10{sup 3} M {sub ?}.

  10. Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Singer, H. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Loto'aniu, T. M.; Ali, A. F.; Elkington, S. R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-09-09

    Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in AugustSeptember 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 1322 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. Furthermore, if any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.

  11. Final report-98-ERI-003 identification of population with lifetime 41Ca-labeled skeletons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, S P

    1999-02-25

    In 1997 we first postulated the existence of a special human population that had had their skeletons inadvertently isotopically adulterated in the past. We theorized that the population, and the necessary LLNL accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) measurement technology, would prove a significant resource in the fight to combat osteoporosis. This LDRD project was to establish such. The project was significantly successful in its initial year, but was not renewed for another and the research is now ended at LLNL. We proposed a three-year program to (1) confirm the magnitude and extent of historical 41 Ca dosing, (2) exactly characterize the long-term 41 Ca signal by comparing it with conventional measurements of skeletal health, and (3) demonstrate the utility of the historically labeled population in evaluating an actual potential therapy for osteoporosis. However, rather than investigate historical records to learn the identity of those inadvertently dosed, find them, and if possible enroll them into a new protocol, this project was to be particularly efficient by making use of a multiyear archive of samples from original, inadvertent 41 Ca-dosing experiments at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. Because the subjects had been dosed in conventional studies of calcium kinetics, much important correlating historical data would also be available for comparison. Measurements of contemporary urine samples specifically provided for this project by selected identified subjects would follow. We discovered a second archive at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. This is potentially a better source of material as the samples were generated in numerous historical evaluations of actual osteoporosis therapies in which 41 Ca-impure radiotracers were used. The therapies might now powerfully be retrospectively evaluated, both to contribute to our understanding of the therapies and to highlight the potential of the use of 41 Ca tracer and LLNL measurement.

  12. Assessment of Technologies Used to Characterize Wildlife Populations in the Offshore Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-12-09

    Wind energy development in the offshore environment can have both direct and indirect effects on wildlife, yet little is known about most species that use near-shore and offshore waters due in part to the difficulty involved in studying animals in remote, challenging environments. Traditional methods to characterize offshore wildlife populations include shipboard observations. Technological advances have provided researches with an array of technologies to gather information about fauna from afar. This report describes the use and application of radar, thermal and optical imagery, and acoustic detection technologies for monitoring birds, bats, and marine mammals in offshore environments.

  13. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sok?, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Mbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Wurz, P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ?7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ?19 from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He{sup +} ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the nature of the Warm Breeze, its discovery exposes a critical new feature of our heliospheric environment.

  14. CANDELS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE OBSERVED GALAXY POPULATION TO COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Papovich, Casey; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Finlator, Kristian; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cooray, Asantha; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Kocevski, Dale D.

    2012-10-20

    We present measurements of the specific ultraviolet luminosity density from a sample of 483 galaxies at 6 {approx}< z {approx}< 8. These galaxies were selected from new deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, Hubble UltraDeep Field 2009, and Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science programs. We investigate the contribution to reionization from galaxies that we observe directly, thus sidestepping the uncertainties inherent in complementary studies that have invoked assumptions regarding the intrinsic shape or the faint-end cutoff of the galaxy ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Due to our larger survey volume, wider wavelength coverage, and updated assumptions about the clumping of gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM), we find that the observable population of galaxies can sustain a fully reionized IGM at z = 6, if the average ionizing photon escape fraction (f {sub esc}) is {approx}30%. Our result contrasts with a number of previous studies that have measured UV luminosity densities at these redshifts that vary by a factor of five, with many concluding that galaxies could not complete reionization by z = 6 unless a large population of galaxies fainter than the detection limit were invoked, or extremely high values of f {sub esc} were present. The specific UV luminosity density from our observed galaxy samples at z = 7 and 8 is not sufficient to maintain a fully reionized IGM unless f {sub esc} > 50%. We examine the contribution from galaxies in different luminosity ranges and find that the sub-L* galaxies we detect are stronger contributors to the ionizing photon budget than the L > L* population, unless f {sub esc} is luminosity dependent. Combining our observations with constraints on the emission rate of ionizing photons from Ly{alpha} forest observations at z = 6, we find that we can constrain f {sub esc} < 34% (2{sigma}) if the observed galaxies are the only contributors to reionization, or <13% (2{sigma}) if the luminosity function extends to a limiting magnitude of M {sub UV} = -13. These escape fractions are sufficient to sustain an ionized IGM by z = 6. Current constraints on the high-redshift galaxy population imply that the volume ionized fraction of the IGM, while consistent with unity at z {<=} 6, appears to drop at redshifts not much higher than 7, consistent with a number of complementary reionization probes. If faint galaxies dominated the ionizing photon budget at z = 6-7, future extremely deep observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will probe deep enough to directly observe them, providing an indirect constraint on the global ionizing photon escape fraction.

  15. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 Total.................................................................................. 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................. 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment.................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use

  16. Nonstationary argon plasma, containing Ne-like and Na-like ions. 'fast compression' and population inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, L. N.; Knight, L. V.

    1995-05-01

    Evolution of levels populations in Ar plasma with varying parameters is under theoretical investigation. The model imitates fast compression and expansion of the capillary plasma column. The role of the hydrogen admixture is discussed.

  17. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future.

  18. A Population-Based Study of the Fractionation of Postlumpectomy Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, Allison; Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario ; Kong, Weidong; Whelan, Timothy; Mackillop, William J.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal fractionation schedule of post lumpectomy radiation therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the fractionation of post-lumpectomy radiation therapy (RT) in Ontario, before and after the seminal Ontario Clinical Oncology Group (OCOG) trial, which showed the equivalence of 16- and 25-fraction schedules. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted by linking electronic treatment records to a population-based cancer registry. The study population included all patients who underwent lumpectomy for invasive breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between 1984 and 2008. Results: Over the study period, 41,747 breast cancer patients received post lumpectomy radiation therapy to the breast only. Both 16- and 25-fraction schedules were commonly used throughout the study period. In the early 1980s, shorter fractionation schedules were used in >80% of cases. Between 1985 and 1995, the proportion of patients treated with shorter fractionation decreased to 48%. After completion of the OCOG trial, shorter fractionation schemes were once again widely adopted across Ontario, and are currently used in about 71% of cases; however, large intercenter variations in fractionation persisted. Conclusions: The use of shorter schedules of post lumpectomy RT in Ontario increased after completion of the OCOG trial, but the trial had a less normative effect on practice than expected.

  19. Spinning like a blue straggler: the population of fast rotating blue straggler stars in ? Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2014-12-10

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ? Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ?40 km s{sup 1} (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ?200 km s{sup 1}. About 40% of the sample has v{sub e} sin i > 40 km s{sup 1} and about 20% has v{sub e} sin i > 70 km s{sup 1}. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ? Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ? Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments.

  20. The VMC survey. XI. Radial stellar population gradients in the galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Rubele, Stefano; Girardi, Leo; Gullieuszik, Marco; Wang, Chuchu; Bekki, Kenji; For, Bi-Qing; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Clementini, Gisella; Emerson, Jim; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Guandalini, Roald; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Piatti, Andrs E.; Van Loon, Jacco Th. E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn

    2014-07-20

    We present a deep near-infrared color-magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K{sub s} survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color-magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ?0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from (Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005) in the cluster core to (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003) in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-generation stars, which decreases with increasing radius; the stellar population in the 47 Tuc periphery is well approximated by a simple stellar population.

  1. ORIGIN OF 12 {mu}m EMISSION ACROSS GALAXY POPULATIONS FROM WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoso, E.; Yan Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 {mu}m with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of {approx}10{sup 5} galaxies at (z) = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 {mu}m emission. We find that most ({approx}80%) of the 12 {mu}m emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 {mu}m emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L{sub [Oiii]} < 10{sup 7} L{sub .}) is produced by older stars, with ages of {approx}1-3 Gyr. We find that L{sub 12{mu}m} linearly correlates with stellar mass for SF galaxies. At fixed 12 {mu}m luminosity, weak AGNs deviate toward higher masses since they tend to be hosted by massive, early-type galaxies with older stellar populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L{sub 12{mu}m}-SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 {mu}m emission at low SFR (0.02-1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by {approx}3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L[{sub Oiii]} > 10{sup 7} L{sub .}), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 {mu}m color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  2. Aqueous precipitation: Population balance modeling and control in multi-cation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    Efficient separation of metal species from aqueous streams by precipitation techniques requires a fundamental understanding of the processes that occur during precipitation. These processes include particle nucleation, particle growth by solute deposition, agglomerate formation, and agglomerate breakup. Population balance method has been used to develop a kinetic model that accounts for these competing kinetic processes. The usefulness of the model is illustrated through its application to precipitation of yttrium hydroxynitrate, YHN. Kinetic parameters calculated from the model equations and system-specific solution chemistry are used to describe several aspects of the effect of pH on YHN precipitation. Implications for simultaneous precipitation of more than one cation type are discussed with examples. Effects of solution chemistry, precipitator design, and solvent choice are considered.

  3. High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanon, T.; Guerandel, S.; Clercq, E. de; Holleville, D.; Dimarcq, N.; Clairon, A. [SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2005-05-20

    We report the observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes using a double lambda scheme creating coherent population trapping in an atomic ensemble combined with pulsed optical radiations. The observation was made in a Cs vapor mixed with N{sub 2} buffer gas in a closed cell. The double lambda scheme is created with lin perpendicular lin polarized laser beams leading to higher contrast than the usual simple lambda scheme. The pulsed trapping technique leads to narrow fringe widths scaling as 1/(2T) with high contrasts which are no longer limited by the saturation effect. This technique operates in a different way from the classical Ramsey sequence: the signal is done by applying a long trapping pulse to prepare the atomic state superposition, and fringe detection is accomplished by optical transmission during a short second trapping pulse without any perturbation of the dark state.

  4. Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Population without Power during Extreme Weather Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Fernandez, Steven J; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2010-01-01

    One challenge in emergency preparedness and response during extreme weather events such as hurricanes and ice storms is estimating how many people may be without power and how long they could be without power. In this presentation, we will discuss a method for estimating the spatial distribution of people without power during extreme weather events. The method is based on a directional nearest-neighbor approach in which grid cells representing substation locations acquire other grid cells representing customers/population demand with respect to the capacity of each substation. We also present a method for estimating restoration time in case of an outage. The application of these methods during the 2008 hurricane season will also be discussed.

  5. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-10

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M {sub BH}-?{sub *} relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, ? {sub m}, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ?2000 (? {sub m} = 3 km s{sup 1}) or as few as ?70 (? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup 1}) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ? 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the ? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup 1} scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than m{sub V} = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr{sup 1}. Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  6. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofsica, Facultad de Fsica, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 0.8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ?20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ?3? confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ?50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ? 10{sup 14} erg cm{sup 2} s{sup 1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  7. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  8. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  9. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies. A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.

  10. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies. A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use formore » the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.« less

  11. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies: A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.

  12. Microsoft Word - EA-1135.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the Census Current Population Reports, Series P-60 on Income and Poverty. The 1990 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimate for Benton County, published by the Bureau of Census, ...

  13. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the Census Current Population Reports, Series P-60 on Income and Poverty. The 1990 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimate for Benton County, published by the Bureau of Census, ...

  14. THE BLUE STRAGGLER STAR POPULATION IN NGC1261: EVIDENCE FOR A POST-CORE-COLLAPSE BOUNCE STATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H.; Sills, Alison E-mail: tpuzia@astro.puc.cl

    2014-11-01

    We present a multi-passband photometric study of the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC1261, using available space- and ground-based survey data. The inner BSS population is found to have two distinct sequences in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD), similar to double BSS sequences detected in other GCs. These well defined sequences are presumably linked to single short-lived events such as core collapse, which are expected to boost the formation of BSSs. In agreement with this, we find a BSS sequence in NGC1261 which can be well reproduced individually by a theoretical model prediction of a 2 Gyr old population of stellar collision products, which are expected to form in the denser inner regions during short-lived core contraction phases. Additionally, we report the occurrence of a group of BSSs with unusually blue colors in the CMD, which are consistent with a corresponding model of a 200Myr old population of stellar collision products. The properties of the NGC1261 BSS populations, including their spatial distributions, suggest an advanced dynamical evolutionary state of the cluster, but the core of this GC does not show the classical signatures of core collapse. We argue that these apparent contradictions provide evidence for a post-core-collapse bounce state seen in dynamical simulations of old GCs.

  15. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurokawa, H.; Nakamoto, T.

    2014-03-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (? 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  16. A CATALOG OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZE OF A GALAXY'S GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, William E.; Alessi, Matthew; Harris, Gretchen L. H. E-mail: alessimj@mcmaster.ca

    2013-08-01

    We present a catalog of 422 galaxies with published measurements of their globular cluster (GC) populations. Of these, 248 are E galaxies, 93 are S0 galaxies, and 81 are spirals or irregulars. Among various correlations of the total number of GCs with other global galaxy properties, we find that N{sub GC} correlates well though nonlinearly with the dynamical mass of the galaxy bulge M{sub dyn}= 4{sigma}{sub e}{sup 2} R{sub e} /G, where {sigma}{sub e} is the central velocity dispersion and R{sub e} the effective radius of the galaxy light profile. We also present updated versions of the GC specific frequency S{sub N} and specific mass S{sub M} versus host galaxy luminosity and baryonic mass. These graphs exhibit the previously known U-shape: highest S{sub N} or S{sub M} values occur for either dwarfs or supergiants, but in the midrange of galaxy size (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} L{sub Sun }) the GC numbers fall along a well-defined baseline value of S{sub N} {approx_equal} 1 or S{sub M} = 0.1, similar among all galaxy types. Along with other recent discussions, we suggest that this trend may represent the effects of feedback, which systematically inhibited early star formation at either very low or very high galaxy mass, but which had its minimum effect for intermediate masses. Our results strongly reinforce recent proposals that GC formation efficiency appears to be most nearly proportional to the galaxy halo mass M{sub halo}. The mean 'absolute' efficiency ratio for GC formation that we derive from the catalog data is M{sub GCS}/M{sub halo} = 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. We suggest that the galaxy-to-galaxy scatter around this mean value may arise in part because of differences in the relative timing of GC formation versus field-star formation. Finally, we find that an excellent empirical predictor of total GC population for galaxies of all luminosities is N{sub GC} {approx} (R{sub e} {sigma}{sub e}){sup 1.3}, a result consistent with fundamental plane scaling relations.

  17. 2007 TY430: A COLD CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT TYPE BINARY IN THE PLUTINO POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Ragozzine, Darin; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2012-03-15

    Kuiper Belt object 2007 TY430 is the first wide, equal-sized, binary known in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune. The two components have a maximum separation of about 1 arcsec and are on average less than 0.1 mag different in apparent magnitude with identical ultra-red colors (g - i = 1.49 {+-} 0.01 mag). Using nearly monthly observations of 2007 TY430 from 2007 to 2011, the orbit of the mutual components was found to have a period of 961.2 {+-} 4.6 days with a semi-major axis of 21000 {+-} 160 km and eccentricity of 0.1529 {+-} 0.0028. The inclination with respect to the ecliptic is 15.68 {+-} 0.22 deg and extensive observations have allowed the mirror orbit to be eliminated as a possibility. The total mass for the binary system was found to be 7.90 {+-} 0.21 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} kg. Equal-sized, wide binaries and ultra-red colors are common in the low-inclination 'cold' classical part of the Kuiper Belt and likely formed through some sort of three-body interactions within a much denser Kuiper Belt. To date 2007 TY430 is the only ultra-red, equal-sized binary known outside of the classical Kuiper Belt population. Numerical simulations suggest 2007 TY430 is moderately unstable in the outer part of the 3:2 resonance and thus 2007 TY430 is likely an escaped 'cold' classical object that later got trapped in the 3:2 resonance. Similar to the known equal-sized, wide binaries in the cold classical population, the binary 2007 TY430 requires a high albedo and very low density structure to obtain the total mass found for the pair. For a realistic minimum density of 0.5 g cm{sup -3} the albedo of 2007 TY430 would be greater than 0.17. For reasonable densities, the radii of either component should be less than 60 km, and thus the relatively low eccentricity of the binary is interesting since no tides should be operating on the bodies at their large distances from each other. The low prograde inclination of the binary also makes it unlikely that the Kozai mechanism could have altered the orbit, making the 2007 TY430 binary orbit likely one of the few relatively unaltered primordial binary orbits known. Under some binary formation models, the low-inclination prograde orbit of the 2007 TY430 binary indicates formation within a relatively high velocity regime in the Kuiper Belt.

  18. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  19. "Table HC15.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,7.1,"N","N","N" "New

  20. "Table HC15.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Appliances Usage Indicators",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked" "3 or More Times A Day",8.2,0.6,0.5,0.8,1.4 "2 Times

  1. "Table HC15.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Personal Computers" "Do Not Use a Personal Computer ",35.5,3,2,2.7,3.1 "Use a Personal

  2. "Table HC15.2 Living Space Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Living Space Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.4,"Q","Q",0.5 "500

  3. "Table HC15.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.2 "Have Main Space Heating

  4. "Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2

  5. "Table HC15.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total U.S.",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,7.1,6.9,7.8,11.7

  6. Coherent population trapping resonances at lower atomic levels of Doppler broadened optical lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ahin, E; Hamid, R; elik, M; zen, G; Izmailov, A Ch

    2014-11-30

    We have detected and analysed narrow high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances, which are induced in absorption of a weak monochromatic probe light beam by counterpropagating two-frequency pump radiation in a cell with rarefied caesium vapour. The experimental investigations have been performed by the example of nonclosed three level ?-systems formed by spectral components of the D{sub 2} line of caesium atoms. The applied method allows one to analyse features of the CPT phenomenon directly at a given low long-lived level of the selected ?-system even in sufficiently complicated spectra of atomic gases with large Doppler broadening. We have established that CPT resonances in transmission of the probe beam exhibit not only a higher contrast but also a much lesser width in comparison with well- known CPT resonances in transmission of the corresponding two-frequency pump radiation. The results obtained can be used in selective photophysics, photochemistry and ultra-high resolution atomic (molecular) spectroscopy. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most abandoned lek sites were located <5 km from turbines. Probability of lek persistence was significantly related to habitat and number of males. Leks had a higher probability of persistence in grasslands than agricultural fields, and increased from ~0.2 for leks of 5 males, to >0.9 for leks of 10 or more males. Large leks in grasslands should be a higher priority for conservation. Overall, wind power development had a weak effect on the annual probability of lek persistence. 3. We used molecular methods to investigate the mating behavior of prairie chickens. The prevailing view for lek-mating grouse is that females mate once to fertilize the clutch and that conspecific nest parasitism is rare. We found evidence that females mate multiple times to fertilize the clutch (8-18% of broods, 4-38% of chicks) and will parasitize nests of other females during egg-laying (~17% of nests). Variable rates of parentage were highest in the fragmented landscapes at the Smoky Hills field site, and were lower at the Flint Hills field site. Comparisons of the pre- and postconstruction periods showed that wind energy development did not affect the mating behaviors of prairie chickens. 4. We examined use of breeding habitats by radio-marked females and conducted separate analyses for nest site selection, and movements of females not attending nests or broods. The landscape was a mix of native prairie and agricultural habitats, and nest site selection was not random because females preferred to nest in grasslands. Nests tended to be closer to turbines during the postconstruction period and there was no evidence of behavioral avoidance of turbines by females during nest site selection. Movements of females not attending nests or broods showed that females crossed the site of the wind power development at higher rates during the preconstruction period (20%) than the postconstruction period (11%), and that movements away from turbines were more frequent during the postconstruction period. Thus, wind power development appears to affect movements in breeding habitats but not nest site s

  8. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A. E-mail: wirth@keck.hawaii.edu

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ? 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  9. REVISITING THE FIRST GALAXIES: THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION III STARS ON THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Zemp, Marcel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: muratov@umich.edu [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H{sub 2} formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10{sup 8} years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.

  10. Exploring Ramsey-coherent population trapping atomic clock realized with pulsed microwave modulated laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jing; Yun, Peter [Key Laboratory of Atomic Frequency Standards, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tian, Yuan; Tan, Bozhong [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gu, Sihong, E-mail: shgu@wipm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Atomic Frequency Standards, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-03-07

    A scheme for a Ramsey-coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock that eliminates the acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is proposed and experimentally studied. Driven by a periodically microwave modulated current, the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emits a continuous beam that switches between monochromatic and multichromatic modes. Ramsey-CPT interference has been studied with this mode-switching beam. In eliminating the AOM, which is used to generate pulsed laser in conventional Ramsey-CPT atomic clock, the physics package of the proposed scheme is virtually the same as that of a conventional compact CPT atomic clock, although the resource budget for the electronics will slightly increase as a microwave switch should be added. By evaluating and comparing experimentally recorded signals from the two Ramsey-CPT schemes, the short-term frequency stability of the proposed scheme was found to be 46% better than the scheme with AOM. The experimental results suggest that the implementation of a compact Ramsey-CPT atomic clock promises better frequency stability.

  11. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  12. Trinucleotide repeats at the FRAXF locus: Frequency and distribution in the general population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, J.J.A.; Walker, M.

    1996-08-09

    FRAXF the third X-chromosomal fragile site to be cloned, has been shown to harbor a polymorphic compound triplet array: (GC-CGTC){sub n} (GCC){sub n}. Expansion and methylation of the GCC-repeat and the neighboring CpG-rich region result in chromosomal fragility. DNAs from 500 anonymous consecutive newborn males were examined to determine the incidence of various repeat numbers. The range of repeats was from 10-38, with the most common alleles having 14 (52.7%), 12 (16.6%), 21 (9.0%), and 22 (5.2%) triplets. Based on the distribution of repeat numbers, we suggest that the 21-repeat allele resulted from hairpin formation involving 7 GCC-repeats in a 14-repeat allele, accompanied by polymerase slippage. Examination of dinucleotide repeats near the FRAXF repeat will be important in testing this hypothesis. Since the clinical phenotype, if any, of FRAXF is unknown, this database will also be valuable for comparisons with repeat numbers in individuals from special populations. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Almgren, Ann [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: kchen@ucolick.org [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The formation of supermassive Population III stars with masses ?10,000 M{sub ?} in primeval galaxies in strong ultraviolet backgrounds at z ? 15 may be the most viable pathway to the formation of supermassive black holes by z ? 7. Most of these stars are expected to live for short times and then directly collapse to black holes, with little or no mass loss over their lives. However, we have now discovered that non-rotating primordial stars with masses close to 55,000 M{sub ?} can instead die as highly energetic thermonuclear supernovae powered by explosive helium burning, releasing up to 10{sup 55} erg, or about 10,000 times the energy of a Type Ia supernova. The explosion is triggered by the general relativistic contribution of thermal photons to gravity in the core of the star, which causes the core to contract and explosively burn. The energy release completely unbinds the star, leaving no compact remnant, and about half of the mass of the star is ejected into the early cosmos in the form of heavy elements. The explosion would be visible in the near infrared at z ? 20 to Euclid and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, perhaps signaling the birth of supermassive black hole seeds and the first quasars.

  14. Computational Model of Population Dynamics Based on the Cell Cycle and Local Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oprisan, Sorinel Adrian; Oprisan, Ana

    2005-03-31

    Our study bridges cellular (mesoscopic) level interactions and global population (macroscopic) dynamics of carcinoma. The morphological differences and transitions between well and smooth defined benign tumors and tentacular malignat tumors suggest a theoretical analysis of tumor invasion based on the development of mathematical models exhibiting bifurcations of spatial patterns in the density of tumor cells. Our computational model views the most representative and clinically relevant features of oncogenesis as a fight between two distinct sub-systems: the immune system of the host and the neoplastic system. We implemented the neoplastic sub-system using a three-stage cell cycle: active, dormant, and necrosis. The second considered sub-system consists of cytotoxic active (effector) cells -- EC, with a very broad phenotype ranging from NK cells to CTL cells, macrophages, etc. Based on extensive numerical simulations, we correlated the fractal dimensions for carcinoma, which could be obtained from tumor imaging, with the malignat stage. Our computational model was able to also simulate the effects of surgical, chemotherapeutical, and radiotherapeutical treatments.

  15. The WFPC2 ultraviolet survey: The blue straggler population in NGC 5824

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanna, N.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have used a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and wide-field ground-based observations, in ultraviolet and optical bands, to study the blue straggler star population of the massive outer halo globular cluster NGC 5824 over its entire radial extent. We have computed the center of the cluster and constructed the radial density profile from detailed star counts. The profile is well reproduced by a Wilson model with a small core (r{sub c} ? 4.''4) and a concentration parameter c ? 2.74. We also present the first age determination for this cluster. From a comparison with isochrones, we find t = 13 0.5 Gyr. We discuss this result in the context of the observed age-metallicity relation of Galactic globular clusters. A total of 60 bright blue stragglers has been identified. Their radial distribution is found to be bimodal, with a central peak, a well-defined minimum at r ? 20'', and an upturn at large radii. In the framework of the dynamical clock recently defined by Ferraro et al., this feature suggests that NGC 5824 is a cluster of intermediate dynamical age.

  16. Respiratory health effects of the indoor environment in a population of Dutch children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijkstra, L.; Houthuijs, D.; Brunekreef, B.; Akkerman, I.; Boleij, J.S. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on respiratory health was studied over a period of 2 yr in a population of nonsmoking Dutch children 6 to 12 yr of age. Lung function was measured at the schools, and information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. Nitrogen dioxide was measured in the homes of all children with Palmes' diffusion tubes. In addition, information on smoking and dampness in the home was collected by questionnaire. There was no relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the home and respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were found to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke and home dampness. There was a weak, negative association between maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide. FEV1, peak expiratory flow, and MMEF were all negatively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke. Home dampness was not associated with pulmonary function. Lung function growth, measured over a period of 2 yr, was not consistently associated with any of the indoor exposure variables. The development of respiratory symptoms over time was not associated with indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide. There was a significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home and the development of wheeze. There was also a significant association between home dampness and the development of cough.

  17. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic tomore » these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  18. Enhanced γ -Ray Emission from Neutron Unbound States Populated in β Decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Rice, S.; Gelletly, W.; Regan, P.; Zakari-Issoufou, A. -A.; Fallot, M.; et al

    2015-08-01

    Total absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the β -decay intensity to states above the neutron separation energy followed by γ -ray emission in 87,88Br and 94Rb. Accurate results were obtained thanks to the careful control of systematic errors. An unexpectedly large γ intensity was observed in all three cases extending well beyond the excitation energy region where neutron penetration is hindered by low neutron energy. The γ branching as a function of excitation energy was compared to Hauser-Feshbach model calculations. For 87Br and 88Br the branching reaches 57% and 20% respectively, and could be explained as a nuclear structuremore » effect. Some of the states populated in the daughter can only decay through the emission of a large orbital angular momentum neutron with a strongly reduced barrier penetrability. In the case of neutron-rich 94Rb the observed 4.5% branching is much larger than the calculations performed with standard nuclear statistical model parameters, even after proper correction for fluctuation effects on individual transition widths. The difference can be reconciled introducing an enhancement of one order-of-magnitude in the photon strength to neutron strength ratio. An increase in the photon strength function of such magnitude for very neutron-rich nuclei, if it proved to be correct, leads to a similar increase in the (n, γ) cross section that would have an impact on r process abundance calculations.« less

  19. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a male breast cancer population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, L.S.; Gayther, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J.

    1997-02-01

    A population-based series of 54 male breast cancer cases from Southern California were analyzed for germ-line mutations in the inherited breast/ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nine (17%) of the patients had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in at least one first-degree relative. A further seven (13%) of the patients reported breast/ovarian cancer in at least one second-degree relative and in no first-degree relatives. No germ-line BRCA1 mutations were found. Two male breast cancer patients (4% of the total) were found to carry novel truncating mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Only one of the two male breast cancer patients carrying a BRCA2 mutation had a family history of cancer, with one case of ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative. The remaining eight cases (89%) of male breast cancer with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives remain unaccounted for by mutations in either the BRCA1 gene or the BRCA2 gene. 23 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Ecological distribution and population physiology defined by proteomics in a natural microbial community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, R; Denef, Vincent; Kalnejals, Linda; Suttle, K Blake; Thomas, Brian; Wilmes, P; Smith, Richard L.; Nordstrom, D Kirk; McCleskey, R Blaine; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge in microbial ecology is developing methods that simultaneously examine the physiology of organisms at the molecular level and their ecosystem level interactions in complex natural systems.We integrated extensive proteomic, geochemical, and biological information from 28 microbial communities collected from an acid mine drainage environment and representing a range of biofilm development stages and geochemical conditions to evaluate how the physiologies of the dominant and less abundant organisms change along environmental gradients. The initial colonist dominates across all environments, but its proteome changes between two stable states as communities diversify, implying that interspecies interactions affect this organism s metabolism. Its overall physiology is robust to abiotic environmental factors, but strong correlations exist between these factors and certain subsets of proteins, possibly accounting for its wide environmental distribution. Lower abundance populations are patchier in their distribution, and proteomic data indicate that their environmental niches may be constrained by specific sets of abiotic environmental factors. This research establishes an effective strategy to investigate ecological relationships between microbial physiology and the environment for whole communities in situ