Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Black Liquor Research Program symposium: proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the paper pulp industry's recovery boilers, black liquor is sprayed in through nozzle guns near the top of the furnace. This report includes eight papers. (DLC)

Emerson, D.B.; Whitworth, B.A.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

535^ Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Bibliography By George A, Harold E. Crowther, Acting Director Red-Tide Research Summarized to 1964 Including an Annotated Historical 2 General conditions during red-tide outbreaks 3 Temperature 3 Salinity 3 Rainfall 4 Wind 4 Light

3

Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 · Brown Stock Corrosion · Alkaline Liquor Corrosion · Black Liquor Corrosion ­ Evaporators ­ Research · High Solids Black Liquor Corrosion of Stainless Steel

Das, Suman

5

Legal protection for the red squirrel The red squirrel is included in Schedules 5 and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circumstances, permit actions that would otherwise be illegal. These include: · The act was the incidental, there is also a licensing system, which can permit activities that would otherwise be offences for certain

6

Gasification of black liquor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for treating a concentrated aqueous black liquor carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt comprising: (a) providing a gasifier vessel maintained at a pressure of from about 1 to 50 atmospheres and containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom within a sump equipped with an overflow discharge; (b) introducing into the top of the drying zone the concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds; (c) evaporating water from the concentrated aqueous black liquor in the drying zone by direct contact of the aqueous black liquor with the hot gas rising from the gasification zone to produce dried black liquor solids; (d) introducing a first portion of an oxygen-containing gas into the gas space in the gasification zone located below the drying zone immediately above the molten salt pool to partially oxidize and gasify a fraction of the carbonaceous material in the dried black liquor solids falling through the zone to form a hot combustible gas; (e) introducing a second portion of the oxygen-containing gas beneath the surface of the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of essentially all carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool; (f) withdrawing the cooled combustible gas having a higher heating value of at least about 90 Btu/scf (dry basis) from an upper portion of the drying zone; and (g) withdrawing from the overflow discharge in the molten salt reduction zone a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

7

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

8

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

9

Combustion of black liquor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in the combustion of black liquor in an existing Tomlison recovery boiler unit in which black liquor is sprayed into a furnace in which it is successively dried, pyrolyzed and converted to a bed of solid carbonaceous residue, using a primary air stream and a secondary air stream and the residue is subsequently converted to a smelt. The improvement comprises: the addition of between an effective amount up to 5% oxygen by volume to the primary air stream directed at the bed of solid carbonaceous residue, the amount of oxygen added being sufficient to increase the adiabatic flame temperature, the combustion rate of the solid carbonaceous material, the rate of pyrolysis, the temperature in the lower portion of the furnace, the the drying rate of black liquor droplets, and to decrease the temperature of the gases entering the heat transfer surfaces in the upper portion of the furnace and the rate of deposit formation on the surfaces and wherein the amount of black liquor combusted is increased as compared with the amount combusted in the same furnace operated without the addition of oxygen to the primary air.

Mullen, W.T.

1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

11

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.3, Simulative corrosion of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1 and Task 1.2. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors were tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. The best performing materials in the cup testing were fused cast materials. However, 2 castables appear to outperforming any of the previously tested materials and may perform better than the fused cast materials in operation. The basis of the high performance of these materials is the low open porosity and permeability to black liquor smelt.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit them to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit them to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by UV-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. The paper describes the digestor, the large scale evaporation, liquor analysis, thermal studies, and viscosity results. 31 figs., 5 tabs.

Fricke, A.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Habitability of Super-Earth Planets around Other Suns: Models including Red Giant Branch Evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super- Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production taking into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ) determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers the solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds". Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main-sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

W. von Bloh; M. Cuntz; K. -P. Schroeder; C. Bounama; S. Franck

2008-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

28

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Kraft black liquor delivery systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

Scott Alan Sinquefield

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping This factsheet describes a...

37

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten Jr., Carl Frederick

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

39

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

40

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process #12;#include #include pid_t pid = fork(); if (pid () failed */ } else if (pid == 0) { /* parent process */ } else { /* child process */ } #12;thread #12

Campbell, Andrew T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Lowering kraft black liquor viscosity of ultrafiltration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High viscosity is a major factor limiting the percentage total dissolved solids (%TDS) to which kraft black liquor (KBL), a spent pulping liquor, can be concentrated before it is burned to recover its fuel value and its inorganic chemicals. The effect on black liquor viscosity of removing high molecular weight lignin by ultrafiltration of 16% and 24% TDS liquors was studied. Viscosities of ultrafiltration permeates were reduced relative to feed black liquors. When a permeate was concentrated to higher %TDS levels, its viscosity decreased yet further relative to feed samples evaporated to similar solids levels. Retentate viscosity was very high relative to both feed and permeate. Ultrafiltration was carried out at 75/degrees/C using polysulfone membranes in a plate-and-frame or hollow fiber system. Flux rates varied greatly depending upon the specific liquor used. Flux was enhanced by increased temperature and increased linear velocity. The membrane molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) typically used was 50,000; increasing 100,000 or 200,000 did not enhance flux.

Hill, M.K.; Violette, D.A.; Woerner, D.L.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kraft process dominates pulp and paper production worldwide. Black liquor, a mixture of lignin and inorganic chemicals, is generated in this process as fiber is extracted from wood. At most kraft mills today, black liquor is burned in Tomlinson boilers to produce steam for on-site heat and power and to recover the inorganic chemicals for reuse in the process. Globally, the black liquor generation rate is about 85,000 MW{sub fuel} (or 0.5 million tonnes of dry solids per day), with nearly 50% of this in North America. The majority of presently installed Tomlinson boilers will reach the end of their useful lives during the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor-gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher electrical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety, and capital cost benefits for kraft mills. Several companies are pursuing commercialization of black liquor gasification for gas turbine applications. This paper presents results of detailed performance modeling of gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration systems using different black liquor gasifiers modeled on proposed commercial designs.

Consonni, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. di Energetica; Larson, E.D.; Keutz, T.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Berglin, N. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Technology

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

Fricke, A.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#include #include //Rappels : "getpid()" permet d'obtenir son propre pid // "getppid()" renvoie le pid du père d'un processus int main (void) { pid_t pid_fils; pid_fils = fork(); if(pid_fils==-1) { printf("Erreur de création du processus fils\

Poinsot, Laurent

45

Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Improved recovery of tall oil from black liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Applying a d.c. of less than 15 V to acidified black liquor separates a significant amount of tall oil remaining in the black liquor sludge. An apparatus with graphite electrodes for this process is described.

Zucker, J.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

47

National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 8, Black-liquor boiler BLB-C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emissions test of a black-liquor recovery boiler equipped with a drybottom electrostatic precipitator for particulate emissions control. Black-liquor recovery boilers are used at kraft pulp mills to produce process steam and to reclaim inorganic chemicals from spent wood pulping liquors. The dioxin/furan emissions test was conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective of Tier 4 is to determine if various combustion sources are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Black-liquor recovery boilers are one of 8 combustion-source categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested black-liquor boiler, BLB-C, was selected for the test after an initial information screening and a one-day pretest survey visit. Boiler BLB-C is considered representative of black-liquor recovery boilers with dry-bottom electrostatic precipitators. The amount of chloride present in the black-liquor circuit at this site is considered intermediate to high relative to that found at other kraft pulp mills. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDD) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

Jamgochian, C.L.; Keller, L.E.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

DEMONSTRATION OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION AT BIG ISLAND  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Technical Progress Report provides an account of the status of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific Corporation's Big Island, VA facility. The report also includes budget information and a milestone schedule. The project to be conducted by G-P is a comprehensive, complete commercial-scale demonstration that is divided into two phases. Phase I is the validation of the project scope and cost estimate. Phase II is project execution, data acquisition and reporting, and consists of procurement of major equipment, construction and start-up of the new system. Phase II also includes operation of the system for a period of time to demonstrate the safe operation and full integration of the energy and chemical recovery systems in a commercial environment. The objective of Phase I is to validate the process design and to engineer viable solutions to any technology gaps. This phase includes engineering and planning for the integration of the full-scale MTCI/StoneChem PulseEnhanced{trademark} black liquor steam-reformer chemical recovery system into G-P's operating pulp and paper mill at Big Island, Virginia. During this phase, the scope and cost estimate will be finalized to confirm the cost of the project and its integration into the existing system at the mill. The objective of Phase II of the project is the successful and safe completion of the engineering, construction and functional operation of the fully integrated full-scale steam reformer process system. This phase includes installation of all associated support systems and equipment required for the enhanced recovery of both energy and chemicals from all of the black liquor generated from the pulping process at the Big Island Mill. The objective also includes operation of the steam reformer system to demonstrate the ability of the system to operate reliably and achieve designed levels of energy and chemical recovery while maintaining environmental emissions at or below the limits set by the environmental permits.

Robert DeCarrera

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

49

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor: Phase II, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major justification for examining ultrafiltration was to lower the viscosity of the Kraft Black Liquor by recovering it as an ultrafiltration permeate from which the highest MW lignin had been removed. The liquor could then be concentrated to a higher percentage solids before firing into the recovery boiler. Consequent energy savings for the 1000 ton/day pulp mill would be 2.05 x 10 Btu/y for each percentage increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) to the recovery boiler. This Phase II report gives data on viscosity with percentage solids of KBL permeates. Another favorable effect of ultrafiltration on the permeate properties is disproportionate removal of multivalent ions including the major scaling ion CaS . If this high-viscosity high-Ca retentate could be treated to lower its viscosity and to release the Ca in a non-scaling form, this would enhance the possibility that ultrafiltration might be useful in a mill situation. Included in this report are data on the results of treating the retentate fraction. Other justifications for this program included further information in KBL properties: lignin MW in the KBL at high pH; elemental and sugar analyses; and differential properties of lignins in the retentate and the permeate fractions. A preliminary economic analysis of ultrafiltration is contained in this report. These analyses indicate that with flux rates now attainable, ultrafiltration would not be economically justified at this time if the only justification is to lower KBL viscosity. For certain situations where high Ca liquors present a scaling problem, especially in an evaporator-limited mill, the economics are more favorable. There are also unsolved problems relating to the use of the high viscosity retentate.

Hill, M.K.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Fundamental Study of Black Liquor Gasification Kinetics. Quarterly progress report for the period October 1999 to December 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research is to evaluate the kinetics of gasification of kraft black liquor under laboratory conditions simulating pressurized, oxygen-blown gasification. The significant independent variables are gasifier temperature, black liquor composition particle size, and particle residence time. The authors will quantify their impact on the concentration of major and trace gas phase species, as well as the composition of condensed phase inorganic products, including specification of the Na- and S-containing compounds and overall carbon conversion.

NONE

2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

52

Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All the objectives were accomplished: a high-quality kraft lignin containing less than 50 ppM sodium was separated into a solvent phase (freon) from as much as 1000 lb kraft black liquor. Supporting data (infrared spectra, chemical analyses, etc.) are included. (DLC)

Kurple, K.R.

1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Electrochemical treatment of black liquor from straw pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conventional black liquor regeneration process is not always suitable for pulping plants of nonwood fibers due to the unfavorable ratio of organic to inorganic solids. This paper presents an alternative treatment based on an electrolysis process of the soda black liquor from straw pulping. This alternative method minimizes the environmental impact by recovering the caustic at the same time that the liquor is acidified, which favors the later separation of the lignin.

Blanco, M.A.; Negro, C.; Tijero, J. [Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain)] [and others

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Thermal processing of black liquor from alkaline straw pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor is the wastewater from the cooking of wood or straw in the production of pulp and paper. Nowadays new processes are being investigated as alternatives to the traditional recovery boiler used for black liquor treatment. One of the processes which appears to be more promising is gasification, for which further research is needed for its full industrial implementation. There is not much data about the behavior of soda black liquors from straw cooking in the literature. Therefore the thermal decomposition of one of these liquors has been studied in a thermobalance, in inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. The kinetic constants from isothermal experiments have been obtained.

Sanchez, J.L.; Garcia, L.; Gea, G.; Bilbao, R.; Arauzo, J. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Physical properties of Kraft Black Liquor. Interim report, Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objectives are to determine the rheological, thermal, and surface properties of Kraft Black Liquors, and to relate these properties to the chemical composition and to pulping conditions. A four-variable, multi-level pulping experiment is being conducted. Pulping results are reported. Complete analyses of the liquors have been done. Thermal analyses have been done. DSC was employed to determine heat capacities of black liquors and lignins. Rheological (viscosity) studies are being conducted. Density and thermal expansion have been studied for seven liquors. Energy savings through more efficient recovery systems are appreciable.

Fricke, A.L.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Viscosity of black liquor project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The discussion of magnetic resonance in this report is confined to nuclides with a spin quantum number of 1/2. Included is a basic discussion of magnetic resonance; magnetic resonance relaxation and viscosity; and rhometers and viscometers. Many other effects are ignored for the sake of clarity.

Barrall, G.A.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Fundamental studies of black liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fundamentals of black liquor combustion are being studied in a project being carried out for the US Department of Energy by the Institute of Paper Science Technology (IPST, formerly the Institute of Paper Chemistry) and the National Institute of Science Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards). The project was divided into four phases. This report covers the completion of Phase 1 (in-flight processes), the results of all of the work on Phase 2 (char bed processes), Phase 3 (fume processes), and Phase 4 (furnace simulation). 41 refs., 62 figs., 30 tabs.

Clay, D.T.; Lien, S.J.; Grace, T.M.; Brown, C.A.; Empie, H.L.; Macek, A.; Amin, N.; Charangundla, S.R.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Effect of pulping conditions and black liquor composition on Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of black liquor composition and solids concentrations on the Newtonian viscosity of slash pine black liquors over wide ranges of temperature (up to 140 C) and solids concentrations (between 50% and 83% solids) has been studied. It was found that the zero shear rate viscosity of high solids black liquors depends strongly on the cooking conditions and/or black liquor composition. Not only is high solids viscosity affected by lignin molecular weight and lignin concentration in the liquor but other organic and inorganic constituents of black liquor also make a significant contribution to viscosity. The dependency of zero shear rate viscosity on solids concentrations, and temperature is defined. The Newtonian viscosities vary over a wide range depending on temperature, solids concentrations and solids composition. The results indicate that, at fixed levels of effective alkali and sulfidity, the zero shear rate viscosities can be described as a function of both lignin concentration and lignin molecular weight. The viscosity of black liquor is an increasing function of the organics-to-inorganics ratio and is a decreasing function of the concentration of sodium and chloride ions and pH of the liquor.

Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Kraft black liquor combustion: Advancement in fundamental understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-generated fuel streams plus purchased fossil fuel and power supply the pulp and paper industry with its energy requirements. The total industry energy use for 1986 was approximately 2.3 Quad (2300 trillion Btus). Self-generated and residue fuels accounted for 57% of the energy requirements. Spent pulping liquors provide the single largest self-generated energy source, approximately one Quad (900 trillion Btus). The pulp and paper industry also leads the nation in cogeneration performance. In 1986 eighty-nine percent (89%) of the 46 billion KWHs generated were produced by cogeneration. Spent pulping liquors supply the single largest fuel source (35%) to these cogeneration facilities. Spent pulping liquors consist of solubilized wood organics, spent inorganic chemicals, and water. Since kraft pulp dominates the North American market, 74%, kraft black liquor is the dominant spent pulping liquor. Effective recovery of high level energy and chemicals from black liquor contributes heavily toward dominance of kraft pulping. The kraft chemical recovery cycle centers around the recovery boiler. Kraft recovery boilers have been commercially available for over 50 years. The potential still exists, however, for significant improvements in energy recovery and black liquor throughput. Potential energy benefits from black liquor combustion research amount to 30 trillion Btus. Energy recovery increases often are an additional benefit from modifications made to increase black liquor throughput. Capacity increases of at least 5% are often achievable. Increased energy productivity of the kraft chemical recovery boiler will come by incorporation of improved fundamental knowledge into the technology used for boiler upgrades and new boiler construction. 5 refs., 9 figs.

Clay, D.T.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Char reactions during kraft black liquor pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pyrolysis characteristics of dried black liquor particles were investigated at high heating rates in a laminar entrained-flow reactor at temperatures of 600-1100{degrees}C. Primary pyrolysis of the organic fraction occurred very rapidly, in less 0.5 seconds. Char yields at the end or volatiles evolution were 58-72%. The decreased with increasing reactor temperature to 900{degrees}C but remained constant at higher temperatures. 35-65% of the fuel nitrogen was volatilized, nearly all in less than 0.5 s. Relatively little fuel nitrogen was evolved from the char. Significant alkali metal chloride volatization from the char occurred at all temperatures, while additional sodium volatilization became important above 900{degrees}C. Reduction of sulfur species in the char increased rapidly with increasing temperature. A temperature-dependent delay time in the onset of Na{sub 2}S formation was observed.

Frederick, W.J.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Reis, V.V. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

Robert DeCarrera

2007-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

66

Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Measurement of black liquor surface tension: Technical report No. 3. [Black liquor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface tension and density of two kraft black liquors were measured at a series of temperatures, from a minimum value when gas bubbles can be blown into the liquor to a maximum value near the elevated boiling point of a particular sample. Available methods for the measurement of surface tension were evaluated critically and, as a result, the maximum bubble pressure method was selected. Varying the flow rate of the gas changes the frequency of bubble formation and thereby the age of the surface. The parameter has been utilized by many researchers to monitor the diffusion of low surface energy components (e.g., surfactants) to the liquid/air interface. The effect of bubble frequency when tested with a few pure liquids, indicated that the dynamics of bubble formation had to be further examined to separate out inertial and viscous effects from purely surface tension related pressure. The pressure versus flow rate data were extrapolated to zero flow rate and surface tension and density were calculated using these extrapolated values. As expected, surface tension decreased with increasing temperature for all the samples. Surface tension decreases with increasing solids content (when compared with the value for water) to a certain level (about 20%) and it starts to increase again. The decrease in surface tension in the dilute black liquor, is probably due to the decrease in the concentration of water, which has a high surface tension value. The occurrence of the minimum is probably due to the effect of inorganic components dominating over the effect of surfactants and other components. Reduction in the solubilities of the inorganics, promotion of micelles of the surfactants and reduction in the diffusion of surfactants to the surface, also could contribute to this phenomenon. 54 refs., 54 figs., 12 tabs.

Krishnagopalan, J.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Combined biomass and black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration at pulp and paper mills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft pulp and paper mills generate large quantities of black liquor and byproduct biomass suitable for gasification. These fuels are used today for onsite cogeneration of heat and power in boiler/steam turbine systems. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modeling of pulp-mill cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. Pressurized, oxygen-blown black liquor gasification, the most advanced of proposed commercial black liquor gasifier designs, is considered, together with three alternative biomass gasifier designs under commercial development (high-pressure air-blown, low-pressure air-blown, and low-pressure indirectly-heated). Heavy-duty industrial gas turbines of the 70-MW{sub e} and 25-MW {sub e} class are included in the analysis. Results indicate that gasification-based cogeneration with biomass-derived fuels would transform a typical pulp mill into significant power exporter and would also offer possibilities for net reductions in emissions of carbon dioxide relative to present practice.

Larson, E.D.; Kreutz, T.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies; Consonni, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Recaustization of kraft black liquor via bipolar electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy in conjunction with HPD Inc. supported a research program to perform a laboratory feasibility study with various black liquor samples for the recaustization of these samples via bipolar electrodialysis. The research was conducted at the HPD pilot plant facility in Plainfield, Illinois, beginning in April 1989. This report is a summary of the work completed thru November 1989. The program was designed to operate the electrodialyzer in order to obtain performance and engineering data such as current efficiency, power consumption per gram of NaOH produced, and assess fouling and/or membrane durability. Prior to the electrodialysis laboratory runs, the black liquor samples were pretreated in order to remove as much lignin as possible. The black liquor samples were air oxidized, acidified to pH = 9.0 and pH = 2.0 and later filtered via a Buchner funnel under vacuum. The filtrate was then utilized to become the feed to the electrodialysis stack. Initial test runs were performed with synthetic solutions of either sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate in order to determine acceptable operating current, power, current efficiencies, and fouling behavior. A second set of test were conducted with a series of four Southern Kraft black liquor samples. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that the use of bipolar electrodialysis for producing a caustic stream and an acidified black liquor stream is feasible and was demonstrated. 9 refs., 27 figs., 32 tabs.

Koumoundouros, J.A.; Oshen, S.; Lynch, J.D.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Ultrafiltration of kraft black liquor: Final report, Phase 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1981, a research program has been in progress to determine the physical properties of kraft black liquors and to develop methods for reduction of data and correlation of properties with pumping conditions. The basic premise that has been used to direct the research program is that kraft black liquor behaves as a polymer solution, particularly at high solids, and that the behavior is dominated by the characteristics of the lignin present. This premise is proving to be correct, and the principles that follow from this premise are proving to be successful for data reduction and correlation. The research has been a complex program involving experimental pulping, chemical analysis, lignin separation and characterization, thermal analysis, rheological measurements, and considerable equipment and methods development. Due to the complexity of the program, the unforeseen need to expend a great deal of effort in development of experimental techniques for analysis, and the fact that our liquors proved to be unstable at high temperatures and solids, all of the original objectives could not be accomplished. However, our program has added substantially to the body of knowledge of physical properties of black liquor. Our results indicate that the goal of developing correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor is practical and can be realized through extension of the present work. 21 refs., 32 figs.

Hill, M.K.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR AND BIOMASS GASIFICATION FOR GAS or industry cycle (BGCC) technologies for pulp and paper co~mitm~nt to the develo~ment of gasification systems (existing) technology with an greenhouse gas emissions mitigation measures. emerging (gasification

74

CHAMPAIGN-URBANA FOOD AND LIQUOR GUIDE 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(217) 352-7467. Excellent Mexican and Latin American- influenced food. Service can be a bit slowCHAMPAIGN-URBANA FOOD AND LIQUOR GUIDE 1. Introduction This is a short, incomplete, and personally. It is standard to tip 15-20% for reasonable service. A indicates a place that we like, and indicates a place we

Athreya, Jayadev

75

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the refractory material systems identified for lining material applications may be applicable for use in this

Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

78

Recovery of solvent and by-products from organosolv black liquor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery of alcohol and by-products from ethanol-water and methanol-water pulping liquors was studied. The recovery system proposed consists of three stages: black liquor flashing, lignin precipitation, and precipitation distillation of mother liquor. At the flash stage, 47 and 51% of the alcohol in the black liquor are recovered for ethanol and methanol processes, respectively. The lignin recovery yield at the precipitation stage is 67% for ethanol black liquor and 73% for methanol black liquor. The distillation of precipitation mother liquors enables recovery of 98% ethanol and 96% methanol from this stream as distillate, whereas the distillation residue contains significant amounts of sugars, furfural, and acetic acid that can be recovered. The study concludes with the overall mass balance for the recovery system proposed.

Botello, J.I.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Oliet, M. [Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

Fricke, A.L.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

Kelleher, E. G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Freeze crystallization technology for Kraft black liquor concentration. Third report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 25% of the purchased energy in the pulp and paper industry is used to concentrate black liquor. The technical feasibility of using freeze concentration to supplement evaporation has been successfully demonstrated, and results indicate that energy consumption can be reduced 45%. After compiling a considerable data base on the characteristics of black liquor at low temperature and after developing a computer program to aid analysis, the process chosen was vacuum freezing-vapor absorption (VFVA). A pilot plant was built and operated; however, due to problems with crystallization of the absorbent and contamination, it was found that maintaining the conditions necessary for a continuous process was not practical at the present state of development. Therefore, indirect freezing was used for all subsequent work. This required the design and fabrication of a simple shuttle crystallizer to replace scraped surface units conventionally used. CSI also developed an integrated ice separation column that combined crystal growth, a concentration gradient, and washing all in one unit. Finally, extensive heat transfer coefficient data were collected so that a preliminary design could be completed for a 350 TPD industrial freeze concentration unit. An economic analysis was calculated in order to compare using evaporation and freeze concentration to process the increased liquor flow from a pulp mill expansion. A 200,000 lb/hr freezing unit used to preconcentrate the mill's entire stream up to 18.7% solids would save $10 to $16 per ton of pulp.

Johnson, W.E.; Rhodes, C.R.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor. Final report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft Black Liquor (KBL) is ultrafiltered to favorably affect the properties of the KBL permeate. The major property to be changed is viscosity. If the high molecular weight lignin is removed by ultrafiltration, the KBL permeate should show a significant drop in viscosity. An objective of the work reported was to examine how much KBL viscosity is lowered relative to membrane and membrane pore size used in the ultrafiltration. Another objective was an initial evaluation of ultrafiltration equipment and membranes. Operating characteristics were determined for selected equipment and membranes. Decreases in KBL permeate viscosity were indeed seen. (LEW)

Hill, M.K.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Freeze crystallization technology for black liquor concentration. Second interim report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy. Concentration of black liquor (the stream resulting from the chemical separation of wood fibers in the pulping operation) uses 25% of the purchased energy to produce pulp, an equivalent of 33 million barrels of oil in 1982. Here it is shown that freeze concentration, an emerging concentration technology, has the potential of reducing the energy consumption by at least 45%. This amounts to a cost savings of $5 to $15 per ton of pulp depending on the cost of energy, geographical location, and method of application.

Not Available

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Vapor pressure and boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors: Predictive models with statistical approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibria and boiling point elevation of slash pine kraft black liquors over a wide range of solid concentrations (up to 85% solids) has been studied. The liquors are from a statistically designed pulping experiment for pulping slash pine in a pilot scale digester with four cooking variables of effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking time, and cooking temperature. It was found that boiling point elevation of black liquors is pressure dependent, and this dependency is more significant at higher solids concentrations. The boiling point elevation data at different solids contents (at a fixed pressure) were correlated to the dissolved solids (S/(1 {minus} S)) in black liquor. Due to the solubility limit of some of the salts in black liquor, a change in the slope of the boiling point elevation as a function of the dissolved solids was observed at a concentration of around 65% solids. An empirical method was developed to describe the boiling point elevation of each liquor as a function of pressure and solids mass fraction. The boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors was correlated quantitatively to the pulping variables, using different statistical procedures. These predictive models can be applied to determine the boiling point rise (and boiling point) of slash pine black liquors at processing conditions from the knowledge of pulping variables. The results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

Zaman, A.A.; McNally, T.W.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Effect of sulfidity on the corrosivity of white, green, and black liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion testing was performed in white, green, and black liquors from a kraft mill. The liquors were modified in composition to simulate conditions of high (40%) sulfidity and low (30%) sulfidity, and then heated in laboratory autoclaves to the temperatures of the respective tanks from which the samples were taken. Specimens of carbon and stainless steels were exposed under free corrosion potential conditions, and their corrosion rates determined from weight loss measurements. In white, green, 45% solids black, and flash tank liquors, active corrosion rates for the carbon steels were typically 20 to 75% higher in the higher sulfidity liquors. In 15% solids weak black liquor there was no appreciable difference in corrosion rates, with carbon steels remaining passive in both low and high sulfidity. In 26% solids intermediate black liquor there were large increases in the corrosion rates of carbon steel between low and high sulfidity liquors, resulting from a change from passive to active conditions. Stainless steels UNS S30403, S32304, and S31803 had very low corrosion rates in all the liquors tested, regardless of sulfidity.

Wensley, A.; Champagne, P.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

Kevin Whitty

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

Kevin Whitty

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Low temperature pyrolysis of black liquor and polymerization of products in alkali aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure pyrolysis for the production of liquids and gases from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate have been carried out in a little stainless steel tube. Yields, sum of liquid and gas products, from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate were 44.7%, 52.0% and 59.1% of dry basis respectively. The precipitates obtained from black liquor by acidifying with hydrochloric acid and passing carbon dioxide have been polymerized in aqueous acetone containing formaldehyde and ammonia, and converted a polymeric resin.

Demirbas, A. (Dept. of Chemical Education, Karadeniz Teknik Univ., Trabzon (TR)); Ucan, H. (Dept. of Chemistry, Selcuk Univ., Konya (TR))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which burns the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

Black, N.P.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the steam gasification kinetics of kraft black liquor char that were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis reactor. The effect of steam and hydrogen concentration on gasification rate can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. An activation energy of 210 kJ/mol was obtained. Methane formation was negligible, and H{sub 2}S was the major gaseous sulfur-containing product obtained over the temperature range studied, 873-973 K. The CO{sub 2} concentration was higher than calculated for the water-shift reaction at equilibrium. A gasification mechanism is proposed whereby CO{sub 2} is one of the primary gasification products.

Li, J.; van Heiningen, A.R.P. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill Univ., Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Montreal, Quebec (CA))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

94

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline black liquor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline black liquor Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Membrane Science, 33 (1987) 83-95 Elsevier Science...

95

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Swelling of kraft black liquor: an understanding of the associated phenomena during pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this thesis were to quantify the swelling of black liquor during pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere and to determine what factors were responsible for swelling. The first part of the investigation studied the process variables: pyrolysis temperature, solid content, heating rate and particle size. A temperature of 500/sup 0/C resulted in maximum swelling for the investigated temperature range of 300-900/sup 0/C. The swelling of black liquor occurred during the evolution of pyrolysis gases; however, there was no correlation found between the amount of pyrolysis gases evolved and the change in char volume. The initial solid content of black liquor had a small influence on the swelling of black liquor. The heating rate was found to effect the rate of swelling but not the final volume. Particle size had no effect on the swollen volume per unit particle weight. The effect of black liquor composition was studied. An interaction between sugar acids and kraft lignin was responsible for swelling. The extractives interfered with the swelling mechanism of black liquor, while inorganic salts acted as a diluent. The swelling behavior of black liquor appeared to be dictated by the surface active and viscous forces present in black liquor during pyrolysis. Surface active forces were evidenced by the formation of small bubbles (50-150 microns in diameter) which appeared necessary for highly swollen chars. Low swelling chars did not exhibit this phenomenon. Bubble formation began at 250/sup 0/C, which closely corresponded to the thermal decomposition temperature of sugar acids. The sugar acids formed bubbles when pyrolyzed but did not swell significantly during pyrolysis. Kraft lignin appeared to enhance the swelling of the sugar acids by increasing the viscosity and stabilizing the bubbles during pyrolysis.

Miller, P.T.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. (A. Ahistrom Corp., Varkaus (Finland)); Hupa, M. (Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Detection of estrogen- and dioxin-like activity in pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent using in vitro bioassays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulp and paper mill effluent contains a complex mixture of compounds which adversely affect fish physiologically and at the population level. These effects include compromised reproductive fitness and the induction of mixed-function oxidase activities; two classic responses mediated by the estrogen and/or Ah receptor. In vitro recombinant receptor/reporter gene assays were used to examine pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent for estrogenic, dioxin-like and antiestrogenic activities. Using MCF7 cells transiently transfected with a Gal4-estrogen receptor chimeric construct (Gal4-HEGO) and a Gal4-regulated luciferase reporter gene (17m5-G-Luc), it was estimated that black liquor contains 4 {+-} 2 ppb ``estrogen equivalents``, while negligible estrogenic activity was observed in a methanol-extracted pulp and paper mill effluent fraction (MF). A dioxin response element (DRE)-regulated luciferase reporter gene (pGudLucl.1) transiently transfected into Hepalclc7 wild type cells exhibited a dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDO), black liquor and MF. Based on the dose response curves, black liquor and MF contain 10 {+-} 4 ppb and 20 {+-} 6 ppt ``TCDD equivalents``, respectively. Moreover, MF exhibited significant AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. These results demonstrate the utility of these bioassays and suggest that the effects observed in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent may be due to unidentified ER and AhR ligands not detected by conventional chemical analysis due to the lack of appropriate chemical standards.

Zacharewski, T.; Berhane, K.; Gillesby, B.; Burnison, K. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology; [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystem Conservation Branch

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors: Final report: Tasks I and III, report No. 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to generate technical data with which to design nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers which can reduce under and over size droplets and adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. The research is organized into five tasks: Droplet formation from a single jet, theoretical and experimental--ambient gas medium; Surface tensions of black liquor; Aerodynamic/hydrodynamic stability/instability of droplets once formed; Black liquor droplet formation from a single jet--furnace gas medium; Prototype of a new nozzle design. 88 figs.

Stockel, I.H.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Physical properties of kraft black liquor: Summary report, Phases 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1981, a research program has been in progress to determine the physical properties of kraft black liquors and to develop methods for reduction of data and correlation of properties with pumping conditions. The basic premise that has been used to direct the research program is that kraft black liquor behaves as a polymer solution, particularly at high solids, and that the behavior is dominated by the characteristics of the lignin present. This premise is proving to be correct, and the principles that follow from this premise are proving to be successful for data reduction and correlation. The research has been a complex program involving experimental pulping, chemical analysis, lignin separation and characterization, thermal analysis, rheological measurements, and considerable equipment and methods development. Due to the complexity of the program, the unforeseen need to expend a great deal of effort in development of experimental techniques for analysis, and the fact that our liquors proved to be unstable at high temperatures and solids, all of the original objectives could not be accomplished. However, our program has added substantially to the body of knowledge of physical properties of black liquor. Our results indicate that the goal of developing correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor is practical and can be realized through extension of the present work.

Fricke, A.L.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

103

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

Kevin Whitty

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

104

Formation of fuel NO[sub x] during black-liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O[sub 2]) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0[sub 2] in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx.

Nichols, K.M. (Weyerhaeuser Paper Co., Tacoma, WA (United States)); Lien, S.J. (Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors---Final project report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to generate technical data to guide the design of new nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers. The goal of new nozzle designs would be to narrow the droplet size distribution compared to current nozzles and to adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. Uniform droplets in a recovery boiler should reduce fouling of superheater tubes and caused a more efficient burning of the black liquor, both of which result in improved energy efficiency. The research was organized into five tasks which are described in the next chapter. This fifth and final project report contains the details of Task 4 and 5 and further analysis of Task 1 results. The details of the other tasks are reported in previous technical reports. The major results from the entire project are highlighted in this section in order of significance.

Bousfield, D.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Red Giant Red Giant White Giant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Giant Red Giant White Giant Red Giant White Giant White Giant Blue Giant Blue Giant Blue Giant. Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun, is a red giant. Mass: 1- 4 Solar Mass StarPower Points: 7

Bechtold, Jill

107

Energy conservation in black-liquor evaporator of pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is an attempt on energy conservation in a quintuple effect evaporator used to concentrate dilute black liquor solution by raising their steam economy through the changes in the operating variables. It also describes the steam economy of the evaporator for the various feed arrangements so as to determine the ranges of the variables for which evaporation occurs profitable.

Agarwal, V.K.; Gupta, S.C. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Assessment of the release of atomic Na from a burning black liquor droplet using quantitative PLIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quantitative measurement of atomic sodium (Na) release, at high concentration, from a burning black liquor droplet has been demonstrated using a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, corrected for fluorescence trapping. The local temperature of the particle was measured to be approximately 1700 C, at a height of 10 mm above a flat flame burner. The PLIF technique was used to assess the temporal release of atomic Na from the combustion of black liquor and compare it with the Na concentration in the remaining smelt. A first-order model was made to provide insight using a simple Plug Flow Reactor model based on the independently measured concentration of residual Na in the smelt as a function of time. This model also required the dilution ratio of the combustion products in the flat flame entrained into the plume gas from the black liquor particle to be estimated. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the peak concentration of atomic Na from the combustion of the black liquor droplets is around 1.4 ppm; (ii) very little atomic Na is present during the drying, devolatilisation or char combustion stages; and (iii) the presence of atomic Na during smelt phase dominates over that from the other combustion stages. (author)

Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Black liquor viscosity reduction through salt additives: A novel environmentally benign processing alternative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing black liquor at high solids would reduce SO{sub x} emissions, facilitate the use of non-chlorine bleaching techniques and enhance the energy efficiency of the pulping process. However, black liquor exhibits and exponential increase in viscosity as its solids content rises, thus hindering its processability in the composition range of interest (>70% solids). In this study, we present a new approach for controlling viscosity at high solids content by {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} black liquor through addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts increases the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several salts capable of viscosity reduction by as much as two orders of magnitude have been identified. The effects of cation size, solution pH and temperature on viscosity reduction is presented and interpreted in terms of the underlying principles of {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

111

Coliquefaction of coal and black liquor to environmentally acceptable liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous work in the laboratories has demonstrated that addition to lignin to coal during liquefaction significantly increases the depolymerization of coal and enhances the quality of the liquid products. It is believed that thermolysis of the lignin results in the formation of phenoxyl and other reactive radicals at temperatures too low for significant thermolysis of the coal matrix; such radicals are effective and active intermediates that depolymerize coal by cleaving methylene bridges. It has been reported that alkali is also effective for extraction of liquids from coal. The work presented here combines these two reactive agents by utilizing the black liquor waste stream from the Kraft pulping process for coal depolymerization. That waste stream contains large amounts of lignin and sodium hydroxide, as well as other components. To permit comparative evaluations of the extent of coal depolymerization by coprocessing coal and black liquor, reference runs were performed with tetralin alone, sodium hydroxide in tetralin, and lignin in tetralin. Results indicated that the sodium hydroxide-tetralin system resulted in almost 67% conversion at 375 C, 1 hour. The black liquor system exhibited a lower conversion of 60%, indicating some inhibition of the depolymerization reactions by components in the black liquor.

Kim, J. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Akash, B.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial gasification. The use of biomass fuels with gas turbines could transform a typical pulp mill from a net

113

Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

*Please do NOT put out food if both red and grey squirrels are present* Feeding red squirrels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*Please do NOT put out food if both red and grey squirrels are present* Feeding red squirrels The UK Red Squirrel Group does not generally recommend that people put out food for red squirrels, there are risks to red squirrels by enticing them into your garden, or other premises. These include disease

115

Combustion processes in black liquor recovery: Analysis and interpretation of combustion rate data and an engineering design model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop computational models for predicting the combustion times for black liquor droplets in a recovery furnace environment. These models are needed as an important component of large-scale, global recovery boiler models. The work is divided into two tasks: interpretation of experimental black liquor single droplet combustion data from two laboratories; and formulation and evaluation of computational models for the stages of combustion of black liquor droplets. This report contains the results of the project. 109 refs., 64 figs., 12 tabs.

Fredrick, W.J.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

3, 383408, 2006 The northern Red  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 3, 383­408, 2006 The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page in balance? ­ Implications of deep vertical mixing for the nitrogen budget in the northern Red Sea, including The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Development of viscometers for kraft black liquor. Summary report, Phase 2 and 2A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of the evaluation of the on-line prototype viscometers for kraft black liquors carried out at the Pilot Plant facilities of the University of Florida. The original plan called for the evaluation of five prototype on-line viscometers along with laboratory bench versions. At a later stage in the project an additional experimental prototype under development at Southwest Research Institute was added. The viscometers are evaluated for accuracy and repeatability under varying process conditions, such as black liquor species, solids content, temperature, flow rate, and contaminants, as well as for maintenance and reliability. This document reports extensive results of the evaluations and recommendations for design modifications and for the installation of the instruments in industrial pulping mills for further field evaluations in Phase 3 of the project. The report also documents relevant details of the final design of the pilot flow loop used to support the experiments.

Fricke, A.L.; Crisalle, O.D.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar.

Peascoe, RA

2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

119

Feasibility of black liquor gasification in combined cycle cogeneration. Final report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small-scale test program of 65% solids black liquor gasification was conducted in the bench-scale molten salt gasifier. Nine tests were performed using both air and oxygen as the oxidant. The black liquor gasified readily and the product gas had a dry-basis heating value of 70 Btu/scf with air and about 250 Btu/scf with oxygen. These values were almost identical to values predicted on the basis of thermodynamic equilibrium in the gas phase, indicating that the system had achieved near-equilibrium. However, the reduction of the melt to sodium sulfide was generally low. An independent research program aimed at improving the performance of air-blown black liquor gasification was conducted. That work resulted in a modified gasifier system design which increased the off-gas heating value to 120 Btu/scf and the reduction of the melt to over 95%. This was an improvement that would potentially allow use of the scrubbed product gas as a feed to a combustion gas turbine without prior enrichment.

Kelleher, E.G.

1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification. Second annual report, [November 1990--February 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This second annual report summarizes the work accomplished during the period November 1990 through February 1992 for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-90CE40893. The overall project objective is to field test an energy-efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system at a significant industrial scale. This is intended to demonstrate the maturity of the technology in an industrial environment and serve as an example to the industry of the safer and more energy-efficient processing technique. The project structure is comprised of three primary activities: process characterization testing, scale-up hardware development, and field testing. The objective of the process characterization testing was to resolve key technical issues regarding the black liquor recovery process that were identified during earlier laboratory verification tests. This was intended to provide a sound engineering data base for the design, construction and testing of a nominal 1.0 TPH integrated black liquor recovery gasifier. The objective of the scale-up hardware development effort was to ensure that key hardware components, in particular the pulse heater module, would perform reliably and safely in the field. Finally, the objective of the field test is to develop an industrial data base sufficient to demonstrate the capabilities and performance of the operating system with respect to thermal efficiency, product quality, fuel handling, system control, reliability and cost. These tests are to provide long-term and continuous operating data at a capacity unattainable in the bench-scale apparatus.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Red Cabbage Smoothie Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Cabbage Smoothie Ingredients · 1 1/2 cups cold water · 1/2 small head red cabbage, quartered: http://www.accordingtoelle.com/2014/05/red-cabbage-smoothie/ Recipe provided by former chef

Myers, Lawrence C.

123

Red River Compact (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Red River Compact Commission administers the Red River Compact to ensure that Texas receives its equitable share of quality water from the Red River and its tributaries as apportioned by the...

124

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

Keiser, J.R.

2001-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

125

Effect of pulsations on black liquor gasification. Progress report, July--September 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to investigate the use of pulse combustion to provide the energy required for the endothermic gasification of black liquor in a fluidized bed. In this process it is critical that the temperature remain in the small window above the gasification temperature but below the smelting temperature of the inorganic salts in the black liquor. Pulse combustors have been shown to have high heat transfer rates between the hot combustion products and the combustor tailpipe. Similarly, fluidized beds have high heat transfer rates within the bed itself, promoting temperature uniformity throughout. Typical analysis of the gasified black liquor shows there is a large percentage of combustible gases in the products of the gasification process (approximately 70%). The potential exists, therefore, for using this fuel mixture to fire the pulse combustor. This makes the entire process more efficient and may be necessary to make it economically feasible. The overall goals of this study are to determine (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring the heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tailpipe to the bed and then throughout the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the temperature distribution in the bed can be maintained within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed even if the heat transfer from the pulse combustor is significantly increased; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

Kushari, A.; Jeong, H.; Jagoda, J.I.; Zinn, B.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

Keiser, J.R.

2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

127

Conversion of a black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing: A case history  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1983 a large integrated pulp and paper mill in southeastern United States retired an older chemical recovery boiler when it was replaced by a newer and larger unit as part of a mill expansion. At that time the mill was generating steam and power using wood waste, natural gas and black liquor, a common fuel mix for pulp mills. The retirement of the recovery boiler presented an opportunity for the mill and corporate engineering to evaluate various mixes of fuels for the mill.

Eleniewski, M.A. [Detroit Stoker Company, Monroe, MI (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V. [Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala (India)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao, E-mail: qh-meng@tju.edu.cn; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used In Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials, and particularly the refractory lining of the reactor vessel, have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for this application.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used in Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials such as the refractory lining of the reactor vessel have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, an updated summary of the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for both the hot-face and back-up linings used in this application.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Separation and characterization of lignins from the black liquor of oil palm trunk fiber pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Six lignin preparations, isolated by a novel two-step precipitation method instead of the traditional one-step precipitation method from the oil palm trunk fiber pulping (OPTFP) black liquor, were found to be relatively free of nonlignin materials such as polysaccharide degradation products, ash, and salts. A lignin fraction with a purity of 99.5% was obtained at an optimum precipitation pH 1.5 after isolation of the nonlignin materials in ethanol. About 94% of the total lignin was recovered by this novel method at this condition, and the value of COD in the treated black liquor reduced significantly to lower 250. The isolated lignin fractions contained syringyl, guaiacyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl units in an approximate molar ratio of 16--20:5:1 on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acids were found to be esterified to lignin, while ferulic acids were associated to lignin by ether linkage. {sup 13}C-NMR indicated the presence of {beta}-O-4 ether bonds, and {beta}-5 and 5-5{prime} carbon-carbon linkages between the lignin molecules.

Sun, R.; Tomkinson, J.; Bolton, J.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University If the temperature is above the first melting point of the scale, severe corrosion of the tubes can result temperatures, reducing efficiency. The corrosive nature of the superheater environment arises primarily from

Li, Mo

135

Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

Pradeep Agrawal

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP high-temperature gasifiers for gas turbine applications. ABB and MTCr/Stonechem are developing low-load performance of gasifier/gas turbine systemsincorporating the four above-noted gasifier designs are reported

137

Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Refractory Testing and Evaluation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for Black Liquor Gasifier Applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work is on-going at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate refractory containment and smelt contact materials for black liquor gasification applications. Materials have been evaluated and selected for low temperature gasification processes, with a number of materials being installed in commercial units currently under construction. For high temperature low pressure gasification processes, efforts have focused on screening candidate lining materials through immersion testing, improving existing refractory performance through the application of surface treatments, and the installation and evaluation of samples in an operating gasifier in New Bern, NC. Efforts concerning high temperature high pressure gasification have involved the identification and testing of suitable refractory materials for the coating of a helical carbon steel cooling coil arrangment.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of this work is related to the fact that with over 16 million tons of kraft lignin available annually, practically all of it is burned just for its heat value. In essence, kraft lignin has no real value except its heat value. The major accomplishments of this research has shown that it is possible to produce high purity kraft lignin from kraft black liquor. This patented technology represents a way of producing a material that can be utilized in a wide variety of markets. Kraft lignin that was produced using this technology was sent to major corporations who used this kraft lignin as a starting material in their chemical processes. 3 figs.

Kurple, K.R.

1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jett, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

Lucia, Lucian A

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

142

Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 5: Appendix V  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 4: Appendix IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

Paxson, Vern

145

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established (fig. 139). Ecological subsection ­ High Cascades (M261Df). Target Element Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Distinctive Features Shasta Red Fir Forest: Taxonomically, the description of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica

Standiford, Richard B.

146

Gasification of kraft black liquor and use of the products in combined cycle cogeneration. Final report, Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Phase II study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in combined cycle cogeneration based on combustion gas turbines was motivated by the very promising results of the Phase I feasibility study. The Phase I study indicated that the alternative technology to the Tomlinson recovery furnace had the potential of improving the energy efficiency and safety of combusting black liquor, reducing the capital and operating costs, increasing the electric power output, and providing an economical system for incremental kraft capacity additions. During Phase II, additional bench-scale experiments were run, pilot-scale experiments were conducted, equipment systems were investigated, and performance and economics were reanalyzed. All of the objectives of the Phase II project were met. Recommendations are summarized.

Kelleher, E.G.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. syngas) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950C), but was limited to pressures below about 5 bar. It is desirable however to operate BLG at 20-30 bar for efficiency reasons related to either firing the syngas in a turbine, or catalytically forming liquid fuels. This work focused on achieving high direct causticizing yields at 20 bars pressure. The titanate direct causticizing reactions are inhibited by CO2. Previous work has shown that the partial pressure of CO2 should be kept below about 0.5 bar in order for the process to work. This translates to a total reactor pressure limit of about 5 bar for airblown BLG, and only 2 bar for O2-blown BLG. In this work a process was developed in which the CO2 partial pressure could be manipulated to a level under 0.5 bar with the total system pressure at 10 bar during O2-blown BLG. This fell short of our 20 bar goal but still represents a substantial increase in the pressure limit. A material and energy balance was performed, as well as first-pass economics based on capital and utilities costs. Compared to a reference case of using BLG with a conventional lime cycle [Larson, 2003], the IRR and NVP were estimated for further replacing the lime kiln with direct causticizing. The economics are strongly dependent on the price of lime kiln fuel. At $6/mmBTU the lime cycle is the clear choice. At $8/mmBTU the NPV is $10M with IRR of 17%. At $12/mmBTU the NPV is $45M with IRR of 36%. To further increase the total allowable pressure, the CO2 could be further decreased by further decreasing the temperature. Testing should be done at 750C. Also a small pilot should be built.

Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

Ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor fortified by hydrolysis of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some low-yield sulfite pulping operations ferment spent sulfite liquor (SSL) to remove biochemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved sugars while at the same time generating ethanol as a salable product. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of primary clarifier sludge in a medium of SSL was proposed as a means of reducing the amount of sludge to be disposed of while at the same time increasing ethanol productivity. In this article, the option of fortifying existing SSL fermenting processes with the sugars produced via in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfite primary clarifier sludge (PCS) has been explored. In 100% SSL PCS hydrolysis rates as high as 3.4 g/(L{center_dot}h) were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units (FPU)/g PCS. To reduce the deleterious effects of glucose inhibition, single-stage SSF was carried out using cellulose enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The production rate of ethanol in SSL was increased by as much as 25% through the SSF process. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Moritz, J.W.; Duff, S.J.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Mechanical Design of Steel Tubing for Use in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Finite element models were developed for thermal-mechanical analysis of black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes. Residual stresses in boiler floors due to various manufacturing processes were analyzed. The modeling results were verified by X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature on as-manufactured tubes as well as tubes after service. The established finite element models were then used to evaluate stress conditions during boiler operation. Using these finite element models, a parametric response surface study was performed to investigate the influence of material properties of the clad layer on stresses in the floor tubes during various boiler operating conditions, which yielded a generalized solution of stresses in the composite tube floors. The results of the study are useful for identifying the mechanisms of cracking experienced by recovery boilers. Based on the results of the response surface study, a recommendation was made for more suitable materials in terms of the analyzed mechanical properties. Alternative materials and manufacturing processes are being considered to improve the resistance to cracking and the in-service life of composite tubes. To avoid numerous FE stress-strain analyses of composite tubes made of different material combinations, a response surface study was performed that considered two essential mechanical properties of the clad material - coefficient of thermal expansion and yield stress - as independent variables. The response surface study provided a generalized solution of stresses in the floor in terms of the two selected parameters.

Taljat, B.; Zacharaia, T.; Wang, X.; Kesier, J.; Swindeman, R.; Hubbard, C.

1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

151

Dynamic air deposited coatings for power and black liquor recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dynamic Air Deposition (DyAir) is a novel coating method designed to protect the tubing of power and black liquor recovery boilers against corrosion attack at elevated temperatures. The method utilizes the energy of combustion of gaseous fuel and air to heat the powder material to a temperature just below its melting point and accelerate it over 600 m/s to form a coating. The Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Mo DyAir coatings revealed no gas permeability and extremely low oxygen content. Compared to the electric arc and HVOF-sprayed coatings, the DyAir coatings exhibited higher hardness and better crack resistance. During aging at 400 and 700 C the bond strength and crack resistance of the DyAir coatings increased dramatically due to intensive diffusion processes in absence of internal corrosion attack. The DyAir coatings revealed outstanding resistance to corrosion, such as sulfidation attack in presence of hydrochloric acid gas at 400 C, oxidation attack at 700 C and oxidation attack in presence of chlorine at 400 C.

Verstak, A.A.; Baranovski, V.E. [Advanced Surface Technologies Inc., Richmond, VA (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 5 (Appendix V)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 5 contains model validation simulations and comparison with data.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Alkali salt ash formation during black liquor combustion at kraft recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recovery boiler is an essential part of paper pulping process, where waste sludge called black liquor is burned for chemical recovery and energy production. This study was carried out at an operating industrial recovery boiler in Finland. Measurement of aerosol particles was carried out at bullnose level of furnace, at boiler exit, and at outlet of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Aerosol mass size distributions in size range 0.02--50 {micro}m were measured with Berner type low pressure impactor (BLPI) operated with precyclone. BLPI samples were further analyzed with ion chromatography for water soluble Na, K, SO{sub 4}, and Cl. Particle morphology was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase composition of crystalline salts was measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particles larger than 1 {micro}m were analyzed with computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) to derive particle composition classes. At ESP inlet mass size distribution was bimodal with a major mode at about 1.2 {micro}m and a minor mode at about 5 {micro}m (aerodynamic diameter). At ESP outlet the mass size distribution showed only one peak at about 1.2 {micro}m. Both submicron and supermicron particles were agglomerates formed from 0.3 to 0.5 {micro}m spherical primary particles. XRD analyses indicated that particles were crystalline with two phases of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (thenardite and sodium sulphate) and K{sub 3}Na(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. CCSEM results of individual particles larger than 1 {micro}m showed that 79 to 88 volume percent of particles contained mainly Na and S, 7 to 10 volume percent Na, K, and S with minor amount of particles containing Na, S, and Ca.

Mikkanen, P. Kauppinen, E.I.; Pyykoenen, J.; Jokiniemi, J.K. [VTT (Finland); Maekinen, M. [Finnish Meterological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Red Pepper Sauce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

... chopped 2 cloves garlic, minced 1/4 cup water 1/2 Tbs. white wine vinegar 1/8 tsp. crushed red pepper 1/8 tsp. white pepper dash or two Tabasco sauce 1/2 to...

156

Pyrometric temperature measurement method and apparatus for measuring particle temperatures in hot furnaces: Application to reacting black liquor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A specialized two-color pyrometric method has been developed for the measurement of particle surface temperatures in hot, radiating environments. In this work, the method has been applied to the measurement of surface temperatures of single reacting black liquor char particles in an electrically heated muffle furnace. Black liquor was introduced into the hot furnace as wet droplets. After drying, the resulted particles were processed in different atmospheres corresponding to combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification at furnace temperatures of 700{endash}900{degree}C. The pyrometric measurement is performed using two silicon photodiode detectors and 10 nm bandpass filters centered at 650 and 1050 nm. Thermal radiation is transferred using an uncooled fiberoptic probe brought into the vicinity of the char particle. The key features of the pyrometric apparatus and analysis method are: (1) Single particle temperature is resolved temporally at high speed. (2) The thermal radiation originating from the furnace and reflected by the particle is accounted for in the measurement of the surface temperature. (3) Particle temperatures above or below the furnace temperature can be measured without the need of a cooled background assisting the measurement in the hot furnace. To accomplish this, a minimum particle size is needed that is a function of the temperature difference between the particle and furnace. Particles cooler than the furnace can be measured if their diameter is more than 0.7 mm. Surface temperatures of 300{endash}400{degree}C above the furnace temperature were measured during combustion of black liquor char particles in air. In atmospheres corresponding to gasification, endothermic reactions occurred, and char temperature remained typically 40{degree} below the furnace temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Stenberg, J. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)] [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Bostroem, S. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland); Hernberg, R. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Causes and solutions for cracking of coextruded and weld overlay floor tubes in black liquor recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cracking of coextruded, black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes is both a safety and an economic issue to mill operators. In an effort to determine the cause of the cracking and to identify a solution, extensive studies, described in this and three accompanying papers, are being conducted. In this paper, results of studies to characterize both the cracking and the chemical and thermal environment are reported. Based on the results described in this series of papers, a possible mechanism is presented and means to lessen the likelihood of cracking or to totally avoid cracking of floor tubes are offered.

Keiser, J.R.; Taljat, B.; Wang, X.L. [and others

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Electrolysis of weak black liquor: Part II. Effect of process parameters on the energy efficiency of the electrolytic cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory study of the effect of eight process parameters on the performance of the electrolytic cell when electrolyzing weak black liquor (WBL) showed that current density and temperature are critical to the operation. These two variables showed an interaction effect upon the operation of the cell. The addition of sodium sulfate to the WBL was beneficial to the energy efficiency. No chlorine gas was produced when electrolyzing WBL containing sodium chloride within the pH range of 5.4 to 13.

Cloutier, J.N.; Azarniouch, M.K.; Callender, D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Study of soluble scale fouling control in high solids black liquor concentrators. Progress report, quarter 5 (October 1, 1999 - December 31, 1999)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this quarter, work has finally resumed on the black liquor solubility experiments, but no new data have been generated. The crystallization experiments with inorganic model solutions have been completed, and crystallization experiments with kraft black liquor have been started. The Annular Test Cell apparatus is now fully operational, while construction of the falling film evaporator pilot plant is nearly complete. Startup of this unit is planned for late in Quarter 6. In the CFD model development work, the relaxation of simplifying assumptions in the falling film model have been completed, and expressions were developed to estimate film velocity/film Reynolds number relations. Also, thin film data taken for a range of conventional fluids were compared to predictions using selected methods, and attempts were initiated to extrapolate to approximate black liquor evaporator conditions.

W.J. Frederick; F. Chen; G. Hsieh; S. Lien; R.W. Murphy; R.W. Rousseau; W. Schmidl

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Controlling emissions from a black liquor fluidized bed evaporator (Copeland reactor) using a regenerative thermal oxidizer and a prefilter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on an intriguing pilot project developed to control air emissions from a pulp mill. Testing is complete, and the results show favorable emissions reductions. Stone Container Corporation, REECO, NCASI, the Ohio DEP, and the US EPA, have all worked together and approved the installation of control equipment, for VOC and HAP emissions under Presumptive MACT, setting the standard for the Copeland Reactor process in a semi chem pulp mill. The equipment, once operational, will reduce VOC and CO emissions by greater than 90%. This installation will be done at one seventh the cost of the significant process modifications required to accomplish the same emission reduction. In addition, increased process operating efficiency will be achieved with the use of an energy recovery system. The process is a black liquor fluidized bed boiler, which is used to generate sodium carbonate from the black liquor. The vapor emissions were high in VOCs, CO and particulate. After much study and testing, a wet electrostatic precipitator was chosen as the filter system for particulate control, followed by a regenerative thermal oxidizer for VOC and HAP control, finally an air-to-air heat exchanger is being used to preheat the combustion air entering the process.

Grzanka, R.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Fundamental study of black liquor gasification kinetics using a pressurized entrained-flow reactor (PEFR). Quarterly progress report for the period July 1999 to September 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the program is to identify the optimal operating window for black liquor gasification. The goals during this year are to prepare the PEFR for operation, conduct a series of preliminary screening tests to bracket BLG operating conditions, and develop a process model that can guide identification of the optimal operating window.

NONE

1999-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

163

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

Thaxton, Christopher S.

165

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

Ayrshire Red Squirrel Group Squirrelpox  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ayrshire Red Squirrel Group SSG Report 1st March 2012 Squirrelpox Sero-positive grey squirrels. Concerns are also rising that there may be outbreaks of pox in red squirrel populations which have gone

167

Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L. [Dept. of Experimental Physics, Inst. Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, V. [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, Zagreb (Croatia)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 3: Appendix II, Sections 2 & 3 and Appendix III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red

Chen, Yangjun

170

Code-Red: a case study on the spread and victims of an Internet worm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Code-Red: a case study on the spread and victims of an Internet worm David Moore, Colleen Shannon infected with the Code- Red (CRv2) worm in less than 14 hours. The cost of this epidemic, including subsequent strains of Code-Red, is es- timated to be in excess of $2.6 billion. Despite the global damage

Somayaji, Anil

171

AbstractThe red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is currently under rig  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

653 Abstract­The red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is currently under rig orous federal and state of annuli in otolith thin sections have been used to age many species of fish, including red snapper. However, the utility of this method for aging red snapper has been questioned by those who dispute both

172

Getting simultaneous red and near infrared bands from a single digital camera for plant monitoring applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Getting simultaneous red and near infrared bands from a single digital camera for plant monitoring including red and near-infrared bands have proved their efficiency for vegetation-soil discrimination an original solution to obtain simultaneously the near-infrared and red bands from a standard RGB camera

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

www.vopen.net 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

www.vopen.net Linux --- 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H at Linux Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux MandrakeSOT BestConnectivaAbit KondaraRed Hat Linux 2001 4 16 Red Hat Red Hat Linux 7.1 Red Hat Linux 1 1.1 1 Linux 2.4.2 2 Xfree86 4.0.3 3 4 Big5 5 CPU CPU 4

Li, Tiejun

174

Development of an alternative kraft black liquor recovery process based on low-temperature processing in fluidized beds. Final technical report on Annex 9, Task 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research program was to provide the fundamental knowledge and experimental data from pilot scale operation for an alternative black liquor recovery technology which would have a higher overall energy efficiency, would not suffer from the smelt-water explosion hazard and would be lower in capital cost. In addition, the alternative process would be more flexible and well suited for incremental recovery capacity or for new pulping processes, such as the new sulfide-sulfide-AQ process. The research program consists of number of specific research objectives with the aim to achieve the ultimate objective of developing an alternative recovery process which is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives are linked to individual unit operations and they represent the following research topics: (1) superheated steam drying of kraft black liquors; (2) fast pyrolysis of black liquor; (3) hydrogen sulfide absorption from flue gas; (4) reduction of sodium sulfate in solid phase with gaseous hydrogen; and (5) verification of the fundamental results in fluidized bed pilot plant. The accomplishments in each of these objectives are described.

Kubes, G.J.

1994-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

175

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ambiguous Red Shifts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

Carl E. Wulfman

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

177

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Red Means Go Structural Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Means Go Structural Engineering: An Overview of Global Directions Marc Hoit, Ph.D. Vice Chancellor for IT Professor of Civil Engineering #12;Red Means Go Overview · Global trends affecting on advanced degrees · Educate for the "Smile" Creativity as fundamental education Entrepreneurs ­ Need

179

Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Management Wildlife Science #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION University Studies University Studies Wind Energy Center, City of Lubbock · Information Sessions and Campus Resource Fair · Dinner on your own and Parent Communications, etc.) #12;#12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Business Administration Accounting Energy Commerce

Rock, Chris

180

White Baneberry and Red Baneberry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 White Baneberry and Red Baneberry Actaea pachypoda and Actaea rubra buttercup family (ranunculaceae) both white baneberry and red baneberry are poisonous plants native to the northeast inhabit swamps. Range: white baneberry--parts of the canadian mari- times and the southern border

Landweber, Laura

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Red Rice Research and Control.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s cu l t iva ted white r i c e , Oryza sativa L. Red r i c e crosses read i ly .- with white r i c e and i s very s i m i l a r t o it i n appearance. The main morpho- logical d i f ferences t h a t d i s t ingu i sh it from white r i c... l e s i n white r i c e . Since these characters can be t r ans fe r red by crossing, new red r i c e types can and do appear. Red r i c e i s undesirable because: 1. Red r i c e p l a n t s compete with cu l t iva ted r i c e...

Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN 2006­2011 #12;#12;S C O T T I S H R E D S Q U I R R E L A C T I O.1 Background 1 1.2 Action Plan Working Group 1 1.3 Issues affecting the conservation of the red squirrel 1 1.2 Timescale and partnership working 3 2.3 Rationale 3 2.4 Key actions 4 2.4.1 Establish and monitor the red

183

Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1992 Major Subject...: Anthropology JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Approved as to style and content by: Dorm L. Hamilton (Chair of Committee) Frederick H. van Doorninck, J (Member) enry C. Schmidt (Member) Vaughn M. Bryant (Head...

Heidtke, Kenan Paul

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

185

Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1 Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography FRANCESCA GASPARINI DISCo, Dipartimento The red eye effect is a well known problem in photography. It is often seen in amateur shots taken with a built-in flash, but the problem is also well known to professional photographers. Red eye is the red

Schettini, Raimondo

186

Red Storm usage model :Version 1.12.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Red Storm is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The Red Storm Usage Model (RSUM) documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY05 Tri-Lab Level II Limited Availability Red Storm User Environment Milestone and the FY05 SNL Level II Limited Availability Red Storm Platform Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and SNL. Additionally, the Red Storm Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the Tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the ASC community and have been updated in FY05 to reflect the community's needs. For each section of the RSUM, Appendix I maps the ACE requirements to the Limited Availability User Environment capabilities and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met in that particular section. The Red Storm Usage Model, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and vetted throughout the Tri-Lab community.

Jefferson, Karen L.; Sturtevant, Judith E.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The red and blue galaxy populations in the GOODS field: evidence for an excess of red dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the evolution of the galaxy population up to z\\sim3 as a function of its colour properties. In particular, luminosity functions and luminosity densities have been derived as a function of redshift for the blue/late and red/early populations. We use data from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue which have typical magnitude limits zred/early subsamples. The LFs of the blue/late and total samples are well represented by steep Schechter functions evolving in luminosity with increasing redshifts. The volume density of the LFs of the red/early populations decreases with increasing redshift. The shape of the red/early LFs shows an excess of faint red dwarfs with respect to the extrapolation of a flat Schechter function and can be represented by the sum of two Schechter functions. Our model for galaxy formation in the hierarchical clustering scenario, which also includes external feedback due to a diffuse UV background, shows a general broad agreement with the LFs of both populations, the larger discrepancies being present at the faint end for the red population. Hints on the nature of the red dwarf population are given on the basis of their stellar mass and spatial distributions.

S. Salimbeni; E. Giallongo; N. Menci; M. Castellano; A. Fontana; A. Grazian; L. Pentericci; D. Trevese; S. Cristiani; M. Nonino; E. Vanzella

2007-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

188

Red Mesa | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access Permit5-ID-aRECRaton,RFPs Home NameRecurrentRedRed

189

Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

Alechina, Natasha

190

Red phosphors for use in high CRI fluorescent lamps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel red emitting phosphors for use in fluorescent lamps resulting in superior color rendering index values compared to conventional red phosphors. Also disclosed is a fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer comprising blends of one or more of a blue phosphor, a blue-green phosphor, a green phosphor and a red a phosphor selected from the group consisting of SrY.sub.2 O.sub.4 :Eu.sup.3+, (Y,Gd)Al.sub.3 B.sub.4 O.sub.12 :Eu.sup.3+, and [(Y.sub.1-x-y-m La.sub.y)Gd.sub.x ]BO.sub.3 :Eu.sub.m wherein y<0.50 and m=0.001-0.3. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of the disclosed red phosphors in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over the course of the lamp life.

Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Vankatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

RED with ACK Spoofing Dept. of Electrical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RED with ACK Spoofing Zhong Xu Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of California, Riverside Early Detection (RED). Using simulation, we compare RED/Spoofing with Tail Drop, RED, and RED/ECN. Our results show that RED/Spoofing performs as well as RED/ECN, even though it avoids ECN's deployment problem

Molle, Mart

192

EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing Facility, Red River Parish, LA EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing...

193

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made

194

Method for determining properties of red blood cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for quantifying the concentration of hemoglobin in a cell, and indicia of anemia, comprises determining the wavelength of the longitudinal mode of a liquid in a laser microcavity; determining the wavelength of the fundamental transverse mode of a red blood cell in the liquid in the laser microcavity; and determining if the cell is anemic from the difference between the wavelength of the longitudinal mode and the fundamental transverse mode. In addition to measuring hemoglobin, the invention includes a method using intracavity laser spectroscopy to measure the change in spectra as a function of time for measuring the influx of water into a red blood cell and the cell's subsequent rupture.

Gourley, Paul L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

139 Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,** Kevin Jeffay, David Ott, F. Donelson Smith http://www.cs.unc.edu/Research/dirt Abstract We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web -- response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter

Jeffay, Kevin

196

Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales Meeting the challenge to keep reds in Wales to enable effective red squir- rel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Wales Squirrel squirrel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Forum and Partnership are currently

197

Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters. Place potatoes in sauce pan with cool water, cover and bring to a boil, turn to low and cook until

Liskiewicz, Maciej

198

Meals included in Conference Registrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meals included in Conference Registrations Meals included as part of the cost of a conference the most reasonable rates are obtained. Deluxe hotels and motels should be avoided. GSA rates have been for Georgia high cost areas. 75% of these amounts would be $21 for non- high cost areas and $27 for high cost

Arnold, Jonathan

199

Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Nanoscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ABSTRACT Far-red fluorescent proteins are required for deep-tissue and whole-animal imaging and multicolor labeling in the red wavelength range

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

200

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net- work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

Floyd, Sally

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Red Band Needle Blight Programme Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group Minutes Support Welcome and introduction 1. Jim thanked everyone for attending the first meeting of the Red Band and that the private 1 | Paper 1 - Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 23/01/2009 #12;Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group

202

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net­ work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

Floyd, Sally

203

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Corn steep liquor and fermented ammoniated condensed whey as protein sources for lactating cows and yearling heifers grazing winter native range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermented ammoniated condensed whey (FACW) were compared to cottonseed meal (CSM) as protein sources for wintering 61 lactating first-calf Hereford heifers and 32 yearling Hereford heifers on native range. Cattle were allotted by weight and individually fed 6 days per week for 12 weeks one of four protein treatments: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), CSL and FACW to provide .7, 1.5, .15 and 1.5 lb crude protein (CP) per day, respectively, to the lacating heifers and .2, .4, .4 and .4lb cP per day, respectively, to the yearling heifers. CMS was supplied in the CSL and FACW treatments at the same level as in the negative control. Lactating heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight and body condition (120 lb and 1.6 units) than those fed the PC (45.8 lb and .9 units). Weight and condition losses were similar (P more than .05) for lactating heifers fed PC, CSL and FACW. Yearling heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (49.4 vs 10.6 lb). Yearling heifers fed CSL and FACW gained more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (17.6 and 9.3 vs - 10.6 lb). Feeding CSL resulted in signficantly lower rumen pH, lower ruminal acetate and higher ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and caproate levels than did feeding either control. Supplementing with FACW produced significantly lower rumen pH, higher rumen ammonia and soluble carbohydrate levels, lower ruminal acetate, and higher ruminal propionate and butyrate concentrations than did either control supplement. Corn steep liquor and FDCW appear to be effective protein sources for cows and heifers grazing winter native range.

Wagner, J.J.; Lusby, K.S.; Horn, G.W.; Dvorak, M.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 2: Appendix I, Section 5, and Appendix II, Section 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 1: Main Text and Appendix I, Sections 1-4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Red-black Trees To know what a red-black tree is (10.1).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

809 CHAPTER 10 Red-black Trees Objectives · To know what a red-black tree is (§10.1). · To convert a red-black tree to a 2-4 tree and vice versa (§10.2). · To design the RBTree class that extends the BinaryTree class (§10.3). · To insert an element in a red-black tree and resolve the double red problem

Liang, Y. Daniel

208

Getting simultaneous red and near-infrared band data from a single digital camera for plant monitoring applications: theoretical and practical study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Getting simultaneous red and near-infrared band data from a single digital camera for plant Abstract. Multispectral images, including red and near-infrared bands, have proved efficient for vegetation imaging devices. A methodology is proposed to obtain simultaneously the near-infrared and red bands from

Boyer, Edmond

209

Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

210

Sandia National Laboratories: Red LED  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik SpoerkeSolar Regional TestClimateResearchRecovery Act (ARRA) ProjectsRed

211

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industrys energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

212

Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

Alechina, Natasha

213

Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

Alechina, Natasha

214

Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that have a "sickle" appearance (see figure to left). This malformed geometry prevents cells from traveling Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light to various diseases and acute conditions, the shape and composition of erythrocytes (red blood cells

California at Berkeley, University of

215

Do red giants have short mode lifetimes?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show evidence that the red giant star ksi Hya has an oscillation mode lifetime, tau, of about 2 days significantly shorter than predicted by theory (tau = 17 days, Houdek & Gough 2002). If this is a general trend of red giants it would limit the prospects of asteroseismology on these stars because of poor coherence of the oscillations.

D. Stello; H. Kjeldsen; T. R. Bedding; D. Buzasi

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

216

On bitcoin and red balloons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many large decentralized systems rely on information propagation to ensure their proper function. We examine a common scenario in which only participants that are aware of the information can compete for some reward, and thus informed participants have an incentive not to propagate information to others. One recent example in which such tension arises is the 2009 DARPA Network Challenge (finding red balloons). We focus on another prominent example: Bitcoin, a decentralized electronic currency system. Bitcoin represents a radical new approach to monetary systems. It has been getting a large amount of public attention over the last year, both in policy discussions and in the popular press [Davis 2011; Surowiecki 2011]. Its cryptographic fundamentals have largely held up even as its usage has become increasingly widespread. We find, however, that it exhibits a fundamental problem of a different nature, based on how its incentives are structured. We propose a modification to the protocol that can eliminate this problem. Bitcoin relies on a peer-to-peer network to track transactions that are performed with the currency. For this purpose, every transaction a node learns about should be transmitted to its neighbors in the network. As the protocol is currently defined and implemented, it does not provide an incentive for nodes to broadcast transactions they are aware of. In fact, it provides an incentive not to do so. Our solution is to augment the

Moshe Babaioff; Silicon Valley; Shahar Dobzinski; Sigal Oren

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

On Bitcoin and Red Balloons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study scenarios in which the goal is to ensure that some information will propagate through a large network of nodes. In these scenarios all nodes that are aware of the information compete for the same prize, and thus have an incentive not to propagate information. One example for such a scenario is the 2009 DARPA Network Challenge (finding red balloons). We give special attention to a second domain, Bitcoin, a decentralized electronic currency system. Bitcoin, which has been getting a large amount of public attention over the last year, represents a radical new approach to monetary systems which has appeared in policy discussions and in the popular press. Its cryptographic fundamentals have largely held up even as its usage has become increasingly widespread. We find, however, that it exhibits a fundamental problem of a different nature, based on how its incentives are structured. We propose a modification to the protocol that can fix this problem. Bitcoin relies on a peer-to-peer network to track transac...

Babaioff, Moshe; Oren, Sigal; Zohar, Aviv

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

T-678: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Deny Service T-678: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet...

219

T-649: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Request Validation Flaw...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

49: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Request Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks T-649: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Request Validation Flaw Permits...

220

U-200: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security Issue and Vulnerability U-200: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security Issue and Vulnerability June 27,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

Davies, Ben [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)] [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France)] [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Trager, Scott [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)] [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lancon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)] [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bergemann, Maria [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)] [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Chiavassa, Andrea [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)] [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

222

Redding Electric- Earth Advantage Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Earth Advantage Rebate Program was designed to offer rebates to residential and business customers of Redding Electric Utility (REU) for solar PV, solar thermal, and geothermal heat pump...

223

Viscoelastic transient of confined Red Blood Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, $\\eta_{mem}^{2D}\\sim 10^{-7}$ N$\\cdot$s$\\cdot$m$^{-1}$. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of $\\eta_{mem}^{2D}$, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works.

Gal Prado; Alexander Farutin; Chaouqi Misbah; Lionel Bureau

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

224

Right Turn on Red! | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

benefits for the country, helping us all save money by saving energy. Prior to the 1970's, some states already allowed drivers to turn right on a red light, but many others -...

225

Infra-red detector and method of making and using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-cost infra-red detector is disclosed including a method of making and using the same. The detector employs a substrate, a filtering layer, a converting layer, and a diverter to be responsive to wavelengths up to about 1600 nm. The detector is useful for a variety of applications including spectroscopy, imaging, and defect detection.

Craig, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Griffin, Jeffrey W. (Kennewick, WA)

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

POPULATION BIOLOGY OF RED ABAWNES, HALIOTIS RUFESCENS, IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AND MANAGEMENT OF THE RED AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Population dynamics of red abalones. Hal·wti.s rufeSC611,8 Swainson. were studied at Johnsons Lee

227

Newtonian gravity, red shift, confinement, asymptotic freedom and quarks oscillations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quarks oscillations give the Newtonian gravity law, the red shift, the confinement and the asymptotic freedom.

G. Quznetsov

2008-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

228

Improved ``Optical Highlighter'' Probes Derived from Discosoma Red Fluorescent Protein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Minneapolis, Minnesota ABSTRACT The tetrameric red fluorescent protein, DsRed, undergoes a rapid red to green-emitting species of DsRed and an enhancement of emission from the ``immature'' green species, likely caused by dequenching of fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurring within the protein tetramer. Here, we have

Marchant, Jonathan

229

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

21 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide By James E. Sykes Marine Biological, Donald L. McKernan, Director Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide By James E. Sykes causing Red-Tide blooms as deduced from field observations 2 Red- Tide research at the Florida State

230

Red giant variables: OGLE--II and MACHO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the recent impact of microlensing projects on our understanding of pulsating red giant stars. Discussed are red giant stars' pulsation properties (period--luminosity relations, period changes, mode switchings), Red Giant Branch pulsations, metallicity effects and the use of red giant variables to explore galactic structure.

L. L. Kiss; P. Lah

2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

231

A monomeric red fluorescent protein Robert E. Campbell*, Oded Tour*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A monomeric red fluorescent protein Robert E. Campbell*, Oded Tour* , Amy E. Palmer*, Paul A, and the obligate tetramerization of the red fluorescent protein from Discosoma (DsRed). Although the weak, the obligate tet- ramerization of DsRed has greatly hindered its use as a genetically encoded fusion tag. We

Tsien, Roger Y.

232

RED Revisited Tuan Anh Trinh and Sandor Molnar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RED Revisited Tuan Anh Trinh and S´andor Moln´ar High Speed Networks Laboratory Department- ternet is RED. However, research results on RED perfor- mance are highly mixed, especially in the field of tuning its parameters. In this paper, we revisit some features in RED and study them in greater details

Molnár, Sándor

233

UK Red Squirrel Group Terms of Reference Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UK Red Squirrel Group Terms of Reference Introduction The red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris has of the Bern Convention, is Lower Risk ­near threatened on the IUCN Red List and is protected under Schedules 5-ordinate, support and provide advice on the implementation of conservation measures for the red squirrel in the UK

234

Guide to Red Fluorescent Proteins and Biosensors for Flow Cytometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 17 Guide to Red Fluorescent Proteins and Biosensors for Flow Cytometry Kiryl D. PiatkevichH Stability of Fluorescence F. Optimization of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequences III. Modern Advanced Red-Shifted FPs A. Orange Fluorescent Proteins B. Red Fluorescent Proteins C. Far-Red Fluorescent Proteins IV

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

235

Red fluorescent proteins: chromophore formation and cellular applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red fluorescent proteins: chromophore formation and cellular applications Atsushi Miyawaki1,2 , Daria M Shcherbakova3,4 and Vladislav V Verkhusha3,4 In the last decade, a number of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) that emit orange, red, and far-red fluorescence have been isolated from anthozoans (corals

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

236

RED Revisited Tuan Anh Trinh and Sandor Molnar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RED Revisited Tuan Anh Trinh and S??andor Moln??ar High Speed Networks Laboratory Department­ ternet is RED. However, research results on RED perfor­ mance are highly mixed, especially in the field of tuning its parameters. In this paper, we revisit some features in RED and study them in greater details

Molnár, Sándor

237

UK RED SQUIRREL GROUP WEDNESDAY 7 OCTOBER 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 UK RED SQUIRREL GROUP WEDNESDAY 7 OCTOBER 2009 Northumberland Wildlife Trust Newcastle MINUTES in conjunction with grey squirrel culling, the outcome for the red squirrel has substantially improved.with 11 red squirrels and 24 grey squirrels recorded in 2004 changing to 103 red squirrels and 3 grey

238

MFR PAPER 1229 Red Snappers of the Carolina Coast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coast to the Campeche Banks. A closely related species, the Caribbean red snapper, Lutjanus pur- pureus

239

Conserving Scotland's Red Squirrels Scotland supports an estimated 75% of the UK red squirrel population. Although one  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conserving Scotland's Red Squirrels Scotland supports an estimated 75% of the UK red squirrel population. Although one of the most popular mammal species in the country, red squirrels currently face a number of ecological problems and their range within the UK has been much reduced. It means that the red

240

CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership Rooftop Solar Challenge 1 Sunshot #12;WASHINGTON PV CONTEXTWASHINGTON PV CONTEXT 285 cities, 39 Installations happen where process is easier #12;EVERGREEN STATE SOLAR PARTNERSHIP Commerce NWSEEDEdmonds

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPETIZERS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths for the food tables.ucdavis.edu. BUTTERNUT SQUASH & BLACK BEAN ENCHILADAS #12;BUFFETS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen

California at Davis, University of

244

Are red 2MASS QSOs young?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use photometric data from Spitzer to explore the mid- and far-IR properties of 10 red QSOs (J-K>2, R-K>5) selected by combining the 2MASS in the NIR with the SDSS at optical wavelengths. Optical and/or near-infrared spectra are available for 8/10 sources. Modeling the SED from UV to far-IR shows that moderate dust reddening (A_V=1.3-3.2) can explain the red optical and near-IR colours of the sources in the sample. There is also evidence that red QSOs have 60/12micron luminosity ratio higher than PG QSOs (97% significance). This can be interpreted as a higher level of star-formation in these systems (measured by the 60micron luminosity) for a given AGN power (approximated by the 12micron luminosity). This is consistent with a picture where red QSOs represent an early phase of AGN evolution, when the supermassive black hole is enshrouded in dust and gas clouds, which will eventually be blown out (possibly by AGN driven outflows) and the system will appear as typical optically luminous QSO. There is also tentative evidence significant at the 96% level that red 2MASS QSOs are more often associated with radio emission than optically selected SDSS QSOs. This may indicate outflows, also consistent with the young AGN interpretation. We also estimate the space density of red QSOs relative to optically selected SDSS QSOs, taking into account the effect of dust extinction and the intrinsic luminosity of the sources. We estimate that the fraction of red QSOs in the overall population increases from 3% at M_K=-27.5mag to 12% at M_K=-29.5mag. This suggests that reddened QSOs become more important at the bright end of the Luminosity Function. If red QSOs are transition objects on the way to becoming typical optically luminous QSOs, the low fractions above suggest that these systems spent <12% of their lifetime at the "reddened" stage.

A. Georgakakis; D. L. Clements; G. Bendo; M. Rowan-Robinson; K. Nandra; M. S. Brotherton

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

245

Red River Biodiesel Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access Permit5-ID-aRECRaton,RFPs Home NameRecurrentRedRedLtd

246

The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a {approx} 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that {approx}> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K {le} 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%.

Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Red Planet Mars is noticeable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the melting polar ice, and to distribute the water among the oases #12;Camille Flammarion (1884) #12;Chesley Viewed through a telescope: Mars has white polar caps Mars has dark (greenish) and bright (red;Northern Polar Cap in Spring #12;The Facts of Mars mass = 0.11M radius = 0.53 R density = 3.9 gm/cm3

Walter, Frederick M.

248

E-Print Network 3.0 - aux red oils Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 22 Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale Summary: Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale 12;About Red...

249

Nationwide: Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses Nationwide: Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses January 24, 2014 - 12:00am...

250

Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient Stress in a Column Growth Experiment. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient...

251

Sun-Sentinel Red hot email heats up Wasserman Schultz,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sun-Sentinel Red hot email heats up Wasserman Schultz, West rift South Florida members of Congress take feud public July 20, 2011|By Anthony Man, Sun Sentinel Congressman Allen West's red hot response

Belogay, Eugene A.

252

WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona U.S. GEOLOGICAL OF RECLAMATION #12;WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona By THEODORE S

253

Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Deiodinase in Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thyroxine (T4) in the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), a commercially important fish species. Immersion experiments were performed, where red drum were kept in 20-gallon glass tanks with either T4-treated or control solution-treated tank water...

Ron, Laura

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

254

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization - KVM-based infrastructure services at BNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past 18 months, BNL has moved a large percentage of its Linux-based servers and services into a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) environment. This presentation will address our approach to virtualization, critical decision points, and a discussion of our implementation. Specific topics will include an overview of hardware and software requirements, networking, and storage; discussion of the decision of Red Hat solution over competing products (VMWare, Xen, etc); details on some of the features of RHEV - both current and on their roadmap; Review of performance and reliability gains since deployment completion; path forward for RHEV at BNL and caveats and potential problems.

Cortijo, D.

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

255

Red de compensacin al trabajador Recibo de Informacin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red de compensación al trabajador Recibo de Información He recibido la Notificación de los requisitos para utilizar la Red que me explica cómo obtener atención médica a través de la Red de información, entiendo que: 1. Debo elegir un médico tratante de la lista de médicos pertenecientes a la red de

Yang, Zong-Liang

256

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

258

UK RED SQUIRREL GROUP WEDNESDAY 22 APRIL 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 UK RED SQUIRREL GROUP WEDNESDAY 22 APRIL 2009 SNH, Silvan House Edinburgh MINUTES Present Tony, have led to divergence in the philosophy and focus on a red squirrel conservation strategy. Evidence. Also, FCE grant-aid supported red squirrel conservation work in reserves #12;2 and surrounding buffer

259

UK Red Squirrel Group Minutes Tuesday 15th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UK Red Squirrel Group Minutes Tuesday 15th January 2013 1 Welcome and apologies S Bailey Attendee for protocol on red squirrel translocations to SM ­ see renewed AP1 AP2 ALL to visit new RSNE website to BM - complete General consensus that veterinary checks were required for red squirrel translocations

260

UK Red Squirrel Group Minutes Thursday 24th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UK Red Squirrel Group Minutes Thursday 24th November 2011 1 Welcome and apologies B Mayle BM Country updates Country reps SCOTLAND JB, JR, SE General update: The `Management Guidance for Red Squirrel Strategy for Red Squirrel Conservation ­ reflecting that many of the existing action plans and projects

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Release of 'Red Dragon' Ornamental Hazelnut March 15, 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Release of 'Red Dragon' Ornamental Hazelnut March 15, 2008 The Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of a new hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivar 'Red Dragon' for the ornamental market with red leaves, contorted growth habit, and complete resistance to eastern filbert blight

Tullos, Desiree

262

716 Langdon St 2nd Floor Red Gym  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

716 Langdon St 2nd Floor Red Gym Madison WI 53706 (608) 262-4503 http://msc.wisc.edu 1 FOLLOW OUR of witnesses may always go before you and walk beside you. We bestow a red and white kente stole upon all of our graduates. Red, for passion and sacrifice. White, for initiation and new beginnings. Each stole

Sheridan, Jennifer

263

Ridgeview Publishing Company Indeterminism and the Thin Red Line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ridgeview Publishing Company Indeterminism and the Thin Red Line Author(s): Nuel Belnap INDETERMINISM AND THE THIN RED LINE NuelBelnapandMitchellGreen Universityof Pittsburgh 1. Introduction 2,settledness,andactualityin branchingtime 5. The AssertionProblem 6. TheThinRedLine 7. Time's wingedchariothurriesnear 1. Introduction

Belnap, Nuel

264

American Red Cross VOLUNTEER SERVICE AGREEMENT FOR DISASTER OPERATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American Red Cross VOLUNTEER SERVICE AGREEMENT FOR DISASTER OPERATIONS I and maintenance costs will be reimbursed by the American Red Cross, pursuant to Staff Reimbursement Procedures the American Red Cross while I am performing disaster relief work. Furthermore, I understand and accept that

Wu, Shin-Tson

265

Verifying Red-Black Trees Paolo Baldan1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Verifying Red-Black Trees Paolo Baldan1 , Andrea Corradini2 , Javier Esparza3 , Tobias Heindel3,heindets,koenigba,koziouvi}@fmi.uni-stuttgart.de Abstract. We show how to verify the correctness of insertion of ele- ments into red-black trees--a form of balanced search trees--using anal- ysis techniques developed for graph rewriting. We first model red

Baldan, Paolo

266

Use of red ochre by early Neandertals Wil Roebroeksa,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of red ochre by early Neandertals Wil Roebroeksa,1 , Mark J. Siera,b,c , Trine Kellberg older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concen- trates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht- Belvédère

Utrecht, Universiteit

267

Is the Missing Ultra-Red Material Colorless Ice?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The extremely red colors of some transneptunian objects and Centaurs are not seen among the Jupiter family comets which supposedly derive from them. Could this mismatch result from sublimation loss of colorless ice? Radiative transfer models show that mixtures of volatile ice and nonvolatile organics could be extremely red, but become progressively darker and less red as the ice sublimates away.

W. M. Grundy

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

268

Brief Communication 809 Photoactivation turns green fluorescent protein red  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brief Communication 809 Photoactivation turns green fluorescent protein red Michael B. Elowitz gene was first cloned, the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) has become a powerful tool- wavelength (red) fluorescence has remained elusive. Here we describe a red-emitting, green

Elowitz, Michael

269

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale #12;About Red Leaf Resources 2006 Company commercial development field activities #12;Highlights Proven, Revolutionary Oil Shale Extraction Process Technology Significant Owned Oil Shale Resource #12;· The executive management team of Red Leaf Resources

Utah, University of

270

Red-Shift Distribution of Gamma-ray Bursts and Their Progenitors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gamma ray bursts have been divided into two classes, long-soft gamma ray burst and short-hard gamma ray burst according to the bimodal distribution in duration time. Due to the harder spectrum and the lack of afterglows of short-hard bursts in optical and radio observations, different progenitors for short-hard bursts and long-soft bursts have been suggested. Based on the X-ray afterglow observation and the cumulative red-shift distribution of short-hard bursts, Nakar et al. (2006) found that the progenitors of short-hard bursts are consistent with old populations, such as mergers of binary neutron stars. Recently, the existence of two subclasses in long-soft bursts has been suggested after considering multiple characteristics of gamma-ray bursts, including fluences and the duration time. In this work, we extended the analysis of cumulative red-shift distribution to two possible subclasses in L-GRBs. We found that two possible subclass GRBs show different red-shift distributions, especially for red-shifts z > 1. Our results indicate that the accumulative red-shift distribution can be used as a tool to constrain the progenitor characteristics of possible subclasses in L-GRBs.

Soomin Jeong; Chang-Hwan Lee

2007-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

271

NLTE Strontium and Barium in metal poor red giant stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present atmospheric models of red giant stars of various metallicities, including extremely metal poor (XMP, [Fe/H]Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba), treated in Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) with various degrees of realism. We conclude that 1) for all lines that are useful Sr and Ba abundance diagnostics the magnitude and sense of the computed NLTE effect on the predicted line strength is metallicity dependent, 2) the indirect NLTE effect of overlap between Ba and Sr transitions and transitions of other species that are also treated in NLTE non-negligibly enhances NLTE abundance corrections for some lines, 3) the indirect NLTE effect of NLTE opacity of other species on the equilibrium structure of the atmospheric model is not significant, 4) the computed NLTE line strengths differ negligibly if collisional b-b and b-f rates are an order of magnitude smaller or larger than those calculated with standard analytic formulae, and 5) the effect of NLTE upon the resonance line of Ba II at 4554.03 AA is independent of whether that line is treated with hyperfine splitting. As a result, the derivation of abundances of Ba and Sr for metal-poor red giant stars with LTE modeling that are in the literature should be treated with caution.

C. I. Short; P. H. Hauschildt

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

272

Red Shift from Gravitational Back Reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deviations from geodesic motion caused by gravitational radiation have been discussed in the last decades to describe the motion of particles or photons in strong fields around collapsed objects. On cosmological scale this effect, which in the first order is caused by the finite speed of gravitational interaction, is important also in the weak field limit. In this paper the energy loss by transfer to the gravitational potential is determined in a quasi-Newtonian approximation for the examples of a static Einstein universe and for an expanding universe with flat metric. In both cases the resulting red shift is a considerable fraction of the total red shift and requires an adjustment of the age and the matter composition in our models of the universe.

Ernst Fischer

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

273

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

274

Infra-red divergences in the large-N expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate a vectorial O(N) model with a generic nearest-neighbor interaction W(\\bsigma_i\\cdot \\bsigma_j) (depending on {\\cal N} tunable parameters), a Yukawa (and Gross Neveu) model with N_f fermions at finite temperature and the vectorial \\phi^6 model, in the large N (N_f) limit. All this models exhibit a Mean Field critical point for N=\\infinity. When 1/N fluctuations are included, infra red divergences appear near the critical point. In the framework of a generalized 1/N expansion we show that these divergences are related to a universal crossover mechanism between the Mean Field universality class (N=\\infinity) and the nonclassical one for N<\\infinity. For the generic nearest-neighbor interaction multicritical points are also investigated.

Bortolo Matteo Mognetti

2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

275

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison against 6th Power Plan (Update cyclically Data Clearinghouse BPA/RTF NEEA/Regional Programs Group Update Regional EE Technology Roadmap Lighting

276

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING HoloTV (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION) José J. Lunazzi , DanielCampinasSPBrasil Abstract: Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where

de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

277

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

278

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

279

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

Xie, Ping (San Jose, CA); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Sante Fe, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Red Canyon Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access Permit5-ID-aRECRaton,RFPs Home NameRecurrentRed Canyon

282

Red Hills Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access Permit5-ID-aRECRaton,RFPs Home NameRecurrentRed

283

Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

284

Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

Not Available

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

285

Early and later diagenetic alteration of Ordovician Red River carbonates, Tioga Deep field, Williston basin, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ordovician Red River Formation in the Williston basin is generally subdivided into three restrictive-upward cycles referred to as 'A,' 'B,' and 'C' zones in descending order. Most Red River production in western North Dakota and eastern Montana comes from dolomitized burrowed and laminated members of the C-cycle. Four cores taken by Amerada Hess Corporation within the Tioga Deep field, Williams and Montrail Counties, North Dakota, were studied in detail to establish depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity distribution within the Red River. Dolomitized portions of the Red River C member are genetically related to downward-descending Mg-rich brines derived from hypersaline basin waters depleted of their sulfate content throught attendant precipitation of gypsum. Calcite associated with this early dolomitization phase occupied intercrystalline positions between dolomite rhombs. Following burial, limestones tended to chemically compact through pressure solution, whereas late stage fractures were localized in the more brittle dolomitic portions of the Red River. These fractures served as conduits for late stage leaching fluids, possibly associated with hydrocarbon generation, that enhanced porosity in the dolomites through the removal of associated calcite. Late-stage leaching is reflected in 'overly porous' dolomite haloes around cemented burrow centers and highly porous dolomite seams along stylolitic contacts. Previous models proposed to explain porosity distribution within Red River reservoirs should be modified to include the overprint of deep diagenetic effects.

Perkins, R.D. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1 consumption, questions are being asked about the energy contribution of computing equipment. Al- though studies have documented the share of energy consumption by this type of equipment over the years, research

Namboodiri, Vinod

287

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless Nicholas Kottenstette and Panos J and networking in automation is given. Digital communication fundamentals are reviewed and networked control are presented. 1 Introduction 1.1 Why communication is necessary in automated systems Automated systems use

Antsaklis, Panos

288

The ERE of the "Red Rectangle" revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present in this paper high signal-to-noise long-slit optical spectra of the Extended Red Emission (ERE) in the "Red Rectangle" (RR) nebula. These spectra, obtained at different positions in the nebula, reveal an extremely complex emission pattern on top of the broad ERE continuum. It is well known that three features converge at large distance from the central object, in wavelength and profile to the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5797, 5849.8 and 6614 ang., (e.g. Sarre et al., 1995). In this paper we give a detailed inventory of all spectral subfeatures observed in the 5550--6850 ang. spectral range. Thanks to our high S/N spectra, we propose 5 new features in the RR that can be associated with DIBs. For the 5550--6200 ang. spectral range our slit position was on top of the NE spike of the X shaped nebula. A detailed description of the spatial profile-changes is given of the strongest features revealing that even far out in the nebula at 24 arcsec from the central star, there remains a small shift in wavelength of 1 respectively 2 ang between the ERE subfeatures and the DIB wavelengths of 5797.11 and 5849.78 ang.

Hans Van Winckel; Martin Cohen; Ted R. Gull

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

289

Integrated Culture of Seaweeds and Red Abalone in Monterey Harbor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Hypotheses (1) Red algae and kelp can be effectivelydiets are superior to all kelp diets in enhancing farmedlaboratory methods for seeding kelp zoospores onto string

Graham, Michael H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

aqaba northern red: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for a population of extremely red stellar objects extracted from the point-source catalogue of the INT Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) of the northern galactic...

291

Redding Electric- Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Redding Electric Utility offers a variety of financial incentives for energy efficiency through its Earth Advantage Rebate Program. Rebates are for weatherization measures, HVAC equipment, and...

292

Red Fish, Blue Fish, One Fish Becomes By Chandra Shekhar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

could impact speciation, says Carleton: Water pollution, for example, could destroy the color gradients Victoria, whereas red males dwell in deeper water. CREDIT: OLE SEEHAUSEN ADVERTISEMENT ADVERTISEMENT Home

293

Subterranean barriers including at least one weld  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

294

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

295

Power generation method including membrane separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

Not Available

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

299

Red Shift in a Laboraory Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A hypotheses of energy loss for polarization of e-e+ vacuum by a photon passing interstellar space is considered. An excitation and relaxation of vacuum can't run with speed of light due to very small but finite fraction of e-e+ pair mass that creates a retardment in recuperation of deposited energy back to photon. This "forgotten" by many photons energy is finally splashed out in real space as a Relic Radiation. An assumption that such energy loss is proportional to a photon energy conforms to Hubble low of Red Shift and experimental data treated as accelerated expansion of Universe. A possibility of an observation of this type energy loss is considered at high-energy accelerators where energy deposition may reach up hundreds MeV in second.

Yuriy A. Yatsunenko; Julian A. Budagov

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

300

ACARYOCHLORIS EXPLAINING THE RIDDLE OF CHLOROPHYLL D IN RED ALGAE AND EXPANDING PAR FOR OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACARYOCHLORIS ­ EXPLAINING THE RIDDLE OF CHLOROPHYLL D IN RED ALGAE AND EXPANDING PAR FOR OXYGENIC strain is shown to live epi- phytically on the red alga Gelidium caulacantheum, which itself is harvested by the red alga. Availability of far red light, however, is relatively unaffected by DOM or red

Oregon, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

302

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

305

INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT GOVINDJEE, EUGENE RABINOWITCH. INTRODUCTION It was shown in preceding papers (9, 10) that when the unicellular red alga Por- phyridium), these algae, when exposed to monochromatic light (bands isolated by a grating monochromator, band half

Govindjee

306

MEMORIA DE LA RED DE INVESTIGACIN PARA LA DOCENCIA UNIVERSITARIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Psicología Social Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales Universidad de Alicante Red de Creatividad profesores docentes de asignaturas relacionadas con la creatividad publicitaria en el Grado de Publicidad y;1. INTRODUCCI?N La red aglutina profesores docentes de asignaturas afines con la creatividad publicitaria que

Escolano, Francisco

307

Ris-R-1513(EN) The "Red" Decline of Norway  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risø-R-1513(EN) The "Red" Decline of Norway Spruce or "Røde Rødgraner" ­ Is it Ammonium Overload. Engvild Title: The "Red" Decline of Norway Spruce or "Røde Rødgraner" ­ Is it Ammonium Overload or Top" decline of Norway spruce (Picea abies) became a serious problem in plantations in Jutland on poor, sandy

308

Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells Youngchan Kim John M. Higgins blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra: red blood cell; sickle cell disease; light scattering; quantita- tive phase microscopy. Paper 11736L

Suresh, Subra

309

Mobilisation of arsenic from bauxite residue (red mud) affected soils: Effect of pH and redox conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Typically, it comprises residual iron oxides, quartz, sodium aluminosilicates, titanium dioxide, calciumMobilisation of arsenic from bauxite residue (red mud) affected soils: Effect of pH and redox elements, including arsenic. Aerobic and anaer- obic batch experiments were prepared using soils from near

Burke, Ian

310

Red Snapper Ecology and Fisheries in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Based on a symposium held in San  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Snapper Ecology and Fisheries in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Based on a symposium held in San working on diverse aspects of the ecology and fishery management of the species. There are 22 chapters life history and ecology spanning all ontogenetic stages, including larval behavior and distribution

Aguirre, Windsor E.

311

Fife Red Squirrel Project Phase II Summary Sophie Eastwood The Fife Red Squirrel Group was established in 2006 by the Fife Countryside Ranger Service to address  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fife Red Squirrel Project Phase II Summary Sophie Eastwood The Fife Red Squirrel Group to red squirrel conservation in Fife. The first phase of the project centred around two pilot forests, Devilla and Ladybank. Red Squirrel Project Officer Sophie Eastwood embarked on the next stage

312

Models of Procyon A including seismic constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed models of Procyon A based on new asteroseismic measurements by Eggenberger et al (2004) have been computed using the Geneva evolution code including shellular rotation and atomic diffusion. By combining all non-asteroseismic observables now available for Procyon A with these seismological data, we find that the observed mean large spacing of 55.5 +- 0.5 uHz favours a mass of 1.497 M_sol for Procyon A. We also determine the following global parameters of Procyon A: an age of t=1.72 +- 0.30 Gyr, an initial helium mass fraction Y_i=0.290 +- 0.010, a nearly solar initial metallicity (Z/X)_i=0.0234 +- 0.0015 and a mixing-length parameter alpha=1.75 +- 0.40. Moreover, we show that the effects of rotation on the inner structure of the star may be revealed by asteroseismic observations if frequencies can be determined with a high precision. Existing seismological data of Procyon A are unfortunately not accurate enough to really test these differences in the input physics of our models.

P. Eggenberger; F. Carrier; F. Bouchy

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

313

V-072: Red Hat update for java-1.7.0-openjdk | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2: Red Hat update for java-1.7.0-openjdk V-072: Red Hat update for java-1.7.0-openjdk January 18, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Red Hat has issued an update for...

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjunct red blood Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adjunct red blood Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adjunct red blood Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Always Needed The American Red...

315

RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. RedSeal Comments on "Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges. RedSeal Comments...

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - azoene fast red Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

profile vs. Reference Dataset Summary: -of-fit chi-squared statistic values for the train, test, large (LgRed), medium (MdRed), and small (SmRed... level. Numbers in the Ref,...

317

Brandeis University prohibits all forms of sexual misconduct (including sexual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-736-3677 brandeis.edu/studentaffairs/health screening, treatment and follow-up care for sexually transmittedGLy) 617-227-4313 www.bagly.org the Network/La Red 617-742-4911 www.tnlr.org Rape, abuse & Incest National

Snider, Barry B.

318

Red Galaxy Growth and the Halo Occupation Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have traced the past 7 Gyr of red galaxy stellar mass growth within dark matter halos. We have determined the halo occupation distribution, which describes how galaxies reside within dark matter halos, using the observed luminosity function and clustering of 40,696 0.2red galaxies in Bootes. Half of 10^{11.9} Msun/h halos host a red central galaxy, and this fraction increases with increasing halo mass. We do not observe any evolution of the relationship between red galaxy stellar mass and host halo mass, although we expect both galaxy stellar masses and halo masses to evolve over cosmic time. We find that the stellar mass contained within the red population has doubled since z=1, with the stellar mass within red satellite galaxies tripling over this redshift range. In cluster mass halos most of the stellar mass resides within satellite galaxies and the intra-cluster light, with a minority of the stellar mass residing within central galaxies. The stellar masses of the most luminous red central galaxies are proportional to halo mass to the power of a third. We thus conclude that halo mergers do not always lead to rapid growth of central galaxies. While very massive halos often double in mass over the past 7 Gyr, the stellar masses of their central galaxies typically grow by only 30%.

Michael J. I. Brown; Zheng Zheng; Martin White; Arjun Dey; Buell T. Jannuzi; Andrew J. Benson; Kate Brand; Mark Brodwin; Darren J. Croton

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

320

OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON RED AND BLUE HELIUM BURNING SEQUENCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive the optical luminosity, colors, and ratios of the blue and red helium burning (HeB) stellar populations from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of nineteen starburst dwarf galaxies and compare them with theoretical isochrones from Padova stellar evolution models across metallicities from Z = 0.001 to 0.009. We find that the observational data and the theoretical isochrones for both blue and red HeB populations overlap in optical luminosities and colors and the observed and predicted blue to red HeB ratios agree for stars older than 50 Myr over the time bins studied. These findings confirm the usefulness of applying isochrones to interpret observations of HeB populations. However, there are significant differences, especially for the red HeB population. Specifically, we find (1) offsets in color between the observations and theoretical isochrones of order 0.15 mag (0.5 mag) for the blue (red) HeB populations brighter than M{sub V} {approx} -4 mag, which cannot be solely due to differential extinction; (2) blue HeB stars fainter than M{sub V} {approx} -3 mag are bluer than predicted; (3) the slope of the red HeB sequence is shallower than predicted by a factor of {approx}3; and (4) the models overpredict the ratio of the most luminous blue to red HeB stars corresponding to ages {approx}< 50 Myr. Additionally, we find that for the more metal-rich galaxies in our sample (Z {approx}> 0.5 Z{sub sun}), the red HeB stars overlap with the red giant branch stars in the color-magnitude diagrams, thus reducing their usefulness as indicators of star formation for ages {approx}> 100 Myr.

McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001-Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

U-159: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Bug Lets Certain...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Bug Lets Certain Remote Users Bypass Authentication U-159: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Messaging Qpid Bug Lets Certain Remote Users Bypass...

322

A Red Cy3-Based Biarsenical Fluorescent Probe Targeted to a Complement...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Red Cy3-Based Biarsenical Fluorescent Probe Targeted to a Complementary Binding Peptide. A Red Cy3-Based Biarsenical Fluorescent Probe Targeted to a Complementary Binding Peptide....

323

Oscillating red-giant stars in eccentric binary systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

Beck, P G; Vos, J; Kallinger, T; Garcia, R A; Mathur, S; Houmani, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Infra-red signature neutron detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

325

Red River Valley REA- Heat Pump Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Red River Valley Rural Electric Association (RRVREA) offers a loan program to its members for air-source and geothermal heat pumps. Loans are available for geothermal heat pumps at a 5% fixed...

326

Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Regulation of Pituitary Thyrotropin Production in Red Drum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of pituitary hormone production and secretion is accomplished by a portal system which delivers thyrotropin-releasing hormone to positively stimulate the pituitary to release more TSH. However, in teleost fish such as the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), TSH...

Drone, Elizabeth

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

328

Red Sequence Cluster Finding in the Millennium Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate halo mass selection properties of red-sequence cluster finders using galaxy populations of the Millennium Simulation (MS). A clear red sequence exists for MS galaxies in massive halos at redshifts z red sequence and confusion from a larger number of intermediate mass halos hosting bright red galaxies of magnitude similar to those in higher mass halos. Our method produces catalogs of cluster candidates whose halo mass selection function, p(M|\\Ngal,z), is characterized by a bimodal log-normal model with a dominant component that reproduces well the real-space distribution, and a redshift-dependent tail that is broader and displaced by a factor ~2 lower in mass. We discuss implications for X-ray properties of optically selected clusters and offer ideas for improving both mock catalogs and cluster-finding in future surveys.

J. D. Cohn; A. E. Evrard; M. White; D. Croton; E. Ellingson

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

329

Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs ...

Kim, Youngchan

330

Deformability of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The biophysical properties of the human red blood cell (RBC) permit large deformations required for passage through narrow capillaries and spleen sinusoids. Several pathologic conditions alter RBC deformability that can ...

Mills, John Philip, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Buoyancy-driven circulation in the Red Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis explores the buoyancy-driven circulation in the Red Sea, using a combination of observations, as well as numerical modeling and analytical method. The first part of the thesis investigates the formation mechanism ...

Zhai, Ping, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Red Ink : open source financial analytics for people & communities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Ink is an open source social-financial web-service that enables people to share, aggregate, analyze, visualize and publish their financial transactions as individuals and ad-hoc groups, through data sharing campaigns. ...

O'Toole, Ryan (Ryan Michael)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Accommodation options around the Harvard University campus include [$$/night based on quick e-search  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

within walking distance'. *easy access to subway (MBTA Red Line MIT stop; 2 stops to Harvard subway stop

Wolfe, Patrick J.

334

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

335

Red inalmbrica de la Universidad de Alicante La Red Inalmbrica de la UA (eduroam) es una extensin de la red local, disponible en el 99% del Campus de San  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red inalámbrica de la Universidad de Alicante La Red Inalámbrica de la UA (eduroam) es una extensión de la red local, disponible en el 99% del Campus de San Vicente. eduroam (Educational Roaming) es no puedan utilizarse en la red wireless de la UA o sufran problemas de navegación o conexión. No se ofrecerá

Escolano, Francisco

336

Assessment of Biomass Energy Opportunities for the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessment of biomass energy and biobased product manufacturing opportunities for the Red Lake Tribe.

Scott Haase (McNeil Technologies, Inc)

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

337

AbstractThe red porgy, Pagrus pag rus, is an important reef fish in several  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

81 Abstract­The red porgy, Pagrus pag rus, is an important reef fish in several offshore fisheries a fishery-independent source. Red porgy attain a maximum age of at least 18 years and 733 mm total length revealed a difference in mean length at age of red porgy from the three sources. Red porgy in fishery

338

Red-Black Relaxed Plan Heuristics Michael Katz and Jorg Hoffmann  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Relaxed Plan Heuristics Michael Katz and J¨org Hoffmann Saarland University Saarbr the red-black planning frame- work, where red variables take the relaxed semantics (accu- mulating their values), while black variables take the regular semantics. Provided the red variables are chosen so

Domshlak, Carmel

339

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 The Next Generation Of Enterprise Class Linux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 The Next Generation Of Enterprise Class Linux Ken Crandall Engineer, Red Hat Version: 3.7ICCAD #12;Page 2 Agenda Why Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstations High Performance Computing Summary Q & A #12;Page 3 Why Red Hat Enterprise Linux? Version: 3.7ICCAD #12;Page 4

340

Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, is an estuary-dependent marine spe-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

730 Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, is an estuary-dependent marine spe- cies found in coastal to Vera Cruz, Mexico (Yokel, 1966, 1980). Red drum are highly sought after as food and gamefish. Annual the sale of red drum was pro- hibited. Recreational fishing effort directed toward red drum in Florida has

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Red Queen and the Court Jester: Species Diversity and the Role of Biotic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW The Red Queen and the Court Jester: Species Diversity and the Role of Biotic and Abiotic Factors Through Time Michael J. Benton Evolution may be dominated by biotic factors, as in the Red Queen the Red Queen or the Court Jester. The Red Queen model (1) stems from Darwin, who viewed evo- lution

Benton, Michael

342

Vegetation's Red Edge: A Possible Spectroscopic Biosignature of Extraterrestrial Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Earth's deciduous plants have a sharp order-of-magnitude increase in leaf reflectance between approximately 700 and 750 nm wavelength. This strong reflectance of Earth's vegetation suggests that surface biosignatures with sharp spectral features might be detectable in the spectrum of scattered light from a spatially unresolved extrasolar terrestrial planet. We assess the potential of Earth's step-function-like spectroscopic feature, referred to as the "red edge", as a tool for astrobiology. We review the basic characteristics and physical origin of the red edge and summarize its use in astronomy: early spectroscopic efforts to search for vegetation on Mars and recent reports of detection of the red edge in the spectrum of Earthshine (i.e., the spatially integrated scattered light spectrum of Earth). We present Earthshine observations from Apache Point Observatory to emphasize that time variability is key to detecting weak surface biosignatures such as the vegetation red edge. We briefly discuss the evolutionary advantages of vegetation's red edge reflectance, and speculate that while extraterrestrial "light harvesting organisms" have no compelling reason to display the exact same red edge feature as terrestrial vegetation, they might have similar spectroscopic features at different wavelengths than terrestrial vegetation. This implies that future terrestrial-planet-characterizing space missions should obtain data that allow time-varying, sharp spectral features at unknown wavelengths to be identified. We caution that some mineral reflectance edges are similar in slope and strength to vegetation's red edge (albeit at different wavelengths); if an extrasolar planet reflectance edge is detected care must be taken with its interpretation.

Sara Seager; Edwin L. Turner; Justin Schafer; Eric B. Ford

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

343

A model for red blood cells in simulations of large-scale blood flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red blood cells (RBCs) are an essential component of blood. A method to include the particulate nature of blood is introduced here with the goal of studying circulation in large-scale realistic vessels. The method uses a combination of the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to account for the plasma motion, and a modified Molecular Dynamics scheme for the cellular motion. Numerical results illustrate the quality of the model in reproducing known rheological properties of blood as much as revealing the effect of RBC structuring on the wall shear stress, with consequences on the development of cardiovascular diseases.

Simone Melchionna

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effects of Gossypol Consumption on the Growth Traits of Red Deer Stags and Supplemental Melatonin for Advancement of Estrous Cycles in Red Deer Hinds.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF GOSSYPOL CONSUMPTION ON GROWTH TRAITS OF RED DEER STAGS AND SUPPLEMENTAL MELATONIN FOR ADVANCEMENT OF ESTROUS CYCLES IN RED DEER HINDS A Thesis by SHANE LEE MORGAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... Stags and Supplemental Melatonin for Advancement of Estrous Cycles in Red Deer Hinds Copyright 2011 Shane Lee Morgan EFFECTS OF GOSSYPOL CONSUMPTION ON GROWTH TRAITS OF RED DEER STAGS AND SUPPLEMENTAL MELATONIN FOR ADVANCEMENT OF ESTROUS...

Morgan, Shane

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

345

Red Fork sandstone of Oklahoma: depositional history and reservoir distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Middle Pennsylvanian Red Fork sandstone formed as a result of progradation across eastern Kansas and most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork is one of several transgressive-regressive sequences (cyclothems) developed within the Desmoinesian Cherokee Group. Sea level changes, together with varying subsidence, were dominant factors controlling the general stratigraphic (correlative) characteristics of the Red Fork interval. Progradation was episodic, with sand deposition in the more active part of the basin during lower sea level stands and valley-fill deposition in the more stable areas during sea level rises. A map of Red Fork sand trends reveals an alluvial-deltaic complex covering most of Oklahoma. The Red Fork consists primarily of alluvial-valley and plain (fluvial) bodies in the northernmost part of northeastern Oklahoma, alluvial-deltaic bodies in most of the remaining parts of the shelf area, and off-shelf submarine-fan and slope basinal-floor complexes within the deeper part of the Anadarko basin. Determination of reservoir trend and genesis requires integration of rock and log data. Logs need to be calibrated to cores in order to estimate depositional environments accurately and to make a reasonable assessment of diagenetic overprints. Much of the oil and gas has been trapped in stratigraphic traps, and a significant amount of oil is in channel sandstones with trends at high angles to the structural grain. In some areas, secondary clay, in particular chloritic clay, has resulted in microporosity, high water saturation, and correspondingly low resistivities in oil reserves.

Shelton, J.W.; Fritz, R.D.; Johnson, C.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Red River play, Gulf Canada deal boost Williston basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High levels of activity in the Williston basin are assured this year with an expanding horizontal drilling play for oil in Ordovician Red River. The Red River play, like the Mississippian Lodgepole mound play, is centered in North Dakota. But the Red River play is much larger, extending into eastern Montana and northwestern South Dakota. More than 500 Red River B wells have been staked. One of the most recent companies to position itself in both plays is Gulf Canada Resources Ltd. The company forged an agreement with the Assiniboine and Sioux Indian tribes. The agreement initially provides Gulf access to about 800,000 acres on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, mostly in Roosevelt County, Mont., on the western slope of the Williston basin. Under an option, Gulf`s access could later expand to cover the reservation`s remaining 1.3 million acres. The paper discusses the extent of the Red River play, and Gulf Canada`s role in its development.

NONE

1997-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

Ages of White Dwarf-Red Subdwarf Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide the first age estimates for two recently discovered white dwarf-red subdwarf systems, LHS 193AB and LHS 300AB. These unusual systems provide a new opportunity for linking the reliable age estimates for the white dwarfs to the (measurable) metallicities of the red subdwarfs. We have obtained precise photometry in the $V_{J}R_{KC}I_{KC}JH$ bands and spectroscopy covering from 6000\\AA to 9000\\AA for the two new systems, as well as for a comparison white dwarf-main sequence red dwarf system, GJ 283 AB. Using model grids available in the literature, we estimate the cooling age as well as temperature, surface gravity, mass, progenitor mass and {\\it total} lifetimes of the white dwarfs. The results indicate that the two new systems are probably ancient thick disk objects with ages of at least 6-9 Gyr. We also conduct searches of red dwarf and white dwarf compendia from SDSS data and the L{\\'e}pine Shara Proper Motion (LSPM) catalog for additional common proper motion white dwarf-red subdwarf systems. Only seven new candidate systems are found, which indicates the rarity of these systems.

Hektor Monteiro; Wei-Chun Jao; Todd Henry; John Subasavage; Thom Beaulieu

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels.

Srivastava, S.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Red rice control in rice using herbicides plus safeners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the herbicide was a stand reduc- TABLE I Effect of Preplant Incorporated Applications of Alachlor, DCPA, and Molinate on Red Rice Rate No. coleoptiles Fr. Wt. * Herbicide (kg/ha) emerged of Check % Control Alachlor Check 1. 12 2. 24 3. 36 0 0 0 22... for the TABLE II Effect of Molinate Applied Preplant Incorporated at 5. 60 kg/ha on Red Rice Planted At Different Soil Depths Planting Depth (cm) No. Coleoptiles Fr. Wt. * I Control Emerged of Check 0 2. 54 3. 81 5. 08 6. 35 Check 12 9 9 7 11 22...

Price, James Bain

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIETARy PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE RED DRUNK ~CIAO)PS QCELIA~K A Thesis by DONALD ALLEN DAVIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A a N University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 1%STER OF SCIENCE... ~r 1986 Najor Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences DIETARY PHOSPHORUS REQUIRENENT FOR JUVENILE RED DRUN, jKIMgllLPS ~CCEUAlU . A Thesis by Approved as to style and content by: Edwin H. Robinson (Chairman of Committee) Kirk Strawn (Nenber...

Davis, Donald Allen

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Varieties of Cotton in the Red Prairies of Northwest Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. NORTHCUTT. JR., B. S.. Feed Inspedor SIDNEY D. REYNOLDS. JR.. Feed Inspector P. A. MOORE, Feed Inspector SUBSTATIONS No. 1 Beerille, Bee County: R. A. HALL, B. S.. Superintendent o. 10. Ftsdfng and Breeding Station. near College Station. Brazos Connty... OF COTTON IN THE RED PRAIRIES OF NORTH- WEST TEXAS Substation No. 12 of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station is located in the eastern part of Hardeman County southwest of Chilli- cothe about midway between the Red and Pease Rivers, and in the seo...

Quinby, John Roy

1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Genetic endangerment of wild Red Junglefowl *Gallus gallus*?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in organizing an d com- puterizing data and Davi d Watso n inspected critica l specimens in Europea n museums. This study was supported in part by Financial Assistance Award No DE-FC09-96SR18546 from th e U.S. Department o f Energy to the University of Georgia...Bird Conservation International (1999) 9:387-394. BirdLife International 199 9 Genetic endangerment of wild Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus? A. TOWNSEND PETERSON and I. LEHR BRISBIN, JR Summary Domestic chickens were derived from the wild Red...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Brisbin, I. Lehr Jr

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

How red is a quantum black hole?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiating black holes pose a number of puzzles for semiclassical and quantum gravity. These include the transplanckian problem -- the nearly infinite energies of Hawking particles created near the horizon, and the final state of evaporation. A definitive resolution of these questions likely requires robust inputs from quantum gravity. We argue that one such input is a quantum bound on curvature. We show how this leads to an upper limit on the redshift of a Hawking emitted particle, to a maximum temperature for a black hole, and to the prediction of a Planck scale remnant.

Viqar Husain; Oliver Winkler

2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

New red phosphor for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with high color-purity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New red phosphors, Na{sub 5}Eu(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} doped with boron oxide were prepared by the solid-state reaction. Their structure and photo-luminescent properties were investigated. With the introduction of boron oxide, the red emission intensity of the phosphors under 395 nm excitation is strengthened, with high color-purity (x = 0.673, y = 0.327). The single red light-emitting diode was obtained by combining InGaN chip with the red phosphor, bright red light can be observed by naked eyes from the red light-emitting diodes under a forward bias of 20 mA.

Wang, Zhengliang, E-mail: wzhl_ww@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China); He, Pei; Wang, Rui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China); Zhao, Jishou [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China); Gong, Menglian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Analysis of records of embryo production in Red Brahman cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Records of embryo production in Red Brahman donor cows (n=50) and F1 recipients (n=531) were evaluated from the collection day to the birth of the embryo produced. The effects of the sire of the donor and the embryo, protocol, season...

Riano Rocha, Edgar Hernando

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Hermeneutics and Genesis of the Red Cow Ritual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HTR 105:3 (2012) 35171 The Hermeneutics and Genesis of the Red Cow Ritual* Nathan MacDonald University of Gttingen / University of St. Andrews Q#3;Introduction 7KH#3;GLIFXOWLHV#3;ZLWK#3;WKH#3;UHG#3;FRZ#3;ULWXDO#3;KDYH#3;ORQJ#3;H[HUFLVHG#3;UHDGHUV...

MacDonald, Nathan

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

357

HISTORY OF RED LAKES FISHERY, With Observations on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was presented of the artificial propagation of the walleye and whitefish from 1918 through 1938. NOTE Average catch per lift 20 The walleyes of Lower Red Lake 25 Length -frequency distributions 25 Rate bass 50 Artificial propagation 50 Walleye 51 Whitefish 57 Brook, brown, rainbow, and lake trout 60

358

Red Halos of Galaxies - Reservoirs of Baryonic Dark Matter?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deep optical/near-IR surface photometry of galaxies outside the Local Group have revealed faint and very red halos around objects as diverse as disk galaxies and starbursting dwarf galaxies. The colours of these structures are too extreme to be reconciled with stellar populations similar to those seen in the stellar halos of the Milky Way or M31, and alternative explanations like dust reddening, high metallicities or nebular emission are also disfavoured. A stellar population obeying an extremely bottom-heavy initial mass function (IMF), is on the other hand consistent with all available data. Because of its high mass-to-light ratio, such a population would effectively behave as baryonic dark matter and could account for some of the baryons still missing in the low-redshift Universe. Here, we give an overview of current red halo detections, alternative explanations for the origin of the red colours and ongoing searches for red halos around types of galaxies for which this phenomenon has not yet been reported. A number of potential tests of the bottom-heavy IMF hypothesis are also discussed.

E. Zackrisson; N. Bergvall; C. Flynn; G. Ostlin; G. Micheva; B. Caldwell

2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

359

InsideBauer RED Labs: Start Me Up  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Lithuania 38 Bauer Recognized for Exemplary Internal Audit Program 41 RED Labs: Start Me Up 42 A Unique Adrenaline Rush 62 Cover: The Changing Landscape of Higher Education 64 A Whole New Venture 68 Energy Lecture Opens Doors 72 Bauer's Sales Excellence Institute Named Top University Sales Program 73 Our

Azevedo, Ricardo

360

Alcian Blue Alizarin Red Skeletal Staining October 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alcian Blue ­ Alizarin Red Skeletal Staining October 2003 Eddy M. De Robertis 1. Dissect mice damage. 3. Replace 95% ethanol with Alcian blue staining solution for 1-3 days slowly rocking at room days. 4. Replace Alcian blue solution with 95% ethanol for 6 hours slowly rocking at room temperature

De Robertis, Eddy M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

INTEGRATED LIDAR & PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DOCUMENTATION OF THE RED GULCH DINOSAUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

101 INTEGRATED LIDAR & PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DOCUMENTATION OF THE RED GULCH DINOSAUR TRACKSITE (WYOMING Resource Technology Section, National Operations Center, Bu- reau of Land Management, Bldg. 50 Denver, CO of successful schemes is testament to the advances made in attitudes and approaches to fossil site management

Falkingham, Peter

362

[Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and include the consumer exist. Some examples include advanced two-way metering (AMI), demand response (DR), and distributed energy resources (DER). A common misconception is...

363

Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

Big Island Demonstration Project Black Liquor  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

365

FCS Guidance Note 33: Forest operations and red squirrels: November 2006 Forest operations and red squirrels in Scottish forests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

protection were introduced by the Nature Conservation (Scotland) Act 2004. These are introduced in the FCS by the introduced grey squirrel. Scotland now holds at least 75% of the UK red squirrel population, ie about 120 squirrels have been protected against intentional acts of damage or disturbance since 1981 under the UK

366

E-Print Network 3.0 - acquired pure red Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Data-Centric Synchronization Summary: Acquire Bitmap (CAB register) 1 ld B ld Z stack " CAB CAB " 0 ... Owned Colors Array ld T Blue Red Green... ,B,C color red A,B...

367

E-Print Network 3.0 - amphiuma red blood Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

red blood Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: amphiuma red blood Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 211:63-72 (1992)...

368

T-671: Red Hat system-config-firewall Lets Local Users Gain Root...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1: Red Hat system-config-firewall Lets Local Users Gain Root Privileges T-671: Red Hat system-config-firewall Lets Local Users Gain Root Privileges July 19, 2011 - 2:42pm Addthis...

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - adsol-preserved red blood Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adsol-preserved red blood Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adsol-preserved red blood Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Always Needed The...

370

U-230: Sudo on Red Hat Enterprise Linux %postun Symlink Flaw...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0: Sudo on Red Hat Enterprise Linux %postun Symlink Flaw Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges U-230: Sudo on Red Hat Enterprise Linux %postun Symlink Flaw Lets Local Users...

371

At science, he's a natural; Retiring J-Lab leader discusses red...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hes-natural-retiring-j-lab-leader-discusses-red-tape-and-pursuit-knowledge-in... At science, he's a natural Retiring J-Lab leader discusses red tape and the pursuit of knowledge By...

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - auroral red arc Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

red arc Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: auroral red arc Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Annales Geophysicae, 23, 15231531, 2005...

373

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqaba red sea Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

& COMPANY THE RED SEA, THE NILE VALLEY AND THE HOLY LAND ABOARD THE EXCLUSIVELY... Egypt, Jordan and Israel. Join us as we sail along the ancient trade routes of the Red Sea...

374

Evaluation of Critical Habitat for the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With Comparisons to Rana Aurora and Rana Pretiosa. Copeia.M. Jennings. May 1996. Rana aurora- Red -legged Frog [WebRed- Legged Frog, Rana aurora, Tadpoles. Animal Behaviour

Allen, Michael F.; Tennant, Tracy

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Evaluation of various sulphur amino acid compounds in the diet of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinement of diet formulations to enhance the efficiency of red drum production continues to be pursued. Based on previous studies, the sulfur amino acid (SAA) requirement of red drum for methionine plus cystine appears to be most limiting, which...

Goff, Jonathan B

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Adaptive Tuning of RED Using On-line Simulation Tao Ye, Shivkumar Kalyanaraman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the proposed RED optimization scheme, a general automatic network management system, i.e., on-line simulation

Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

377

Red Algae Lose Key Mitochondrial Genes in Response to Becoming Parasitic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Algae Lose Key Mitochondrial Genes in Response to Becoming Parasitic Lillian Hancock1 , Lynda independently evolved hundreds of times among the floridiophyte red algae. Much is known about the life history class of red algae, Plocamiocolax puvinata, has lost the atp8 gene entirely, indicating that this gene

Lane, Chris

378

SPECIAL ISSUE ORIGINAL ARTICLE Biophotonic techniques for the study of malaria-infected red blood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPECIAL ISSUE ­ ORIGINAL ARTICLE Biophotonic techniques for the study of malaria-infected red blood for Medical and Biological Engineering 2010 Abstract Investigation of the homeostasis of red blood cells upon infection by Plasmodium falciparum poses complex experimental challenges. Changes in red cell shape, volume

Cicuta, Pietro

379

Evolution of Red Algal Plastid Genomes: Ancient Architectures, Introns, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolution of Red Algal Plastid Genomes: Ancient Architectures, Introns, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Station Biologique, Roscoff, France Abstract Red algae have the most gene-rich plastid genomes known across all available red algal plastid genomes we show they all share a highly compact and slowly

Martone, Patrick T.

380

RED SQUIRRELS OF THE HIGHLANDS Scottish Squirrel Group Update March 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RED SQUIRRELS OF THE HIGHLANDS Scottish Squirrel Group Update March 2012 Strongholds Update the Highlands and their main task will be to be the main local red squirrel contact within their region. We had-ordination and website Website www.redsquirrelsofthehighlands.co.uk This site serves as a vital link to all red squirrel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The flow of red blood cells through a narrow spleen-like slit Jonathan B. Freund  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The flow of red blood cells through a narrow spleen-like slit Jonathan B. Freund Citation: Phys OF FLUIDS 25, 110807 (2013) The flow of red blood cells through a narrow spleen-like slit Jonathan B are perhaps the smallest blood passages in the body, and red blood cells must deform significantly to pass

Freund, Jonathan B.

382

Larval red snapper (Lutjanus cam-pechanus) spend approximately 26 days  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

366 Larval red snapper (Lutjanus cam- pechanus) spend approximately 26 days in the plankton, prior diet differences from shifts that are due to habitat. Previous red snapper diet studies have focused and Bryan, 1975). Camber (1955) described the diets of 15 "small red snapper" from Campeche Banks

383

Appendix 15 Red and Blue-Listed Vertebrate and Vascular Plant Species The  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix 15 Red and Blue-Listed Vertebrate and Vascular Plant Species The report that follows lists red- and blue-listed species occurring in the Cranbrook Forest District and in the Southern Rocky risk' as either vulnerable in BC (Blue-listed), or endangered or threatened (Red-listed). The species

384

The red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, occurs in the eastern Atlantic from the Brit-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

723 The red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, occurs in the eastern Atlantic from the Brit- ish Isles south and Vergara, 1978). In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), red porgy are usu- ally found near hard-bottom areas off that red porgies are most common over inshore live-bottom habitats and over shelf-edge, rocky-rub- ble

385

Red-emitting fluorescent Organic Light emitting Diodes with low sensitivity to self-quenching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-emitting fluorescent Organic Light emitting Diodes with low sensitivity to self-quenching S, France *E-mail : sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr Keywords: OLED, quenching, doping, red-emitting organic. We herein report on Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) based on a fluorescent amorphous red

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Tuning RED for Web Traffic * Mikkel Christiansen, ** Kevin Jeffay, David Ott, F. Donelson Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

139 Tuning RED for Web Traffic * Mikkel Christiansen, ** Kevin Jeffay, David Ott, F. Donelson Smith http://www.cs.unc.edu/Research/dirt Abstract We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web --- response time for HTTP request­response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter

Jeffay, Kevin

387

23 Figure 3.1: Color transition from purple/maroon argillites into bright red  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;23 Figure 3.1: Color transition from purple/maroon argillites into bright red argillites. This transition weathering, possibly sideritic layer in the lower part of the picture. The fine grained overlying red Island Section, lower maroon and purple part in red unit (level: 9 meter; Figure 3.3); south shore Gull

Kidd, William S. F.

388

Perth & Kinross Red Squirrel Group update for SSG National Lottery: Community Wildlife fund  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Perth & Kinross Red Squirrel Group ­ update for SSG National Lottery: Community Wildlife fund PKRSG's Red squirrel conservation efforts were significantly boosted by receipt of a funding award from and 23rd ) and with the help of the Royal Mail some 36,470 `Reds on your doorstep' leaflets were

389

SEASONAL V A R IA TIONS IN STRUCTURE AND CIRCULATION IN THE RED SEA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEASONAL V A R IA TIONS IN STRUCTURE AND CIRCULATION IN THE RED SEA A DISSERTATION SUBMITTE D and surface circulation in the Red Sea, occur r ing along the north-south axis of the Sea and extending fr om on in the northern Red Sea is frorn the nor th-northwest throughout the year' during the winter ( fr om October

Luther, Douglas S.

390

Annual variation in primary moult parameters in Cape Weavers, Southern Masked Weavers and Southern Red  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Southern Red Bishops in the Western Cape, South Africa #12;160 #12;161 Annual variation in primary moult parameters in Cape Weavers, Southern Masked Weavers and Southern Red Bishops in the Western Cape, South Africa Abstract Duration of primary moult was similar in Cape Weavers and Southern Red Bishops (96 days

de Villiers, Marienne

391

Evolutionary Ecology, 1987, 1, 59-94 Red Queens and ESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolutionary Ecology, 1987, 1, 59-94 Red Queens and ESS: the coevolution of evolutionary rates coevolutionary rates of zero is that of evolutio- narily stable strategies (ESS). Red Queen assumes that the more of such a phenotypic trait value. Such traits are the key to the Red Queen prediction of progressive coevolution. ESS

Brown, Joel S.

392

Original article Normal and sickle red blood cell dynamics under venular flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Original article Normal and sickle red blood cell dynamics under venular flow C. Allayousa , A these notions are found in sickle cell disease where sickle red blood cells become more rigid, leading. Thus, normal and sickle red blood cells are classified into different sub-groups, showing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

Understanding Blue-to-Red Conversion in Monomeric Fluorescent Timers and Hydrolytic Degradation of Their  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding Blue-to-Red Conversion in Monomeric Fluorescent Timers and Hydrolytic Degradation-FT (chromophore Met66-Tyr67-Gly68) and its precursor with blocked blue-to- red conversion Blue102 (chromophore Leu data suggest that blue-to-red conversion, taking place in Fast-FT and in related FTs, is associated

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

394

Alternate Explosions: Collapse and Accretion Events with Red Holes instead of Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A red hole is "just like a black hole" except it lacks an event horizon and a singularity. As a result, a red hole emits much more energy than a black hole during a collapse or accretion event. We consider how a red hole solution can solve the "energy crisis" and power extremely energetic gamma ray bursts and hypernovae.

James S. Graber

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). Luff Exploration Company is applying these tools for analysis of carbonate reservoirs in the southern Williston Basin. The integrated software programs are designed to be used by small team consisting of an engineer, geologist and geophysicist. The software tools are flexible and robust, allowing application in many environments for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Keystone elements of the software tools include clustering and neural-network techniques. The tools are used to transform seismic attribute data to reservoir characteristics such as storage (phi-h), probable oil-water contacts, structural depths and structural growth history. When these reservoir characteristics are combined with neural network or fuzzy logic solvers, they can provide a more complete description of the reservoir. This leads to better estimates of hydrocarbons in place, areal limits and potential for infill or step-out drilling. These tools were developed and tested using seismic, geologic and well data from the Red River Play in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. The geologic setting for the Red River Formation is shallow-shelf carbonate at a depth from 8000 to 10,000 ft.

Kenneth D. Luff

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Internal Alignments of Red Versus Blue Discs in Dark Matter Halos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large surveys have shown that red galaxies are preferentially aligned with their halos while blue galaxies have a more isotropic distribution. Since halos generally align with their filaments this introduces a bias in the measurement of the cosmic shear from weak lensing. It is therefore vitally important to understand why this difference arises. We explore the stability of different disc orientations within triaxial halos. We show that, in the absence of gas, the disc orientation is most stable when its spin is along the minor axis of the halo. Instead when gas cools onto a disc it is able to form in almost arbitrary orientation, including off the main planes of the halo (but avoiding an orientation perpendicular to the halo's intermediate axis). Substructure helps gasless galaxies reach alignment with the halo faster, but have less effect on galaxies when gas is cooling onto the disc. Our results provide a novel and natural interpretation for why red, gas poor galaxies are preferentially aligned with their ...

Debattista, Victor P; Roskar, Rok; Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Ben; Cole, David R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

v3102014 Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include Kit Cost PURCHASED by INVESTIGATOR/1/2013 Page 1 of 5 #12;Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include Kit Cost PURCHASED by INVESTIGATOR

Grishok, Alla

399

Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Guidance document on the importance of (and steps to) including retro-commissioning in Federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs).

400

Using species distribution models to inform IUCN Red List assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to these as SRLI species because the occurrence data for these came from the plant component of the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI), an indicator to measure the current rate of loss of biodiversity by tracking trends in the conservation status of 6 a randomly... the Mesoamerica biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000). Many species in this region are poorly represented in the worlds herbaria, so limited knowledge of their true distribution exists; nonetheless, conservation assessments are urgently needed...

Syfert, Mindy M.; Joppa, Lucas; Smith, Matthew J.; Coomes, David A.; Bachman, Steven P.; Brummitt, Neil A.

2014-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Red River Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPIDColoradosourceRausWyoming: Energy Resources6072302°,Red River

402

WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZES OF RED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sizes of galaxies are known to be closely related with their masses, luminosities, redshifts, and morphologies. However, when we fix these quantities and morphology, we still find large dispersions in the galaxy size distribution. We investigate the origin of these dispersions for red early-type galaxies using two SDSS-based catalogs. We find that the sizes of faint galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 10.3 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}> -19.5, where {sup 0.1} M{sub r} is the r-band absolute magnitude, k-corrected to z = 0.1) are affected more significantly by luminosity, while the sizes of bright galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}> 11.4 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}< -21.4) are by dynamical mass. At fixed mass and luminosity, the sizes of low-mass galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.45 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -19.8) are relatively less sensitive to their colors, color gradients, and axis ratios. On the other hand, the sizes of intermediate-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.85 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -20.4) and high-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 11.25 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -21.0) galaxies significantly depend on those parameters, in the sense that larger red early-type galaxies have bluer colors, more negative color gradients (bluer outskirts), and smaller axis ratios. These results indicate that the sizes of intermediate- and high-mass red early-type galaxies are significantly affected by their recent minor mergers or rotations, whereas the sizes of low-mass red early-type galaxies are affected by some other mechanisms. Major dry mergers also seem to have influenced on the size growth of high-mass red early-type galaxies.

Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kyeong, Jaemann [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyuseok, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Method using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. Carbon monoxide is utilized for stabilizing hemoglobin in red blood cells to be stored at low temperature. Changes observed in the stored cells are similar to those found in normal red cell aging in the body, the extent thereof being directly related to the duration of refrigerated storage. Changes in cell buoyant density, vesiculation, and the tendency of stored cells to bind autologous IgG antibody directed against polymerized band 3 IgG, all of which are related to red blood cell senescence and increase with refrigerated storage time, have been substantially slowed when red blood cells are treated with CO. Removal of the carbon monoxide from the red blood cells is readily and efficiently accomplished by photolysis in the presence of oxygen so that the stored red blood cells may be safely transfused into a recipient. 5 figs.

Bitensky, M.W.

1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

404

Method using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. Carbon monoxide is utilized for stabilizing hemoglobin in red blood cells to be stored at low temperature. Changes observed in the stored cells are similar to those found in normal red cell aging in the body, the extent thereof being directly related to the duration of refrigerated storage. Changes in cell buoyant density, vesiculation, and the tendency of stored cells to bind autologous IgG antibody directed against polymerized band 3 IgG, all of which are related to red blood cell senescence and increase with refrigerated storage time, have been substantially slowed when red blood cells are treated with CO. Removal of the carbon monoxide from the red blood cells is readily and efficiently accomplished by photolysis in the presence of oxygen so that the stored red blood cells may be safely transfused into a recipient.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

The red-shift effect and radiation decay on black hole spacetimes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider solutions to the linear wave equation on a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild spacetime, assuming only that the solution decays suitably at spatial infinity on a complete Cauchy hypersurface. (In particular, we allow the support of the solution to contain the bifurcate event horizon.) We prove uniform decay bounds for the solution in the exterior regions, including the uniform bound Cv_+^{-1}, where v_+ denotes max{v,1} and v denotes Eddington-Finkelstein advanced time. We also prove uniform decay bounds for the flux of energy through the event horizon and null infinity. The estimates near the event horizon exploit an integral energy identity normalized to local observers. This estimate can be thought to quantify the celebrated red-shift effect. The results in particular give an independent proof of the classical uniform boundedness theorem of Kay and Wald, without recourse to the discrete isometries of spacetime.

Mihalis Dafermos; Igor Rodnianski

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

THE RED MSX SOURCE SURVEY: THE MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION OF OUR GALAXY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the Red MSX Source survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and H II regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid- and near-infrared color selection. We also discuss the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, including higher spatial resolution data in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcsec. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole; we find evidence that the most massive stars form: (1) preferentially nearer the Galactic center than the anti-center; (2) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (3) from the most massive cloud cores.

Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Cooper, H. D. B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Urquhart, J. S. [Max-Planck-Institut fr Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hgel 69, Bonn (Germany); Davies, B.; Moore, T. J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Mottram, J. C. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

analysis including plasma: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assembly 2010 Space Plasmas in the Solar System, including Planetary Magnetospheres (D) Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate (D21) GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITY AT HIGH-LATITUDE:...

408

Energy Department Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Washington, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman announced today that the Department of Energy has expanded its gas gouging reporting system to include a toll-free telephone...

409

PLOT: A UNIX PROGRAM FOR INCLUDING GRAPHICS IN DOCUMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simple, easy-to-read graphics language designed specificallyPROGRAM FOR INCLUDING GRAPHICS IN DOCUMENTS Pavel Curtismeanings as in the GRAFPAC graphics system. Definl. ~ tions

Curtis, Pavel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

U-182: Microsoft Windows Includes Some Invalid Certificates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The operating system includes some invalid intermediate certificates. The vulnerability is due to the certificate authorities and not the operating system itself.

411

A comparison between the responses of neutral red and acridine orange: Acridine orange should be preferential and alternative to neutral red as a dye  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be preferential and alternative to neutral red as a dye for the monitoring of contaminants by means of biological (AO) and neutral red (NR) dyes, commonly used as probes to measure the internal pH in acidic vesicles, are compared in this article. The comparison between the two dyes (arising from cal- culations taking

Canberra, University of

412

Abstract Red is a common colour signal in both aposematic warning displays, and in fruit displays. One common feature is that red is conspicuous against the natural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Red is a common colour signal in both aposematic warning displays, and in fruit displays. One common feature is that red is conspicuous against the natural background of the prey and fruits. However, there is a potential conflict between fruits and aposematic prey in how a bird predator should

Tullberg, Birgitta

413

Engineering ESPT Pathways Based on Structural Analysis of LSSmKate Red Fluorescent Proteins with Large Stokes Shift  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LSSmKate1 and LSSmKate2 are monomeric red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) with large Stokes shifts (LSSs), which allows for efficient separation of absorbance and emission maxima, as well as for excitation with conventional two-photon laser sources. These LSSmKates differ by a single amino acid substitution at position 160 and exhibit absorbance maxima around 460 nm, corresponding to a neutral DsRed-like chromophore. However, excitation at 460 nm leads to fluorescence emission above 600 nm. Structures of LSSmKate1 and LSSmKate2, determined at resolutions of 2.0 and 1.5 {angstrom}, respectively, revealed that the predominant DsRed-chromophore configurations are cis for LSSmKate1 but trans for LSSmKate2. Crystallographic and mutagenesis analyses, as well as isotope and temperature dependences, suggest that an excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) is responsible for the LSSs observed in LSSmKates. Hydrogen bonding between the chromophore hydroxyl and Glu160 in LSSmKate1 and a proton relay involving the chromophore tyrosine hydroxyl, Ser158, and the Asp160 carboxylate in LSSmKate2 represent the putative ESPT pathways. Comparisons with mKeima LSS RFP suggest that similar proton relays could be engineered in other FPs. Accordingly, we mutated positions 158 and 160 in several conventional red-shifted FPs, including mNeptune, mCherry, mStrawberry, mOrange, and mKO, and the resulting FP variants exhibited LSS fluorescence emission in a wide range of wavelengths from 560 to 640 nm. These data suggest that different chromophores formed by distinct tripeptides in different environments can be rationally modified to yield RFPs with novel photochemical properties.

Piatkevich, K.; Malashkevich, V; Almo, S; Verkhusha, V

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

Angenent, Lars T.

415

Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme-Red Light Author(s): Eugene Rabinowitch, Govindjee, Jan B. Thomas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme-Red Light Author(s): Eugene Rabinowitch://www.jstor.org #12;Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme"Red Light Abstract. Photosynthesis produced by far-red light (about 700 m,b) is reversibly inhibited in some algae by extreme-red light ( 750 m

Govindjee

416

FM13 Glastir woodland creation appeals form 3 December, 2010 Glastir Woodland Creation Appeals Process-Red Areas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Process-Red Areas Glastir Woodland Creation Appeals Process ­ Red Areas This should only be used where you: What is the reason/s for the RED designation? Why do you think that the area has been incorrectly the boundary of the area that you wish to plant in the red areas in question Project Officer

417

Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

418

Overview of ''Red Oil'' Frequency Analyses for F-Canyon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A very small potential exists in the Savannah River Site (SRS) separations operations for an uncontrolled reaction between tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid that could result in unacceptable damage to separations facilities and a significant release of radioactive materials. The recent ''red oil'' (TBP and nitric acid) accident in Tomsk, Russia, resulted in considerable damage and radioactive release. Explosions have also occurred at SRS during the early years of operations. While the SRS separations facilities have operated without incident for many years, it is prudent to revisit the SRS defense-in-depth approach to preventing such an accident and to upgrade preventive procedures and hardware as appropriate.

Lux, C.R.

2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

419

Earth fissures of the Red Light Bolson, Hudspeth County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the laboratory techniques used during the soil analyses. Finally, I would like to thank the people of Sierra Blanca who went out of their way to make me feel welcome. A very special and heart-felt thanks goes to the family of R. Ramirez. The Ramirez household... in engineering design. Studies of the life history of individual or sets of fissures can lead to designing preemptive mitigation measures. Earth fissures are actively forming in the Red Light Bolson south of Sierra Blanca, Texas, the county seat of Hudspeth...

Sherrier, Michael Perry

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Red Lake Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerType Jump to:Co JumpRETScreenJam Home NameRed Lake

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Red River Valley Coop Pwr Assn | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerType Jump to:Co JumpRETScreenJam Home NameRed LakeAssn

422

EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy CooperationRequirements Matrix U.S.7685 Vol. 76, No.5-FEB.Draft0:Manufacturing Facility, Red

423

EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct,Final9:Department of EnergyQCJuly 2015 < prevRed Leaf

424

Sigurd Red Butte No2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation,Pvt LtdShrub Oak, New York:Siemens° LoadingSigurd Red

425

MHK Technologies/RED HAWK | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger < MHK Technologies JumpProteusRED HAWK

426

Red Cliffs Campground, Cedar City District, Utah | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartmentEnergy DataRemediated | DepartmentRecruit MilitaryRed Cliffs

427

RedShift Systems Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPIDColoradosourceRausWyoming: EnergyElec Assn Jump to:RedShift

428

Town of Red Springs, North Carolina (Utility Company) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop, IncTipmont RuralMiddletown Place:Information Red Springs Town

429

Red Cliffs Campground, Cedar City District, Utah | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalancedDepartment ofColumbusReport # INL/EXT-06-11478RailcarsJune 7,AboutRed

430

American Red Cross Blood Drive Hanford Health and Safety Exposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail ShareRed Cross Blood Drive Hanford Health and Safety

431

Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

432

Including costs of supply chain risk in strategic sourcing decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost evaluations do not always include the costs associated with risks when organizations make strategic sourcing decisions. This research was conducted to establish and quantify the impact of risks and risk-related costs ...

Jain, Avani

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STEEL WELDED COVERPLATE INCLUDING COMPOSITE DOUBLERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the increasing focus on welded bridge members resulting in crack initiation and propagation, there is a large demand for creative solutions. One of these solutions includes the application of composite doublers over the critical weld. In order...

Petri, Brad

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

atlantic region including: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R: L. Tossey, T. Beeson, Parks, B. TruittTNC, UD MPEO staff 2 Climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a study including the effects of ocean...

435

T-603: Mac OS X Includes Some Invalid Comodo Certificates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The operating system includes some invalid certificates. The vulnerability is due to the invalid certificates and not the operating system itself. Other browsers, applications, and operating systems are affected.

436

Limited Personal Use of Government Office Equipment including Information Technology  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order establishes requirements and assigns responsibilities for employees' limited personal use of Government resources (office equipment and other resources including information technology) within DOE, including NNSA. The Order is required to provide guidance on appropriate and inappropriate uses of Government resources. This Order was certified 04/23/2009 as accurate and continues to be relevant and appropriate for use by the Department. Certified 4-23-09. No cancellation.

2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

437

Magnesium Isotope Ratios in omega Centauri Red Giants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used high resolution observations obtained at the AAT with UHRF (R ~ 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R ~ 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven omega Centauri red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = --1.78 to --0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The omega Centauri stars sample both the "primordial" (i.e., O-rich, Na and Al-poor) and the "extreme" (O-depleted, Na and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both omega Centauri and M4 show (25Mg, 26Mg)/24 Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the omega Centauri extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the 26Mg/24Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < --1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values....

Da Costa, G S; Yong, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Compositional changes in red and violet smoke mixes after combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthraquinone-derived dyes are commonly used in colored dye mixes prepared for signal smoke grenades. Biological studies have shown, however, that a number of these dyes exhibit bacterial mutagenicity. In addition, these dyes are similar in structure to several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are well-known carcinogens. The grenades contain not only anthraquinone-derived dyes, but also a pyrotechnic fuel and cooling and starting mixes consisting primarily of potassium chlorate and nitrate, sodium bicarbonate, and sulfur. These dyes are volatilized at temperatures up to 550/sup 0/C during the detonation of the grenade, which could subject the dyes to oxidative and pyrolytic reactions that could result in a variety of reaction by-products. As part of a program to investigate possible environmental and occupational risks of the colored smoke dyes and in signal grenades, two colored smoke mixes, red and violet, have been studied both before and after detonation to evaluate any differences in composition due to the combustion process. This report focuses primarily on the separation and identification of the components of the original and combusted red and violet smoke mixes. The conditions for the detonation of the smoke grenades and sampling of the combusted smoke mixes are also discussed.

Buchanan, M.V.; Rubin, I.B.; Moneyhun, J.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - amphiuma tridactylum red Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bones). My request is still tangled in red tape. Fortunately, we now Source: Staton, Joe - Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine Biology and Coastal Research, University of...

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - argentinean red wine Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of all German wines were red wines in 2006, according to the German Wine Institute. In Germany... of sugar because German consumers have ... Source: California at Davis, University...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

E-Print Network 3.0 - australian red meat Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Renewable Energy ; Geosciences 24 China's Agriculture, Smallholders and Trade: Driven by the Livestock Revolution? Summary: , poultry and red meats (milk was not...

442

Energy Department Invests $12 Million to Slash Red Tape and Speed...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

generation once again by 2020, the Energy Department today announced eight teams to spur solar power deployment by cutting red tape for residential and small commercial rooftop...

443

Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

444

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

446

Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel Reduction Potentials-04-004 February 2005 Revised: October 2005 Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor, State of California #12;Biomass Tiangco, CEC Bryan M. Jenkins, University of California #12;Biomass Potentials from California Forest

447

Project Management Business Process Project Delivery Processes Includes VE Budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Management Business Process Project Delivery Processes Includes VE Budget Schedule Activities that do/could feed into PMBP LEGEND VE Cost Avoidance Program Coverage Document Results (Before, could use the value methodology to facilitate after action review. The project manager is responsible

US Army Corps of Engineers

448

DISTINCTIONS The unique combination of factors which distinguish Berea includes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

throughout Appala- chia. SUSTAINABLE CAMPUS FEATURES The College environment demonstrates sustainable living and enhances student learning. Recently renovated historical buildings and residence halls include sustain, Washington Monthly ranked Berea the #1 liberal arts college in the nation Listed as a "Best Buy" college

Baltisberger, Jay H.

449

Free Energy Efficiency Kit includes CFL light bulbs,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free Energy Efficiency Kit Kit includes CFL light bulbs, spray foam, low-flow shower head, and more! Building Science 101 Presentation BPI Certified Building Professionals will present home energy efficiency for discounted energy assessments. FREE HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY SEMINAR N e w R i ver L i g ht & Pow e r a n d W

Rose, Annkatrin

450

Area of cooperation includes: Joint research and development on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technologies August 2, 2006: HCL Technologies Ltd (HCL), India's leading global IT services company, has signed projects that are using this technology currently such as BioGrid in Japan, National Grid Service in UKArea of cooperation includes: · Joint research and development on Grid computing technologies

Buyya, Rajkumar

451

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Engineering) W. VA #12;Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach August 2011 version Page 2 Energy Transitions sources globally, some very strong short-term drivers of energy transitions reflect rising concerns over

Walter, M.Todd

452

Procedures in Modules (1) Including all procedures within modules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Procedures in Modules (1) Including all procedures within modules works very well in almost all designing these if possible #12;Procedures in Modules (2) These are very much like internal procedures Works very well in almost all programs Everything accessible in the module can also be used in the procedure

453

FORUMA Hamilton Spectator Town Hall Event SPEAKERS INCLUDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R001990104 OPEN FORUMA Hamilton Spectator Town Hall Event SPEAKERS INCLUDE: STEVE BUIST, Spectator, former chairman of Hamilton-Wentworth region and now president and CEO of the Hamilton Community Foundation. DR. CHRIS MACKIE, Hamilton's associate medical officer of health. MARK CHAMBERLAIN, president

Thompson, Michael

454

DO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ bottles Metal items other than cans/foil Napkins Paper towels Plastic bags Plastic films Plastic utensilsDO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok Aerosol cans Books Bottle, PDAs, inkjet cartridges, CFL bulbs (cushioned, sealed in plastic) computers, printers, printer

Wolfe, Patrick J.

455

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

456

ASTRO-F/FIS observing simulation including detector characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASTRO-F/FIS observing simulation including detector characteristics Woong-Seob Jeong a,*, Soojong instruments, the far-infrared surveyor (FIS) will map the entire sky in four bands using short wavelength (SW- oped a suite of software with an aim to simulate the FIS observations (Jeong et al., 2000, 2003, 2004

Pak, Soojong

457

ASTRO-F/FIS Observing Simulation Including Detector Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASTRO-F/FIS Observing Simulation Including Detector Characteristics Woong-Seob Jeong1, Soojong Pak1 simulations to examined the detector characteristics on the FIS instrument (Far- Infrared Surveyor) images narrow and wide bands using a short wavelength (SW) and long wavelength (LW) detector array. The FIS (Far

Lee, Hyung Mok

458

Methods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" purchases must be reviewed and approved by the Controller's Office. This may result in the end user beingMethods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different processes of ordering goods and/or services, and encumbering funds. #12;Method of Purchase Field Purchase Orders (FPO) Accepted

459

Including Blind Students in Computer Science Through Access to Graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Including Blind Students in Computer Science Through Access to Graphs Suzanne Balik, Sean Mealin SKetching tool, GSK, to provide blind and sighted people with a means to create, examine, and share graphs (node-link diagrams) in real-time. GSK proved very effective for one blind computer science student

Young, R. Michael

460

HTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/background · Stability and protection are crucial issues for HTS tapes and coils applied to electric power devices. ­Both for the economic argument for HTS AC applications like cables and transformers. · Conductor design is importantHTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability, AC Losses, and Fault Currents M. J

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction of protein profiles including a digestion model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction of protein profiles including a digestion model Pierre to recover the protein biomarkers content in a robust way. We will focus on the digestion step since and each branch to a molecular processing such as digestion, ionisation and LC-MS separation

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

462

GRADUATE STUDIES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM INCLUDING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-growing economies in other parts of the world, there is a growing demand for practical, sustainable building designs as the broader architectural design and construction processes. Likely careers of graduates are in the building1 GRADUATE STUDIES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM INCLUDING DEPARTMENT

Reif, Rafael

463

Requirements: A minimum of 15 PSYC credits, including  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

» Three other 2000-3000-level PSYC courses (any area) No more than 3 credits of PSYC 3889 or 3999 canRequirements: A minimum of 15 PSYC credits, including: » One Area I course » One Area II course) ___2100 (Principles of Research in Psychology) Area I. Social, Developmental, Clinical, & Industrial

Alpay, S. Pamir

464

Spectroscopic Survey of Red Giants in the SMC. I: Kinematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a spectroscopic survey of 2046 red giant stars, distributed over the central 4x2 kpc of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). After fitting and removing a small velocity gradient across the SMC (7.9 km/s/deg oriented at 10 deg E of N), we measure an rms velocity scatter of 27.5+-0.5 km/s. The line of sight velocity distribution is well-characterized by a Gaussian and the velocity dispersion profile is nearly constant as a function of radius. We find no kinematic evidence of tidal disturbances. Without a high-precision measurement of the SMC's proper motion, it is not possible to constrain the SMC's true rotation speed from our measured radial-velocity gradient. However, even with conservative assumptions, we find that v < sigma and hence that the SMC is primarily supported by its velocity dispersion. We find that the shape of the SMC, as measured from the analysis of the spatial distribution of its red giant stars, is consistent with the degree of rotational flattening expected for the range of allowed v/sigma values. As such, the properties of the SMC are consistent with similar low luminosity spheroidal systems. We conclude that the SMC is primarily a low luminosity spheroid whose irregular visual appearance is dominated by recent star formation. A simple virial analysis using the measured kinematics implies an enclosed mass within 1.6 kpc of between 1.4 and 1.9x10^9 Mo, and a less well constrained mass within 3 kpc of between 2.7 and 5.1x10^9 Mo.

Jason Harris; Dennis Zaritsky

2006-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

465

MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

466

Multi-processor including data flow accelerator module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An accelerator module for a data flow computer includes an intelligent memory. The module is added to a multiprocessor arrangement and uses a shared tagged memory architecture in the data flow computer. The intelligent memory module assigns locations for holding data values in correspondence with arcs leading to a node in a data dependency graph. Each primitive computation is associated with a corresponding memory cell, including a number of slots for operands needed to execute a primitive computation, a primitive identifying pointer, and linking slots for distributing the result of the cell computation to other cells requiring that result as an operand. Circuitry is provided for utilizing tag bits to determine automatically when all operands required by a processor are available and for scheduling the primitive for execution in a queue. Each memory cell of the module may be associated with any of the primitives, and the particular primitive to be executed by the processor associated with the cell is identified by providing an index, such as the cell number for the primitive, to the primitive lookup table of starting addresses. The module thus serves to perform functions previously performed by a number of sections of data flow architectures and coexists with conventional shared memory therein. A multiprocessing system including the module operates in a hybrid mode, wherein the same processing modules are used to perform some processing in a sequential mode, under immediate control of an operating system, while performing other processing in a data flow mode.

Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Paul E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with .sup.9 TC  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for reduction of technetium.

Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Babich, John W. (Redhill Surrey, GB2); Straub, Rita (Brookhaven, NY); Richards, Powell (New Bern, NC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with [sup 99]Tc  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for reduction of technetium. No Drawings

Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

470

CHANGES IN QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN THE RED ALGA Porphyridium cruentum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHANGES IN QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN THE RED ALGA Porphyridium cruentum CAUSED BY STEPWISE From the Photosynthesis Research Laboratory, Botany Department, University of Illinois, Urbana. Dr of photosynthesis in the red alga Porphyridium cruentum, and the spectral compo- sition of light, changed

Govindjee

471

Regulation of Thyrotropin mRNA Expression in Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, circulates with a robust daily rhythm in the sciaenid fish, red drum. Previous research has suggested that the red drum T? cycle is circadian in nature, driven by TSH secretion in the early photophase and inhibited by T? feedback in the early scotophase...

Jones, Richard Alan

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

472

Bioluminescent and Red-Fluorescent Lures in a Deep-Sea Siphonophore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioluminescent and Red-Fluorescent Lures in a Deep-Sea Siphonophore Steven H. D. Haddock,1 * Casey stalk (Fig. 1, B and C). The transpar- ent stalk terminates in a bulb containing white spots, historical surrounded by red fluorescent material (Fig. 1C). This substance produced a multimodal fluorescence emis

Dunn, Casey

473

Sandwiches come with the following: Mayo or mustard, lettuce, tomatoes, red onions, pickles, pepperoncinis, salt & pepper.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and chile-lime tortilla strips, Romaine and Spring Mix, Buttermilk Ranch dressing. Chicken Caesar - Chicken Chicken All natural chicken with BBQ sauce, lettuce, tomatoes, red onions, Ranch dressing and chile & SWEETS SALADS & SALAD WRAPS FAVORITES BBQ Ranch Chicken - Chicken, BBQ sauce, red onions, tomatoes

de Lijser, Peter

474

On Bitcoin and Red Balloons Moshe Babaioff, Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X On Bitcoin and Red Balloons Moshe Babaioff, Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley. moshe (finding red balloons). We focus on another prominent scenario: Bitcoin, a decentralized electronic currency system. Bitcoin represents a radical new approach to monetary systems. It has been getting a large

Fiat, Amos

475

INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of woodland ecosystems by virtue the ecological impor- tance of red wood ants (Gsswald, 1989) and the conser- vation concern for some species.borkin@clear.net.nz 2 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Etive House, Beechwood Park, Inverness, IV2 3BW, UK; e

Thomas, Len

476

NESTING WITH THE WASP ROPALIDIA CINCTA INCREASES NEST SUCCESS OF RED-CHEEKED CORDONBLEU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1022 NESTING WITH THE WASP ROPALIDIA CINCTA INCREASES NEST SUCCESS OF RED-CHEEKED CORDONBLEU costs or benefits to associated hymenopterans. We followed the nesting cycles of an estrildid finch, the Red-cheeked Cordonbleu (Uraeginthus bengalus), and a common nesting associate, the wasp Ropalidia

Beier, Paul

477

"Red Sore Disease"in Game Fish1 Peggy Reed and Ruth Francis-Floyd2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

frequently affected are game fish, particularly bluegill (bream), largemouth bass, and striped bass and itsVM85 "Red Sore Disease"in Game Fish1 Peggy Reed and Ruth Francis-Floyd2 1. This document is VM85 fish is generically referred to as "red sore disease." This problem usually occurs in the spring

Watson, Craig A.

478

Absence of Red Structural Color in Photonic Glasses, Bird Feathers and Certain Beetles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Colloidal glasses, bird feathers, and beetle scales can all show structural colors arising from short-ranged spatial correlations between scattering centers. Unlike the structural colors arising from Bragg diffraction in ordered materials like opals, the colors of these photonic glasses are independent of orientation, owing to their disordered, isotropic microstructures. However, there are few examples of photonic glasses with angle-independent red colors in nature, and colloidal glasses with particle sizes chosen to yield structural colors in the red show weak color saturation. Using scattering theory, we show that the absence of angle-independent red color can be explained by the tendency of individual particles to backscatter light more strongly in the blue. We discuss how the backscattering resonances of individual particles arise from cavity-like modes, and how they interact with the structural resonances to prevent red. Finally, we use the model to develop design rules for colloidal glasses with red, angle-independent structural colors.

Sofia Magkiriadou; Jin-Gyu Park; Young-Seok Kim; Vinothan N. Manoharan

2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

479

A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

480

Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including red liquor" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

482

The Helium-Core Mass at the Helium Flash in Low-Mass Red Giant Stars: Observations and Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The method developed by Raffelt (1990a,b,c) to estimate a possible increase in the standard values of the helium-core mass at the tip of the red giant branch, $\\Mc$, from properties of the color-magnitude diagrams of Galactic globular clusters is employed. In the present study, we revise and update Raffelt's database, including also constraints from RR Lyrae pulsation, and find that a small increase, by $\\Delta\\Mc \\approx 0.01\\pm 0.015 \\Msun$, cannot be ruled out with the present data and evolutionary models. Our new upper limits on $\\Delta\\Mc$ are less restrictive than those previously obtained by Raffelt, as are the corresponding constraints on novel astroparticle phenomena which may affect the evolution of low-mass red giants. Within the estimated uncertainties, however, the standard values of $\\Mc$ may also be acceptable. Raffelt's method does not rule out a low envelope helium abundance in globular cluster giants, though again the standard values are compatible with the available constraints. The influence of a non-solar ratio for the $\\alpha$-capture elements upon these results is also investigated. In addition, we review several aspects of the input physics employed in red giant stellar evolutionary calculations, with the purpose of evaluating possible sources of uncertainty in the value of the helium-core mass at the helium flash that is obtained from evolutionary computations, such as: heat conduction by electrons in the degenerate core; Coulomb effects upon the Equation of State; triple-$\\alpha$ reaction rates and screening factors; neutrino emission rates, both standard and enhanced by a possible non-zero magnetic moment; stellar rotation; microscopic element diffusion; and energy losses by axions and Weakly Interacting Massive Particles.

M. Catelan; J. A. de Freitas Pacheco; J. E. Horvath

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

483

Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Handbook deals only with industrial cogeneration, that is, simultaneous production of both heat and electricity at the industrial plant site. The cogenerator has the option of either selling all cogenerated power to the utility while simultaneously purchasing power to satisfy his plant demand, or directly supplying the plant demand with cogenerated power, thus displacing utility-supplied power. This Handbook provides the refinery plant manager or company energy coordinator with a framework for making a preliminary assessment of the feasibility and viability of cogeneration at a particular plant. The handbook is intended to provide an understanding of the potential of several standardized cogeneration systems, as well as their limitations. However, because the decision to cogenerate is very site specific, the handbook cannot provide all of the answers. It does attempt, however, to bring to light the major issues that should be addressed in the decision-making process. The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. 39 figures, 37 tables.

Not Available

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

485

Evaluation of hydropyrolysis as an energy-saving alternative to the Tomlinson furnace. Task II. Chemistry of hydropyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies were conducted of reactions involving model compounds of black liquor and reaction products when reacting black liquor at extreme conditions for the purpose of understanding the chemistry occurring in hydropyrolysis. Reaction studies of model compounds included: lignin precipitated from black liquor, the sodium salt of saccharinic acid, sodium lactate, sodium glycolate, sodium oxalate, sodium acetate and sodium formate.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Policy Experimentation and the Search for Institutional Change: The Politics of Red-Green Reform in Germany  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the first four years of Germany first Red-Green coalition.OF RED-GREEN REFORM IN GERMANY June 2006 J. Nicholas Zieglercoalition government in Germany between Social Democrats and

Ziegler, J. Nicholas; Leslie, John C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

An early Miocene age for a high-temperature event in gneisses from Zabargad Island (Red Sea, Egypt): mantle diapirism?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An early Miocene age for a high-temperature event in gneisses from Zabargad Island (Red Sea, Egypt outcropping on Zabargad Island (Red Sea, Egypt). This island, though of limited size (& 4 km2 ), has an almost

Demouchy, Sylvie

488

Post-fire recovery and successional dynamics of an old growth red spruce forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fire in a mesic ecosystem, specifically a high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forest on Whitetop Mountain in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Six plots were established in a high elevation red spruce stand to characterize the stand...

Krustchinsky, Adam R.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

489