Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Gravitational collapse of a macroscopic string by a Newtonian description including the effect of gravitational radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We make an attempt to dynamically study, in four space-time dimensions, the classical gravitational collapse of a macroscopic circular fundamental string, by a truncation of the Einstein equations that suppresses retarded features but keeps the main self-gravity peculiarities of the relativistic string dynamics, and allows the investigation of a possible infinite red-shift. The numerical solution of the string evolution in the self-induced metric shows an infinite red shift at a macroscopic size of the string, when the string reaches the velocity of light. We further include the back-reaction of the radiation of gravitons which induces energy dissipation: now the velocity of light is not reached, the infinite red-shift does not form and the string simply shrinks with damped oscillations.

Roberto Iengo

2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

2

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

3

ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

Hodges, Gary; Stoffel, Tom; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Ritsche, Michael; Morris, Victor; Anderberg, Mary

4

THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION  

SciTech Connect

We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on the thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.

Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.vauclair@irap.omp.eu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP and CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ‘‘incoherent’’ jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics.

L. M. Jones; R. Migneron; K. S. S. Narayanan

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

7

Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of proton radiation damage. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relative cataractogenic effects of different proton en- ergies, (2) to determine the relative cataractogenic effects of different radiation doses and (3) to determine... Laboratory in 1945 and 1946. Ten victims were exposed to various doses of moderately fast neutrons and hard gamma rays. In the eight survivors, two radiation cataracts resulted (15). In 1948 it was reported that five nuclear physicists with a common...

Kyzar, James Ronald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

8

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

9

Radiation effects in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yazzie, A. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ (United States). Dept. of History; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leavitt, C.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

Ghan, Steven J.

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

11

Memory effects in radiative jet energy loss  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In heavy-ion collisions the created quark-gluon plasma forms a quickly evolving background, leading to a time dependent radiative behavior of high momentum partons traversing the medium. We use the Schwinger Keldysh formalism to describe the jet evolution as a non-equilibrium process including the Landau-Pomeranschuk-Migdal effect. Concentrating on photon emission, a comparison of our results to a quasistatic calculation shows good agreement, leading to the conclusion that the radiative behavior follows the changes in the medium almost instantaneously.

Frank Michler; Björn Schenke; Carsten Greiner

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

12

Including radiative heat transfer and reaction quenching in modeling a Claus plant waste heat boiler  

SciTech Connect

Due to increasingly stringent sulfur emission regulations, improvements are necessary in the modified Claus process. A recently proposed model by Nasato et al. for the Claus plant waste heat boiler (WHB) is improved by including radiative heat transfer, which yields significant changes in the predicted heat flux and the temperature profile along the WHB tube, leading to a faster quenching of chemical reactions. For the WHB considered, radiation accounts for approximately 20% of the heat transferred by convection alone. More importantly, operating the WHB at a higher gas mass flux is shown to enhance reaction quenching, resulting in a doubling of the predicted hydrogen flow rate. This increase in hydrogen flow rate is sufficient to completely meet the hydrogen requirement of the H[sub 2]S recovery process considered, which would eliminate the need for a hydrogen plant.

Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

RADIATION EFFECTS IN MATERIAL MICROSTRUCTURE.  

SciTech Connect

Next generation nuclear power systems, high-power particle accelerators and space technology will inevitably rely on higher performance materials that will be able to function in the extreme environments of high irradiation, high temperatures, corrosion and stress. The ability of any material to maintain its functionality under exposure to harsh conditions is directly linked to the material structure at the nano- and micro-scales. Understanding of the underlying processes is key to the success of such undertakings. This paper presents experimental results of the effects of radiation exposure on several unique alloys, composites and crystals through induced changes in the physio-mechanical macroscopic properties.

SIMOS,N.

2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Radiation effects in Si-Ge quantum size structure (Review)  

SciTech Connect

The article is dedicated to the review and analysis of the effects and processes occurring in Si-Ge quantum size semiconductor structures upon particle irradiation including ion implantation. Comparisons to bulk materials are drawn. The reasons of the enhanced radiation hardness of superlattices and quantum dots are elucidated. Some technological applications of the radiation treatment are reviewed.

Sobolev, N. A., E-mail: sobolev@ua.pt [Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Fisica and I3N (Portugal)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting Held in Hiroshima Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting Held in Hiroshima July 22, 2013 - 4:54pm Addthis Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting Held in Hiroshima The third Board of Councilors (BOC) meeting was held on June 18-19 at the Hiroshima Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), a bi-national U.S.-Japan research organization. The BOC is the highest decision-making body at RERF, consisting of eight Councilors elected from the United States and Japan. A total of 23 participants, including 8 Councilors from the United States and Japan and officials from the U.S. and Japanese Governments, were present at the meeting. The Office of Health, Safety and

16

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Radiation Effects in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells E.A. Blakely1, M.P. McNamara1, P.Y. Chang1, K.A. Bjornstad1, D. Sudar1, and A.C. Thompson2 1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; 2Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. Introduction The human lens is one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body. Cataract, the opacification of the lens, is a late-appearing response to radiation damage. There are few data available on the late radiation effects of exposure in space flight to charged particle beams, the most prevalent of which are protons. Basic research in this area is needed to integrate the responses of both critical and other representative tissues

17

Radiative Effects of Cloud Inhomogeneity and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiative Effects of Cloud Inhomogeneity and Geometric Association Over the Tropical Western Pacific Warm Pool X. Wu National Center for Atmospheric Research (a) Boulder, Colorado...

18

Ion Beams - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron Institute...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Beams Available Beams Beam Change Times Measurements Useful Graphs Various ion beams have been developed specifically for the Radiation Effects Facility. These beams...

19

Decaying Vacuum Inflationary Cosmologies: A Complete Scenario Including Curvature Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a large class of nonsingular cosmologies of arbitrary spatial curvature whose cosmic history is determined by a primeval dynamical $\\Lambda (t)$-term. For all values of the curvature, the models evolve between two extreme de Sitter phases driven by the relic time-varying vacuum energy density. The transition from inflation to the radiation phase is universal and points to a natural solution of the graceful exit problem regardless of the values of the curvature parameter. The flat case recovers the scenario recently discussed in the literature (Perico et al., Phys. Rev. D88, 063531, 2013). The early de Sitter phase is characterized by an arbitrary energy scale $H_I$ associated to the primeval vacuum energy density. If $H_I$ is fixed to be nearly the Planck scale, the ratio between the relic and the present observed vacuum energy density is $\\rho_{vI}/\\rho_{v0} \\simeq 10^{123}$.

Lima, J A S; Zilioti, G J M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Reduced model for the description of radiation-matter interaction including atomic recoil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that a model for the collective atomic recoil laser, previously introduced to include collisions with an external buffer gas, can be reduced to a single dynamical equation for the probe amplitude. This is the result of a clever adiabatic elimination of the atomic variables and of the assumption of a negligible effect of the probe field onto the atomic motion. This reduced model provides a fairly accurate description of the phase diagram of the original set of equations and allows for the investigation of more realistic regimes, where the direct simulation of the full model would be otherwise unfeasible. As a result, we find that the onset of a coherent field can be either described by a second- or first-order transition, the former scenario being observable only below a given temperature. Moreover, the first-order transition is accompanied by an intrinsic optical bistability region.

J. Javaloyes; G. L. Lippi; A. Politi

2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Including Non-Boussinesq Effects in Boussinesq Ocean Circulation Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A set of equations is derived to modify z-level Boussinesq ocean circulation models to account for non-Boussinesq effects. These equations take the same form as those of the Boussinesq models except for the addition of a few correction terms that ...

Youyu Lu

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Are synchroton radiation studies (including EXAFS) breakthroughs in structurals studies of metalloproteins?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrons travelling around storage rings in vacuum at close to the speed of light are being exploited to an increasing extent by bioinorganic chemists. These electrons emit intense radiation ranging from the infrared through X-ray regions. The radiation is continuous in energy, pulsed, polarized, and of intensity not otherwise obtainable for comparable time periods. The availability of the synchrotron radiation has elicited an increasing variety of absorption and scattering techniques. The absorption edge, the X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) have each been exploited as have scattering techniques. This discussion brings together from four countries (and four synchrotron sources) some of the major proponents and users of synchrotron radiation. The round table will entail short (20–25 minutes) formal presentations by each of the 5 participants in which they will seek not only to expose their own work but also to put it in the context of the full impact of synchrotron radiation studies. Short question periods will follow each talk and a final period will be left for discussion among the panelists, further questions from the audience and summing up. To start the session, Cramer will introduce the synchrotron sources and radiation characteristics, discuss absorption applications to nitrogenase, hemoglobin and cytochrome oxidase and describe some of the future novel ways of exploiting the characteristics of the radiation. Stuhrmann will continue this line by describing the hierarchy of information one gets from absorption and scattering experiments and he will review applications of scattering to such systems as ferritin, hemoglobin and t-RNA. Teo will emphasize the detailed information obtainable from EXAFS and will discuss its application to Fe systems in nitrogenase and 3Fe?3S cluster systems. Bianconi will focus on the information attainable from XANES as compared to EXAFS and will discuss applications of XANES to hemoglobin and calmodulin structure. Finally, Garner will discuss some of the EXAFS analysis protocols and their limits and will analyze recent data from superoxide dismutase and metallothionein Between them our distinguished panelists should cover many of the established and emerging synchrotron techniques as well as their application to systems containing Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ca, Mg, Cs, I and Tb. The panelists and convener are committed to pedagogical presentations, lacking in undefined jargon and abbreviations. We will endeavor to convey an appreciation for the powers and limits of the various techniques. If we do our job well, the answer to the question posed in the title of the Round Table should become obvious to the audience.

E.I. Stiefel

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Numerical evaluation of propeller noise, including non-linear effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Typically, the acoustic field of a propeller consists of high noise levels concentrated at discrete individual frequencies. For many oi' the advanced propeller designs such as the propfan, which are designed to oper ate at tip speeds well int o... into the flow by the blades, the acoustic field is dependent on the physical flow field. It is therefor e essential to completely deter mine the flow over the individual blades as well as their combined effect on the flow around the propeller configuration...

White, Terence Alan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

24

Prediction of future well performance, including reservoir depletion effects  

SciTech Connect

In the past, the reservoir material balance (voidage) effects occurring between the end of the measured (known) production history and future Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) time levels have been commonly ignored in the computation of the future IPR behavior. Neglecting the reservoir voidage that occurs during the time interval between the end of the known production history and the future IPR time levels results in erroneous estimates of the future IPR behavior. A detailed description is given of the mathematically rigorous technique that has been used in the development of a multilayer well performance simulator that properly accounts for the reservoir voidage effects. Some of the more significant results are also presented of an extensive effort to develop an accurate and computationally efficient well performance simulation model. The reservoir can be considered to be multilayered, with mixed reservoir layer completion types and outer boundary shapes, drainage areas and boundary conditions. The well performance model can be used to simulate performance in three different operating modes: (1) constant wellhead rate, (2) constant bottomhole pressure, and (3) constant wellhead pressure. The transient performance of vertical, vertically fractured and horizontal wells can be simulated with this well performance model. The well performance model uses mathematically rigorous transient solutions and not simply the approximate solutions for each of the well types, as do most of the other commercially available well performance models.

Poe, B.D. Jr.; Elbel, J.L.; Spath, J.B.; Wiggins, M.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud fields in a realistic way and how to use them in a relatively simple one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer model to compute the domain averaged irradiance. To address this issue, a simple shortwave radiative transfer model that can treat the vertical cloud optical property correlation is developed. The model is based on the gamma-weighted

26

Japan Program: Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Life Span Study is the major RERF epidemiologic study that generates data on cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and non-cancer effects in relation to radiation dose. The...

27

Data Room - Facilities - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation effects beam - line. Cable passage to beam line. In addition to a 18 port bnc patch panel connecting the data room and beam line area, there are also a series of...

28

Radiation Effects in Fission and Fusion Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since the prediction of “Wigner disease” [1...] and the subsequent observation of anisotropic growth of the graphite used in the Chicago Pile, the effects of radiation on materials has been an important technolog...

G. Robert Odette; Brian D. Wirth

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Radiation Effects Research Foundation Links Past and Future ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiation Effects Research Foundation Links Past and Future Radiation Effects Research Foundation Links Past and Future August 2009 This document provides historical information...

30

Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials  

SciTech Connect

We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included.

Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

Heald, Colette L.

32

Second international conference on computer simulation of radiation effects in solids  

SciTech Connect

A total of 102 abstracts are included, arranged under the following headings: interatomic potentials and theoretical methods, displacement cascades and radiation effects in metals, radiation effects in semiconductors, sputtering and surface processes, cluster-solid interactions, highly charged ions and inelastic effects, and posters (A and B).

de la Rubia, T.D.; Gilmer, G.H. [comps.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Radiation effects on corrosion of zirconium alloys  

SciTech Connect

From the wide use of zirconium alloys as components in nuclear reactors, has come clear evidence that reactor radiation is a major corrosion parameter. The evidence emerges from comparisons of zirconium alloy corrosion behavior in different reactor types, for example, BWRs versus PWRs and in corresponding reactor loop chemistries; also, oxidation rates differ with location along components such as fuel rods and reactor pressure tubes. In most respects, oxidation effects on power reactor components are paralleled by oxidation behavior on specimens exposed to radiation in reactor loops.

Johnson, A.B. Jr.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment  

SciTech Connect

Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

35

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

36

Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer on Low-Level Cyclogenesis M. J. Leach and S. Raman Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina Introduction Many investigators have documented the role that thermodynamic forcing due to radiative flux divergence plays in the enhancement or generation of circulation. Most of these studies involve large-scale systems (e.g., Slingo et al. 1988), small-scale systems such as thunderstorms (Chen and Cotton 1988), and squall lines (Chin, submitted). The generation of circulation on large scales results from the creation of divergence in the upper troposphere and the maintenance of low-level potentially unstable air, and the maintenance of baroclinicity throughout

37

ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Campaign Links CARES Website Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding 2010.05.26, Zaveri, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering 2010.05.26, Arnott, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES): SMPS & CCN counter deployment during CARES/Cal-NEx 2010.05.04, Wang, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Ground Based Instruments 2010.04.01, Cziczo, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

38

Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at “Youngster’s Science Festival” in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

“Youngster’s Science Festival” has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students’ interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the “Radiation Fair” in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the “Radiation Fair” survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of “radiation” when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer’s image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks.

Masakazu Furuta; Toshio Hayashi; Tomohisa Kakefu; Hideaki Nishihara

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

Fiore, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A simulation study of the solar wind including the solar rotation effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An axisymmetric solar wind structure including the solar rotation effect is studied by the method of MHD computer simulation. For the case of the radial magnetic field configuration, the simulation result is fair...

H. Washimi; T. Sakurai

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Hybrid approach for including electronic and nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid approach for including electronic and nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics January 2001 A hybrid approach for simulating proton and hydride transfer reactions in enzymes coefficient and to investigate the real-time dynamics of reactive trajectories. This hybrid approach includes

Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

42

A Global Climatology of Outgoing Longwave Spectral Cloud Radiative Effect and Associated Effective Cloud Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Longwave (LW) spectral flux and cloud radiative effect (CRE) are important for understanding the earth’s radiation budget and cloud–radiation interaction. Here, the authors extend their previous algorithms to collocated Atmospheric Infrared ...

Xianglei Huang; Xiuhong Chen; Gerald L. Potter; Lazaros Oreopoulos; Jason N. S. Cole; Dongmin Lee; Norman G. Loeb

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Radiation Effects on Metastable States of Superheated Water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Radiation Effects on Metastable States of Superheated Water covers theory, application, and experimentation into the behavior of water at temperatures above the boiling point. The… (more)

Alvord, Charles William

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Author Ziegler, Susan Benner, Ronald Title Effects of solar radiation ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Author Ziegler, Susan Benner, Ronald Title Effects of solar radiation on dissolved ... M. Title Declining carrying capacity in the Bering Sea: Isotopic evidence from ...

45

Functional designed to include surface effects in self-consistent density functional theory R. Armiento1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Functional designed to include surface effects in self-consistent density functional theory R 2005 We design a density-functional-theory DFT exchange-correlation functional that enables an accurate density functional theory1 DFT is a method for electronic structure calculations of unparalleled

Armiento, Rickard

46

Effects of low levels of radiation on humans  

SciTech Connect

The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed. (ACR)

Auxier, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

E-Print Network 3.0 - abscopal radiation effects Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

will introduce the theory of radiative transfer; the second part Summary: to greenhouse effect and solar radiation 6. Radiative heating and cooling a. The Chapman layer b....

48

Radiation effects on polypropylene/polybutylene blends  

SciTech Connect

Polymer blends of polypropylene and polybutylene have been found to exhibit substantial maintenance of structural integrity after exposure to ionizing radiation. This radiation resistance has been found to be related to processing conditions and the resulting morphology of the blend. This article discusses (a) the processing conditions and the resulting mechanical properties after irradiation and (b) the role of morphology in this unexpected blend property.

Rolando, R.J. (3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Errors and Uncertainties in Dose Reconstruction for Radiation Effects Research  

SciTech Connect

Dose reconstruction for studies of the health effects of ionizing radiation have been carried out for many decades. Major studies have included Japanese bomb survivors, atomic veterans, downwinders of the Nevada Test Site and Hanford, underground uranium miners, and populations of nuclear workers. For such studies to be credible, significant effort must be put into applying the best science to reconstructing unbiased absorbed doses to tissues and organs as a function of time. In many cases, more and more sophisticated dose reconstruction methods have been developed as studies progressed. For the example of the Japanese bomb survivors, the dose surrogate “distance from the hypocenter” was replaced by slant range, and then by TD65 doses, DS86 doses, and more recently DS02 doses. Over the years, it has become increasingly clear that an equal level of effort must be expended on the quantitative assessment of uncertainty in such doses, and to reducing and managing uncertainty. In this context, this paper reviews difficulties in terminology, explores the nature of Berkson and classical uncertainties in dose reconstruction through examples, and proposes a path forward for Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Project 2.4 that requires a reasonably small level of effort for DOSES-2008.

Strom, Daniel J.

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

50

Effects of gamma radiation on Serratia marcescens; a comparison of effects of two different exposure rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'Donovan, Effect of gamma radiation on Serratia marcescens: Comparison of the radiosensi- tivity of pigmented and nonpigmented cells. Radiation Res, 48, 40-52 (1971). 18. Alison P. Casarett, Radiation ~Biolo . p. 159. Prentice-Hall, Inc. , Englewood Cliffs... EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SL'RNATIA MARCESCENS A COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT EXPOSURE RATES A Thesis by CHRISTY ANNETTE MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Moore, Christy Annette

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Calculation of $P_ and $T_ odd effects in $"" sup 205_TIF including electron correlation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method and codes for two-step correlation calculation of heavy-atom molecules have been developed, employing the generalized relativistic effective core potential and relativistic coupled cluster (RCC) methods at the first step, followed by nonvariational one-center restoration of proper four-component spinors in the heavy cores. Electron correlation is included for the first time in an ab initio calculation of the interaction of the permanent P,T-odd proton electric dipole moment with the internal electromagnetic field in a molecule. The calculation is performed for the ground state of TlF at the experimental equilibrium, R_e=2.0844 A, and at R=2.1 A, with spin-orbit and correlation effects included by RCC. Calculated results with single cluster amplitudes only are in good agreement (3% and 1%) with recent Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) values of the magnetic parameter M; the larger differences occurring between present and DHF volume parameter (X) values, as well as between the two DHF calculations, are explained. Inclusion of electron correlation by GRECP/RCC with single and double excitations has a major effect on the P,T-odd parameters, decreasing M by 17% and X by 22%.

A. N. Petrov; N. S. Mosyagin; T. A. Isaev; A. V. Titov; V. F. Ezhov; E. Eliav; U. Kaldor

2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

52

Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...time of exposure to solar radiation (E and F). (A and...E and F) daily solar doses during the exposure period...Cyanobacteria growth & development radiation effects ultrastructure Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Photosynthesis radiation...

Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafañe; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Radiation pressure on a moving body: beyond the Doppler effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dependence of macroscopic radiation pressure on the velocity of the object being pushed is commonly attributed to the Doppler effect. This need not be the case, and here we...

Horsley, S A R; Artoni, M; Rocca, G C La

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation Marianne B. Sowa, Claere von Neubeck, R. Joe Robinson, Paula M. Koehler, Norman J. Karin, Xihai Wang, Katrina M. Waters and Harish Shankaran Ionizing radiation exposure triggers a cell signaling program which includes proliferation, the DNA damage response, and tissue remodeling. The activated signaling pathways lead to the induction of both protective effects as well as adverse consequences. A fundamental question is whether signaling cascades initiated by low doses are fundamentally different than those initiated by high doses. To address this question we have applied a systems biology approach to examine the radiation induced temporal responses of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model. Using microarray-

55

Effect of scattered radiation on sub-Doppler cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss the effect of scattered radiation generated by a gas of cold atoms on the temperature of the gas. We show that by treating the reradiated field of the atoms as a fluctuating background field we can derive a master equation for a single atom where the effect of the surrounding medium is included in an effective relaxation operator. This relaxation operator is of second order in the interaction with the medium and in the binary-collision approximation can be written as the sum of two-body interactions with a correlation time equal to the natural lifetime of the atomic transition. The effect of the medium on the two most important sub-Doppler cooling mechanisms, Sisyphus and motion-induced orientation cooling, is investigated analytically in a one-dimensional model. In this we restrict ourselves to the limit of low saturation, weak background field and take the rate-equation limit for the collision operator. We find that both mechanisms are very sensitive to such a background field and that the temperature increases approximately as the number of atoms to the one-third power.

G. Hillenbrand; K. Burnett; C. J. Foot

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co?mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil?in?water and oil?water?solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers water can be discharged and oil is collected. High?frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale residual oil drill cuttings tar sands oil contaminated dredge/sediments tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly fuel?generating recycler to reduce waste cut emissions and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Doppler effect in the oscillator radiation process in the medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the radiation process of the charged particle passing through an external periodic field in a dispersive medium. In the optical range of spectrum we will consider two cases: first, the source has not eigenfrequency, and second, the source has eigenfrequency. In the first case, when the Cherenkov radiation occurs, the non-zero eigenfrequency produces a paradox for Doppler effect. It is shown that the absence of the eigenfrequency solves the paradox known in the literature. The question whether the process is normal (i.e. hard photons are being radiated under the small angles) or anomalous depends on the law of the medium dispersion. When the source has an eigenfrequency the Doppler effects can be either normal or anomalous. In the X-ray range of the oscillator radiation spectrum we have two photons radiated under the same angle- soft and hard. In this case the radiation obeys to so-called complicated Doppler effect, i.e. in the soft photon region we have anomalous Doppler effect and in the hard photon region we have normal Doppler effect.

Lekdar Gevorgian; Valeri Vardanyan

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

UNSCEAR Report 2000: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since its inception in 1955 the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has periodically undertaken a broad review of the sources and the effects of ionising radiation. This latest report is in two concurrently published separate volumes. Volumes I and II provide updated reviews of sources and effects of ionising radiation respectively. A considerable amount of new material supports the review of sources. The review of biological effects takes on board various contemporary issues raised by the `linear-no-threshold' controversy. Particular emphasis has been given to the evaluation of exposures and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. As usual the report has an extended summary (17 pages) backed up by a number of technical annexes (A-J). The annexes have a wealth of basic data, extensive tables and voluminous reference lists. The two volumes are available separately from the United Nations and cost £60 per volume. They are also available from the Stationery Office, but only as a two volume set. If you are interested only in `sources' then you should be aware that the source-related aspects of the Chernobyl accident are largely covered in volume II on effects. Annex A of volume I provides a description of the methodologies used for the assessment of doses from natural, man-made environmental, medical and occupational radiation exposures, which are presented in subsequent annexes B, C, D and E respectively. The components of natural radiation (cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, inhalation and ingestion) have been evaluated and added to provide an estimate of the global average exposure. Since there are wide distributions of exposures from each source, the consequent effective doses combine in various ways at each location, depending on the specific concentration of radionuclides in the environment and in the body, the latitude and altitude of the location, and many other factors. The total annual global per caput effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv. A typical range of individual doses is considered to be 1-10 mSv. In any large population about 65% would be expected to have annual effective doses between 1 and 3 mSv, about 25% of the population would have annual effective doses less than 1 mSv and 10% would have annual effective doses greater than 3 mSv. The main man-made contribution to the environmental exposure of the world's population has come from the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere that occurred mainly between 1945-1980. Since the previous UNSCEAR review of this topic in 1982 new information, previously classified, has become available on the numbers and yields of nuclear tests. An updated listing of atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at each of the test sites is included in this report. Although the total explosive yields of each test have been divulged, the fission and fusion yields are still mostly suppressed. Some general assumptions have been made to allow the evaluation of fission and fusion yields of each test in order to estimate the amounts of radionuclides produced in the explosions. The estimated total of fission yields of individual tests is in agreement with the global deposition of the main fission radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs, as determined by worldwide monitoring networks. It has been calculated that the world average annual effective dose reached a peak of 150 ?Sv in 1963 and has since decreased to about 5 ?Sv in 2000, from residual radionuclides in the environment, mainly of 14C, 90Sr and 137Cs. The contribution to man-made exposures from the generation of electrical energy by nuclear power reactors has been estimated using a collective (100 year truncated) dose of 6 man-Sv per GW year. Assuming the present annual generation of 250 GW years continues, the truncated collective dose per year of practice is 1500 man-Sv to the world population, giving an estimated maximum per caput dose of less than 0.2 ?Sv per year. UNSCEAR has assessed the exposures from medical radiation procedures based on information obtaine

Monty Charles

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Effects of radiation on materials: twelfth international symposium  

SciTech Connect

This publication provides information on irradiation creep of structural metals; microstructural development, neutron-induced swelling and charged particle irradiation. The theory of swelling is discussed along with mechanical properties, pressure vessel steels and irradiation facilities. The influence of helium on radiation-induced microstructural development, and radiation-induced changes in fracture toughness of iron-based austenitic and ferrite alloys are presented. The final section on other radiation studies covers the following: a modified method of helium introduction into alloys via the tritium trick, radiation damage aspects of a novel method for providing safe storage of Krypton-85 from fuel re-processing, and radiation effects on resins and zeolites forming part of the waste stream from the clean-up effort at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant.

Garner, F.A. (ed.); Perrin, J.S. (ed)

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Frequency-dependent polarizability of helium including relativistic effects with nuclear recoil terms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future metrology standards will be partly based on physical quantities computed from first principles rather than measured. In particular, a new pressure standard can be established if the dynamic polarizability of helium can be determined from theory with an uncertainty smaller than 0.2 ppm. We present calculations of the frequency-dependent part of this quantity including relativistic effects with full account of leading nuclear recoil terms and using highly optimized explicitly correlated basis sets. A particular emphasis is put on uncertainty estimates. At the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.9908 nm, the computed polarizability value of 1.391 811 41 a.u. has uncertainty of 0.1 ppm that is two orders of magnitude smaller than those of the most accurate polarizability measurements. We also obtained an accurate expansion of the helium refractive index in powers of density.

Piszczatowski, Konrad; Komasa, Jacek; Jeziorski, Bogumil; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Abstract Abstract Title: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair (PNNL Project # 42699) Authors: Eric J. Ackerman, Ph.D. Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA We developed a functional assay to measure the effects of LDR on repair of many different lesions representative of those found in cells as consequences of normal oxidative metabolism, as well as those caused by radiation. Currently only 1/10th attomole =105 damaged molecules/cell and 3000 cells/measurement are required. We have found that even low doses (10 rad) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. Interestingly, the amount of DNA repair increases at 10-50 rads, plateaus, and then increases even further at higher doses well below doses where radiation-induced lethality

62

Effect of multiple scattering on Cerenkov radiation from energetic electrons  

SciTech Connect

Cerenkov radiation can be used as a diagnostic tool to study energetic electrons generated in ultra-intense laser matter interactions. However, electrons suffer scattering with nuclei as they move in a medium. In this article, we theoretically study the effect of multiple scattering on Cerenkov radiation, and obtain analytical formulas under some circumstances. The results show that when the speed of an energetic electron is not close to the light speed in the medium, Cerenkov radiation is just slightly decreased due to multiple scattering. In the case that the electron speed is very close to the light speed in the medium, the effect of multiple scattering becomes significant, and the radiation is dominated by bremsstrahlung.

Zheng Jian [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Radiation effects on reactor pressure vessel supports  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the findings from the work done in accordance with the Task Action Plan developed to resolve the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Safety Issue No. 15, (GSI-15). GSI-15 was established to evaluate the potential for low-temperature, low-flux-level neutron irradiation to embrittle reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports to the point of compromising plant safety. An evaluation of surveillance samples from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had suggested that some materials used for RPV supports in pressurized-water reactors could exhibit higher than expected embrittlement rates. However, further tests designed to evaluate the applicability of the HFIR data to reactor RPV supports under operating conditions led to the conclusion that RPV supports could be evaluated using traditional method. It was found that the unique HFIR radiation environment allowed the gamma radiation to contribute significantly to the embrittlement. The shielding provided by the thick steel RPV shell ensures that degradation of RPV supports from gamma irradiation is improbable or minimal. The findings reported herein were used, in part, as the basis for technical resolution of the issue.

Johnson, R.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology; Lipinski, R.E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rockville, MD (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Effect of radiation on transport in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study transport properties of graphene-based p-n junctions irradiated by electromagnetic field (EF). The resonant interaction of propagating quasiparticles with an external monochromatic radiation opens dynamical gaps in their spectrum, resulting in a strong modification of current-voltage characteristics of the junctions. The values of the gaps are proportional to the amplitude of EF. We find that the transmission of the quasiparticles in the junctions is determined by the tunneling through the gaps and can be fully suppressed when applying a sufficiently large radiation power. However, EF can not only suppress the current but also generate it. We demonstrate that if the height of the potential barrier exceeds a half of the photon energy, the directed current (photocurrent) flows through the junction without any dc bias voltage applied. Such a photocurrent arises as a result of inelastic quasiparticle tunneling assisted by one- or two-photon absorption. We calculate current-voltage characteristics of diverse graphene-based junctions and estimate their parameters necessary for the experimental observation of the photocurrent and transmission suppression.

S. V. Syzranov; M. V. Fistul; K. B. Efetov

2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

65

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and mRNA Expression Kerry O'Banion University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Abstract Most of our knowledge about low dose radiation effects relates to DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations that result in cell death or alterations in genetic programs leading to malignancy. In addition To direct DNA damage, there is accumulating evidence that radiation induced alterations in the microenvironment can have significant effects on programs of cell replication and differentiation such as neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is postulated to play an important role in learning and memory and manipulations that alter neurogenesis, including inhibition following radiation exposure, have been

66

Low Dose Radiation Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo. 1 Blyth, B.J., 1 Sykes, P.J. 1 Department of Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, 5042, The general population is daily exposed to chronic, low doses of ionizing radiation from both natural and artificial sources. The shape of the radiation dose-response curve at these low doses is currently linearly extrapolated from data obtained after high dose exposure due to the low sensitivity of traditional biological assays after near-background exposures. At odds with this Linear No-Threshold model, are the phenomena collectively referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect. The bystander effect describes a collection of in vitro

67

Japan Program - Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Safety Safety Home Sub Offices › Worker Safety & Health Policy › Worker Safety & Health Assistance › Illness & Injury Prevention Programs › International Health Studies › Office of Worker Screening and Compensation Support Mission & Functions › Health & Safety › Worker Safety & Health Policy › Worker Safety & Health Assistance › Illness & Injury Prevention Programs › International Health Studies › Worker Screening and Compensation Support Federal Line Management Oversight of DOE Nuclear Facilities Integrated Safety Management (ISM) A-Z Index Directory OSH Regulatory and Policy Response Line Health Resources Policy and Standards Worker Safety Beryllium Chemical Safety Biological Safety Radiation Safety Rules 10 CFR 707 10 CFR 835

68

RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE  

SciTech Connect

Carbon fiber-reinforced bisphenol-A epoxy matrix composite was evaluated for gamma radiation resistance. The composite was exposed to total gamma doses of 50, 100, and 200 Mrad. Irradiated and baseline samples were tested for tensile strength, hardness and evaluated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) for structural changes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Mechanical testing of the composite bars revealed no apparent change in modulus, strain to failure, or fracture strength after exposures. However, testing of only the epoxy matrix revealed changes in hardness, thermal properties, and FTIR results with increasing gamma irradiation. The results suggest the epoxy within the composite can be affected by exposure to gamma irradiation.

Hoffman, E

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

Alternatives of non-threshold and threshold concepts of cancerogenic and mutagenic effects of low LET radiation: the analysis of postulates and arguments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The comparative analysis of radiation-induced stochastic effects in organisms and cells is given under the aspect of the comparison of non-threshold vs. threshold concepts of radiation effect induction including their postulate basis analysis. Most representative data of basic research areas of radiation-induced stochastic effects are considered, including data on radiation epidemiology and experimental and theoretical radiobiology. The main conclusion of the elaborated analysis consists in the principal difference of dose response patterns for radiation-induced, stochastic effects in the low dose range compared with those in the high dose range. The principal inadequacy of extrapolations from high to low dose ranges is noted, as well as the better justification and the corresponding preference attributed to the threshold concept of low LET radiation effects. The new approach principle of the approximate radiation-induced stochastic effect, quasi-threshold evaluation, is presented.

Lev M. Rozhdestvensky

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effect of surface preparation on the radiation buildup of steam generator materials of construction was conducted. The tests consisted of exposing treated manway seal plates to primary reactor coolant during the second through the fifth fuel cycle of the Chinon B1 pressurized water reactor. The pretreatments included: mechanical polishing, electropolishing (either on the as received surface or on a surface which had been previously mechanically polished), and passivation via the RCT (laboratory) process or the Framatome (in situ) process. Radioactivity buildup was determined at the end of each fuel cycle. A selected number of the seal plates were removed from the steam generators after each exposure cycle for destructive examinations. The electropolished surfaces exhibited a significantly lower radioactive buildup rate; an average factor of five less buildup compared to an as-received surface. Passivation of the electropolished surface, especially via the RCT process, reduced the buildup rate still further by a factor of two over the electropolished-only surface. Examination of the surfaces by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, etc., after exposure indicated no detrimental effects on the surface characteristics attributable to the surface treatments. A program has now been instituted to electropolish the steam generator channel heads of all new reactors in France, as well as the steam generators intended for replacement in existing plants. 1 ref., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Radiation protection of staff in 111In radionuclide therapy—is the lead apron shielding effective?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......trained in basic radiation safety, including the...minimise their radiation dose. Within a...the LTM Windows software, Version 1.20...shield for the radiation. Calculations...done using MatLab software. The final voxel......

M. Lyra; P. Charalambatou; M. Sotiropoulos; S. Diamantopoulos

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Effects of Radiation on Adaptive Immunity: Contact Hypersensitivity Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation on Adaptive Immunity: Contact Hypersensitivity Model Radiation on Adaptive Immunity: Contact Hypersensitivity Model Gregory Nelson Loma Linda University Abstract It has long been appreciated that cells of the immune system are radiosensitive and use apoptosis as the primary mechanism of cell death following injury. The hypervariability of the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes expressed in lymphoid cells also led to the appreciation of the nonhomologous end joining mechanism of DNA repair. Clinically, whole body irradiation is used in treatment of some lymphomas and as an immunosuppressive agent for bone marrow transplants. Inflammation at sites of radiotherapy is a common side effect. Many studies with radiation have addressed the changes in cell populations following radiation exposure and have shown a reproducible pattern of relative sensitivities amongst

73

Environmental Radiation Effects: A Need to Question Old Paradigms  

SciTech Connect

A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.

Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

74

Geometric Doppler Effect: Spin-Split Dispersion of Thermal Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A geometric Doppler effect manifested by a spin-split dispersion relation of thermal radiation is observed. A spin-dependent dispersion splitting was obtained in a structure consisting of a coupled thermal antenna array. The effect is due to a spin-orbit interaction resulting from the dynamics of the surface waves propagating along the structure whose local anisotropy axis is rotated in space. The observation of the spin-symmetry breaking in thermal radiation may be utilized for manipulation of spontaneous or stimulated emission.

Nir Dahan; Yuri Gorodetski; Kobi Frischwasser; Vladimir Kleiner; Erez Hasman

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

75

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? Even low doses (0.1 Gy) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. The first-known oxidative lesion repaired only by nucleotide excision repair found in normal cells is cyclo-dA. This lesion is found in normal cells and thought to be a byproduct of oxidative metabolism. When this lesion occurs, it stimulates repair. If repair is stimulated by low dose radiation, there are some implications for human health. For example, do some individuals exhibit a greater, lower, or no stimulation to certain DNA lesions? If there are population polymorphism that influence DNA repair, then it would be possible to use our assay for screening individuals for repair sensitivity.

76

A STATIONARY STATE APPROACH TO RADIATIONLESS TRANSITIONS: RADIATION BANDWIDTH EFFECT ON EXCITATION PROCESSES IN POLYATOMIC MOLECULES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bandwidth of the incident radiation. The conditions of...sufficiently narrow radiation bandwidths, it is demonstrated...should be regarded as occuring to molecular stationary...RADIATIONLESS TRANSITIONS: RADIATION BANDWIDTH EFFECT ON...usual approach, are naturally taken into account...

William Rhodes; Bryan R. Henry; Michael Kasha

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 by using the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...peroxide. A 100-krad dose of gamma radiation was sufficient to inactivate...peroxide. A 100-krad dose of gamma radiation was sufficient to inactivate...inhibitors pharmacology radiation effects Animals Dose-Response Relationship...

U D Patel; P Govindarajan; P J Dave

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Ionizing radiation effects on silicon test structures  

SciTech Connect

The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on MOSCAPS and special junction diode detectors have been studied. The capacitors were used to ellicit the charge accumulation and anneal in two types of thermally grown oxides representative of those used in routine detector processing. Ion implanted, oxide passivated junction detectors having 0.25 and 1 cm{sup 2} areas and perimeter to area ratios of 1 (a square), 2 and 5 were designed and constructed to amplify the ionizing effects expected to largely affect junction edges through changes in fixed oxide charges. Detectors were exposed to over 4 Mrad and showed clear increases in leakage current in proportion to the junction edge length. Annealing schedules were determined to provide a continuous response to incremental irradiations and subsequent room temperature anneals of leakage current. Besides an increase in gate threshold, little effect on the C(V) response was found. PISCES simulation of the edge fields using different fixed oxide charge revealed regions of very high lateral fields near the junction edges for fixed charges in the 2 {times} 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} range expected from the capacitor studies which could be responsible for the observed leakage currents.

Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Chen, W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dou, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Effect of nuclear radiation on the elastic moduli of zircon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zircon crystals that have been damaged by a naturally occurring radioactive contaminant referred to as metamict zircons have density values ranging from 4.70 to 3.90 g/cm3. The present work is a study of the effect of the damage on the single?crystal elastic moduli. A systematic and very marked decrease (i.e. up to 69%) of the elastic moduli with density have been observed. All the longitudinal and the shear elastic moduli decrease with radiation damage and approach two common saturation values of 1.5×1012 and 0.49×1012 dyn/cm2 respectively. Present observation of the elastic moduli of the radiation?damaged zircon crystals confirms Warren’s theoretical predictions concerning the effect of different pore geometries on the compressibility. Qualitative correlation of the elastic moduli with the structural changes arising from radiation damage in zircon crystals suggests that the marked decrease of the elastic moduli in the radiation?damaged zircons is caused by the nonspherical defect clusters microcracks and pores generated during radiation damage. Thermal annealing x?ray diffraction elastic moduli and density measurements on the zircon samples confirm the ’’three?stage’’ process proposed for the metamict transformation of zircons but the final product of metamictization does not seem to be a mixture of ZrO2 and SiO2 crystallites.

Hüsnü Özkan

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Characterizing Bystander Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation. Irradiation. Authors: L.A. Braby and J.R. Ford. Institutions: Texas A&M University. Bystander effects, which are typically seen as in increase in the cellular concentration of specific repair related molecules or as cytogenetic changes which appear to be the consequence of DNA damage, may be a significant factor in the risk of long-term health effects of low doses of radiation. These effects clearly increase the effective size of the target for radiation response, from the diameter of a single cell or cell nucleus to something significantly larger, by bringing additional cells into the process. It is unclear whether this larger target will result in an increase or a decrease in the probability of inducing a change which would be detrimental to the health of the organism, but it clearly reduces the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect  

SciTech Connect

Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37996-1501 (United States)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

82

Radiative Neutron Capture on Carbon-14 in Effective Field Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cross section for radiative capture of neutron on carbon-14 is calculated using the model-independent formalism of halo effective field theory. The dominant contribution from E1 transition is considered, and the cross section is expressed in terms of elastic scattering parameters of the effective range expansion. Contributions from both resonant and non-resonant interaction are calculated. Significant interference between these leads to a capture contribution that deviates from simple Breit-Wigner resonance form.

Gautam Rupak; Lakma Fernando; Akshay Vaghani

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

83

Radiative Neutron Capture on Carbon-14 in Effective Field Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cross section for radiative capture of neutron on carbon-14 is calculated using the model-independent formalism of halo effective field theory. The dominant contribution from E1 transition is considered, and the cross section is expressed in terms of elastic scattering parameters of the effective range expansion. Contributions from both resonant and non-resonant interaction are calculated. Significant interference between these leads to a capture contribution that deviates from simple Breit-Wigner resonance form.

Rupak, Gautam; Vaghani, Akshay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Consideration of Dynamical Effects on Parameterization of Clooud radiative Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consideration of Dynamical Effects on Consideration of Dynamical Effects on Parameterization of Cloud Radiative Properties P. H. Daum and Y. Liu Environmental Sciences Department Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction Effective radius (r e ) (defined as the ratio of the third to the second moment of a droplet size distribution) is one of the key variables that are used for calculation of the radiative properties of liquid water clouds (Hansen and Travis 1974). The inclusion and parameterization of r e in climate models has proven to be critical for assessing global climate change (Slingo 1990, Dandin et al. 1997). It has been demonstrated empirically (Pontikis and Hicks 1992, Bower and Choularton 1992, Bower et al. 1994, Martin et al. 1994, Liu and Hallett 1997, Reid et al. 1998, Liu and Daum 2000a), as well theoretically (Liu and

85

Cycle Analysis of a Stirling Engine Including Void Volumes and Regenerator Effectiveness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Stirling engine has been widely studied by considerable scientific staff as it has many favorable characteristics, such as less pollution, silent operation, high reliability, simple configuration and multi-fuel capability. Firstly, the basic configuration ... Keywords: Stirling engine, void volumes, regenerator effectiveness, efficiency

Yingxiao Yu; Zhaocheng Yuan; Jiayi Ma; Qing Zhu

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Echolocation-based foraging by harbor porpoises and sperm whales, including effects of noise and acoustic propagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I provide quantitative descriptions of toothed whale echolocation and foraging behavior, including assessment of the effects of noise on foraging behavior and the potential influence of ocean acoustic ...

DeRuiter, Stacy L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High Park Fire.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: This daily wildfire update is provided by the Colorado State Forest Service to keep you informed of current not cover all wildfires currently burning in Colorado, including smaller fires and those burning onlyPage 1 Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High

Stephens, Graeme L.

88

Simulation of thermal reset transitions in resistive switching memories including quantum effects  

SciTech Connect

An in-depth study of reset processes in RRAMs (Resistive Random Access Memories) based on Ni/HfO{sub 2}/Si-n{sup +} structures has been performed. To do so, we have developed a physically based simulator where both ohmic and tunneling based conduction regimes are considered along with the thermal description of the devices. The devices under study have been successfully fabricated and measured. The experimental data are correctly reproduced with the simulator for devices with a single conductive filament as well as for devices including several conductive filaments. The contribution of each conduction regime has been explained as well as the operation regimes where these ohmic and tunneling conduction processes dominate.

Villena, M. A.; Jiménez-Molinos, F.; Roldán, J. B. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); González, M. B.; Campabadal, F. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Suñé, J.; Miranda, E. [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193 (Spain); Romera, E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Radiation Damage Effects in Candidate Titanates for Pu Disposition: Pyrochlore  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments on titanate ceramics were performed to verify whether certain assumptions are valid regarding the swelling, chemical durability, and microcracking that might occur as 239Pu decays. Titanate ceramics are the material of choice for the immobilization of surplus weapons-grade Pu. The short-lived isotope, 238Pu, was incorporated into the ceramic formulation to accelerate the effects of radiation induced damage. We report on the effects of this damage on the density (volumetric swelling <6%), crystal structure of pyrochlore-bearing specimens (amorphous after about 2?1018 ?/g), and dissolution (no change from fully the crystalline specimen). Even though the specimens became amorphous during the tests, there was no evidence for microcracking in the photomicrographs from the scanning electron microscope. Thus, although pyrochlore is susceptible to radiation-induced damage, the material remains chemically and physically viable as a material for immobilizing surplus weapons-grade Pu.

Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols, Natural Cirrus Clouds and Contrails: Broadband Optical Properties and Sensitivity Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation aims to study the broadband optical properties and radiative effects of dust aerosols and ice clouds. It covers three main topics: the uncertainty of dust optical properties and radiative effects from the dust particle shape...

Yi, Bingqi

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

91

Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies  

SciTech Connect

Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

Niranjana, A. R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Mahesh, S. S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Divakara, S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Somashekar, R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

Potential energy surface for C2H4I2+ dissociation including spin-orbit effects  

SciTech Connect

Previous experiments [Baer, et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2833 (2012)] have studied the dissociation of 1,2-diiodoethane radical cation (C2H4I2+•) and found a one-dimensional distribution of translational energy; an odd finding considering most product relative translational energy distributions are two-dimensional. The goal of this study is to obtain an accurate understanding of the potential energy surface (PES) topology for the unimolecular decomposition reaction C2H4I2+• - C2H4I+ + I•. This is done through comparison of many single-reference electronic structure methods, coupled-cluster single point (energy) calculations, and multi-reference calculations used to quantify spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects. We find that the structure of the C2H4I2+• reactant has a substantial effect on the role of SO coupling on the reaction energy. Both the BHandH and MP2 theories with an ECP/6-31++G** basis set, and without SO coupling corrections, provide accurate models for the reaction energetics. MP2 theory gives an unsymmetric structure with different C-I bond lengths, resulting in a SO energy for C2H4I2+• similar to that for the product I-atom and a negligible SO correction to the reaction energy. In contrast, DFT gives a symmetric structure for C2H4I2+•, similar to that of the neutral C2H4I2 parent, resulting in a substantial SO correction and increasing the reaction energy by 6.0-6.5 kcal/mol. Also, we find that for this system single point energy calculations are inaccurate, since a small change in geometry can lead to a large change in energy.

Siebert, Matthew R.; Aquino, Adelia J.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Granucci, Giovanni; Hase, William L.

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

Electric double layer for spherical particles in salt-free concentrated suspensions including ion size effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equilibrium electric double layer (EDL) that surrounds the colloidal particles is determinant for the response of a suspension under a variety of static or alternating external fields. An ideal salt-free suspension is composed by the charged colloidal particles and the ionic countercharge released by the charging mechanism. The existing macroscopic theoretical models can be improved by incorporating different ionic effects usually neglected in previous mean-field approaches, which are based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PB). The influence of the finite size of the ions seems to be quite promising because it has been shown to predict phenomena like charge reversal, which has been out of the scope of classical PB approximations. In this work we numerically obtain the surface electric potential and the counterions concentration profiles around a charged particle in a concentrated salt-free suspension corrected by the finite size of the counterions. The results show the large importance of such corrections for moderate to high particle charges at every particle volume fraction, specially, when a region of closest approach of the counterions to the particle surface is considered. We conclude that finite ion size considerations are obeyed for the development of new theoretical models to study nonequilibrium properties in concentrated colloidal suspensions, particularly the salt-free ones with small and highly charged particles.

R. Roa; F. Carrique; E. Ruiz-Reina

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

94

Laser-driven search of axion-like particles including vacuum polarization effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oscillations of photons into axion-like particles in a high-intensity laser field are investigated. Nonlinear QED effects are considered through the low energy behavior of the vacuum polarization tensor, which is derived from the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian in the one-loop and weak field approximations. The expressions obtained in this framework are applied to the configuration in which the strong background field is a circularly polarized monochromatic plane wave. The outcomes of this analysis reveal that, in the regime of low energy-momentum transfer, the axion field induces a chiral-like birefringence and dichroism in the vacuum which is not manifest in a pure QED context. The corresponding ellipticity and angular rotation of the polarization plane are also determined. We take advantage of such observables to impose exclusion limits on the axion parameters. Our predictions cover axion masses for which a setup based on dipole magnets provides less stringent constraints. Possible experimental scenarios in which our results could be tested are also discussed.

Selym Villalba-Chávez

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

95

Radiation Damage Effects in Candidate Titanates for Pu Disposition: Zirconolite  

SciTech Connect

This is the second of two papers on the results of radiation-induced damage accumulation in titanate ceramics that potentially could be used for weapons grade plutonium disposition. In the first paper we discussed the results from pyrochlore (betafite) based ceramics. In this paper, we discuss the effects of radiation-induced damage on the density and crystal structure of a nominally phase-pure zirconolite and two other zirconolite-bearing ceramics from the alpha decay of 238Pu. Macro (bulk) and micro (X-ray diffraction) swelling were found to be temperature independent, whereas the density determined with He gas pycnometry was temperature dependent. It took approximately 740 days (2.6?1018 ?/g) for the specimens to become X-ray amorphous—longer for the swelling to saturate. Unlike what we observed for the pyrochlore-based ceramics, we did not observe any phase changes associated with storage temperature and damage ingrowth. The forward dissolution rate at a pH value of 2 for material containing essentially all zirconolite is 1.7(4)?10-3 g/(m2?d). Very little pH dependence was observed for zirconolite specimens and, like we observed for the pyrochlore-bearing ceramics in this study, there was no dependence on the amount of radiation-induced damage. As with the pyrochlore, these materials did not become substantially friable with increasing radiation-induced damage. Even after the radiation-induced swelling saturated, the specimens remained physically intact with no evidence for microcracking. Thus, the material remains physically a viable material for the disposition of surplus weapons-grade Pu.

Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Radiation Damage Effects in Candidate Titanates for Pu Disposition: Zirconolite  

SciTech Connect

Specimens of titanate ceramics containing approximately 10 mass% 238Pu were tested to determine the long-term effects of radiation-induced damage from the ? decay of 239Pu that would have been disposed of in the nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain. These tests provided information on the changes in bulk properties such as dimensions, densities, and chemical durability. Although these materials become amorphous at low doses, the specimens remained physically strong. Even after the radiation-induced swelling saturated, the specimens remained physically intact with no evidence for microcracking. Thus, in combination with results reported previously on similar materials, the material remains a physically viable material for the disposition of surplus weapons-grade Pu.

Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

The Fracture Toughness of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Including the Effects of Fiber Bridging and Crack-Plane Interference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 The Fracture Toughness of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Including the Effects of Fiber Bridging University, Corvallis, OR, USA Abstract The fracture toughness of medium density fiberboard (MDF) as a function of crack length (R curve) was measured. Fracture toughness was determined from force

Nairn, John A.

98

Climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a study including the effects of ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a study including the effects. Here we present a set of regional climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean best estimate of twenty-first century sea level rise in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, given the current

Drijfhout, Sybren

99

Estimating Radiation Risk from Total Effective Dose Equivalent...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

and UNSCEAR 1988 in Radiation Risk Assessment - Lifetime Total Cancer Mortality Risk Estimates at Low Doses and Low Dose Rates for Low-LET Radiation, Committee on Interagency...

100

Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ECOLOGY Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis...study the impact of solar UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) on...Ink and Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan. 12 Dismukes, G. C., V...Effects of solar and ultraviolet radiation on motility, photomovement...

Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafañe; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Radiation effects on a zeolite ion exchanger and a pollucite  

SciTech Connect

Cation exchange capacity and selective Cs and Sr ion sorption measurements were found to be too insensitive to detect radiation effects on irradiated Ionsiv-IE-95 zeolite. However, leaching the zeolite while under ..gamma..-irradiation caused a modest increase in the desorption of exchangeable ions. Gamma-irradiation and subsequent leaching of a natural pollucite also slightly enhanced the leachability of this material. The increased desorption of ions from the zeolite and the enhanced leachability of the pollucite are apparently caused by a decrease in pH due to the generation of acidic species during irradiation.

Komarneni, S.; Palau, G.L.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Radiation effects on the electrical properties of hafnium oxide based MOS capacitors.  

SciTech Connect

Hafnium oxide-based MOS capacitors were investigated to determine electrical property response to radiation environments. In situ capacitance versus voltage measurements were analyzed to identify voltage shifting as a result of changes to trapped charge with increasing dose of gamma, neutron, and ion radiation. In situ measurements required investigation and optimization of capacitor fabrication to include dicing, cleaning, metalization, packaging, and wire bonding. A top metal contact of 200 angstroms of titanium followed by 2800 angstroms of gold allowed for repeatable wire bonding and proper electrical response. Gamma and ion irradiations of atomic layer deposited hafnium oxide on silicon devices both resulted in a midgap voltage shift of no more than 0.2 V toward less positive voltages. This shift indicates recombination of radiation induced positive charge with negative trapped charge in the bulk oxide. Silicon ion irradiation caused interface effects in addition to oxide trap effects that resulted in a flatband voltage shift of approximately 0.6 V also toward less positive voltages. Additionally, no bias dependent voltage shifts with gamma irradiation and strong oxide capacitance room temperature annealing after ion irradiation was observed. These characteristics, in addition to the small voltage shifts observed, demonstrate the radiation hardness of hafnium oxide and its applicability for use in space systems.

Petrosky, J. C. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH); McClory, J. W. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH); Bielejec, Edward Salvador; Foster, J. C. (Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Brain  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1-2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of <2.5 Gy, an incidence of radiation necrosis of 5% and 10% is predicted to occur at a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy (range, 100-140) and 150 Gy (range, 140-170), respectively. For twice-daily fractionation, a steep increase in toxicity appears to occur when the biologically effective dose is >80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (>=2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers' reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity-risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of >=18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT.

Lawrence, Yaacov Richard, E-mail: richard.lawrence@jefferson.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hahn, Carol A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY/CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Savannah River Site vitrifies nuclear waste incident to defense programs through its Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The piping in the DWPF seal pot jumper configuration must withstand the stresses during an unlikely but potential deflagration event, and maintain its safety function for a 20-year service life. Carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites (CFR) were proposed for protection and reinforcement of piping during such an event. The proposed CFR materials have been ASME-approved (Section XI, Code Case N-589-1) for post-construction maintenance and is DOT-compliant per 49CFR 192 and 195. The proposed carbon fiber/epoxy composite reinforcement system was originally developed for pipeline rehabilitation and post-construction maintenance in petrochemical, refineries, DOT applications and other industries. The effects of ionizing radiation on polymers and organic materials have been studied for many years. The majority of available data are based on traditional exposures to gamma irradiation at high dose rates ({approx}10,000 Gy/hr) allowing high total dose within reasonable test periods and general comparison of different materials exposed at such conditions. However, studies in recent years have shown that degradation of many polymers are sensitive to dose rate, with more severe degradation often observed at similar or even lower total doses when exposed to lower dose rates. This behavior has been primarily attributed to diffusion-limited oxidation which is minimized during very high dose rate exposures. Most test standards for accelerated aging and nuclear qualification of components acknowledge these limitations. The results of testing to determine the radiation resistance and microstructural effects of gamma irradiation exposure on a bisphenol-A based epoxy matrix composite reinforced with carbon fibers are presented. This work provides a foundation for a more extensive evaluation of dose rate effects on advanced epoxy reinforced composites.

Hoffman, E; Eric Skidmore, E

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

105

Proceedings of the ninth IEA workshop on radiation effects in ceramic insulators  

SciTech Connect

Several IEA workshops have been held over the past few years to discuss the growing number of experimental studies on the intriguing phenomenon of radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED). In the past year, several new RIED irradiation experiments have been performed which have a significant impact on the understanding of the RIED phenomenon. These experiments include a HFIR neutron irradiation experiment on 12 different grades of single- and poly-crystal alumina (450 C, {approximately}3 dpa, 200 V/mm) and several additional neutron, electron and light ion irradiation experiments. The primary objective of the IEA workshop was to review the available RIED studies on ceramic insulators. Some discussion of recent work in other areas such as loss tangent measurements, mechanical strength, etc. occurred on the final afternoon of the workshop. The IEA workshop was held in conjunction with a US-Japan JUPITER program experimenter`s workshop on dynamic radiation effects in ceramic insulators.

Zinkle, S.J.; Burn, G.L. [comps.; Hodgson, E.R.; Shikama, T.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Influence of organs in the ICRP's remainder on effective dose equivalent computed for diagnostic radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP effective dose equivalent has been compared with a weighted dose equivalent, computed by treating the entire remainder instead of the sample of five remainder organs in the ICRP method as uniformly radiosensitive, for dose distributions from three common diagnostic exposures: chest, dental full-mouth and dental panoramic. Complete dose distributions were computed by a Monte Carlo model. In all three cases the effective dose equivalent was greater than the weighted dose equivalent. The difference was only 20% for the chest exam but was more than fivefold for both dental exposures. Dose distributions for the dental exposures were less homogeneous than for the chest examination. Selection of organs to be included in the remainder markedly affects the effective dose equivalent. In the case of highly inhomogeneous dose distributions, the effective dose equivalent probably significantly over-estimates radiation detriment.

Gibbs, S.J.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A proposed measurement of the reverse Cherenkov radiation effect in a metamaterial-loaded circular waveguide  

SciTech Connect

The authors have recently proposed an experiment on verification of the Reverse Cherenkov Radiation (RCR) effect in a Left-Handed-Material-loaded waveguide. Applications of the RCR effect may range from novel higher-order-mode suppressors in microwave and millimeter-wave sources to improved particle detectors for satellite non-proliferation missions. The experimental configuration includes a circular waveguide filled with an artificial metamaterial with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability, in which the electromagnetic wave with a frequency of 95 GHz will interact with an electron beam. They have demonstrated that for certain values of effective permittivity and permeability only the backward-propagating mode can be exited by the electron beam. At the conference they will present some newly developed metamaterial designs, which they plan to employ for producing the proper effective medium parameters for this experiment.

Shchegolkov, Dmitry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smirnova, Evgenya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Direct Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Freshwater Heterotrophic Nanoflagellate Paraphysomonas sp.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...PHYSIOLOGY Direct Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Freshwater Heterotrophic...to ambient levels of UV-B radiation can lead to death and/or...microbial ecology, vol. ISME 5. Japan Scientific Societies Press...exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. 69...

Amy L. Macaluso; David L. Mitchell; Robert W. Sanders

2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

109

Ionizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, ionizing radiation, total dose, dark current, STI, hardening by design, RHDB 1. INTRODUCTION IonizingIonizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process Vincent Goiffona a large dynamic range. This can significantly impact the radiation hardness of "in-pixel" devices which

Mailhes, Corinne

110

Radiation-induced bystander effect and adaptive response in mammalian cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

responses at low doses of radiation and have the potential to impact the shape of the dose the actual target and radiation dose effect and can contribute to our current understanding in radiation risk provide the best estimate of cancer risk over the dose range from 20 to 250 cGy. The cancer risk at doses

111

MEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation dose. If we consider, that the average time of exploitation is estimated to be 40 years and veryMEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT M of high and very high doses of ionizing radiation is crucial for the monitoring of the existing Nuclear

Boyer, Edmond

112

Biological effects in unirradiated human tissue induced by radiation damage up to 1 mm away  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in extrapolating radiation risk estimates from epidemi- ologically accessible doses down to very low doses where) and for assessing the risk from a low-dose exposure to a carcinogen such as ionizing radiation, where only a smallBiological effects in unirradiated human tissue induced by radiation damage up to 1 mm away Oleg V

113

DUCRETE Shielding: A Cost Effective Alternative Radiation Shield  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary Submitted to Spectrum 2000, Sept 24-28, 2000, Chattanooga, TN Summary Submitted to Spectrum 2000, Sept 24-28, 2000, Chattanooga, TN DUCRETE: A Cost Effective Radiation Shielding Material W. J. Quapp, Starmet CMI W. H. Miller, University of Missouri-Columbia James Taylor, Starmet CMI Colin Hundley, Starmet CMI Nancy Levoy, Starmet Corporation 1. INTRODUCTION A consequence of uranium enrichment in the US has been the accumulation of nearly 740,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) tails. 1 While this material was once considered a feed stock for the United States Breeder Reactor Program, it is no longer needed. Alternative uses of depleted uranium are few. Some have been used for medical isotope transport casks, some for industrial radioactive source shields, some for military anti-tank

114

Radiation Damange Effects in Candidate Titanates for Plutonium Disposition: Pyrochlore.  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify certain assumptions as to the swelling, chemical durability, and microcracking that might occur in a waste-form ceramic as 239Pu decays. To study to effects of 239Pu decay, 238Pu, a short-lived isotope, was incorporated into a pyrochlore-rich baseline titanate – one that is formulated for pyrochlore as the dominant phase. The self-irradiation with 238Pu provided information on damage to the crystal structures of the phases in the ceramic as well as changes in dimensions, densities, and chemical durability. Overall, the pyrochlore baseline material appears to be a viable material for the immobilization of weapons-ready Pu. The physical and chemical properties of this material are not adversely affected by the material becoming amorphous from radiation-induced damage.

Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Compensating effect of the coherent synchrotron radiation in bunch compressors  

Typical bunch compression for a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) requires a large compression ratio. Frequently, this compression is distributed in multiple stages along the beam transport line. However, for a high-gain FEL driven by an energy recovery linac (ERL), compression must be accomplished in a single strong compressor located at the beam line’s end; otherwise the electron beam would be affected severely by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the ERL’s arcs. In such a scheme, the CSR originating from the strong compressors could greatly degrade the quality of the electron beam. In this paper, we present our design for a bunch compressor that will limit the effect of CSR on the e-beam’s quality. We discuss our findings from a study of such a compressor, and detail its potential for an FEL driven by a multipass ERL developed for the electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

Jing, Yichao; Hao, Yue; Litvinenko, Vladimir N.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks D of exposure to different radiation fields. More commonly these days, it is used to estimate or compare radi. Keywords: Low dose risk estimation; Effective dose; Flawed definition; Effective risk 1. INTRODUCTION

Brenner, David Jonathan

117

Estimation of risk from medical radiation exposure based on effective and organ dose: how much difference is there?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Russian Basic Sanitary Radiation Protection Standards...Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety of 2010(3). It is...CT)(4). Although radiation dose is the primary...effective dose; this software is addressed to radiologists......

V. K. Ivanov; V. V. Kashcheev; S. Yu. Chekin; A. N. Menyaylo; E. A. Pryakhin; A. F. Tsyb; F. A. Mettler

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Re-examining the health effects of radiation and its protection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The health effects of radiation from atomic explosions in Japan were completely different from those due to radiation from the Co-60 contaminated apartments in Taiwan. The sudden exposure to acute radiation in extremely high doses killed Japanese people, and harmed the survivors in lower doses as shown by increased cancer mortality, especially the leukemia based on the LNT model. The chronic radiation received by the residents unknowingly in the Co-60 contaminated apartments in Taiwan, even in higher doses, caused no excess cancer deaths; on the contrary their spontaneous cancer deaths were sharply reduced to only about 2.5% of that of the general population, and hereditary defects in their offspring were only 5%â??7% of those of the normal population. Therefore, the residents in the Co-60 contamination apartments had coincidently accomplished a human experiment of the health effects to human beings. The chronic radiation received from the Co-60 contaminated houses is quite similar to the radiation exposure to the workers and public in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and medical radiation. Acute radiation from a nuclear accident could harm a limited number of people, but the chronic radiation might benefit people, such as in the case of the Chernobyl accident. People should not be fearful of chronic exposure to low radiation and the traditional radiation protection policy and practices used in past 60 years should be revised based on the health effects observed in Taiwan.

Y.C. Luan; M.C. Shieh; S.T. Chen; H.T. Kung; K.L. Soong; Y.C. Yeh; T.S. Chou; W.C. Fang; S.L. Yao; C.J. Pong; S.H. Mong; J.T. Wu; J.M. Wu; H.J. Jen; W.L. Chen; W.P. Deng; M.F. Wu; M.L. Shen; C.P. Sun

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport from road, shipping and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport from road, shipping and aviation 1234567.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport: from road, shipping and aviation Y. Balkanski1, G. Myhre2,3, M. Gauss2,*, G. R�adel4, E. J. Highwood4, and K

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

120

Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Hader. 1991. Effects of solar and ultraviolet radiation on...Garcia-Pichel, F. 1998. Solar ultraviolet and the evolutionary...estimation of their screening capacity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...D. P. 2000. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic...

Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafañe; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Mutation Research 504 (2002) 91100 Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mutation Research 504 (2002) 91­100 Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bystander effects; Genomic instability; Ionizing radiation 1. Introduction Exposure

122

Lessons from recent accidents in radiation therapy in France  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......relative to the use of ionising radiation including medical applications...irsn.fr | Journal Article | Brain radiation effects surgery France Head and...control Radiometry Radiotherapy Safety Scattering, Radiation Software...

S. Derreumaux; C. Etard; C. Huet; F. Trompier; I. Clairand; J.-F. Bottollier-Depois; B. Aubert; P. Gourmelon

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Ab Initio EFFECTIVE CORE POTENTIALS INCLUDING RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS. V. S.C.F. CALCULATIONS WITH w-w COUPLING INCLUDING RESULTS FOR Au2+, TlH, PbS, AND PbSe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effects in electronic structure calculations of moleculessymmetry. Electronic structure calculations for Au 2 +, T£H,

Lee, Yoon S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Transgenerational Effects of Radiation and Chemicals in Mice and Humans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......transgenerational radiation car- cinogenesis. In other words...caused functional damage and defective gonad development.6,1214...studies on transgenerational car- cinogenesis were started from...leukemia in their offspring. Car- cinogenesis 19: 15531558......

Taisei Nomura

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Effects of ultraviolet radiation on trophic interactions not detected?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation on periphyton and grazers in a ... As a result of varying solar angles, both eleva- ..... Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9.

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

126

Pitch angle distribution analysis of radiation belt electrons based on Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pitch angle distribution analysis of radiation belt electrons based on Combined Release of pitch angle distributions (PADs) of energetic electrons is performed. The distributions are classified a is the local pitch angle, a profile of the parameter n versus L-shell is produced for local times corresponding

Li, Xinlin

127

Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC/RERF)

128

Study of effects of radiation on silicone prostheses. [/sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

Radiation effects on silicone gel and dose distribution of radiation through mammary prostheses were studied. Silicone gel behaves like tissue. Half value thickness for silicone gel and water are almost the same. Linear absorption coefficient for silicone gel and water are comparable.

Shedbalkar, A.R.; Devata, A.; Padanilam, T.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Accuracy of Humidity Measurement on Ships: Consideration of Solar Radiation Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of heating due to solar radiation on measurements of humidity obtained from ships is examined. Variations in wet- and dry-bulb temperature measured on each side of a research ship are shown to correlate with solar radiation. However, ...

Elizabeth C. Kent; Peter K. Taylor

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

CASING EFFECTS ON THE RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF A CIRCULARLY POLARIZED PATCH ANTENNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CASING EFFECTS ON THE RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF A CIRCULARLY POLARIZED PATCH ANTENNA K. Rambabu, H on the radiation characteristics of a miniaturized patch antenna for circular polarization. Different scenarios DESIGN Using a multiple resonance technique [4] for broadband performance, a circularly polarized patch

Bornemann, Jens

133

Incorporation of 3D Shortwave Radiative Effects within the Weather Research and Forecasting Model  

SciTech Connect

A principal goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to understand the 3D cloud-radiation problem from scales ranging from the local to the size of global climate model (GCM) grid squares. For climate models using typical cloud overlap schemes, 3D radiative effects are minimal for all but the most complicated cloud fields. However, with the introduction of ''superparameterization'' methods, where sub-grid cloud processes are accounted for by embedding high resolution 2D cloud system resolving models within a GCM grid cell, the impact of 3D radiative effects on the local scale becomes increasingly relevant (Randall et al. 2003). In a recent study, we examined this issue by comparing the heating rates produced from a 3D and 1D shortwave radiative transfer model for a variety of radar derived cloud fields (O'Hirok and Gautier 2005). As demonstrated in Figure 1, the heating rate differences for a large convective field can be significant where 3D effects produce areas o f intense local heating. This finding, however, does not address the more important question of whether 3D radiative effects can alter the dynamics and structure of a cloud field. To investigate that issue we have incorporated a 3D radiative transfer algorithm into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Here, we present very preliminary findings of a comparison between cloud fields generated from a high resolution non-hydrostatic mesoscale numerical weather model using 1D and 3D radiative transfer codes.

O'Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Gautier, C.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

134

X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene Jeremy Hicks1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene Jeremy Hicks1 , Rajan Arora2 , Eleazar and after exposure to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 12 Mrad(SiO2) using a 10 keV X-ray source. While we are mostly unaffected by radiation exposure. Combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data

135

Microsoft PowerPoint - htalk324_radiation_effects09aug051.ppt  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Electrical Effects of Ionizing Electrical Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Insulating Materials Harold P. Hjalmarson, Rudolph E. Magyar and Kenneth E. Kambour Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185 AMS Conference August 24-28, 2009 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 2 Radiation Effects: Evolution from Atomistic to Continuum Phenomena Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT): Rudy Magyar Two-Temperature Molecular Dynamics (MD): Paul Crozier Radiation Effects in Oxides and Semiconductors (REOS): HPH 3 Outline * Overview * Radiation Effects - Electronic cooling (TDDFT & REOS) - Atomic Rearrangement (MD & REOS)

136

Effects of low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and metabolomics approaches Henghong Li Georgetown University Abstract The objectives of this study are to investigate acute and persistent effects of ionizing radiation and space radiation on immune cell subsets and function. The role(s) for p38 MAP kinase in such radiation responses is being investigated using a genetic approach where an engineered mouse line has had one wt p38α gene replaced with a dominantnegative mutant (p38α+/DN). T cells are one of the most radiosensitive cell types in vivo, and radiation is known to impact CD4 T cell function long term. T cells are normally activated by antigen, which triggers differentiation to specific subsets involving various cytokines. In addition, T cells have a

137

Surface effects on the radiation response of nanoporous Au foams  

SciTech Connect

We report on an experimental and simulation campaign aimed at exploring the radiation response of nanoporous Au (np-Au) foams. We find different defect accumulation behavior by varying radiation dose-rate in ion-irradiated np-Au foams. Stacking fault tetrahedra are formed when np-Au foams are irradiated at high dose-rate, but they do not seem to be formed in np-Au at low dose-rate irradiation. A model is proposed to explain the dose-rate dependent defect accumulation based on these results.

Fu, E. G.; Caro, M.; Wang, Y. Q.; Baldwin, K.; Caro, A. [Materials Science in Radiation and Dynamics Extremes, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Zepeda-Ruiz, L. A. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bringa, E. [CONICET and Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina); Nastasi, M. [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 (United States)

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

138

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart  

SciTech Connect

The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

Gagliardi, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.gagliardi@karolinska.s [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Cancer Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Allen, Aaron M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana- Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Rabin Medical Center Petach Tikvah (Israel); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Radiative Muon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of radiative muon capture is developed. The discussion includes both parity conserving and nonconserving effects. The Gell-Mann weak magnetic term and the induced pseudoscalar are included, along with comparable relativistic effects in the nucleons. The theory is applied to light nuclei and especially to the radiative Godfrey reaction ?-+C126??+?+B125. An experiment to detect the induced pseudoscalar directly is proposed.

Jeremy Bernstein

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003-07  

SciTech Connect

Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African easterly waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan air layer on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximumtropical cyclone activity, in years 2003–07. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, mostAEWsintensify in the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. The authors conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.

Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong; Matsui, Toshihisa; Arking, Albert

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting Held in Hiroshima  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The third Board of Councilors (BOC) meeting was held on June 18-19 at the Hiroshima Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), a bi-national U.S.-Japan research organization.

143

Experimental methodology for non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on biologics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appropriate equipment is needed for research on the effects of radio-frequency radiation from radio-frequency identification (RF-ID) systems on biological materials. In the present study, a complete test system comprising ...

Cox, Felicia C. A. I

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Genomic instability and bystander effects induced by high-LET radiation Eric J Hall*,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Genomic instability and bystander effects induced by high-LET radiation Eric J Hall*,1 and Tom K. There is a progressive increase in genomic instability, determined either by gene amplification or allelic imbalance

145

Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators  

SciTech Connect

Test coupons of typical PWR materials of construction were prepared using a number of pretreatments to minimize radiation buildup. The coupons were then exposed to primary coolant at the Doel-2 PWR in Belgium. The exposure periods for the coupons ranged from one to three fuel cycles. After removal from the primary system, doserate and gamma spectroscopy measurements were made to determine the radioactivity levels on the coupons. Varying levels of success were achieved for the preconditioning techniques tested. Electropolishing alone provided some degree of resistance to radiation buildup on the treated surface and electropolishing plus passivation was shown to be even better. Radiation buildup resistance of the palladium-coated coupons was poor; radiation levels on these coupons were even higher than on the untreated reference coupons. The poor performance of the palladium-coated coupons was possibly due to the method used to apply the coating. In contrast to palladium coating, very encouraging results were achieved with chromium plating plus passivation. Preliminary results show that this technique can inhibit activity deposition by as much as a factor of ten. 4 refs., 64 figs., 26 tabs.

Asay, R.H. (Radiological and Chemical Technology, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)); Pick, M.E. (Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom). Berkeley Nuclear Labs.); Roofthooft, R. (Laboratoire Belge de l'Industrie Electrique (LABORELEC), Linkebeek (Belgium)); van Melsen, C. (Energy Invest, Beersel (Belgium))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Radioprotective Effects of Melatonin on Radiation-Induced Cataract  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of radiation bred at Atat rk University Medical School, Department of Pharma- cology...automatic tem- perature (22 1 C) and lighting controls (12 hr light / 12 hr dark...prolongation of survival at reasonable cost to cancer patients.24) But, cataract......

Ihsan Karslioglu; Mustafa Vecdi Ertekin; Seyithan Taysi; Ibrahim Koçer; Orhan Sezen; Akçahan Gepdiremen; Mehmet Koç; Nuri Bakan

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Effects of heat and radiation on mammalian cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although it is tempting to interpret the actions of heat on living cells as a way of oxidative stress, the well known naturally occuring antioxidant systems (reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) are not found to act as the main protective systems of the cell against hyperthermic cell killing. Evidence is presented that it is not the lipids of the membrane, but probably the membrane proteins which are critical primary molecular targets for hyperthermia. The readily peroxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acyl (PUFA) chains of phospholipids may be target molecules for radiation damage leading to interphase death but not leading to reproductive death. Repair of radiation-induced DNA lesions is probably the critical event in cell survival after radiation. This process is inhibited by hyperthermia. The synergism observed as a consequence of the interaction of heat and radiation may not always be explained by the rate of repair of DNA breaks. Especially in the case of fractioned heat treatments (inducing a state of thermotolerance) the situation seems more complicated. Heat-induced inactivation of DNA repair enzymes as well as heat-induced structural changes in chromatin (enhanced protein binding) may be processes that become critical. Thermotolerance does not always interfere with the process of heat radiosensitization.

A.W.T. Konings

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

The Doppler Effect in the Molecular Scattering of Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the irregular alterations in the wave-length of the scattered radiation produced (in accordance with Doppler's principle) by the thermal movements of the molecules. There is one interesting feature ... ) by the thermal movements of the molecules. There is one interesting feature of the Doppler ...

C. V. RAMAN

1919-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Effect of gamma radiation on selected functional and physical properties of liquid egg white  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

had larger air cells with thicker cell walls. The cakes were also tougher and had more resistance to compression. CHAPTER I II EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIqUID EGG WHITE Intr oduct ion As indi. cated in Chapter... EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SELECTED FUNCTIONAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUID EGG WHITE A Thesis By Hershell Ray Ball, Jr. Approved as to style and content by) (Chairman of Committee) ead of Department) (Me mba (Member) ( ber) ~Ja...

Ball, Hershell Ray

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

The effects of radiation on spermatogenesis in the albino rat as determined by semen analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rate all could be significant factors. Total body X-irradiation (470 r) in rats produced minimal alterations in the testes, namely depletion of spermatogonia (Gunn, et al. , 1960). 17 18 The effect of whole-body radiation on fertility of male rats...) Figure 22. Effect of Radiation on Weight Change (Chronic). no irradiation, demonstrated steady weekly increases through the investigation period. The average body weight of these animals at the initiation of this study was approximately 510 grams...

Lawson, Rommon Loy

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Effects of neutron radiation on power silicon diodes at low temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Watson (Member) Fre ertck R. Huson (Member) Ohannes Eknoyan (Member) . W. Howze (Head of Department) May 1991 ABSTRACT Effects of Neutron Radiation on Power Silicon Diodes at Low Temperatures. (May 1991) Kevin J. English, B. S. , University... OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering EFFECTS OF NEUTRON RADIATION ON POWER SILICON DIODES AT LOW TKvPERATURES A Thesis by KEVIN JOSEPH ENGLISH Approved as to style and content by: Mark H. Weichold (Chair of Committee) Karan L...

English, Kevin Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

152

"We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimation of late effects was based on the actual doses in the Soviet scientists argued that health effects caused by radiation

Kuchinskaya, Olga

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Estimating Three-Dimensional Cloudy Radiative Transfer Effects from Time-Height Cross Sections  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating Three-Dimensional Cloudy Radiative Transfer Estimating Three-Dimensional Cloudy Radiative Transfer Effects from Time-Height Cross Sections C. Hannay and R. Pincus National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Diagnostics Center Boulder, Colorado K. F. Evans Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction Clouds in the atmosphere are finite in extent and variable in every direction and in time. Long data sets from ground-based profilers, such as lidars or cloud radars, could provide a very valuable set of observations to characterize this variability. We may ask how well such profiling instruments can represent the cloud structure as measured by the magnitude of the three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer effect. The 3D radiative transfer effect is the difference between the domain average broadband solar surface

154

The Effects of Radiation on Development of Prostate Cancer and Prostatic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Radiation on Development of Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Effects of Radiation on Development of Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Hyperplasia in Canine Model Gayle Woloschak Northwestern University Abstract Purpose/Objective(s): There have been few studies analyzing radiation-induced prostate cancer in humans or animals. Our research attempts to fill this void by determining the effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer and prostatic hyperplasia in a large cohort of beagle dogs. Material/Methods: The subjects for the experiment were beagle dogs, which were chosen due to physiologic and anatomic similarities to humans (Thompson, 1989). We retrospectively analyzed data from historic irradiation experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on 347 beagles. The cobalt-60 cohort consisted of 268 dogs, which received whole

155

Radiation damage effects in candidate titanates for Pu disposition: Zirconolite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results from studies of radiation-induced damage from the alpha decay of 238Pu on the density and crystal structure of a nominally phase-pure zirconolite and two other zirconolite-bearing ceramics are discussed. Macro and micro swelling were found to be temperature independent, whereas the density determined with He gas pycnometry was temperature dependent. Approximately 2.6 × 1018 ?/g were needed to render the specimens X-ray amorphous– more to saturate the swelling. Unlike pyrochlore-based ceramics, we did not observe any phase changes associated with storage temperature and damage ingrowth. The forward dissolution rate at a pH value of 2 for material containing essentially all zirconolite is 1.7(4) × 10?3 g/(m2 d) with very little pH dependence and no dependence on the amount of radiation-induced damage. Even after the radiation-induced swelling saturated, the specimens remained physically intact with no evidence for microcracking. Thus, the material remains physically a viable material for the disposition of surplus weapons-grade Pu.

D.M. Strachan; R.D. Scheele; E.C. Buck; A.E. Kozelisky; R.L. Sell; R.J. Elovich; W.C. Buchmiller

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Effects of UV-B Radiation and Periodic Desiccation on the Morphogenesis of the Edible Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microbial Ecology Effects of UV-B Radiation and Periodic Desiccation on...flagelliforme under low UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation...Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). RESULTS Effects of UV-B...regardless of 0.1 W m2 UV-B radiation (Fig. 3a). Furthermore...

Yan-Na Feng; Zhong-Chun Zhang; Jun-Li Feng; Bao-Sheng Qiu

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

157

EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELD AND FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE STRUCTURES OF BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

The bright-rimmed cloud SFO 22 was observed with the 45 m telescope of Nobeyama Radio Observatory in the {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0), {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0), and C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) lines, where well-developed head-tail structure and small line widths were found. Such features were predicted by radiation-driven implosion models, suggesting that SFO 22 may be in a quasi-stationary equilibrium state. We compare the observed properties with those from numerical models of a photoevaporating cloud, which include effects of magnetic pressure and heating due to strong far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from an exciting star. The magnetic pressure may play a more important role in the density structures of bright-rimmed clouds than the thermal pressure that is enhanced by the FUV radiation. The FUV radiation can heat the cloud surface to near 30 K; however, its effect is not enough to reproduce the observed density structure of SFO 22. An initial magnetic field of 5 {mu}G in our numerical models produces the best agreement with the observations, and its direction can affect the structures of bright-rimmed clouds.

Motoyama, Kazutaka [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)] [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan); Umemoto, Tomofumi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 191-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 191-8588 (Japan); Shang, Hsien; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko, E-mail: motoyama@nii.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

158

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

159

Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors : comparison of long-term health effects and costs between proton therapy and IMRT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation therapy is an important component of pediatric brain tumor treatment. However, radiation-induced damage can lead to adverse long-term health effects. Proton therapy has the ability to reduce the dose delivered ...

Vu, An T. (An Thien)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Radiation Effect on Microstructural Stability of RERTR Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Three depleted uranium alloys are successfully cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using proton irradiation. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si,Al)3, (U,Mo)(Si,Al)3 and a mixture of UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiation with 2.6 MeV protons at 200ºC to the doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 dpa are carried out.

J. Gan; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; B. D. Miller; T. R. Allen; D. M. Wachs

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Nuclear bremsstrahlung and its radiation effects in fusion reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nucleons, i.e. protons or neutrons, are emitted in many fusion processes of light nuclei. The fusion-generated nucleons can in turn fuse with or be captured by an un-reacted nuclear fuel, for example deuterium. The fusion reaction occurs at an average center of mass (COM) energy of 10?keV (thousand electron volts) or more in a typical fusion reactor. At such a relative low COM energy, the proton and deuteron are in a state where the relative angular momentum approaches zero, or an s-wave state. The single gamma radiation process is thus suppressed due to the conservation of parity. Instead, the gamma ray (typically of the order of a few MeV or more) released is likely to be accompanied by soft x-ray photons from a nuclear bremsstrahlung process, which generates continuous x-ray radiation peaked around a few hundred eV to a few keV. The average photon energy and spectrum properties of such a process is calculated with a semiclassical approach. This phenomenon may cause additional parasitic issues to a fusion reactor, while also opening up the possibility of new plasma diagnostics.

Nie Luo; Magdi Ragheb; George H Miley

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

The Effect of Non-Lambertian Surface Reflectance on Aerosol Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

Surface reflectance is an important factor in determining the strength of aerosol radiative forcing. Previous studies of radiative forcing assumed that the reflected surface radiance is isotropic and does not depend on incident illumination angle. This Lambertian reflection model is not a very good descriptor of reflectance from real land and ocean surfaces. In this study we present computational results for the seasonal average of short and long wave aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. The effect of the Lambertian assumption is found through comparison with calculations using a more detailed bi-direction reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

Ricchiazzi, P.; O'Hirok, W.; Gautier, C.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

163

Numerical calculation of dynamical friction in electron cooling systems, including magnetic field perturbations and finite time effects  

SciTech Connect

The orders-of-magnitude higher luminosities required by future electron-ion collider concepts require a dissipative force to counteract the numerous factors acting to gradually increase the phase space volume of relativistic ion beams. High-energy electron cooling systems could provide the necessary dissipation via dynamical friction, but will have to be designed for new parameter regimes. It is expected that magnetic field errors, finite interaction time and other effects will reduce the dynamical friction and hence increase the cooling time, so improved understanding of the underlying dynamics is important. We present a generalized form of the classical field-free friction force equation, which conveniently captures some of these effects. Previous work (Bell et al 2008 J. Comput. Phys. 227 8714) shows both numerical and conceptual subtleties associated with undersampling of strong collisions, and we present a rigorous mathematical treatment of such difficulties, based on the use of a modified Pareto distribution for the electron-ion impact parameters. We also present a very efficient numerical algorithm for calculating the dynamical friction on a single ion in the field free case. For the case of arbitrary magnetic field errors, we present numerical simulation results, showing agreement with our generalized friction force formula.

Sobol, A.V.; Fedotov, A.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Bell, G.I.; Litvinenko, V.

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

164

Direct and semi-direct radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols in the Western United States: Seasonal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a regional climate model (RCM) in conjunction with the aerosol fields from a GEOS-Chem chemical- transport emissions and the seasonal low-level winds. The RCM-simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative effects vary, respectively, following the seasonal AOD. In Arizona-New Mexico (AZNM), the effect of anthropogenic sulfates

Liou, K. N.

165

Net radiative effect of dust aerosols from satellite measurements over Sahara  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's Radiant Energy System (CERES) to calculate the top-of-atmosphere SW and LW flux radiative effect due to oceans where the shortwave effect dominates. Citation: Yang, E.-S., P. Gupta, and S. A. Christopher (2009 of aerosols, space-borne sensors use information from the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible and thermal infrared

Christopher, Sundar A.

166

Radiative-Convective Equilibrium Revisited: the Greenhouse Effect of Clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A parameterized spectral radiative-convective equilibrium model is built and the heating rates and temperature profiles for various absorbers are calculated and compared with the results of a classical model. Then using an optical depth that is dependent on both the extinction coefficient and the cloud-water path the validity of the black-cloud assumption is tested. It is determined under what conditions one would need to know the liquid or ice water path of the cloud and when one can simply treat the cloud as a black object. A distribution of both ice and water clouds is inputted into the model and the global average surface temperature is obtained. The sensitivity of the surface temperature to a change in either the ice or liquid water path of the cloud is also evaluated.

R. Davies; C. Radley

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Pilot plant investigation of N{sub 2}O emissions including the effect of long term operation in circulating FBC  

SciTech Connect

A pilot plant test program was conducted at CANMET to study the emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from circulating fluidized bed combustors using the same coal and similar limestones as those to be used with the 165 MWe CFBC boiler owned and operated by Nova Scotia Power Incorporated (NSPI). The feedstocks examined during this trial were Devco Prince coal and the Windsor Group and Calpo limestones, the fuel and potential sorbents for NSPI`s 165 MWe CFBC plant. Twelve tests were first carried out with the first test series (TS1) using CANMET`s 0.8 MWt pilot-scale CFBC. Later, three additional tests were conducted (test series TS2), to study the effect of long term operation on the emissions of N{sub 2}O from CFBC and generate ash for an ash utilization study under a separate program. The key parameters studied were: temperature, secondary air to primary air ratio and elevation of the secondary air injection level on N{sub 2}O emissions as well as sulfur capture, combustion efficiency and NO{sub x} and CO levels. The N{sub 2}O emissions ranged from 51 to 117 ppm (or 32 to 72 mg/MJ). As expected, temperature was the dominant influence on N{sub 2}O emissions. In addition, longer term operation (80 to 100 h) had no significant effect on N{sub 2}O emissions. Despite a change in limestones and a significant change in limestone utilization, the N{sub 2}O emissions were equivalent in the two test series. Neither was any significant correlation established by way of multilinear regression between N{sub 2}O and other emissions for the two test series (i.e., SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO or O{sub 2}).

Desai, D.L.; Anthony, E.J.; Lau, I. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Andrews, N. [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Neutron and gamma radiation effects in proton exchanged optical waveguides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of neutron and gamma ray irradiations on the optical properties of proton exchanged Z-cut lithium niobate optical planar waveguides were investigated. The damage thresholds...

Passaro, Vittorio; Armenise, Mario

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Posters Treatment of Cloud Radiative Effects in General Circulation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

optical properties and 2) to study the effects of cloudradiation- climate interaction on climate simulations. This report summarizes project progress from March 1993 to March...

170

Radiation Effects in the Chernobyl and Kyshtym Aquatic Ecosystems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper evaluates studies on the effects of radioactive pollution on hydrobionts in natural conditions as published in the former USSR and the CIS.

G. G. Polikarpov; V. G. Tsytsugina

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The Doppler Effect in the Molecular Scattering of Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... be impossible. It is involved in this remark that each molecule will exert its full effect on the index of refraction, however irregular the distribution may be, provided it is ... molecules will obstruct each other; and, moreover, the thermal motions will not disturb this effect. The specially favoured directions, for disturbances passed on by the molecules, must be ...

JOSEPH LARMOR

1919-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Neutron degeneracy and plasma physics effects on radiative neutron captures in neutron star crust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the astrophysical reaction rates for radiative neutron capture reactions (n,?) in the crust of a neutron star. The presence of degenerate neutrons at high densities (mainly in the inner crust) can drastically affect the reaction rates. Standard rates assuming a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for neutrons can underestimate the rates by several orders of magnitude. We derive simple analytical expressions for reaction rates at a variety of conditions with account for neutron degeneracy. We also discuss the plasma effects on the outgoing radiative transition channel in neutron radiative capture reactions and show that these effects can also increase the reaction rates by a few orders of magnitude. In addition, using detailed balance, we analyze the effects of neutron degeneracy and plasma physics on reverse (?,n) photodisintegration. We discuss the dependence of the reaction rates on temperature and neutron chemical potential and outline the efficiency of these reactions in the neutron star crust.

P. S. Shternin; M. Beard; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

173

Radiation Effects on Low-dimensional Carbon System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion irradiation has been known to be an effective tool for structure modification with micro/nano-scale precision. Recently, demonstrations have been made for nano-machining, such as the cutting and welding of carbon nanotubes. Understanding...

Wang, Jing

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

174

Literature Review of the Effects of Radiation and Temperature on the Aging of Concrete  

SciTech Connect

The open literature and accessible United States Department of Energy-sponsored reports were reviewed for the effects of radiation and temperature on concrete. No effects of radiation were found for exposures less than 1010 neutron/cm2 or 1010 Gy gamma for periods less than 50 years. Reductions in compressive and tensile strength and a marked increase in volume are reported for exposures greater than 1020 neutron/cm2 or 1010 rads of gamma. There are conflicting reports of damage for doses in the middle ranges.

D. L. Fillmore

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies A. Nizkorodov*, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, United

Nizkorodov, Sergey

176

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effect of bismuth breast shielding on radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-effect transistors positioned in a customized anthropomorphic whole- body dosimetry verification phantom. Image noise. Funding: Supported by NIH Grants 1R01 HL109711-01 and 5KL2 RR024157, a Nuclear Cardiology Foundation American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. doi:10.1007/s12350-011-9473-x 100 #12;achievable (ALARA), while

Brenner, David Jonathan

177

LOW-LEVEL RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS: PROGRAMS AND PANEL DISCUSSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

accident. The report of the Soviet Union to the International Atomic Energy Agency experts' meeting plutonium had been produced in reactors and separated for bomb production for -40 yr (Ref. 1. The reduction was presumably due to the reduced effects at low dose rate. THE DATA SETS In the former USSR

Shlyakhter, Ilya

178

Investigation of non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland utilizing three-dimensional culture models of mammary cells derived from mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to tumorigenesis Joni D. Mott, Antoine M. Snijders, Alvin Lo, Dinah Levy-Groesser, Bahram Parvin, Andrew J. Wyrobek, Jian-Hua Mao, and Mina J. Bissell Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 Goal: Within the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's SFA, Project 2, our studies focus on utilizing three dimensional (3D) cell culture models as surrogates for in vivo studies to determine how low doses of ionizing radiation influence mammary gland tissue architecture and how this may relate both to tumor progression and/or adaptive response.

179

How radiation and its effect were explained?: Scientific communication after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we examine eight popular books published immediately after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Our aim is to clarify the characteristics, problems in the scientific communication related to the health effects of radiation. The eight books are compared from the aspects of: 1) how units such as Bq, Gy and Sv are defined; 2) how the dose limits are explained; 3) how deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation are differentiated; 4) how LNT model is explained and evaluated; 5) how the fact that we evolved in the midst of natural background radiation is treated. The main finding of our survey is that although the authors of the examined texts start from the same 'scientific facts', in trying to make these facts easily understandable, they adopt different rhetorical strategies and eventually they end up delivering quite different and conflicting messages to the people.

Kazuhisa Todayama; Kaori Karasawa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Radiation Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Protostellar Collapse: Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Effects and Early Formation of Circumstellar Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport of angular momentum by magnetic fields is a crucial physical process in formation and evolution of stars and disks. Because the ionization degree in star forming clouds is extremely low, non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects such as ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation work strongly during protostellar collapse. These effects have significant impacts in the early phase of star formation as they redistribute magnetic flux and suppress angular momentum transport by magnetic fields. We perform three-dimensional nested-grid radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations including Ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion. Without these effects, magnetic fields transport angular momentum so efficiently that no rotationally supported disk is formed even after the second collapse. Ohmic dissipation works only in a relatively high density region within the first core and suppresses angular momentum transport, enabling formation of a very small rotationally supported disk after the second co...

Tomida, Kengo; Machida, Masahiro N

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Standard Test Method for Measuring Dose for Use in Linear Accelerator Pulsed Radiation Effects Tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method covers a calorimetric measurement of the total dose delivered in a single pulse of electrons from an electron linear accelerator or a flash X-ray machine (FXR, e-beam mode) used as an ionizing source in radiation-effects testing. The test method is designed for use with pulses of electrons in the energy range from 10 to 50 MeV and is only valid for cases in which both the calorimeter and the test specimen to be irradiated are“thin” compared to the range of these electrons in the materials of which they are constructed. 1.2 The procedure described can be used in those cases in which (1) the dose delivered in a single pulse is 5 Gy (matl) (500 rd (matl)) or greater, or (2) multiple pulses of a lower dose can be delivered in a short time compared to the thermal time constant of the calorimeter. Matl refers to the material of the calorimeter. The minimum dose per pulse that can be acceptably monitored depends on the variables of the particular test, including pulse rate, pulse uniformity...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Forbush decrease effects on radiation dose received on-board aeroplanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......information provided by the US FAA to promote radiation safety for air carrier crew members. Radiat...Cosmic Radiation Humans Monte Carlo Method Radiation Dosage Radiation Monitoring methods Software Solar Activity...

P. Lantos

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS, Y.24 , Tang, Y.25 , Weber, R. J.26 , and Wu, Y.27 1 NOAA/PMEL, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA

184

Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics. O. Rozenbaum1 for the comprehension of the ceramics thermal properties. Keywords: ceramics, texture, emissivity spectra, infrared (2009) 580-590" DOI : 10.1007/s10765-008-0510-1 #12;2 Abstract Thermal and optical properties

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Comparison of low-energy radiation effects in polyethylene and cellulose Jussi Polvi, Kai Nordlund  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of low-energy radiation effects in polyethylene and cellulose Jussi Polvi, Kai Nordlund, for a carbon atom in polyethylene chain, and for one of the carbon atoms in cellulose chain. Our analysis shows and on average slightly higher for the carbon atoms in the polyethylene chain than for the target carbon atom

Nordlund, Kai

186

Radiation effects on the surfaces of the Galilean satellites R. E. Johnson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

20 Radiation effects on the surfaces of the Galilean satellites R. E. Johnson University and Johnson 1996). It can produce new species in the surface, it can produce and eject volatiles into the atmosphere, and it can be a source of the local plasma (Figure 20.1 and Johnson 1990, 1996, 1998

Johnson, Robert E.

187

Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), g1-aircraft, sedlacek sp2  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in 2010 was to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their optical and hygroscopic properties in central California, with a focus on the Sacramento urban plume.

Sedlacek, Art

188

Scalar Mesons Effects in Radiative Decays of Vector Mesons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We review the results of our calculations for the energy spectrum and branching ratios of V 0 ? P 0 P 0?? in the context of a U (3) × U (3) linear sigma model which includes ’t Hooft interaction. The corresponding amplitudes reduce to the O(p 4) predictions of CHPT for these processes in the limit of heavy scalars (or equivalently in the low energy region). In this sense our approach extend to the resonance region the O(p 4) predictions of CHPT in a chiral invariant way. The measured energy spectrum and branching ratios are well described in this formalism. In particular the negative interference shown by the data around m ?? = 500 MeV in ? ? ?0?0? arises in a natural way in this framework.

Mauro Napsuciale

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Functional proteomic pattern identification under low dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective: High dose radiation has been well known for increasing the risk of carcinogenesis. However, the understanding of biological effects of low dose radiation is limited. Low dose radiation is reported to affect several signaling pathways including ... Keywords: Feature selection, Jumping emerging identification, Low dose radiation, Proteomic signaling patterns

Young Bun Kim; Chin-Rang Yang; Jean Gao

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Effects of radiation on NO kinetics in turbulent hydrogen/air diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a coupled radiation and NO kinetics calculation of turbulent hydrogen/air diffusion flame properties. Transport equations for mass, momentum, mixture fraction, enthalpy (sensible + chemical) including gas band radiation, and NO mass fraction are solved. NO kinetics is described by a one step thermal production mechanism. The local temperature is obtained by solving the enthalpy equation taking radiation loss from H{sub 2}O into consideration. Radiation/turbulence and chemical kinetics/turbulence interactions are treated using a clipped Gaussian probability density function (PDF) for the mixture fraction, and a delta PDF for the enthalpy. The source terms in the enthalpy and mass fraction of NO equations are treated using assumed PDF integration over the mixture fraction space. The results of the simulation are compared with existing measurements of the Emission Indices of NO (EINO) in turbulent H{sub 2}/air diffusion flames. The major conclusion of the paper is that coupled turbulence/radiation interactions should be taken into account while computing the EINO.

Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Laurendeau, N.M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

192

Radiation from a moving planar dipole layer: patch potentials vs dynamical Casimir effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the classical electromagnetic radiation due to the presence of a dipole layer on a plane that performs a bounded motion along its normal direction, to the first non-trivial order in the amplitude of that motion. We show that the total emitted power may be written in terms of the dipole layer autocorrelation function. We then apply the general expression for the emitted power to cases where the dipole layer models the presence of patch potentials, comparing the magnitude of the emitted radiation with that coming from the quantum vacuum in the presence of a moving perfect conductor (dynamical Casimir effect).

Cesar D. Fosco; Francisco D. Mazzitelli

2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

193

Study of Interfacial Interactions Using Thing Film Surface Modification: Radiation and Oxidation Effects in Materials  

SciTech Connect

Interfaces play a key role in dictating the long-term stability of materials under the influence of radiation and high temperatures. For example, grain boundaries affect corrosion by way of providing kinetically favorable paths for elemental diffusion, but they can also act as sinks for defects and helium generated during irradiation. Likewise, the retention of high-temperature strength in nanostructured, oxide-dispersion strengthened steels depends strongly on the stoichiometric and physical stability of the (Y, Ti)-oxide particles/matrix interface under radiation and high temperatures. An understanding of these interfacial effects at a fundamental level is important for the development of materials for extreme environments of nuclear reactors. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding stability of interfaces by depositing thin films of materials on substrates followed by ion irradiation of the film-substrate system at elevated temperatures followed by post-irradiation oxidation treatments. Specifically, the research will be performed by depositing thin films of yttrium and titanium (~500 nm) on Fe-12%Cr binary alloy substrate. Y and Ti have been selected as thin-film materials because they form highly stable protective oxides layers. The Fe-12%Cr binary alloy has been selected because it is representative of ferritic steels that are widely used in nuclear systems. The absence of other alloying elements in this binary alloy would allow for a clearer examination of structures and compositions that evolve during high-temperature irradiations and oxidation treatments. The research is divided into four specific tasks: (1) sputter deposition of 500 nm thick films of Y and Ti on Fe-12%Cr alloy substrates, (2) ion irradiation of the film-substrate system with 2MeV protons to a dose of 2 dpa at temperatures of 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C, (3) oxidation of as-deposited and ion-irradiated samples in a controlled oxygen environment at 500°C and 700°C, (4) multi-scale computational modeling involving first- principle molecular dynamics (FPMD) and coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) approaches to develop theories underlying the evolution and stability of structures and phases. Samples from Tasks 1 to 3 (above) will be rigorously characterized and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford back scatter spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Expected outcomes of the experimental work include a quantitative understanding film-substrate interface mixing, evolution of defects and other phases at the interface, interaction of interfaces with defects, and the ability of the Y and Ti films to mitigate irradiation-assisted oxidation. The aforementioned experimental work will be closely coupled with multi-scale molecular dynamics (MD) modeling to understand the reactions at the surface, the transport of oxidant through the thin film, and the stabilities of the deposited thin films under radiation and oxidation. Simulations of materials property changes under conditions of radiation and oxidation require multiple size domains and a different simulation scheme for each of these domains. This will be achieved by coupling the FPMD and coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). This will enable the comparison of the results of each simulation approach with the experimental results.

Sridharan, Kumar; Zhang, Jinsuo

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites  

SciTech Connect

Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Multi-Dimensional Effects in Longwave Radiative Forcing of PBL Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Dimensional Effects in Longwave Radiative Forcing of PBL Clouds D. B. Mechem and Y. L. Kogan Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma M. Ovtchinnikov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington K. F. Evans University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico R. F. Cahalan National Aeronautic and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland E. E. Takara and R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 1. Introduction Numerical cloud models nearly universally employ one-dimensional (1D) treatments of radiative transfer (RT). Radiative transfer is typically implemented as a 2- or 4-stream approximation to the

196

Revisiting a pre-inflationary radiation era and its effect on the CMB power spectrum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revisit the scenario where inflation is preceded by a radiation era by considering that the inflaton too could have been in thermal equilibrium early in the radiation era. Hence we take into account not only the effect of a pre-inflationary era on the inflaton mode functions but also that of a frozen thermal distribution of inflaton quanta. We initially discuss in detail the issues relevant to our scenario of a pre-inflationary radiation dominated era and then obtain the scalar power spectrum for this scenario. We find that the power spectrum is free from infrared divergences. We then use the WMAP and Planck data to determine the constraints on the inflaton comoving `temperature' and on the duration of inflation. We find that the best fit value of the duration of inflation is less than 1 e-folding more than what is required to solve cosmological problems, while only an upper bound on the inflaton temperature can be obtained.

Das, Suratna; Prasad, Jayanti; Rangarajan, Raghavan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Effect of electric field on heat transfer performance of automobile radiator at low frontal air velocity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of electric field on the performance of automobile radiator is investigated in this work. In this experiment, a louvered fin and flat tube automobile radiator was mounted in a wind tunnel and there was heat exchange between a hot water stream circulating inside the tube and a cold air stream flowing through the external surface. The electric field was supplied on the airside of the heat exchanger and its supply voltage was adjusted from 0 kV to 12 kV. From the experiment, it was found that the unit with electric field pronounced better heat transfer rate, especially at low frontal velocity of air. The correlations for predicting the air-side heat transfer coefficient of the automobile radiator, with and without electric field, at low frontal air velocity were also developed and the predicted results agreed very well with the experimental data.

S. Vithayasai; T. Kiatsiriroat; A. Nuntaphan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Fast-neutron radiation effects in a silica-core optical fiber studied by a CCD-camera spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple CCD-camera spectrometer was deployed at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility to characterize fast-neutron irradiation effects in several silica-based optical...

Griscom, D L; Gingerich, M E; Friebele, E J; Putnam, M; Unruh, W

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Biological effects of radiation from dental radiography. Council on Dental Materials, Instruments, and Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Clearly, there is ample evidence of adverse effects of radiation in sufficient doses. There is at present no proof of such effects from doses commonly employed in dental practice; however, it has not been possible to prove the absence of such effects. Most experts now agree that there may be a small, difficult to quantify risk of cancer or genetic mutation from diagnostic exposure in patients and in personnel exposed during work. Prudence dictates acceptance of this position until proof to the contrary is available. This report has presented recent attempts to quantify the risk to patients based on speculative calculations and extrapolations. Indices of population risks indicate that medical radiology is the largest source of human-made genetic and leukemogenic radiation burden to the American public. Dental radiology contributes a small-but not necessarily insignificant-portion. Of major concern is the increasing use of radiation for diagnostic purposes in both medicine and dentistry. Technological advances have reduced exposure per examination; presumably this trend will continue so that total exposure of populations to radiation in the healing arts will not increase. Recent analyses suggest that the cancer risk to a patient from a dental radiographic examination is of the order of one in a million; the genetic risk is substantially less, about one in a billion. The risks appear to be essentially equal for full-mouth intraoral and for panoramic examinations. These estimates are numerically quite small, but the effects are severe. Thus, these risks cannot be ignored. However, we currently accept risks of similar magnitude in our daily lives (Table 9)50,51 In addition, the risk of failure to make an accurate diagnosis may be greater than the risk from exposure to the radiation from a justified and properly conducted radiographic examination.

Gibbs, S.J.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic moments and transitions in A{<=}9 nuclei including meson-exchange currents derived from chiral effective field theory  

SciTech Connect

Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic moments and transitions are reported for A{<=}9 nuclei. The realistic Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the nuclear wave functions. Contributions of two-body meson-exchange current (MEC) operators are included for magnetic moments and M1 transitions. The MEC operators have been derived in both a standard nuclear physics approach and a chiral effective field theory formulation with pions and nucleons including up to one-loop corrections. The two-body MEC contributions provide significant corrections and lead to very good agreement with experiment. Their effect is particularly pronounced in the A=9, T=3/2 systems, in which they provide up to ~20% (~40%) of the total predicted value for the {sup 9}Li ({sup 9}C) magnetic moment.

Saori Pastore, S.C. Pieper, Rocco Schiavilla, Robert Wiringa

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Reduced Kilovoltage in Computed Tomography–Guided Intervention in a Community Hospital: Effect on the Radiation Dose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-kilovoltage (80 or 100 kV) computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions performed in a community-based hospital are feasible and to compare radiation exposure incurred with conventional 120 kV potential. Materials and Methods Effective doses (ED) received by patients who underwent CT-guided intervention were analysed before and after a low-dose kilovoltage protocol was instituted in our department. We performed CT-guided procedures of 93 consecutive patients by using conventional 120-kV tube voltage (50 patients) and a low voltage of 80 or 100 kV for the remainder of this cohort. Automatic tube current modulation was enabled to obtain the best image quality. Procedure details were prospectively recorded and included examination site and type, slice width, tube voltage and current, dose length product, volume CT dose index, and size-specific dose estimate. Dose length product was converted to ED to account for radiosensitivity of specific organs. Statistical comparisons with test differences in the ED, volume CT dose index, size-specific dose estimate, and effective diameter (patient size) were made by using the Student t test. Results All but 6 of the procedures performed at 80 kV were successful, for a success rate of 86%. At lower voltages, the ED was significantly (P dose radiation technique by using 80 or 100 kV results in a high technical success rate for pelvic, chest, and abdomen CT-guided interventional procedures, although dramatically decreasing radiation exposure. There was no significant difference in effective diameter (patient size) between the conventional and the low-dose groups, which would suggest that dose reduction was indeed a result of kVp change and not patient size.

Saman Rezazadeh; Steven J. Co; Simon Bicknell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......studies of radiation workers, such as the Rocketdyne(149), Mayak(150, 151) and National...occupational studies is not known. Rocketdyne study-other studies of radiation workers...in the 15-country study include the Rocketdyne study(149). By itself, this study......

Lawrence T. Dauer; Antone L. Brooks; David G. Hoel; William F. Morgan; Daniel Stram; Phung Tran

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

A self-consistent global model of solenoidal-type inductively coupled plasma discharges including the effects of radio-frequency bias power  

SciTech Connect

We developed a self-consistent global simulator of solenoidal-type inductively coupled plasma discharges and observed the effect of the radio-frequency (rf) bias power on the plasma density and the electron temperature. We numerically solved a set of spatially averaged fluid equations for charged particles, neutrals, and radicals. Absorbed power by electrons is determined by using an analytic electron heating model including the anomalous skin effect. To analyze the effects of rf bias power on the plasma properties, our model also combines the electron heating and global transport modules with an rf sheath module in a self-consistent manner. The simulation results are compared with numerical results by using the commercial software package cfd-ace + (ESI group) and experimental measurements by using a wave cutoff probe and a single Langmuir probe.

Kwon, D. C.; Chang, W. S.; Song, M. Y.; Yoon, J.-S. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, M. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, D. H. [Kyoungwon Tech, Inc., Seongnam 462-806 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Y. H. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The effects of atomic oxygen on the thermal emittance of high temperature radiator surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Radiator surfaces on high temperature space power systems such as the SP-100 space nuclear power system must maintain a high emittance level in order to reject waste heat effectively. one of the primary materials under consideration for the radiators is carbon-carbon composite. Since carbon is susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen in the low Earth orbital environment, it is important to determine the durability of carbon composites in this environment as well as the effect atomic oxygen has on the thermal emittance of the surface if it is to be considered for use as a radiator. Results indicate that the thermal emittance of carbon-carbon composite (as low as 0.42) can be enhanced by exposure to a directed beam of atomic oxygen to levels above 0.85 at 800 K. This emittance enhancement is due to a change in the surface morphology as a result of oxidation. High aspect ratio cones are formed on the surface which allow more efficient trapping of incident radiation. Erosion of the surface due to oxidation is similar to that for carbon; so that at altitudes less than {approximately}600 km, thickness loss of the radiator could be significant (as much as 0.1 cm/year). A protective coating or oxidation barrier forming additive may be needed to prevent atomic oxygen attack after the initial high emittance surface is formed. Textured surfaces can be formed in ground based facilities or possibly in space if emittance is not sensitive to the orientation of the atomic oxygen arrival that forms the texture.

Rutledge, S.K. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hotes, D.L.; Paulsen, P.E. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Effects of ionizing radiation on the response of certain photosensitive seeds to red light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and molecular oxygen. Studies of phosphate metabolism (Surrey and Gordon, 1962) and phosphorylation (Gordon and Surrey, 1961) indicate that energy transfer through phosphate esterification plays an important role and may be the key enzymatic reaction in red... spectrum promoting the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seed. Smithsonian Inst. Pubis. Misc. Collections 96: 1-8 ~ 11. Gordon, S. A. , and K. Surrey. 1961. Phosphorylation and red-spectrum photomorphogenesis. ~n Effects of ionizing radiations...

Richardson, Billy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

207

Assessment of Fukushima-Derived Radiation Doses and Effects on Wildlife in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Following releases from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), contention has arisen over the potential radiological impact on wildlife. ... This work was conducted under the auspices of the UNSCEAR, and a more comprehensive version of the assessment presented here is reported within the UN publication “Levels and effects of radiation exposure due to the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and Tsunami”. ...

P. Strand; T. Aono; J. E. Brown; J. Garnier-Laplace; A. Hosseini; T. Sazykina; F. Steenhuisen; J. Vives i Batlle

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

Synthetic Lorentz force in classical atomic gases via Doppler effect and radiation pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically predict a novel type of synthetic Lorentz force for classical (cold) atomic gases, which is based on the Doppler effect and radiation pressure. A fairly uniform and strong force can be constructed for gases in macroscopic volumes of several cubic millimeters and more. This opens the possibility to mimic classical charged gases in magnetic fields, such as those in a tokamak, in cold atom experiments.

Dub?ek, T; Juki?, D; Aumiler, D; Ban, T; Buljan, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Effect of sun radiation on the thermal behavior of distribution transformer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance and life of oil-immersed distribution transformers are strongly dependent on the oil temperature. Transformers, working in regions with high temperature and high solar radiation, usually suffer from excessive heat in summers which results in their early failures. In this paper, the effect of sun radiation on the transformer was investigated by using experimental and analytical methods. Transformer oil temperature was measured in two different modes, with and without sun shield. Effects of different parameters such as direct and indirect solar radiation on the thermal behavior of the transformer were mathematically modeled and the results were compared with experimental findings. Agreements between the experimental and numerical results show that the model can reasonably predict thermal behavior of the transformer. It was found that a sun shield has an important effect on the oil temperature reduction in summer which could be as high as 7 °C depending on the load ratio. The amount of temperature reduction by sun shield reduces as the load ratio of transformer increases. By installing a sun shield and reducing oil temperature, transformer life could be increased up to 24% in average.

Ebrahim Hajidavalloo; Mohamad Mohamadianfard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Radiative effects of the smoke clouds from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect

The radiative effects of the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires were assessed by measuring downwelling and upwelling solar flux, as well as spectral solar extinction beneath, above, and within the smoke plume. Seven radiation flight missions were undertaken between May 16 and June 2, 1991, to characterize the plume between the source region in Kuwait and approximately 200 km south, near Manama, Bahrain. The authors present results from one flight representative of conditions of the composite plume. On May 18, 1991, in a homogeneous, well-mixed region of smoke approximately 100 km downstream of the fires, visible optical depths as high as 2 were measured, at which time transmission to the surface was 8%, while 78% of the solar radiation was absorbed by the smoke. The calculated instantaneous heating rate inside the plume reached 24 K/d. While these effects are probably typical of those regions in the Persian Gulf area directly covered by the smoke, there is no evidence to suggest significant climatic effects in other regions. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Pilewskie, P.; Valero, F.P.J. [NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

211

Vibration and acoustic radiation from inhomogeneous structures: Effect of motion of forcing function  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Homogeneous structures are known to radiate only for supersonic structural wavenumbers. The presence of inhomogeneities such as boundaries discrete stiffeners and variable stiffness has been shown to introduce additional modes that will radiate if the structural wavenumbers are supersonic. The radiation pattern for an infinite plate with evenly spaced stiffness gives rise to a stop?passband spectrum. The plate with a continuously varying stiffness also gives rise to similar conditions. All of the previous analyses have always considered stationary forcing functions. In this paper the analyses for the fixed forcing function will be reviewed and then they will be generalized to the case of the forcing function moving along the plate at speeds up to and greater than the wave speeds in the solid. The results presented will show that for certain values of the frequency rib spacings and forcing function velocity traveling wave modes may change direction decaying modes may become traveling modes and modes may change from subsonic to supersonic and vice versa depending upon the relative motion of the forcing function. The effect of the motion may thus enhance or reduce the acoustic radiation.

Mauro Pierucci

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Can the Infrared Radiation that Causes the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Be Put to Better Use?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increasing levels of certain greenhouse gases (GHGs) most importantly CO 2 in the earths atmosphere lead to climate change and global warming as a result of these gases interacting with thermal infrared (TIR) radiation from earth to space. Here the option of modifying this radiation is analyzed which would result in modified TIR radiation that would interact less with atmospheric CO 2 . This alleviates the enhanced greenhouse effect and at the same time would allow for energy recovery as heat and/or power. Power production is of course limited by thermodynamics Second Law. It is shown that various options exist for TIR radiation modification which may be used to generate temperature gradients or temperature differences between volumes of (gases containing) CO 2 of sufficient optical thickness. This may be further exploited for power generation: a first simple case shows power generation of ?1? W ? per ? m 2 surface at a Carnot efficiency of ?7% using the sky and ground level surroundings as heat reservoirs.

Ron Zevenhoven

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Dynamic Effects on the Tropical Cloud Radiative Forcing and Radiation Budget JIAN YUAN, DENNIS L. HARTMANN, AND ROBERT WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the tropics, using the methodology suggested by Bony et al. Cloud and radiation budget quantities source of uncertainty in pre- dicting future climate (Cess et al. 2001b; Stephens 2005; Solomon et al

Wood, Robert

214

The similar effects of low-dose ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation from background environmental levels of exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The meltdown and release of radioactivity (ionizing radiation) from four damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Nuclear Facility in Japan in March 2011 continues to contaminate air and ocean water even 1 year ...

Cindy Sage

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident  

SciTech Connect

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

Sugiyama, K.; Ayame, J.; Takashita, H.; Yamamoto, R. [Risk Communication Study Office Japan Atomic Energy Agency 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI, 319-1194 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Radiation Probabilities, Auger Effect and Energy Level Widths for Au(79)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of energy level widths developed by Weisskopf and Wigner and by Wentzel is applied to the calculation of the energy level widths of Au(79). Radiation and Auger transition probabilities are determined separately with the aid of numerically integrated nonrelativistic eigenfunctions, the latter being calculated for electrons moving in the Fermi-Thomas field of Tl(81)++. Sources of error are considered, the major one being the nonrelativistic treatment. The band width due to the interaction of electrons in different atoms in the crystal lattice does not add materially to the level width of the OI and lower states. Except for the K state, the Auger contribution to the width exceeds that of the radiation transitions. Where the majority of the significant Auger effects have been calculated (LI,MI,NI) the total calculated width is found to be appreciably in excess of the observed width, but of the same order. The results confirm the view that the contributions of radiation transitions and Auger effects to the level widths of the initial and final states of the atom suffice to explain the magnitude of the widths of the x-ray lines emitted by the heavy elements.

E. G. Ramberg and F. K. Richtmyer

1937-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Record of the first meeting of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held July 27--28, 1994 in Moscow. The main purpose of the meeting was to implement an agreement between the Russian Federation and the US to facilitate cooperative research on health and environmental effects of radiation. It was hoped that the exchange of information would provide a good basis for employing new scientific knowledge to implement practical measures to facilitate the rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated areas and to treat radiation illnesses. The Russian Federation suggested five main scientific areas for cooperative research. They will prepare proposals on 4--5 projects within the scope of the scientific areas discussed and forward them to the US delegation for consideration of the possibility to facilitate joint research.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

New data on the effect of solar radiation and ?-farnesene on development of apple superficial scald during storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The previously unknown selective effect of solar radiation on the development of apple superficial scald is established. Superficial scald doesn’t occur on the sun-exposed side of certain green fruits after st...

S. A. Rodikov

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC CT IN SUDAN: CT DOSE, ORGAN AND EFFECTIVE DOSES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Paper RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC...Energy Commission, Radiation Safety Institute, PO Box 3001...assess the magnitude of radiation exposure during paediatric...CT-Expo 2.1 dosimetry software. Doses were evaluated......

I. I. Suliman; H. M. Khamis; T. H. Ombada; K. Alzimami; M. Alkhorayef; A. Sulieman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

A study of radiation damage effects on the magnetic structure of bulk Iron  

SciTech Connect

Defects, defect interactions, and defect dynamics in solids created by fast neutrons are known to have significant impact on the performance and lifetime of structural materials. A fundamental understanding of the radiation damage effects in solids is therefore of great importance in assisting the development of improved materials - materials with ultrahigh strength, toughness, and radiation resistance. In this presentation, we show our recent theoretical investigation on the magnetic structure evolution of bulk iron in the region of the radiation defects. We applied a linear scaling ab-initio method based on density functional theory with local spin density approximation, namely the locally self-consistent multiple scattering method (LSMS), to the study of magnetic moment distributions in a cascade at the damage peak and for a series of time steps as the interstitials and vacancies recombined. Atomic positions correspond to those in a low energy cascade in a 10|000 atom sample, in which the primary damage state and the evolution of all defects produced were simulated using molecular dynamics with empirical, embedded-atom inter-atomic potentials. We will discuss how a region of affected moments expands and then recedes in response to a cascade evolution.

Wang Yang [Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Nicholson, D. M. C.; Stocks, G. M.; Rusanu, Aurelian; Eisenbach, Markus; Stoller, R. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Effectiveness of a clinical intervention in improving pain control in outpatients with cancer treated by radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent clinical intervention to reduce pain in outpatients with cancer. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive either a clinical intervention including an information session, the use of a pain diary, and the possibility to contact a physician to adjust the pain medication, or the usual treatment of pain by the staff radiation oncologist. All patients reported their average and worst pain levels at baseline and 2 and 3 weeks after the start of the intervention. Results: The study groups were similar with respect to their baseline characteristics and pain levels at randomization. After 3 weeks, the average and worst pain experienced by patients randomized to the clinical intervention group was significantly inferior to the average pain experienced by patients in the control group (2.9/10 vs. 4.4/10 and 4.2/10 vs. 5.5/10, respectively). Results showed that the experimental group patients decreased their pain levels more than the control group patients did over time. Conclusion: An intervention including patient education, a pain diary, and defining a procedure for therapeutic adjustments can be effective to improve pain relief in outpatients with cancer.

Vallieres, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec-Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City (Canada)]. E-mail: isabelle.vallieres@mail.chuq.qc.ca; Aubin, Michele [Department of Family Medicine, Laval Hospital, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Blondeau, Lucie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec-Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City (Canada); Simard, Serge [Research Centre of Laval Hospital, Laval University, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada); Giguere, Anik [Palliative Care Research Team, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma: Effect of Tumor Volume on Clinical Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the effect of primary gross tumor volume (pGTV) and nodal gross tumor volume (nGTV) on treatment outcomes in patients treated with definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods and Materials: Between September 1998 and April 2009, a total of 442 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx were treated with IMRT with curative intent at our center. Thirty patients treated postoperatively and 2 additional patients who started treatment more than 6 months after diagnosis were excluded. A total of 340 patients with restorable treatment plans were included in this present study. The majority of the patients underwent concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The pGTV and nGTV were calculated using the original clinical treatment plans. Cox proportional hazards models and log-rank tests were used to evaluate the correlation between tumor volumes and overall survival (OS), and competing risks analysis tools were used to evaluate the correlation between local failure (LF), regional failure (RF), distant metastatic failure (DMF) vs. tumor volumes with death as a competing risk. Results: Median follow-up among surviving patients was 34 months (range, 5-67). The 2-year cumulative incidence of LF, RF and DF in this cohort of patients was 6.1%, 5.2%, and 12.2%, respectively. The 2-year OS rate was 88.6%. Univariate analysis determined pGTV and T-stage correlated with LF (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.004, respectively), whereas nGTV was not associated with RF. On multivariate analysis, pGTV and N-stage were independent risk factors for overall survival (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0073, respectively) and distant control (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with OPC treated with IMRT, pGTV was found to be associated with overall survival, local failure, and distant metastatic failure.

Lok, Benjamin H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Setton, Jeremy; Caria, Nicola; Romanyshyn, Jonathan; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Park, Jeffery; Rowan, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sherman, Eric J.; Fury, Matthew G. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Ho, Alan [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Pfister, David G. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wong, Richard J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Kraus, Dennis H. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Schupak, Karen D.; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Rao, Shyam D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Lee, Nancy Y., E-mail: Leen2@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Rotationally resolved Fano effect of HI molecules: An experimental study using coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experiment studying the influence of molecular rotation in HI on photoelectron-spin polarization is presented. The experiment is highly wavelength selective since a laser-based vacuum-ultraviolet-radiation source with a bandwidth of 0.5×10-4 nm is applied to produce circularly polarized light. Although in the Fano effect the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is not analyzed, rotational structure is resolved via narrow-band excitation of autoionization resonances. The photoelectron-spin polarization is found to be strongly affected by the rotational substructure, leading to changes in both magnitude and sign for different rotational lines.

T. Huth-Fehre; A. Mank; M. Drescher; N. Böwering; U. Heinzmann

1990-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

224

Generation of high-power tunable terahertz-radiation by nonrelativistic beam-echo harmonic effect  

SciTech Connect

A new type of terahertz radiation source based on the nonrelativistic electron beam-wave interaction is proposed. Here, the beam echo harmonic effect is applied to a traveling wave tube like device. The scheme is configured as a combination of a frequency multiplier and amplifier with, for instance, W-band (millimeter wave) input signals and terahertz output power. A one-dimensional model of this device shows that a 10th order harmonic-wave can be generated while other harmonic waves are suppressed. The device only requires a readily available input source (W-band), and the output frequency can be tuned continuously over a wide band.

Gong Huarong; Xu Jin; Wei Yanyu; Gong Yubin [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Vacuum Electronics, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Travish, Gil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Feng Jinjun [Vacuum Electronics National Laboratory, Vacuum Electronics research Institute, Beijing 100016 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Dose-Effect Relationship in Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Radiation Doses  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Locally advanced rectal cancer represents a major therapeutic challenge. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is considered standard, but little is known about the dose-effect relationship. The present study represents a dose-escalation phase III trial comparing 2 doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: The inclusion criteria were resectable T3 and T4 tumors with a circumferential margin of {<=}5 mm on magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the tumor and pelvic lymph nodes (arm A) or the same treatment supplemented with an endorectal boost given as high-dose-rate brachytherapy (10 Gy in 2 fractions; arm B). Concomitant chemotherapy, uftoral 300 mg/m{sup 2} and L-leucovorin 22.5 mg/d, was added to both arms on treatment days. The primary endpoint was complete pathologic remission. The secondary endpoints included tumor response and rate of complete resection (R0). Results: The study included 248 patients. No significant difference was found in toxicity or surgical complications between the 2 groups. Based on intention to treat, no significant difference was found in the complete pathologic remission rate between the 2 arms (18% and 18%). The rate of R0 resection was different in T3 tumors (90% and 99%; P=.03). The same applied to the rate of major response (tumor regression grade, 1+2), 29% and 44%, respectively (P=.04). Conclusions: This first randomized trial comparing 2 radiation doses indicated that the higher dose increased the rate of major response by 50% in T3 tumors. The endorectal boost is feasible, with no significant increase in toxicity or surgical complications.

Jakobsen, Anders, E-mail: anders.jakobsen@slb.regionsyddanmark.dk [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark) [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Ploen, John [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)] [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Vuong, Te [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Appelt, Ane [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark) [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Soren R. [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)] [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Two-Year and Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of head-and neck-cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We used a Markov model to simulate radiation therapy-induced xerostomia and dysphagia in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old HNC patients. Model input parameters were derived from PARSPORT (CRUK/03/005) patient-level trial data and quality-of-life and Medicare cost data from published literature. We calculated average incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) from the US health care perspective as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared our ICERs with current cost-effectiveness standards whereby treatment comparators less than $50,000 per QALY gained are considered cost-effective. Results: In the first 2 years after initial treatment, IMRT is not cost-effective compared with 3D-CRT, given an average ICER of $101,100 per QALY gained. However, over 15 years (remaining lifetime on the basis of average life expectancy of a 65-year-old), IMRT is more cost-effective at $34,523 per QALY gained. Conclusion: Although HNC patients receiving IMRT will likely experience reduced xerostomia and dysphagia symptoms, the small quality-of-life benefit associated with IMRT is not cost-effective in the short term but may be cost-effective over a patient's lifetime, assuming benefits persist over time and patients are healthy and likely to live for a sustained period. Additional data quantifying the long-term benefits of IMRT, however, are needed.

Kohler, Racquel E. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheets, Nathan C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wheeler, Stephanie B. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Nutting, Chris [Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Division of Clinical Studies, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Chera, Bhishamjit S., E-mail: bchera@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Developing a Methodology for Characterizing the Effects of Building Materials’ Natural Radiation Background on a Radiation Portal Monitoring System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the sponsors of this research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). vi NOMENCLATURE EW Energy Windowing FWHM Full-Width at Half Maximum HEU Highly Enriched Uranium HPGe High-Purity Germanium ISOCS In-Situ Object Counting System MCA Multichannel... Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material ? Diameter ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PMT Photomultiplier Tube PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PVT Polyvinyl Toluene RDD Radiological Dispersal Device vii RPM Radiation Portal Monitor...

Fitzmaurice, Matthew Blake 1988-

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

228

Microwave influence on the isolated heart function. 2: Combined effect of radiation and some drugs  

SciTech Connect

The combined effects of microwave radiation and some drugs were studied in an isolated frog auricle preparation. The experiments established that exposure to pulse-modulated 915 Mhz microwaves for up to 40 min had no effect on either the rate or the amplitude of spontaneous auricle twitches, unless the average absorbed power was high enough to produce preparation heating. Treatment of the preparation with saline containing (0.6--3.0) 10{sup {minus}5} M of propranolol or (0.5--1.5) 10{sup {minus}7} M of atropine altered neither its pacemaker nor its contractile functions; these drugs also had no effect when they were combined with nonthermal microwave irradiation. Caffeine (1 mM) strongly increased the average heart power, which was calculated as the product of twitch rate ad amplitude. The caffeine effect appeared to be significantly augmented (by about 15%, P<0.02) under exposure to burst-type pulsed microwaves (pulse width, 1.5 msec; pause, 2.5 msec; 8 pulses/burst, 16 bursts/s; average SAR, 8--10 W/kg). By itself, this modulation was not effective; the heating of the preparation and saline during exposure was approximately 0.1 C, which could not account for the detected changes. The experimental results demonstrate that caffeine treatment increases the microwave sensitivity of the frog auricle preparation and reveals primarily subthreshold, nonthermal microwave effect.

Pakhomov, A.G.; Dubovick, B.V.; Degtyariov, I.G.; Pronkevich, A.N. [Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk (Russian Federation). Medical Radiology research Center

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation (NOTE) Â… a new European Integrated project, 2006-2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

targeted effects of ionising radiation (NOTE) - targeted effects of ionising radiation (NOTE) - a new European Integrated project, 2006-2010 Sisko Salomaa 1 , Eric G. Wright 2 , Guido Hildebrandt 3 , Munira Kadhim 4 , Mark P. Little 5 , Kevin M. Prise 6 , and Oleg V. Belyakov 1 1 Research and Environmental Surveillance, STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki FI-00881, Finland 2 University of Dundee, Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Pathology Laboratories, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, UK 3 Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103, Germany 4 MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORD, UK 5 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine,

230

QED radiative effects in the processes of exclusive photon electroproduction from polarized protons with the next-to-leading accuracy  

SciTech Connect

Radiative effects in the electroproduction of photons in polarized ep-scattering are calculated with the next-to-leading (NLO) accuracy. The contributions of loops and two photon emission were presented in analytical form. The covariant approach of Bardin and Shumeiko was used to extract the infrared divergence. All contributions to the radiative correction were presented in the form of the correction to the leptonic tensor thus allowing for further applications in other experiments, e.g., deep inelastic scattering. The radiative corrections (RC) to the cross sections and polarization asymmetries were analyzed numerically for kinematical conditions of the current measurement at Jefferson Lab. Specific attention was paid on analyzing kinematical conditions for the process with large radiative effect when momenta of two photons in the final state are collinear to momenta of initial and final electrons, respectively.

Akushevich, Igor V. [Duke University, JLAB; Ilyichev, Alexander [Byelorussian State University; Shumeiko, Nikolai M [Byelorussian State University

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Low dose radiation effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells Charles L. Limoli, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine 92697-2695 Multipotent neural cells (both stem cells and their precursor cell progeny) retain their capacity to proliferate and differentiate throughout the mammalian lifespan. High numbers of these cells are located within the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular (SVZ) zone adjacent to the lateral ventricles, where they produce cells that can migrate away and differentiate into neurons (neurogenesis) and glia (gliogenesis). The realization that the brain contains such cells has sparked intense interest and speculation regarding their potential function. While significant data

232

Aerosol Radiative Effects and Single-Scattering Properties in the Tropical Western Pacific  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects and Single-Scattering Properties Effects and Single-Scattering Properties in the Tropical Western Pacific A. M. Vogelmann and P. J. Flatau Center for Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, California M. A. Miller, M. J. Bartholomew, and R. M. Reynolds Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York P. J. Flatau University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California K. M. Markowicz Institute of Geophysics University of Warsaw Warsaw, Poland Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites are downwind from Southeast Asia where biomass burning occurs and can advect over the tropical warm pool. Previous research (Vogelmann 2001, 2002, 2003) indicates that aerosol forcing was particularly large

233

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on...Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology Department, Cologne...Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi, Japan c University of Florida, Proton...different types of ionizing radiation including X rays, protons...

Ralf Moeller; Marina Raguse; Günther Reitz; Ryuichi Okayasu; Zuofeng Li; Stuart Klein; Peter Setlow; Wayne L. Nicholson

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

234

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Abstract #2302: NVP-BEZ235 a dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3 Kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) potently enhances the effects of ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation. Benjamin...effects of ionizing radiation in vitro...BEZ235 at doses of 50 nM...radiation dose range from 0-8...NVP-BEZ235 doses of 1microM...damage after radiation.-H2AX...effect of ionizing radiation in a range of epithelial...

Benjamin Solomon; Anthony Natoli; Jim Hagekyriakou; Carleen Cullinane; and Grant McArthur

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute radiation effects Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

... 5 Summary: to years). Exposure to naturally occurring background radiation is an example of chronic exposure. Acute......

238

Zebrafish as a “Biosensor”? Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Amifostine on Embryonic Viability and Development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Environmental Health and Radiation Safety at the University...LabSpectrum v2.0.1 software (Scanalytics...and exposed to radiation at 4 hpf. Immediately...minutes before radiation exposure. For...Molecular Imaging Software, version 4.0...

Geoffrey A. Geiger; Sharon E. Parker; Andrew P. Beothy; Jennifer A. Tucker; Mary C. Mullins; and Gary D. Kao

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Inhibitory effect of solar radiation on thymidine and leucine incorporation by freshwater and marine bacterioplankton.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Within the solar UV radiation...extracellular organic carbon. Our...bacterial production before more...information on how solar radiation...Leu into the cell is obtained...extracellular organic carbon. Our...bacterial production before more...information on how solar radiation...Leu into the cell is obtained...

R Sommaruga; I Obernosterer; G J Herndl; R Psenner

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Radiative transfer effects on Doppler measurements as sources of surface effects in sunspot seismology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the use of Doppler shifts of Zeeman sensitive spectral lines to observe wavesn in sunspots is subject to measurement specific phase shifts arising from, (i) altered height range of spectral line formation and the propagating character of p mode waves in penumbrae, and (ii) Zeeman broadening and splitting. We also show that these phase shifts depend on wave frequencies, strengths and line of sight inclination of magnetic field, and the polarization state used for Doppler measurements. We discuss how these phase shifts could contribute to local helioseismic measurements of 'surface effects' in sunspot seismology.

S. P. Rajaguru; K. Sankarasubramanian; R. Wachter; P. H. Scherrer

2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A review of ground-based heavy-ion radiobiology relevant to space radiation risk assessment: Part II. Cardiovascular and immunological effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al. , Late effects of the chernobyl radiation accident on TMortality among the chernobyl emergency workers: estimationcerebrovascular disease in chernobyl emergency workers,

Blakely, Eleanor A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

Hsieh, W.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Numerical Simulations of Bubble Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling--Including the Effects of Conjugate Conduction, Level of Gravity, and Noncondensable Gas Dissolved in the Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microgravity Fluid Physics and Heat Transfer, 62-71. 47.that included the heat transfer between the fluid and solidflux, only one fluid—water—showed significant heat transfer

Aktinol, Eduardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. II. Numerical predictions and experimental tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...satisfies numerical conservation by using a similarity...details). Numerical conservation of quantities transported...include a motionless pool of water lying over variable...2003 Shallow-water theory for arbitrary...1960 Systems of conservation laws. Comm. Pure...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)  

SciTech Connect

Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and 'aged' urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of planned data analyses and focused modeling efforts that will facilitate the integration of new knowledge into improved representations of key aerosol processes in climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shaw, William J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D.; Baidar, Sunil; Banta, Robert M.; Barnard, James C.; Beranek, Josef; Berg, Larry K.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, John F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, Christopher D.; Chand, Duli; China, Swarup; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Easter, Richard C.; Erickson, Matthew H.; Fast, Jerome D.; Floerchinger, Cody; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, Edward; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Gilles, Mary K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, William I.; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Hair, John; Hardesty, Michael; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, Scott C.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, Bertram T.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, Chongai; Kubatova, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Mei, F.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Nelson, Danny A.; Obland, Michael; Oetjen, Hilke; Onasch, Timothy B.; Ortega, Ivan; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, Ray; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, Art; Senff, Christoph; Senum, Gunar; Setyan, Ari; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Song, Chen; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wallace, Hoyt A.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

246

Effects of non-lethal doses of ionising radiation on the instrumental behaviour of rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dose-effect dependence of the instrumental behaviour of white rats after a single total ?-exposure (60Co) in the dosage range of 0.05 to 7.0 Gy was studied. Generalised results of seven years of our studies of post-radiation changes of operant behaviour in shuttle (active avoidance of shock â?? negative reinforcement) and in Skinner (drinking reward â?? positive reinforcement) boxes were evaluated weekly for a two-month period after exposure. The dose dependence, obtained using these two behavioural paradigms, displays a non-linear pattern. Three regions with different characteristic patterns of the observed effects were found: performance declines relative to control animals after exposure to doses up to 1.0 Gy; performance increases at doses in the range from 1.0 to 3.0 Gy; and again declines with dose increases up to 7.0 Gy. Possible underlying mechanisms, particularly the role of additional stress caused by animal testing, are discussed.

Eugene V. Tukalenko; Vyacheslav V. Varetsky; Olexander G. Rakochi; Inna R. Dmitrieva; Mikola U. Makarchuk

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect BINGQI YI,* PING YANG,* BRYAN A. BAUM,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect BINGQI YI,* PING are developed for se- verely roughened ice particles. The parameterizations are based on a general habit mixture and severely roughened ice particles. While the influence of particle roughening on the single

Baum, Bryan A.

248

ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

Not Available

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water-air interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water to be a function of the surface tension. The time of mound formation measurementsin cleanwaterat low.Our objectiveisto investigatetheeffectsof surface tension on mound formation. We usea boundaryintegralmethodto

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

250

Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers. Final report: [Draft  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards.

Matanoski, G.M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

STREAM II-V3: Revision for STREAM II-V2 to Include the Sedimentation Effects on a Release from H-Area  

SciTech Connect

STREAM II, an aqueous transport module of the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather INformation Display (WIND) system, accounts for the effects of dilution, advection and dispersion. Although the model has the capability to account for nuclear decay, due to the short time interval of interest for emergency response, the effect of nuclear decay is very small and so it is not employed. The interactions between the sediment and radionuclides are controlled by the flow conditions and physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the sediment constituents. The STREAM II-V2 used in emergency response does not model the effects of sediment deposition/resuspension to minimize computing time. The effects of sedimentation on cesium and plutonium transport in the Fourmile Branch were studied recently and the results from these studies indicated that the downstream cesium and plutonium peak concentrations were significantly reduced due to the effects of sedimentations. The STREAM II-V2 was upgraded to account for the effect of sedimentation on aqueous transport of cesium and plutonium released from H-Area.

Chen, K.F.

2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

252

Proteasome Structures Affected by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect of ionizing radiation on 26S but...radiation doses, and immediately...the dose range 1 to 20 Gy...ionizing radiation induced a...38), ionizing radiation (39...over a wide range of radiation doses and further...

Milena Pervan; Keisuke S. Iwamoto; and William H. McBride

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Global Warming Potential and Global Warming Commitment Concepts in the Assessment of Climate Radiative Forcing Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Radiative Forcing (RF ... CS) and Individual (IS) schemes. The Global Warming Commitment (GWC) is calculated by the...

Igor L. Karol; Victor A. Frolkis…

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE Lowdose Radiation Program Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan1 and Marianne B. Sowa2 Institutions: 1Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD 21201 2 Chemical Structure and Dynamics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 We have recently installed a low LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons to mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources. It has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated (Figure 1). In this way it is possible to examine non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure including induced genomic instability and

255

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Evaluation of Three Somatic Genetic Biomarkers as Indicators of Low Dose Radiation Effects in Clean-up Workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Radiation Effects in Clean-up Workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident I. M. Jones J. D. Tucker R. G. Langlois...radiation effects in clean-up workers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. | The goals of this study were to assess......

I. M. Jones; J. D. Tucker; R. G. Langlois; M. L. Mendelsohn; P. Pleshanov; D. O. Nelson

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Acute Radiation Effects on Cardiac Function Detected by Strain Rate Imaging in Breast Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the occurrence of early radiation-induced changes in regional cardiac function using strain rate imaging (SRI) by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Methods and Materials: We included 20 left-sided and 10 right-sided breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the breast or chest wall. Standard echocardiography and SRI were performed before RT (baseline), immediately after RT (post-RT), and at 2 months follow-up (FUP) after RT. Regional strain (S) and strain rate (SR) values were obtained from all 18 left ventricular (LV) segments. Data were compared to the regional radiation dose. Results: A reduction in S was observed post-RT and at FUP in left-sided patients (S{sub post-RT}: -17.6 {+-} 1.5%, and S{sub FUP}: -17.4 {+-} 2.3%, vs. S{sub baseline}: -19.5 {+-} 2.1%, p < 0.001) but not in right-sided patients. Within the left-sided patient group, S and SR were significantly reduced after RT in apical LV segments (S{sub post-RT}: -15.3 {+-} 2.5%, and S{sub FUP}: -14.3 {+-} 3.7%, vs. S{sub baseline}: -19.3 {+-} 3.0%, p < 0.01; and SR{sub post-RT}: -1.06 {+-} 0.15 s {sup -1}, and SR{sub FUP}: -1.16 {+-} 0.28 s {sup -1}, vs. SR{sub baseline}: -1.29 {+-} 0.27s {sup -1}, p = 0.01), but not in mid- or basal segments. Furthermore, we observed that segments exposed to more than 3 Gy showed a significant decrease in S after RT (S{sub post-RT}: -16.1 {+-} 1.6%, and S{sub FUP}: -15.8 {+-} 3.4%, vs. S{sub baseline}: -18.9 {+-} 2.6%, p < 0.001). This could not be observed in segments receiving less than 3 Gy. Conclusions: SRI shows a dose-related regional decrease in myocardial function after RT. It might be a useful tool in the evaluation of modern RT techniques, with respect to cardiac toxicity.

Erven, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.erven@uzleuven.b [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Jurcut, Ruxandra [Department of Cardiology, Institute of Emergency for Cardiovascular Diseases, UMF Carol Davila, Bucharest (Romania); Weltens, Caroline [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Giusca, Sorin [Department of Cardiology, Institute of Emergency for Cardiovascular Diseases, UMF Carol Davila, Bucharest (Romania); Ector, Joris [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Wildiers, Hans [Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bogaert, Walter [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Voigt, Jens-Uwe [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The Relative Effects of Direct and Indirect Actions of Ionizing Radiations on Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...determined over a range of concentrations...means that over this range of concentration...independent of the dose rate and of the hardness of the radiations within the ranges used and identical...indirect actions of ionizing radiations on deoxyribonucleic...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy Resources with Additional Information Planned radiation treatment Peregrine calculation from Mission Possible: DOE Advanced Biomedical Technology Research, page 10 Over the time span of many years, DOE's research has made many contributions to radiation and cancer therapy, including PEREGRINE and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). 'PEREGRINE, a hardware and software system that addresses the problem of radiation therapy dosage using fundamental physics principles, is a revolutionary new tool for analyzing and planning radiation treatment for cancer patients. About 90 percent of radiation treatment patients receive photon therapy, which is PEREGRINE's principal application. PEREGRINE may also be applied to the less frequently used electron-beam therapy and to brachytherapy, which is radiation therapy from an internally planted radiation source. It is effective for radiography, which predicts the pattern of radiation that is transmitted through a patient or other object.'1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Galaxies that Shine: radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of disk galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation feedback is typically implemented using subgrid recipes in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies. Very little work has so far been performed using radiation-hydrodynamics (RHD), and there is no consensus on the importance of radiation feedback in galaxy evolution. We present RHD simulations of isolated galaxy disks of different masses with a resolution of 18 pc. Besides accounting for supernova feedback, our simulations are the first galaxy-scale simulations to include RHD treatments of photo-ionisation heating and radiation pressure, from both direct optical/UV radiation and multi-scattered, re-processed infrared (IR) radiation. Photo-heating smooths and thickens the disks and suppresses star formation about as much as the inclusion of ("thermal dump") supernova feedback does. These effects decrease with galaxy mass and are mainly due to the prevention of the formation of dense clouds, as opposed to their destruction. Radiation pressure, whether from direct or IR radiation, has little effect, but ...

Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain; Agertz, Oscar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

NONTHERMAL RADIATION FROM SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION AND PARTICLE ESCAPE  

SciTech Connect

We explore nonlinear effects of wave-particle interactions on the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process in Type Ia-like supernova remnant (SNR) blast waves by implementing phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA), Alfvénic drift, and particle escape in time-dependent numerical simulations of nonlinear DSA. For typical SNR parameters, the cosmic-ray (CR) protons can be accelerated to PeV energies only if the region of amplified field ahead of the shock is extensive enough to contain the diffusion lengths of the particles of interest. Even with the help of Alfvénic drift, it remains somewhat challenging to construct a nonlinear DSA model for SNRs in which of the order of 10% of the supernova explosion energy is converted into CR energy and the magnetic field is amplified by a factor of 10 or so in the shock precursor, while, at the same time, the energy spectrum of PeV protons is steeper than E {sup –2}. To explore the influence of these physical effects on observed SNR emission, we also compute the resulting radio-to-gamma-ray spectra. Nonthermal emission spectra, especially in X-ray and gamma-ray bands, depend on the time-dependent evolution of the CR injection process, MFA, and particle escape, as well as the shock dynamic evolution. This result comes from the fact that the high-energy end of the CR spectrum is composed of particles that are injected in the very early stages of the blast wave evolution. Thus, it is crucial to better understand the plasma wave-particle interactions associated with collisionless shocks in detailed modeling of nonthermal radiation from SNRs.

Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jones, T. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Edmon, Paul P., E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: twj@msi.umn.edu, E-mail: pedmon@cfa.harvard.edu [Research Computing, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

264

Radiation, Infection, and Macrophage Function IV. Effect of Radiation on the Proliferative Abilities of Mononuclear Phagocytes in Tuberculous Lesions of Rabbits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...likely interpretation would be that radiation reduced MN production in the bone...the auspices of the United States- Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program...of tuberculosis: VOL. 3, 1971 RADIATION, INFECTION, AND MACROPHAGE FUNCTION...

Saroj Chandrasekhar; Kiyoshi Shima; Arthur M. Dannenberg Jr.; Takeshi Kambara; Jacob I. Fabrikant; William G. Roessler

1971-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Preservation of food by ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension.

Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Specification of CuCrZr Alloy Properties after Various Thermo-Mechanical Treatments and Design Allowables including Neutron Irradiation Effects  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy is a promising heat sink and functional material for various applica- tions in ITER, for example the first wall, blanket electrical attachment, divertor, and heating systems. Three types of thermo-mechanical treatment were identified as most promising for the various applica- tions in ITER: solution annealing, cold working and ageing; solution annealing and ageing; solution annealing and ageing at non-optimal condition due to specific manufacturing processes for engineer- ing-scale components. The available data for these three types of treatments were assessed and mini- mum tensile properties were determined based on recommendation of Structural Design Criteria for the ITER In-vessel Components. The available data for these heat treatments were analyzed for assess- ment of neutron irradiation effect. Using the definitions of the ITER Structural Design Criteria the design allowable stress intensity values are proposed for CuCrZr alloy after various heat treatments.

Barabash, Vladimir [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France] [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Kalinin, G. M. [RDIPE, P.O. Box 788, 101000 Moscow, Russia] [RDIPE, P.O. Box 788, 101000 Moscow, Russia; Fabritsiev, Sergei A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia] [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia; Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Synergistic Effect of Combination Topotecan and Chronomodulated Radiation Therapy on Xenografted Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the in vivo chronomodulated radiosensitizing effect of topotecan (TPT) on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and its possible mechanisms. Methods and Materials: Xenografted BALB/c (nu/nu) NPC mice were synchronized with an alternation of 12 hours of light from 0 to 12 hours after light onset (HALO) and 12 hours of darkness to establish a unified biological rhythm. Chronomodulated radiosensitization of TPT was investigated by analysis of tumor regrowth delay (TGD), pimonidazole hydrochloride, histone H2AX phosphorylation, (?-H2AX) topoisomerase I (Top I), cell cycle, and apoptosis after treatment with (1) TPT (10 mg/kg) alone; (2) radiation therapy alone (RT); and (3) TPT+RT at 3, 9, 15, and 21 HALO. The tumor-loaded mice without any treatment were used as controls. Results: The TPT+RT combination was more effective than TPT or RT as single agents. The TPT+RT combination at 15 HALO was best (TGD = 58.0 ± 3.6 days), and TPT+RT at 3 HALO was worst (TGD = 35.0 ± 1.5 days) among the 4 TPT+RT groups (P<.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a significantly increased histone H2AX phosphorylation expression and decreased pimonidazole hydrochloride expression in the TPT+RT group at the same time point. The results suggested that the level of tumor hypoxia and DNA damage varied in a time-dependent manner. The expression of Top I in the TPT+RT group was also significantly different from the control tumors at 15 HALO (P<.05). Cell apoptosis index was increased and the proportion of cells in S phase was decreased (P<.05) with the highest value in 15 HALO and the lowest in 3 HALO. Conclusions: This study suggested that TPT combined with chronoradiotherapy could enhance the radiosensitivity of xenografted NPC. The TPT+RT group at 15 HALO had the best therapeutic effect. The chronomodulated radiosensitization mechanisms of TPT might be related to circadian rhythm of tumor hypoxia, cell cycle redistribution, DNA damage, and expression of Top I.

Zhang, YanLing; Chen, Xin; Ren, PeiRong; Su, Zhou; Cao, HongYing; Zhou, Jie; Zou, XiaoYan; Fu, ShaoZhi; Lin, Sheng; Fan, Juan; Yang, Bo; Sun, XiaoYang [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Zhou, Yan; Chen, Yue [Department of Medical Imaging, Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Yang, LingLin, E-mail: yanglinglin2003@tom.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Wu, JingBo, E-mail: wjb6147@163.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response  

SciTech Connect

Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Radiation Exposure to Patient and Staff in Hepatic Chemoembolization: Risk Estimation of Cancer and Deterministic Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to calculate the organ doses, we used only the dosemeter values measured ... negligible compared to the direct and significantly longer radiation exposure to the liver region. When one wishes to keep the...

Nico Hidajat; Peter Wust; Roland Felix…

270

Stochastic modeling of the cell killing effect for low- and high-LET radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

length distribution, with deterministic RMR models. For low LET radiation and at high dose rates the stochastic survival results agree well with the deterministic survival results. Also the stochastic model allows for non-linearity at low doses due...

Partouche, Julien

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

271

The parametric doppler effect upon oblique radiation incidence in quartz glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Frequency and reflection angle of probe radiation from a refractive-index inhomogeneity induced by an intense pumping pulse in quartz glass and moving with a relativistic velocity are calculated. Conditions un...

N. V. Vysotina; N. N. Rosanov; V. B. Shilov

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Doppler Effect and Form of the Profile of Radiation Spectral Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The form of the profile for spectral lines of radiation is found using the relativistic distribution function (DF) of fluxons on velocities and exact relativistic Doppler formula for frequencies. It is shown t...

M. R. Djumaev

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Effects of coupled atomic states on the resonance scattering of radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The excitation and decay probabilities for resonance scattering of radiation from an atom with two coupled excited states in an external static field are calculated as a function of time and frequency. Various oscillatory ...

Srivastava, Rajendra P.; Fontana, Peter R.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Shielded coherent synchrotron radiation and its possible effect in the next linear collider  

SciTech Connect

Shielded coherent synchrotron radiation is discussed in two cases: (1) a beam following a curved path in a plane midway between two parallel, perfectly conducting plates, and (2) a beam circulating in a toroidal chamber with resistive walls. Wake fields and the radiated energy are computed with parameters for the high-energy bunch compressor of the Next Linear Collider. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Warnock, R.L.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

276

Determination of erythema-effective solar radiation in Japan and Germany with a spore monolayer film optimized for the detection of UVB and UVA – results of a field campaign  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The available physical and biological broadband radiometers designed to determine erythema-effective radiation do not show any response or over/underestimate the biologically effective radiation to a high exte...

Y. Furusawa; L. E. Quintern; H. Holtschmidt…

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

279

The red-shift effect and radiation decay on black hole spacetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider solutions to the linear wave equation on a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild spacetime, assuming only that the solution decays suitably at spatial infinity on a complete Cauchy hypersurface. (In particular, we allow the support of the solution to contain the bifurcate event horizon.) We prove uniform decay bounds for the solution in the exterior regions, including the uniform bound Cv_+^{-1}, where v_+ denotes max{v,1} and v denotes Eddington-Finkelstein advanced time. We also prove uniform decay bounds for the flux of energy through the event horizon and null infinity. The estimates near the event horizon exploit an integral energy identity normalized to local observers. This estimate can be thought to quantify the celebrated red-shift effect. The results in particular give an independent proof of the classical uniform boundedness theorem of Kay and Wald, without recourse to the discrete isometries of spacetime.

Mihalis Dafermos; Igor Rodnianski

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

280

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Effects of plasma-deposited silicon nitride passivation on the radiation hardness of CMOS integrated circuits  

SciTech Connect

The use of plasma-deposited silicon nitride as a final passivation over metal-gate CMOS integrated circuits degrades the radiation hardness of these devices. The hardness degradation is manifested by increased radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts caused principally by the charging of new interface states and, to a lesser extent, by the trapping of holes created upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The threshold voltage shifts are a strong function of the deposition temperature, and show very little dependence on thickness for films deposited at 300/sup 0/C. There is some correlation between the threshold voltage shifts and the hydrogen content of the PECVD silicon nitride films used as the final passivation layer as a function of deposition temperature. The mechanism by which the hydrogen contained in these films may react with the Si/SiO/sub 2/ interface is not clear at this point.

Clement, J. J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

283

Assessing the Effects of Radiation Damage on Ni-base Alloys for the Prometheus Space Reactor System  

SciTech Connect

Ni-base alloys were considered for the Prometheus space reactor pressure vessel with operational parameters of {approx}900 K for 15 years and fluences up to 160 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). This paper reviews the effects of irradiation on the behavior of Ni-base alloys and shows that radiation-induced swelling and creep are minor considerations compared to significant embrittlement with neutron ,exposure. While the mechanism responsible for radiation-induced embrittlement is not fully understood, it is likely a combination of helium embrittlement and solute segregation that can be highly dependent on the alloy composition and exposure conditions. Transmutation calculations show that detrimental helium levels would be expected at the end of life for the inner safety rod vessel (thimble) and possibly the outer pressure vessel, primarily from high energy (E > 1 MeV) n,{alpha} reactions with {sup 58}Ni. Helium from {sup 10}B is significant only for the outer vessel due to the proximity of the outer vessel to the Be0 control elements. Recommendations for further assessments of the material behavior and methods to minimize the effects of radiation damage through alloy design are provided.

T. Angeliu

2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

284

Assessing the Effects of Radiation Damage on Ni-base Alloys for the Prometheus Space Reactor System  

SciTech Connect

Ni-base alloys were considered for the Prometheus space reactor pressure vessel with operational parameters of {approx}900 K for 15 years and fluences up to 160 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). This paper reviews the effects of irradiation on the behavior of Ni-base alloys and shows that radiation-induced swelling and creep are minor considerations compared to significant embrittlement with neutron exposure. While the mechanism responsible for radiation-induced embrittlement is not fully understood, it is likely a combination of helium embrittlement and solute segregation that can be highly dependent on the alloy composition and exposure conditions. Transmutation calculations show that detrimental helium levels would be expected at the end of life for the inner safety rod vessel (thimble) and possibly the outer pressure vessel, primarily from high energy (E > 1 MeV) n,{alpha} reactions with {sup 58}Ni. Helium from {sup 10}B is significant only for the outer vessel due to the proximity of the outer vessel to the BeO control elements. Recommendations for further assessments of the material behavior and methods to minimize the effects of radiation damage through alloy design are provided.

T Angeliu; J Ward; J Witter

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

285

Transport and Mixing Patterns over Central California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)  

SciTech Connect

We describe the synoptic and regional-scale meteorological conditions that affected the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols in the vicinity of Sacramento, California during June 2010 when the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was conducted. The meteorological measurements collected by various instruments deployed during the campaign and the performance of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) are both discussed. WRF-Chem was run daily during the campaign to forecast the spatial and temporal variation of carbon monoxide emitted from 20 anthropogenic source regions in California to guide aircraft sampling. The model is shown to reproduce the overall circulations and boundary-layer characteristics in the region, although errors in the upslope wind speed and boundary-layer depth contribute to differences in the observed and simulated carbon monoxide. Thermally-driven upslope flows that transported pollutants from Sacramento over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada occurred every afternoon, except during three periods when the passage of mid-tropospheric troughs disrupted the regional-scales flow patterns. The meteorological conditions after the passage of the third trough were the most favorable for photochemistry and likely formation of secondary organic aerosols. Meteorological measurements and model forecasts indicate that the Sacramento pollutant plume was likely transported over a downwind site that collected trace gas and aerosol measurements during 23 periods; however, direct transport occurred during only eight of these periods. The model also showed that emissions from the San Francisco Bay area transported by intrusions of marine air contributed a large fraction of the carbon monoxide in the vicinity of Sacramento, suggesting that this source likely affects local chemistry. Contributions from other sources of pollutants, such as those in the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, were relatively low. Aerosol layering in the free troposphere was observed during the morning by an airborne Lidar; WRF-Chem forecasts showed that mountain venting processes contributed to aged pollutants aloft in the valley atmosphere which then can be entrained into the growing boundary layer the subsequent day.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.; Shaw, William J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Barnard, James C.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Erickson, Matthew H.; Jobson, Tom; Flowers, Bradley; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Springston, Stephen R.; Pirce, Bradley R.; Dolislager, Leon; Pederson, J. R.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

286

Transport and mixing patterns over Central California during the carbonaceous aerosol and radiative effects study (CARES)  

SciTech Connect

We describe the synoptic and regional-scale meteorological conditions that affected the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols in the vicinity of Sacramento, California during June 2010 when the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was conducted. The meteorological measurements collected by various instruments deployed during the campaign and the performance of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) are both discussed. WRF-Chem was run daily during the campaign to forecast the spatial and temporal variation of carbon monoxide emitted from 20 anthropogenic source regions in California to guide aircraft sampling. The model is shown to reproduce the overall circulations and boundary-layer characteristics in the region, although errors in the upslope wind speed and boundary-layer depth contribute to differences in the observed and simulated carbon monoxide. Thermally-driven upslope flows that transported pollutants from Sacramento over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada occurred every afternoon, except during three periods when the passage of mid-tropospheric troughs disrupted the regional-scale flow patterns. The meteorological conditions after the passage of the third trough were the most favorable for photochemistry and likely formation of secondary organic aerosols. Meteorological measurements and model forecasts indicate that the Sacramento pollutant plume was likely transported over a downwind site that collected trace gas and aerosol measurements during 23 time periods; however, direct transport occurred during only eight of these periods. The model also showed that emissions from the San Francisco Bay area transported by intrusions of marine air contributed a large fraction of the carbon monoxide in the vicinity of Sacramento, suggesting that this source likely affects local chemistry. Contributions from other sources of pollutants, such as those in the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, were relatively low. Aerosol layering in the free troposphere was observed during the morning by an airborne Lidar. WRF-Chem forecasts showed that mountain venting processes contributed to aged pollutants aloft in the valley atmosphere that are then entrained into the growing boundary layer the subsequent day.

Fast J. D.; Springston S.; Gustafson Jr., W. I.; Berg, L. K.; Shaw, W. J.; Pekour, M.; Shrivastava, M.; Barnard, J. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. A.; Erickson, M.; Jobson, B. T.; Flowers, B.; Dubey, M. K.; Pierce, R. B.; Dolislager, L.; Pederson, J.; Zaveri, R. A.

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

287

Effects of oxygen concentration on radiative loss from normal-gravity and microgravity methane diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect

Laminar diffusion flames of methane, burning in quiescent oxidizing environments at atmospheric pressure, have been studied under both normal-gravity and microgravity conditions. Radiation from these flames is measured using a wide-view-angle, thermopile detector radiometer. The oxidizer was 18, 21, and 30 percent oxygen in nitrogen. 17 refs.

Bahadori, M.Y.; Edelman, R.B.; Stocker, D.P.; Sotos, R.G.; Vaughan, D.F. (Science Applications International Corp., Torrance, CA (United States) Rockwell International Corp., Rocketdyne Div., Canoga Park, CA (United States) NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Effects of High Dietary Iron and Gamma Radiation on Oxidative Stress and Bone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (15-weeks old, n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or high (650 mg Fe/kg diet) Fe diet for 4 weeks and either 3 Gy (8 fractions, 0.375 Gy each) of 137Cs radiation (?RAD) or sham exposure every other...

Yuen, Evelyn P

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

289

The effects of diet and ionizing radiation on azoxymethane induced colon carcinogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cancer, by suppressing apoptosis and upregulating proliferation in colonocytes. Diets contained a combination of fish oil or corn oil and either pectin or cellulose. We exposed 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats to 1 Gy ionizing radiation (1 GeV Fe) 10 d prior...

Mann, John Clifford

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

290

Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......typical CDMA signal of 837 MHz and a WCDMA signal of 1950 MHz were applied to the RTL...incubator with a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. Analysis...exposure to UMTS 1950 MHz radiation and co-exposure...reaction of menadione with plasma thiols: enhancement......

Kyoung Ah Kang; Hyung Chul Lee; Je-Jung Lee; Mi-Na Hong; Myung-Jin Park; Yun-Sil Lee; Hyung-Do Choi; Nam Kim; Young-Gyu Ko; Jae-Seon Lee

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Ionizing Radiation as an Initiator: Effects of Proliferation and Promotion Time on Tumor Incidence in Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...portion of the dose-response curve these two doses reside, we cannot accu rately say that the...cell carcinomas did not appear to depend on dose. A wider range of doses of ionizing radiation needs to be studied. A representative basal...

Deborah Jaffe and G. Tim Bowden

1987-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern Zhanqing Li,1,2,3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and may also affect the hydrologic cycle. By scattering and absorbing solar radiative energy, aerosols regions. The East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE on climate over China. This study presents some preliminary results using continuous high-quality

Dickerson, Russell R.

293

A Mechanism-Based Approach to Predict the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Protons and Carbon Ions in Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The physical and potential biological advantages of proton and carbon ions have not been fully exploited in radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. In this work, an approach to predict proton and carbon ion relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in a representative spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) is derived using the repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model. Methods and Materials: Formulas linking dose-averaged linear-quadratic parameters to DSB induction and processing are derived from the RMF model. The Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) software is used to quantify the effects of radiation quality on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Trends in parameters {alpha} and {beta} for clinically relevant proton and carbon ion kinetic energies are determined. Results: Proton and carbon ion RBE are shown to increase as particle energy, dose, and tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratios decrease. Entrance RBE is {approx}1.0 and {approx}1.3 for protons and carbon ions, respectively. For doses in the range of 0.5 to 10 Gy, proton RBE ranges from 1.02 (proximal edge) to 1.4 (distal edge). Over the same dose range, the RBE for carbon ions ranges from 1.5 on the proximal edge to 6.7 on the distal edge. Conclusions: The proposed approach is advantageous because the RBE for clinically relevant particle distributions is guided by well-established physical and biological (track structure) considerations. The use of an independently tested Monte Carlo model to predict the effects of radiation quality on DSB induction also minimizes the number of ad hoc biological parameters that must be determined to predict RBE. Large variations in predicted RBE across an SOBP may produce undesirable biological hot and cold spots. These results highlight the potential for the optimization of physical dose for a uniform biological effect.

Frese, Malte C. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Yu, Victor K. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Stewart, Robert D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Carlson, David J., E-mail: david.j.carlson@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The effect of different adaptation strengths on image quality and radiation dose using Siemens Care Dose 4D  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......undertaking strategies for CT radiation dose optimisation...supported by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSI P 1579...4D new technique for radiation dose reduction. SOMATOM...Application Guide. Software Version syngo CT 2005A......

Marcus Söderberg; Mikael Gunnarsson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Targeted and Nontargeted Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Delayed Genomic Instability in Human Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...humans receive some radiation exposure, mostly...risks associated with radiation exposure come from populations exposed to ionizing radiation, primarily from epidemiologic...However, those doses, in the range of 0.2 to 2.5...

Lei Huang; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; and William F. Morgan

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Effect of incremental doses of radiation on viability of the microbial population on synthetic operating room gowns.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...manufacturer and peri- 528 RADIATION DOSE AND MICROBIAL VIABILITY...used to calculate the radiation resistances because...SEM does allow an estimation of the number of cells...ENVIRON. MICROBIOL. RADIATION DOSE AND MICROBIAL VIABILITY...

J L Whitby; D G Storey

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

298

Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report  

SciTech Connect

This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.

Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)] [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Drozhko, E. [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation)] [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bouville, A.C. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Miller, C.W. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

300

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. IV. On the scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice particles: Numerical radiative transfer studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Owing to their wavelengths dependent absorption and scattering properties, clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. Especially, the potential greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. We study the radiative effects of CO2 ice particles obtained by different numerical treatments to solve the radiative transfer equation. The comparison between the results of a high-order discrete ordinate method and simpler two-stream approaches reveals large deviations in terms of a potential scattering efficiency of the greenhouse effect. The two-stream methods overestimate the transmitted and reflected radiation, thereby yielding a higher scattering greenhouse effect. For the particular case of a cool M-type dwarf the CO2 ice particles show no strong effective scattering greenhouse eff...

Kitzmann, D; Rauer, H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland)] [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Observations of radiation in the space radiation environment and its effect on commercial off-the-shelf electronics in low-Earth orbit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...orbits, the space radiation environment is particularly hostile...applications of the space environment: new results and interdisciplinary...approach requires design engineers to have a good knowledge of the environment to which their systems...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Radiative Heat Transfer between Neighboring Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The near-field interaction between two neighboring particles is known to produce enhanced radiative heat transfer. We advance in the understanding of this phenomenon by including the full electromagnetic particle response, heat exchange with the environment, and important radiative corrections both in the distance dependence of the fields and in the particle absorption coefficients. We find that crossed terms of electric and magnetic interactions dominate the transfer rate between gold and SiC particles, whereas radiative corrections reduce it by several orders of magnitude even at small separations. Radiation away from the dimer can be strongly suppressed or enhanced at low and high temperatures, respectively. These effects must be taken into account for an accurate description of radiative heat transfer in nanostructured environments.

Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier Garcia de Abajo

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

305

Radiosurgery for Para-IAC Meningiomas: The Effect of Radiation Dose to the Cochlea on Hearing Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was performed to assess the radiosurgical results of meningiomas extending into the internal acoustic canal (para-IAC meningiomas), with a particular focus on the effect of radiation dose to the cochlea on hearing outcome. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients who underwent radiosurgery for para-IAC meningiomas between 1998 and 2009, which were followed for 2 years, were enrolled. The mean age was 55.8 years (range, 15-75). The mean tumor volume was 6.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.0-19.0), the mean tumor length in the IAC was 6.9 mm (range, 1.3-13.3), and the mean prescribed marginal dose was 13.1 Gy (range, 10-15) at an isodose line of 50%. The mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range, 24-122). Results: Eight (16.0%) patients had nonserviceable hearing at the time of surgery. At the last follow-up, the tumor control rate was 94%; unchanged in 17 patients, decreased in 30 patients, and increased in 3 patients. Among 42 patients with serviceable hearing at the time of radiosurgery, it was preserved in 41 (97.6%) patients at the last follow-up. The maximal and mean radiation doses to the cochleae of these 41 patients were 5.8 Gy {+-} 0.3 (range, 3.1-11.5) and 4.3 Gy {+-} 0.2 (range, 2.2-7.5), respectively. The maximal dose to the cochlea of the patient who lost hearing after radiosurgery was 4.7 Gy. Conclusions: The radiation dose to the cochlea may have the minimal toxic effect on the hearing outcome in patients who undergo radiosurgery for para-IAC meningiomas.

Kim, Young-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jung Ho [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun-Tai; Kim, In Kyung; Song, Sang Woo [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Park, Chul-Kee [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chae-Yong [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Sun Ha; Jung, Hee-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m{sup {minus}1}, 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wang, L.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which is attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes-large differences in cloud radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/day difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoe, Julien; Deng, Min

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

308

Effect of gas radiation and property variation on the performance of thermal regenerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with experiments by Larkin et al [18]. The interaction of conduction, convection 12 and radiation in a fully developed laminar flow was investi- gated by Viskanta [19] by solving a non linear integro- differential energy equation. In order to simplify...: Where (3 2) ae = &eA ( I &e I ) +~ Fe' 0 j 18 an = Dn+( I+nl) +I Fn' Oj p 4x4y 4t Here T' refers to the known value of temperature at a time t, while all other values are at unknown values at time t+4t. The mass flow rates F? F, F? and F...

Gadiraju, Srinivasa Varma

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

309

The Effect of Radiative Cooling on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Cluster Counts and Angular Power Spectrum: Analytic Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, the entropy excess detected in the central cores of groups and clusters has been successfully interpreted as being due to radiative cooling of the hot intragroup/intracluster gas. In such a scenario, the entropy floors $S_{\\rm floor}$ in groups/clusters at any given redshift are completely determined by the conservation of energy. In combination with the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and the universal density profile for dark matter, this allows us to derive the remaining gas distribution of groups and clusters after the cooled material is removed. Together with the Press-Schechter mass function we are able to evaluate effectively how radiative cooling can modify the predictions of SZ cluster counts and power spectrum. It appears that our analytic results are in good agreement with those found by hydrodynamical simulations. Namely, cooling leads to a moderate decrease of the predicted SZ cluster counts and power spectrum as compared with standard scenario. However, without taking into account energy feedback from star formation which may greatly suppress cooling efficiency, it is still premature to claim that this modification is significant for the cosmological applications of cluster SZ effect.

Yu-Ying Zhang; Xiang-Ping Wu

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Effective spacetime and Hawking radiation from moving domain wall in thin film of 3He-A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An event horizon for "relativistic" fermionic quasiparticles can be constructed in a thin film of superfluid 3He-A. The quasiparticles see an effective "gravitational" field which is induced by a topological soliton of the order parameter. Within the soliton the "speed of light" crosses zero and changes sign. When the soliton moves, two planar event horizons (black hole and white hole) appear, with a curvature singularity between them. Aside from the singularity, the effective spacetime is incomplete at future and past boundaries, but the quasiparticles cannot escape there because the nonrelativistic corrections become important as the blueshift grows, yielding "superluminal" trajectories. The question of Hawking radiation from the moving soliton is discussed but not resolved.

T. A. Jacobson; G. E. Volovik

1998-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

311

Gamma Radiation Effects on Physical, Optical, and Structural Properties of Binary As-S glasses  

SciTech Connect

Gamma radiation induces changes in physical, optical, and structural properties in chalcogenide glasses., Previous research has focused on As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and families of glasses containing Ge. For the first time, we present composition and dose dependent data on the As-S binary glass series. Binary As{sub x}S{sub 100-x} (x = 30, 33, 36, 40, and 42) glasses were irradiated with gamma radiation using a {sup 60}Co source at 2.8 Gy/s to accumulated doses of 1, 2, 3, and 4 MGy. The irradiated samples were characterized at each dose level for density, refractive index, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectrum. These results are compared to those of as-made and 1 year aged samples. We report an initial increase in density followed by a decrease as a function of dose that contradicts the expected compositional dependence of molar volume of these glasses. This unusual behavior is explained based on microvoid formation and nanoscale phase-separation induced by the irradiation in these glasses. XRD, Raman, and EPR data provide supporting evidence, underscoring the importance of optimally- or overly-constrained structures for stability under aging or irradiation.

Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Murphy, Mark K.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Windisch, Charles F.; Walter, Eric D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Golovchak, Roman; Shpotyuk, O.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

313

Simulated Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Increased Ultraviolet Radiation: Effects on Photocarcinogenesis in Hairless Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the "sunburn" portion of the solar UVR spectrum (solar flux under those conditions...200 J of erythemally effective energy per sq m, as weighted by a...the actual meter-effective energy (in terms of the efficacy spectrum...

P. Donald Forbes; Ronald E. Davies; Frederick Urbach; Daniel Berger; and Curtis Cole

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Molecular Pathways: Targeted ?-Particle Radiation Therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and profibrotic cytokines. Radiation-induced malignancy can...1-5 Gy). Kyoji Furukawa (Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan) reviewed the Japanese atomic...late effects of ionizing radiation exposure at low/moderate...

Kwamena E. Baidoo; Kwon Yong; and Martin W. Brechbiel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Re-examination of the Linear No Threshold (LNT) hypothesis, and a trial for the public to comprehend the reality of the low-dose effects of radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

People have imprinted knowledge of the LNT hypothesis. Use of the terms LNT hypothesis, ALARA, or stochastic effect, etc. clouds the understanding of people about the real effects of very low doses of radiation. In this paper, the scientific basis of the LNT hypothesis is re-examined. A denial of the presence of a threshold means that individuals have no protection from even very small doses or dose rates of radiation in the body. As the human population is heterogeneous, a linear dose-response curve is obtained, as even whole majorities have a threshold. Current results from radiation epidemiological studies and experimental studies from cells and animals were reported by experts from USA, Canada and Japan at the Radition Effects Association (REA) symposium in March 2005 in Tokyo. The findings did not support the LNT hypothesis, but the importance of biological reactions and factors involving radiation-carcinogenesis. Even a few antinuclear audiences started to think about the presence of a body-defence mechanism against radiation. Necessary information on radiation-carcinogenesis is summarised in several figures for better comprehensions by the public.

Junko Matsubara

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Three-dimensional CFD analysis for simulating the greenhouse effect in solar chimney power plants using a two-band radiation model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The greenhouse effect in the solar collector has a fundamental role to produce the upward buoyancy force in solar chimney power plant systems. This study underlines the importance of the greenhouse effect on the buoyancy-driven flow and heat transfer characteristics through the system. For this purpose, a three-dimensional unsteady model with the RNG k–? turbulence closure was developed, using computational fluid dynamics techniques. In this model, to solve the radiative transfer equation the discrete ordinates (DO) radiation model was implemented, using a two-band radiation model. To simulate radiation effects from the sun's rays, the solar ray tracing algorithm was coupled to the calculation via a source term in the energy equation. Simulations were carried out for a system with the geometry parameters of the Manzanares power plant. The effects of the solar insolation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer of the system were considered. Based on the numerical results, temperature profile of the ground surface, thermal collector efficiency and power output were calculated and the results were validated by comparing with experimental data of this prototype power plant. Furthermore, enthalpy rise through the collector and energy loss from the chimney outlet between 1-band and two-band radiation model were compared. The analysis showed that simulating the greenhouse effect has an important role to accurately predict the characteristics of the flow and heat transfer in solar chimney power plant systems.

Ehsan Gholamalizadeh; Man-Hoe Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Effect of HZE radiation and diets rich in fiber and n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on colon cancer in rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

weeks earlier and at the end of the study had morbidity/mortality rate 14.2% higher (P=0.0005) than non-irradiated rats. There was no significant effect of HZE radiation on colon cancer incidence. The effects of dietary fibers and oils on health state...

Glagolenko, Anna Anatolievna

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

318

Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (?{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the ?{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the ?{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the ?{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator ?{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Radiation dose-rate effects, endogenous DNA damage, and signaling resonance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...These data from the Oak Ridge and Harwell laboratories...other nuclear industries) workers (22 –24), and Chernobyl's...clean-up”) workers (21). These data provide...that of nuclear industry workers, including nuclear plant personnel...

Michael M. Vilenchik; Alfred G. Knudson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation-and Amifostine-Mediated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Chromosomal Inversion Responses Pam Sykes Flinders University and Medical Centre Abstract Low dose radiation and the chemical radioprotector amifostine have both been shown to protect cells from the immediate and delayed effects of radiation exposure. They display a number of distinct similarities including their ability to protect cells against radiation-induced DNA damage, radiation-induced cell death and metastases formation. Amifostine, which protects cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation, has a broad range of activities including free radical scavenging, polyamine-like DNA binding, and induction of hypoxia and redox-regulated genes. Amifostine’s ability to protect cells is often

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Flavopiridol Potentiates the Cytotoxic Effects of Radiation in Radioresistant Tumor Cells in Which p53 is Mutated or Bcl-2 is Overexpressed  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Loss of the cell-cycle regulatory protein p53 or overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is associated with resistance to radiation in several types of cancer cells. Flavopiridol, a synthetic flavone, inhibits the growth of malignant tumors cells in vitro and in vivo through multiple mechanisms. The purpose of the present study is to clarify whether flavopiridol enhances the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells that contain dysfunction p53 or that overexpress Bcl-2. Methods and Materials: A human glioma cell line (A172/mp53) stably transfected with a plasmid containing mutated p53 and a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa/bcl-2) transfected with a bcl-2 expression plasmid were used. Cells were incubated with flavopiridol for 24 h after radiation, and then cell viability was determined by a colony formation assay. Foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX were also evaluated as a sensitive indicator of DNA double-strand breaks. Results: Compared with the parental wild-type cells, both transfected cell lines were more resistant to radiation. Post-treatment with flavopiridol increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in both transfected cell lines, but not in their parental wild-type cell lines. Post-treatment with flavopiridol inhibited sublethal damage repair as well as the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in response to radiation. Conclusions: Flavopiridol enhanced the cytotoxic effect of radiation in radioresistant tumor cells that harbor p53 dysfunction or Bcl-2 overexpression. A combination treatment of flavopiridol with radiation has the potential to conquer the radioresistance of malignant tumors induced by the genetic alteration of p53 or bcl-2.

Hara, Takamitsu [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Omura-Minamisawa, Motoko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)], E-mail: momuram@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp; Kang, Yun; Cheng, Chao; Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiation at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists.

Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.; Ried, H.L.; Sullivan, M.P.; McNeese, M.D.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

324

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

325

Meals included in Conference Registrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Meals included in Conference Registrations Meals included as part of the cost of a conference the most reasonable rates are obtained. Deluxe hotels and motels should be avoided. GSA rates have been for Georgia high cost areas. 75% of these amounts would be $21 for non- high cost areas and $27 for high cost

Arnold, Jonathan

326

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

327

Properties of Natural Radiation and Radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

Ubiquitous natural sources of radiation and radioactive material (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) have exposed humans throughout history. To these natural sources have been added technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) sources and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. This chapter describes the ubiquitous radiation sources that we call background, including primordial radionuclides such as 40K, 87Rb, the 232Th series, the 238U series, and the 235U series; cosmogenic radionuclides such as 3H and 14C; anthropogenic radionuclides such as 3H, 14C, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I; radiation from space; and radiation from technologically-enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides, particularly the short-lived decay products of 222Rn ("radon") and 220Rn ("thoron") in indoor air. These sources produce radiation doses to people principally via external irradiation or internal irradiation following intakes by inhalation or ingestion. The effective doses from each are given, with a total of 3.11 mSv y-1 (311 mrem y-1) to the average US resident. Over 2.5 million US residents receive over 20 mSv y-1 (2 rem y-1), primarily due to indoor radon. Exposure to radiation from NORM and TENORM produces the largest fraction of ubiquitous background exposure to US residents, on the order of 2.78 mSv (278 mrem) or about 89%. This is roughly 45% of the average annual effective dose to a US resident of 6.2 mSv y-1 (620 mrem y-1) that includes medical (48%), consumer products and air travel (2%), and occupational and industrial (0.1%). Much of this chapter is based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report No. 160, "Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States," for which the author chaired the subcommittee that wrote Chapter 3 on "Ubiquitous Background Radiation."

Strom, Daniel J.

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

328

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

330

The effect of thymosin on the survival of CBA/J mice exposed to lethal and acute doses of ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF THYMOSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis ROGER LYNN HUCHTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Unrversrty in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Biophysrcs THE EFFECT OF THYMQSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis by ROGER LYNN HUCHTQN Approved as to style and content by...

Huchton, Roger Lynn

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

332

The effects of radiative transfer in maintaining the Indian summer monsoon  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric radiative transfer is an important thermodynamic forcing for the Indian summer monsoon. The monsoon is a component of a larger scale circulation system the principal components of which are the Hadley cell and the Walker Circulation. The Hadley cell is a thermally direct circulation that transports heat toward the poles. In the northern hemispheric summer, the ascending branch of the Hadley cell moves northward, due to heating of the land masses. This ascending branch of the Hadley cell is referred to as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The return branch of the Hadley cell is characterized by southwesterly surface winds. At the surface, the ITCZ is marked by convergence of southwesterly surface winds from the south and northeasterly surface winds from the north. As the ITCZ moves northward, the southern extent of the northerly surface winds also moves northward, and southerly surface winds from the south side of the ITCZ also move northward. The surface convergence at the ITCZ is a driving mechanism for the summer monsoon circulation. The northward drift of the Hadley cell in the northern summer ITCZ is the deep convection over the warm pool of water in the western tropical Pacific ocean, located at about 160E. The latent heating in the deep convection drives another direct circulation, known as the Walker Circulation. The upper branch of the Walker Circulation over south Asia is easterly winds created by the deep convection in the western tropical Pacific. Convective activity over the Indian peninsula interacts with the Walker Circulation, creating a jet structure over the western part of India and the eastern Arabian Sea. This structure is known as the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ). Secondary circulations associated with the Indian convection also help to maintain the baroclinicity, which is essential to the development of monsoon depression, the maintenance of the monsoon trough, and the circulation and hydrology of the region in general.

Leach, M.J.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study  

SciTech Connect

In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia.

Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Zuurmond, T.; Louw, G.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The effects of chronic and acute radiation upon the survival of C?H mice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-body irradiation. Corresponding values of 6. 3, 3. 6, 2. 5, and 5. 8 weeks per 100 R were observed following 300, 500, 650, and 800 R in the second study. The effect of age on the life span of CF female mice exposed to x-irradiation was reported by Boone (1959... in this investigation are in agreement with Grahn and Sacher. The only difference was that these authors used x-rays, but in this investigation we used gamma rays. Dunhig and Warren (1960) studied the effects of intermittent exposures on the life span of mice...

Jones, Ernest Joseph

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Limits to the Aerosol Indirect Radiative Effect Derived from Observations of Ship Tracks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reflectivities. #12;3 In recent years, simulations of the aerosol indirect effect in general circulation models in satellite imagery data. Images at 3.7 µm are used in a semi-automated procedure for identifying polluted concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and more cloud droplets. Because droplet formation is rapid

336

Limits to the Aerosol Indirect Radiative Effect Derived from Observations of Ship Tracks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations of the effects of ships on low-level clouds off the west coast of the United States are used to derive limits for the degree to which clouds might be altered by increases ...

James A. Coakley Jr.; Christopher D. Walsh

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Canonical rotation variables and non-Hamiltonian forces: solar radiation pressure effects on asteroid rotation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the effects by absorbed solar photons on the rotation...drawn. At last, if the solar photons are not absorbed...induced by inelastic energy dissipation for subkilometre...specular reflection of solar photons on Eros' surface...Research Council of Norway, projects 153382 and 170870. REFERENCES......

E. Mysen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 - Ionizing Radiation 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Radiation Decay chain Half-life Dose Radiation measurements Sources of radiation Average annual exposure Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation.pptx More Documents & Publications DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2007

339

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect.  

SciTech Connect

The Gray Cancer Institute has pioneered the use of X ray focussing techniques to develop systems for micro irradiating individual cells and sub cellular targets in vitro. Cellular micro irradiation is now recognised as a highly versatile technique for understanding how ionising radiation interacts with living cells and tissues. The strength of the technique lies in its ability to deliver precise doses of radiation to selected individual cells (or sub cellular targets). The application of this technique in the field of radiation biology continues to be of great interest for investigating a number of phenomena currently of concern to the radiobiological community. One important phenomenon is the so called ‘bystander effect’ where it is observed that unirradiated cells can also respond to signals transmitted by irradiated neighbours. Clearly, the ability of a microbeam to irradiate just a single cell or selected cells within a population is well suited to studying this effect. Our prototype ‘tabletop’ X-ray microprobe was optimised for focusing 278 eV C-K X rays and has been used successfully for a number of years. However, we have sought to develop a new variable energy soft X-ray microprobe capable of delivering focused CK (0.28 keV), Al-K (1.48 keV) and notably, Ti-K (4.5 keV) X rays. Ti-K X rays are capable of penetrating several cell layers and are therefore much better suited to studies involving tissues and multi cellular layers. In our new design, X-rays are generated by the focussed electron bombardment of a material whose characteristic-K radiation is required. The source is mounted on a 1.5 x 1.0 metre optical table. Electrons are generated by a custom built gun, designed to operate up to 15 kV. The electrons are focused using a permanent neodymium iron boron magnet assembly. Focusing is achieved by adjusting the accelerating voltage and by fine tuning the target position via a vacuum position feedthrough. To analyze the electron beam properties, a custom built microscope is used to image the focussed beam on the target, through a vacuum window. The X-rays are focussed by a zone plate optical assembly mounted to the end of a hollow vertical tube that can be precisely positioned above the X ray source. The cell finding and positioning stage comprises an epi-fluorescence microscope and a feedback controlled 3 axis cell positioning stage, also mounted on the optical table. Independent vertical micro positioning of the microscope objective turret allows the focus of the microscope and the X ray focus to coincide in space (i.e. at the point where the cell should be positioned for exposure). The whole microscope stage assembly can be precisely raised or lowered, to cater for large differences in the focal length of the X ray zone plates. The facility is controlled by PC and the software provides full status and control of the source and makes use of a dual-screen for control and display during the automated cell finding and irradiation procedures.

Folkard, Melvyn; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Schettino, Giuseppe; Atkinson, Kirk; Prise, Kevin, M.; Michael, Barry, D.

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

340

Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations  

SciTech Connect

Cloud Fraction (CF) is the dominant modulator of radiative fluxes. In this study, we evaluate CF simulations in the IPCC AR4 GCMs against ARM ground measurements, with a focus on the vertical structure, total amount of cloud and its effect on cloud shortwave transmissivity, for both inter-model deviation and model-measurement discrepancy. Our intercomparisons of three CF or sky-cover related dataset reveal that the relative differences are usually less than 10% (5%) for multi-year monthly (annual) mean values, while daily differences are quite significant. The results also show that the model-observation and the inter-model deviations have a similar magnitude for the total CF (TCF) and the normalized cloud effect, and they are twice as large as the surface downward solar radiation and cloud transmissivity. This implies that the other cloud properties, such as cloud optical depth and height, have a similar magnitude of disparity to TCF among the GCMs, and suggests that a better agreement among the GCMs in solar radiative fluxes could be the result of compensating errors in either cloud vertical structure, cloud optical depth or cloud fraction. Similar deviation pattern between inter-model and model-measurement suggests that the climate models tend to generate larger bias against observations for those variables with larger inter-model deviation. The simulated TCF from IPCC AR4 GCMs are very scattered through all seasons over three ARM sites: Southern Great Plains (SGP), Manus, Papua New Guinea and North Slope of Alaska (NSA). The GCMs perform better at SGP than at Manus and NSA in simulating the seasonal variation and probability distribution of TCF; however, the TCF in these models is remarkably underpredicted and cloud transmissivity is less susceptible to the change of TCF than the observed at SGP. Much larger inter-model deviation and model bias are found over NSA than the other sites in estimating the TCF, cloud transmissivity and cloud-radiation interaction, suggesting that the Arctic region continues to challenge cloud simulations in climate models. Most of the GCMs tend to underpredict CF and fail to capture the seasonal variation of CF at middle and low levels in the tropics. The high altitude CF is much larger in the GCMs than the observation and the inter-model variability of CF also reaches maximum at high levels in the tropics. Most of the GCMs tend to underpredict CF by 50-150% relative to the measurement average at low and middle levels over SGP. While the GCMs generally capture the maximum CF in the boundary layer and vertical variability, the inter-model deviation is largest near surface over the Arctic. The internal variability of CF simulated in ensemble runs with the same model is very minimal.

Qian, Yun; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Hailong; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Xie, Shaocheng

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Dose-Rate Dependence of High-Dose Health Effects in Humans from Photon Radiation with Application to Radiological Terrorism  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, as part of a symposium entitled ''The Control of Exposure of the Public to Ionizing Radiation in the Event of Accident or Attack,'' Lushbaugh, H?bner, and Fry published a paper examining ''radiation tolerance'' of various human health endpoints as a function of dose rate. This paper may not have received the notice it warrants. The health endpoints examined by Lushbaugh et al. were the lethal dose that will kill 50% of people within 60 days of exposure without medical care (LD50/60); severe bone marrow damage in healthy men; severe bone marrow damage in leukemia patients; temporary sterility (azoospermia); reduced male fertility; and late effects such as cancer. Their analysis was grounded in extensive clinical experience and anchored to a few selected data points, and based on the 1968 dose-rate dependence theory of J.L. Bateman. The Lushbaugh et al. paper did not give predictive equations for the relationships, although they were implied in the text, and the relationships were presented in a non-intuitive way. This work derives the parameters needed in Bateman's equation for each health endpoint, tabulates the results, and plots them in a more conventional manner on logarithmic scales. The results give a quantitative indication of how the human organism can tolerate more radiation dose when it is delivered at lower dose rates. For example, the LD50/60 increases from about 3 grays (300 rads) when given at very high dose rates to over 10 grays (1,000 rads) when given at much lower dose rates over periods of several months. The latter figure is borne out by the case of an individual who survived for at least 19 years after receiving doses in the range of 9 to 17 grays (900-1700 rads) over 106 days. The Lushbaugh et al. work shows the importance of sheltering when confronted with long-term exposure to radiological contamination such as would be expected from a radiological dispersion event, reactor accident, or ground-level nuclear explosion.

Strom, Daniel J.

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

342

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

343

Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks  

SciTech Connect

Long term datasets of total (all-sky) and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction (cloudiness) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed together with aerosol concentration from several networks (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) in the United States (US). Seven states with varying climatology are selected to better understand the effect of aerosols and clouds on SW radiation. This analysis aims to test the hypothesis that the reductions in anthropogenic aerosol burden resulting from substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides over the past 15 years across the US has caused an increase in surface SW radiation. We show that the total and clear-sky downwelling SW radiation from seven sites have increasing trends except Penn State which shows no tendency in clear-sky SW radiation. After investigating several confounding factors, the causes can be due to the geography of the site, aerosol distribution, heavy air traffic and increasing cloudiness. Moreover, we assess the relationship between total column AOD with surface aerosol concentration to test our hypothesis. In our findings, the trends of clear-sky SW radiation, AOD, and aerosol concentration from the sites in eastern US agree well with our hypothesis. However, the sites in western US demonstrate increasing AOD associated with mostly increasing trends in surface aerosol concentration. At these sites, the changes in aerosol burden and/or direct aerosol effects alone cannot explain the observed changes in SW radiation, but other factors need to be considered such as cloudiness, aerosol vertical profiles and elevated plumes.

Gan, Chuen-Meei; Pleim, Jonathan; Mathur, Rohit; Hogrefe, Christian; Long, Charles N.; Xing, Jia; Roselle, Shawn; Wei, Chao

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effect of Field Size and Length of Plantar Spur on Treatment Outcome in Radiation Therapy of Plantar Fasciitis: The Bigger the Better?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy is well established in the treatment of painful plantar fasciitis or heel spur. A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of field definition on treatment outcome and to determine the impact of factors potentially involved. Methods and Materials: A review of treatment data of 250 patients (285 heels) with a mean follow-up time of 11 months showed that complete symptom remission occurred in 38%, partial remission in 32%, and no change in 19% (11% were lost to follow-up). Variables such as radiologic evidence of plantar spurs, their length, radiation dose, field size, age, sex, and onset of pain before administration of radiation therapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: Treatment response depended upon age >53 years, length of heel spur ?6.5 mm (or no radiologic evidence of a heel spur), and onset of pain <12 months before radiation therapy. Patients with these clinical prerequisites stood a 93% chance of clinical response. Without these prerequisites, only 49% showed any impact. No influence of field size on treatment outcome became evident. Conclusion: Patients with short plantar heel spurs benefit from radiation therapy equally well as patients without any radiologic evidence. Moreover, smaller field sizes have the same positive effect as commonly used large field definitions covering the entire calcaneal bone. This leads to a recommendation of a considerable reduction of field size in future clinical practice.

Hermann, Robert Michael, E-mail: hermann@strahlentherapie-westerstede.com [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Andreas [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Gemeinschaftspraxis für Strahlentherapie Hildesheim/Goslar (Germany); Becker, Alexandra [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Schneider, Michael [Orthopaedic Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Würzburg (Germany); Reible, Michael; Carl, Ulrich Martin [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Universität Kiel (Germany)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

856 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS--PART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS, VOL. 38, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 Designing Effective Alarms for Radiation Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the occurrence of nuisance alarms based on naturally occurring radioactive material and the low base rate of nu Naturally occurring radioactive material. p(false alarm) Probability of a false alarm. p(hit) Probability, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 Designing Effective Alarms for Radiation Detection in Homeland Security

Parasuraman, Raja

346

Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

347

Reconstruction in 3D of the fast wave fields in ITER, DIII-D, C-Mod and NSTX, including the coupling of full-wave and particle codes to resolve finite orbit effects  

SciTech Connect

The rf-SciDAC collaboration is developing computer simulations to predict the damping of radio frequency (rf) waves in fusion plasmas. Here we extend self-consistent quasi-linear calculations of ion cyclotron resonant heating to include the finite drift of ions from magnetic flux surfaces and rf induced spatial transport. The all-orders spectral wave solver AORSA is iteratively coupled with a particle based update of the plasma distribution function using a quasi-linear diffusion tensor representative of the k-vector spectrum. Initial results are presented for a high power minority heating scenario on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and a high harmonic beam heating scenario on DIII-D. Finite orbit effects are shown to give a less peaked perpendicular energy profile and rf induced transport.

Green, D. L.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6169 (United States); Choi, M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA, 92186-5608 (United States)

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

348

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Impact of Genetic Factors on the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Why This Project? There is concern about the possible genetic effects of low dose radiation exposure. As a result, much effort has gone towards understanding mutation of cells due to radiation exposure. While recognition of the potential for mutation from exposure to ionizing radiation has led to extensive research, less effort has been given to the possible delayed risk of radiation exposure transmitted to the offspring of the exposed parent. Data from animal models show that parental exposures to DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, predispose the offspring to serious health effects, including cancer offspring. Additionally, data from both humans and animal

349

"We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dissertation examines knowledge production practices following the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident and describes the production of invisibility of its consequences: practices that displace radiation… (more)

Kuchinskaya, Olga

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Advanced photoelectric effect experiment beamline at Elettra: A surface science laboratory coupled with Synchrotron Radiation  

SciTech Connect

We report the main characteristics of the advanced photoelectric effect experiments beamline, operational at Elettra storage ring, featuring a fully independent double branch scheme obtained by the use of chicane undulators and able to keep polarization control in both linear and circular mode. The paper describes the novel technical solutions adopted, namely, (a) the design of a quasiperiodic undulator resulting in optimized suppression of higher harmonics over a large photon energy range (10-100 eV), (b) the thermal stability of optics under high heat load via cryocoolers, and (c) the end station interconnected setup allowing full access to off-beam and on-beam facilities and, at the same time, the integration of users' specialized sample growth chambers or modules.

Panaccione, G.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Krizmancic, D.; Annese, E.; Giovanelli, L.; Maccherozzi, F.; Salvador, F.; De Luisa, A.; Benedetti, D.; Gruden, A.; Bertoch, P.; Rossi, G. [TASC Laboratory, INFM-CNR, S.S. 14-Km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Polack, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cocco, D.; Sostero, G.; Diviacco, B. [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 Km 163.5, Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Hochstrasser, M.; Maier, U.; Pescia, D. [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); and others

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Effects of Inelastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering on Supernova Dynamics and Radiated Neutrino Spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the shell model for Gamow-Teller and the Random Phase Approximation for forbidden transitions, we have calculated reaction rates for inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (INNS) under supernova (SN) conditions, assuming a matter composition given by Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium. The rates have been incorporated into state-of-the-art stellar core-collapse simulations with detailed energy-dependent neutrino transport. While no significant effect on the SN dynamics is observed, INNS increases the neutrino opacities noticeably and strongly reduces the high-energy tail of the neutrino spectrum emitted in the neutrino burst at shock breakout. Relatedly the expected event rates for the observation of such neutrinos by earthbound detectors are reduced by up to about 60%.

K. Langanke; G. Martinez-Pinedo; B. Mueller; H. -Th. Janka; A. Marek; W. R. Hix; A. Juodagalvis; J. M. Sampaio

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

Resistance of Marine Bacterioneuston to Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of Marine Bacterioneuston to Solar Radiation Helene Agogue Fabien...after exposure to simulated solar radiation. Bacterioneuston...estimate of their screening capacity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...D. P. 2000. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on aquatic...

Hélène Agogué; Fabien Joux; Ingrid Obernosterer; Philippe Lebaron

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Radiation effects in nuclear materials: Role of nuclear and electronic energy losses and their synergy  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic oxides and carbides are promising matrices for the immobilization and/or transmutation of nuclear wastes, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors and structural components for fusion reactors. For these applications there is a need of fundamental data concerning the behavior of nuclear ceramics upon irradiation. This article is focused on the presentation of a few remarkable examples regarding ion-beam modifications of nuclear ceramics with an emphasis on the mechanisms leading to damage creation and phase transformations. Results obtained by combining advanced techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) concern irradiations in a broad energy range (from keV to GeV) with the aim of exploring both nuclear collision (Sn) and electronic excitation (Se) regimes. Finally, the daunting challenge of the demonstration of the existence of synergistic effects between Sn and Se is tackled by discussing the healing due to intense electronic energy deposition (SHIBIEC) and by reporting results recently obtained in dual-beam irradiation (DBI) experiments.

Thomé, Lionel [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud; Debelle, Aurelien [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Garrido, Frederico [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Mylonas, Stamatis [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Décamps, B. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Bachelet, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Sattonnay, G. [LEMHE/ICMMO, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. Orsay, France; Moll, Sandra [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Pellegrino, S. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Miro, S. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Trocellier, P. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Serruys, Y. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Velisa, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Grygiel, C. [CNRS, France; Monnet, I. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-Université de Caen, France; Toulemonde, Marcel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)-ENSICAE; Simon, P. [CEMHTI, CNRS, France; Jagielski, Jacek [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Jozwik-Biala, Iwona [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Nowicki, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, Poland; Behar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre,; Weber, William J [ORNL; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Backman, Marie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Djurabekova, Flyura [University of Helsinki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Solar radiation effects on evaporative losses of floating roof storage tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are 40 storage tanks in the Khark Island for storing crude oil. Considering the hot summers of the island, light hydrocarbons vaporise and vented to the atmosphere. This process causes environmental pollution and also affects the quality of the crude oil besides the economic detriment. Therefore, crude oil evaporation loss associated with the storage tank is an important issue which should be carefully investigated to identify the potential means of its reduction. The aim of the present work is to determine the evaporative losses from external floating storage tanks and to study the absorptivity effects of their exterior surface paint on the losses due to the solar irradiation. The API standards along with the thermal analysis of the tank have been employed to evaluate the tank temperature variations and the evaporative losses of a typical tank based on the actual ambient conditions of the Khark Island. The results show that the paints with low absorptivity can reduce the evaporative losses significantly. Furthermore, experimental data has been provided to validate the calculated tank temperature variations, and reasonable agreements have been found. [Received: April 10, 2010; Accepted: May 31, 2010

Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord; Amin Nabati; Hamid Niazmand

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The radiation crosslinking of poly(vinyl chloride) with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate. III. Effect of diundecyl phthalate: chemical kinetics of a three-component system  

SciTech Connect

The radiation chemistry of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) blended with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and diundecyl phthalate (DUP) has been examined. This three-component mixture contains a base resin (PVC), a crosslinking sensitizer (TMPTMA), and a physical modifier (DUP). These are the basic components in any radiation-curable coating. The kinetics and mechanism of the crosslinking reactions were studied with reference to the dependence on radiation dose and blend composition. The polyfunctional TMPTMA underwent polymerization incorporating the PVC into a 3-dimensional network. DUP remained chemically inert during the irradiation, not being bound to the network. However, DUP by plasticizing the macromolecules and diluting the monomer, changed the kinetics extensively. DUP enhanced TMPTMA homopolymerization, TMPTMA grafting, and PVC crosslinking reaction rates. The effect of the competition between polymerization, grafting, and degradation reactions was examined in terms of enhanced mobility of the reacting species. The influence of these kinetics considerations in selecting a blend composition for a coating application was discussed.

Bowmer, T.N.; Vroom, W.I.; Hellman, M.Y.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Longitudinal variation of tides in the MLT region: 2. Relative effects of solar radiative and latent heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of solar radiative and latent heating Xiaoli Zhang,1 Jeffrey M. Forbes,1 and Maura E. Hagan2 Received 11 study examines the relative importance of radiative heating and latent heating in accounting (GSWM) and new tidal heating rates derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP

Forbes, Jeffrey

357

The Effect of Roentgen Radiation on the Incorporation of Radiophosphorus into Nucleic Acids and Other Constituents of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...total-body radiation administered by other workers. Furthermore, 4,500 r causes...Na,HPO4 on allocation from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Trial experiments...radiation ad ministered by other workers. Furthermore, 4,500 r causes...

Halvor Vermund; Cyrus P. Barnum; Robert A. Huseby; and Karl W. Stenstrom

1953-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Mitigation Effect of an FGF-2 Peptide on Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome After High-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Acute gastrointestinal syndrome (AGS) resulting from ionizing radiation causes death within 7 days. Currently, no satisfactory agent exists for mitigation of AGS. A peptide derived from the receptor binding domain of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-P) was synthesized and its mitigation effect on AGS was examined. Methods and Materials: A subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI) model was created to induce gastrointestinal (GI) death while avoiding bone marrow death. After 10.5 to 16 Gy sub-TBI, mice received an intramuscular injection of FGF-P (10 mg/kg/day) or saline (0.2 ml/day) for 5 days; survival (frequency and duration) was measured. Crypt cells and their proliferation were assessed by hematoxylin, eosin, and BrdU staining. In addition, GI hemoccult score, stool formation, and plasma levels of endotoxin, insulin, amylase, interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated. Results: Treatment with FGF-P rescued a significant fraction of four strains of mice (33-50%) exposed to a lethal dose of sub-TBI. Use of FGF-P improved crypt survival and repopulation and partially preserved or restored GI function. Furthermore, whereas sub-TBI increased plasma endotoxin levels and several pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha), FGF-P reduced these adverse responses. Conclusions: The study data support pursuing FGF-P as a mitigator for AGS.

Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Sun Weimin; Wang Jianjun [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Zhang Mei; Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Tian Yeping [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Vidyasagar, Sadasivan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Pena, Louis A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang Kunzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Cao Yongbing [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Schaefer, Katherine L.; Saubermann, Lawrence J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Swarts, Steven G.; Fenton, Bruce M.; Keng, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul, E-mail: Paul_Okunieff@URMC.Rochester.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appendix F Appendix F Cultural Resources, Including Section 106 Consultation STATE OF CALIFORNIA - THE RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN, JR., Governor OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION 1725 23 rd Street, Suite 100 SACRAMENTO, CA 95816-7100 (916) 445-7000 Fax: (916) 445-7053 calshpo@parks.ca.gov www.ohp.parks.ca.gov June 14, 2011 Reply in Reference To: DOE110407A Angela Colamaria Loan Programs Office Environmental Compliance Division Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave SW, LP-10 Washington, DC 20585 Re: Topaz Solar Farm, San Luis Obispo County, California Dear Ms. Colamaria: Thank you for seeking my consultation regarding the above noted undertaking. Pursuant to 36 CFR Part 800 (as amended 8-05-04) regulations implementing Section

360

The flying radiation case  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Div.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

363

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

364

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

367

Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 7.83 7.76 7.90 8.91 8.76 8.11 3.68 01/06/14 8.00 7.78 7.94 8.92 8.74 8.09 3.69 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.68 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.63 12/16/13 7.86 7.79 8.05 9.00 8.78 8.08 3.61 12/9/13 7.95 7.81 8.14 8.99 8.80 8.12 3.63 12/2/13 7.91 7.68 8.07 8.85 8.68 8.08 3.64 11/25/13 7.69 7.61 8.07 8.77 8.63 7.97 3.65 11/18/13 7.99 7.54 8.00 8.70 8.57 7.92 3.57 11/11/13 7.63 7.44 7.79 8.63 8.46 7.85 3.55 11/4/13 7.70 7.51 7.98 8.70 8.59 7.86 3.61 10/28/13 8.02 7.74 8.08 8.96 8.79 8.04 3.64 10/21/13 7.91 7.71 8.11 8.94 8.80 8.05 3.70 10/14/13 7.88 7.62 8.05 8.87 8.74 7.97 3.69

368

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

369

Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in -radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......other damage. Environ Health Perspect (1997) 105...ionizing-radiation lethality. Health Phys (2003) 84:565-75...Oxidative Stress and Health. In: Oxidative Stress...cytotoxicity induced by depleted uranium in isolated rat hepatocytes......

Mamdooh Ghoneum; Heba Allah M. Elbaghdady; Abdallah A. El-Shebly; Deyu Pan; Edward Assanah; Greg Lawson

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Experimental study of the effect of electromagnetic microwave radiation on parts made of high-energy polymer materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of experimental measurements of Young’s modulus, burning rate, and specific heat of condensed high-energy polymer compositions (solid propellants) subjected to microwave radiation are reported. Experim...

L. L. Khimenko; A. P. Rybakov; N. A. Rybakov…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......reaction exon analyses of HPRT-mutations induced by radon and radon progeny. Radiat. Res. (1994) 137:371-379...from Soviet atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Kazakhstan: solid cancer mortality in the Semipalatinsk historical......

Lawrence T. Dauer; Antone L. Brooks; David G. Hoel; William F. Morgan; Daniel Stram; Phung Tran

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Effect of low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice K. Gott Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Abstract Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response (Nowosielska et al., 2006), presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al., 2009) and has been implicated as suppressing both alpha-radiation-induced and smoking-related lung cancer (Scott et al. 2009). One of the hypothesized adaptive-response mechanisms by which LDR does so is by activating immune cell function in the lung, which would then increase their anti-cancer surveillance function (Liu, 2007; Bogdandi et al., 2010). One measure of activated immune cell function is their expression of markers on their cell surface that are

373

Physical basis of radiation protection in space travel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The health risks of space radiation are arguably the most serious challenge to space exploration, possibly preventing these missions due to safety concerns or increasing their costs to amounts beyond what would be acceptable. Radiation in space is substantially different from Earth: high-energy (E) and charge (Z) particles (HZE) provide the main contribution to the equivalent dose in deep space, whereas ? rays and low-energy ? particles are major contributors on Earth. This difference causes a high uncertainty on the estimated radiation health risk (including cancer and noncancer effects), and makes protection extremely difficult. In fact, shielding is very difficult in space: the very high energy of the cosmic rays and the severe mass constraints in spaceflight represent a serious hindrance to effective shielding. Here the physical basis of space radiation protection is described, including the most recent achievements in space radiation transport codes and shielding approaches. Although deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes can now describe well the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, more accurate double-differential nuclear cross sections are needed to improve the codes. Energy deposition in biological molecules and related effects should also be developed to achieve accurate risk models for long-term exploratory missions. Passive shielding can be effective for solar particle events; however, it is limited for galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Active shielding would have to overcome challenging technical hurdles to protect against GCR. Thus, improved risk assessment and genetic and biomedical approaches are a more likely solution to GCR radiation protection issues.

Marco Durante and Francis A. Cucinotta

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

Transitional regimes of natural convection in a differentially heated cubical cavity under the effects of wall and molecular gas radiation  

SciTech Connect

The transition to unsteadiness and the dynamics of weakly turbulent natural convection, coupled to wall or gas radiation in a differentially heated cubical cavity with adiabatic lateral walls, are studied numerically. The working fluid is air with small contents of water vapor and carbon dioxide whose infrared spectral radiative properties are modelled by the absorption distribution function model. A pseudo spectral Chebyshev collocation method is used to solve the flow field equations and is coupled to a direct ray tracing method for radiation transport. Flow structures are identified by means of either the proper orthogonal decomposition or the dynamic mode decomposition methods. We first retrieve the classical mechanism of transition to unsteadiness without radiation, characterized by counter-rotating streamwise-oriented vortices generated at the exit of the vertical boundary layers. Wall radiation through a transparent medium leads to a homogenization of lateral wall temperatures and the resulting transition mechanism is similar to that obtained with perfectly conducting lateral walls. The transition is due to an unstable stratification upstream the vertical boundary layers and is characterized by periodically oscillating transverse rolls of axis perpendicular to the main flow. When molecular gas radiation is accounted for, no periodic solution is found and the transition to unsteadiness displays complex structures with chimneys-like rolls whose axes are again parallel to the main flow. The origin of this instability is probably due to centrifugal forces, as suggested previously for the case without radiation. Above the transition to unsteadiness, at Ra = 3 × 10{sup 8}, it is shown that both wall and gas radiation significantly intensify turbulent fluctuations, decrease the thermal stratification in the core of the cavity, and increase the global circulation.

Soucasse, L.; Rivière, Ph.; Soufiani, A., E-mail: anouar.soufiani@ecp.fr [CNRS, UPR 288, Laboratoire EM2C, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France); École Centrale Paris, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France)] [France; Xin, S. [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)] [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Le Quéré, P. [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)] [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Effect of Simultaneous Doppler and Collision Broadening and of Hyperfine Structure on the Imprisonment of Resonance Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The transmission coefficient defined by Holstein for resonance radiation has been calculated when Doppler and collision broadening of the resonance line are present simultaneously. From this a simple formula is inferred for the imprisonment lifetime of the resonance radiation under this condition. The complication of the hyperfine structure is also taken into account and the results are found to give good agreement with experiments in mercury.

P. J. Walsh

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Oak Ridge Integrated Center for Radiation Materials Science & Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORIC Home ORIC Home About ORIC Contacts Specialists Capabilities Irradiation Campaigns Nuclear Fuels Radiation Effects and Defect Modeling Structural Materials Dual Purpose Radiological Characterization Equipment Working with Us Related Links HFIR MSTD NSTD NNFD Comments Welcome to Oak Ridge Integrated Center for Radiation Materials Science & Technology The Oak Ridge National Laboratory ranks among the founding laboratories for the scientific field of radiation materials science. Since the creation of the laboratory, we have maintained strong ties to both the technology and scientific underpinning of nuclear materials research as evidenced by the experience and capabilities across our research divisions. The capabilities at ORNL enjoys include the highest neutron flux nuclear

377

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

379

Coherence in Spontaneous Radiation Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By considering a radiating gas as a single quantum-mechanical system, energy levels corresponding to certain correlations between individual molecules are described. Spontaneous emission of radiation in a transition between two such levels leads to the emission of coherent radiation. The discussion is limited first to a gas of dimension small compared with a wavelength. Spontaneous radiation rates and natural line breadths are calculated. For a gas of large extent the effect of photon recoil momentum on coherence is calculated. The effect of a radiation pulse in exciting "super-radiant" states is discussed. The angular correlation between successive photons spontaneously emitted by a gas initially in thermal equilibrium is calculated.

R. H. Dicke

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations  

SciTech Connect

Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Effect of silver nanoparticle and glycyrrhizic acid (SN-GLY) complex on repair of whole body radiation-induced cellular DNA damage and genomic instability in mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silver nanoparticles (SN) were redispersed in aqueous solution of Pluronic F127 and complexed with the phytoceutical, glycyrrhizic acid (GLY) to obtain SN-GLY complex. The ability of the SN-GLY complex to offer protection against ionising radiation in post-irradiation scenarios was evaluated in ex vivo and in vivo models using Swiss albino mice. Treatment of mouse blood leucocytes with SN-GLY immediately after 4 Gy gamma radiation exposure, ex vivo, enhanced the rate of repair of cellular DNA damages as revealed by comet assay. Exposure of mice to 4 Gy whole body gamma radiation induced formation of strand breaks in cellular DNA and the unrepaired double strand breaks eventually caused the formation of micronuclei. The post-irradiation administration of SN-GLY resulted in a faster decrease in the comet parameters indicating enhanced cellular DNA repair process and reduction in micronucleus formation. Thus the studies showed effective radiation protection by SN-GLY in post-irradiation conditions.

Dhanya K. Chandrasekharan; Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan Nair

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Uzbekistan Radiation Portal Monnitoring System  

SciTech Connect

The work proposed in this presentation builds on the foundation set by the DTRA funded demonstration project begun in 2000 and completed in December of 2003. This previous work consisted of two phases whose overall objective was to install portal radiation monitors at four select ports-of-entry in Uzbekistan (Tashkent International Airport, Gisht-Kuprik (Kazakhstan border), Alat (Turkmenistan border), and Termez (Afghanistan border)) in order to demonstrate their effectiveness in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objectives also included developing and demonstrating capabilities in the design, installation, operation, training, and maintenance of a radiation portal monitoring system. The system and demonstration project has proved successful in many ways. An effective working relationship among the Uzbekistan Customs Services, Uzbekistan Border Guards, and Uzbekistan Institute of Nuclear Physics has been developed. There has been unprecedented openness with the sharing of portal monitor data with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The system has proved to be effective, with detection of illicit trafficking, and, at Alat, an arrest of three persons illegally transporting radioactive materials into Turkmenistan. The demonstration project has made Uzbekistan a model nonproliferation state in Central Asia and, with an expanded program, places them in a position to seal a likely transit route for illicit nuclear materials. These results will be described. In addition, this work is currently being expanded to include additional ports-of-entry in Uzbekistan. The process for deciding on which additional ports-of-entry to equip will also be described.

Richardson, J; Knapp, R; Loshak, A; Yuldashev, B; Petrenko, V

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

383

Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

Butler, B.L.

1985-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

385

Radiation prevents much cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evidence reviewed here supports the concept that chronic exposure to ionising radiation can dramatically decrease cancer incidence and mortality. This evidence includes an inverse relationship between radiation levels and cancer induction and/or mortality in: over 200 million people in the USA; 200 million people in India; 10,000 residents of Taipei who live in cobalt-60 contaminated homes; high radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran; 12 million person-years of exposed and carefully selected control nuclear workers; almost 300,000 homes with radon in the USA; non-smokers in high radon areas of Saxony, Germany.

T.D. Luckey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Ionizing Radiation Induces Delayed Hyperrecombination in Mammalian Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...instability is critical to radiation risk assessment and for determining...the many delayed effects of radiation, chromosomal instability is...detrimental effects over a range of doses of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, a rapid and...

Lei Huang; Suzanne Grim; Leslie E. Smith; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; Olga G. Goloubeva; William F. Morgan

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

The Effect of Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Absorption on the Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation T. Yu. Chesnokova, K. M. Firsov, I. M. Nasrtdinov, S. M. Sakerin, V. V. Veretennikov, and T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The methods for reconstruction of the aerosol optical characteristics (e.g., aerosol size distribution, and single-scattering albedo) from diffuse and direct radiation measured in the solar almucantar has been widely used during the last decade. The photometers with filters in the "atmospheric transparency windows" in the wavelength range 0.4 to 1 m were applied for measurements. Usually it was assumed that one could neglect the molecular absorption of the measured diffuse radiation. Further development

388

Effect of electromagnetic radiation on an array of weakly interacting carbon nanotubes in the presence of nanosecond pulses  

SciTech Connect

For metallic 'zigzag'-type carbon nanotubes, the dependence of a nonlinear current on an ac electric field with an inclined-leading-edge width of {Delta}T = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} s and wavelength of {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 1 mm is studied. It is theoretically and numerically shown that the surface current is almost independent of the nanotube radius. In the case of semiconductor zigzag-type nanotubes, the radiation of a two-frequency CO{sub 2} laser with a constant amplitude is considered as an ac electric field. The dependence on the relaxation time in the Boltzmann kinetic equation is studied. The optimal conditions for terahertz-radiation generation are achieved when the relaxation time is 40 fs. It is numerically found that the amplified radiation amplitude behaves as beats.

Sadykov, N. R., E-mail: n.r.sadykov@rambler.ru; Scorkin, N. A.; Akhljustina, E. A. [Snezhinsk Physics and Technology Institute of the National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI' (Russian Federation)] [Snezhinsk Physics and Technology Institute of the National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI' (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

Maynard, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hendee, Shonn P. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrscheib, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nunez, David (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, M. Kathleen (Cedar Crest, NM); Franke, James E. (Franklin, TN); Kemeny, Gabor J. (Madison, WI)

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

390

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Current Funded Project Descriptions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Eric J Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

391

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Project Descriptions-Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Descriptions-Archive Project Descriptions-Archive Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric J Ackerman (former PNNL) (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

392

The Estimation of Molecular and Cytogenetic Effects in Mice Exposed to Chronic Low Dose-Rate Gamma-Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular and cytogenetic parameters were estimated in male CBA/lac mice exposed to chronic low dose-rate ?-radiation (62 cGy/year) for 40, 80, 120, 210, and 365 days. After 40 days of exposure (6.7 cGy), sple...

A. N. Osipov; A. L. Elakov; P. V. Puchkov…

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Quantification of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect from Smoke over Clouds Using Passive Space-borne Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Wilhelminalaan 30, 3732 GK, De Bilt, The Netherlands email: graafdem@knmi.nl Abstract. The solar radiative the South Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on 13 August 2006, when a huge plume of smoke was present over: 92.70.Cp, 92.60.Mt, 92.60.Nv INTRODUCTION Aerosols play an important role in the global energy

Tilstra, Gijsbert

394

Synergistic Bactericidal Effect of Simultaneous Near-Infrared Radiant Heating and UV Radiation against Cronobacter sakazakii in Powdered Infant Formula  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...UV radiation, as well as NIR thermal energy in the powder bed, a rotational mixer...sakazakii in food production environments and households. Lancet 363 :39-40. doi: 10.1016...and advances in far infrared heating in Japan. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 5 :357-362...

Jae-Won Ha; Dong-Hyun Kang

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

Silver Clear Nylon Dressing is Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Patients With Lower Gastrointestinal Cancer: Results From a Phase III Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: For patients with anal canal and advanced rectal cancer, chemoradiation therapy is a curative modality or an important adjunct to surgery. Nearly all patients treated with chemoradiation experience some degree of radiation-induced dermatitis (RID). Prevention and effective treatment of RID, therefore, is of considerable clinical relevance. The present phase III randomized trial compared the efficacy of silver clear nylon dressing (SCND) with that of standard skin care for these patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 42 rectal or anal canal cancer patients were randomized to either a SCND or standard skin care group. SCND was applied from Day 1 of radiation therapy (RT) until 2 weeks after treatment completion. In the control arm, sulfadiazine cream was applied at the time of skin dermatitis. Printed digital photographs taken 2 weeks prior to, on the last day, and two weeks after the treatment completion were scored by 10 blinded readers, who used the common toxicity scoring system for skin dermatitis. Results: The radiation dose ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy, and there were no differences between the 2 groups. On the last day of RT, when the most severe RID occurs, the mean dermatitis score was 2.53 (standard deviation [SD], 1.17) for the standard and 1.67 (SD, 1.2; P=.01) for the SCND arm. At 2 weeks after RT, the difference was 0.39 points in favor of SCND (P=.39). There was considerable intraclass correlation among the 10 observers. Conclusions: Silver clear nylon dressing is effective in reducing RID in patients with lower gastrointestinal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

Niazi, Tamim M. [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Vuong, Te, E-mail: tvuong@jgh.mcgill.ca [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Azoulay, Laurant [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada)] [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Marijnen, Corrie [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bujko, Kryzstof [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland)] [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland); Nasr, Elie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon); Lambert, Christine; Duclos, Marie; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Cummings, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Dosimetric effects of weight loss or gain during volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Weight loss or gain during the course of radiation therapy for prostate cancer can alter the planned dose to the target volumes and critical organs. Typically, source-to-surface distance (SSD) measurements are documented by therapists on a weekly basis to ensure that patients' exterior surface and isocenter-to-skin surface distances remain stable. The radiation oncology team then determines whether the patient has undergone a physical change sufficient to require a new treatment plan. The effect of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetry is not well known, and it is unclear when rescanning or replanning is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on IMRT or VMAT dose delivery in patients with prostate cancer and to determine the SSD change threshold for replanning. Whether IMRT or VMAT provides better dose stability under weight change conditions was also determined. We generated clinical IMRT and VMAT prostate and seminal vesicle treatment plans for varying SSDs for 10 randomly selected patients with prostate cancer. The differences due to SSD change were quantified by a specific dose change for a specified volume of interest. The target mean dose, decreased or increased by 2.9% per 1-cm SSD decrease or increase in IMRT and by 3.6% in VMAT. If the SSD deviation is more than 1 cm, the radiation oncology team should determine whether to continue treatment without modifications, to adjust monitor units, or to resimulate and replan.

Pair, Matthew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Du, Weiliang [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rojas, Hector D.; Kanke, James E.; McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.; Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Center for Environmental Radiation Studies 1 Texas Tech University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and international nuclear safety. Critical Success Factors Critical measures of success shall include regarding nuclear research, nuclear safety, biological effects, and homeland security · Training of graduate students and post-doctorates in the areas of molecular genetic responses, radiation dosimetry

Chesser, Ronald Keith

398

Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial )  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-threshold mode estimate the response at lower doses. · The Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing RadiationModule 9 Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial ) · sources of background radiation · various risk models. · estimating risk and on the sources of background radiation, both

Massey, Thomas N.

399

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

400

Publication of New Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Atomic bomb dosimetry studies. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect radiation response Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12;Radiative Forcings: Shortwave Forcings... What about gases that affect the greenhouse effect? Radiative forcing for greenhouse gases: Instantly... ;Radiative Forcings In ......

402

Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

Yu, Kaiyuan

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivorsPresented as an invited paper at the 21st LH Gray Conference 'The Radiobiology—Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0–2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other factors may contribute, such as the generally higher underlying cancer risks in the medical series than in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Risks among occupationally exposed groups such as nuclear workforces and underground miners are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. In general, consistent patterns of variation of risk with age at exposure are also seen in all studies—risks for all cancer types diminish with increasing age at exposure. There are also excess risks of various types of non-malignant disease in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, in particular cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive diseases. Indeed, risks are elevated to much the same degree for a number of non-malignant disease endpoints, suggestive of bias. However, in contrast with the cancer data, there is much less consistency in the pattern of risk between the atomic bomb survivors and other exposed groups; for example, radiation-associated respiratory and digestive diseases have not been seen in these other groups. Although cardiovascular risks have been seen elsewhere, particularly in medically exposed groups, in contrast with the cancer data there is much less consistency in risk between studies: risks per unit dose in epidemiological studies vary over at least two orders of magnitude, possibly as a result of confounding factors. In the absence of a convincing mechanistic explanation of epidemiological evidence, at present a cause-and-effect interpretation of the reported statistical associations for cardiovascular disease is unreliable but cannot be excluded. Further epidemiological and biological evidence will allow a firmer conclusion to be drawn.

M P Little

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Safety Around Sources of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Keeping Exposure Low Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The BEIR V (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) Committee of the National Research Council estimates that among 100,000 people exposed to a one-time dose of 10 rem (10,000 mrem) and followed over their life span, about 790 more would die of cancer than the estimated 20,000 cancer deaths that would be expected among a non-exposed group of the same size. NOTE: 10 rem = 100 millisieverts (100 mSv).

406

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

407

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A RADIATION TRANSFER SOLVER FOR ATHENA USING SHORT CHARACTERISTICS  

SciTech Connect

We describe the implementation of a module for the Athena magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that solves the time-independent, multi-frequency radiative transfer (RT) equation on multidimensional Cartesian simulation domains, including scattering and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) effects. The module is based on well known and well tested algorithms developed for modeling stellar atmospheres, including the method of short characteristics to solve the RT equation, accelerated Lambda iteration to handle scattering and non-LTE effects, and parallelization via domain decomposition. The module serves several purposes: it can be used to generate spectra and images, to compute a variable Eddington tensor (VET) for full radiation MHD simulations, and to calculate the heating and cooling source terms in the MHD equations in flows where radiation pressure is small compared with gas pressure. For the latter case, the module is combined with the standard MHD integrators using operator splitting: we describe this approach in detail, including a new constraint on the time step for stability due to radiation diffusion modes. Implementation of the VET method for radiation pressure dominated flows is described in a companion paper. We present results from a suite of test problems for both the RT solver itself and for dynamical problems that include radiative heating and cooling. These tests demonstrate that the radiative transfer solution is accurate and confirm that the operator split method is stable, convergent, and efficient for problems of interest. We demonstrate there is no need to adopt ad hoc assumptions of questionable accuracy to solve RT problems in concert with MHD: the computational cost for our general-purpose module for simple (e.g., LTE gray) problems can be comparable to or less than a single time step of Athena's MHD integrators, and only few times more expensive than that for more general (non-LTE) problems.

Davis, Shane W. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Stone, James M.; Jiang Yanfei [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Plasma Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... JUST over ten years ago the first book on plasma physics as a subject in its own right appeared; in a gradually swelling stream ... been surprisingly few monographs. One topic which has had scant coverage in any form is plasma radiation (except for spectral-line radiation which has been dealt with very fully in ...

T. J. M. BOYD

1967-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Reducing Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

Blankenbecler, Richard

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

411

Cough Detection and Forecasting for Radiation Treatment of Lung Cancer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In radiation therapy, a treatment plan is designed to make the delivery of radiation to a target more accurate, effective, and less damaging to surrounding… (more)

Qiu, Zigang Jimmy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

413

Method for microbeam radiation therapy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

414

Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves  

SciTech Connect

From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Health Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Investigators Health Physics The March 2011 special issue of Health Physics highlights the Victor Bond Workshop held May 2-5, 2010, in Richland, Wash. The workshop honored the late Dr. Victor (Vic) Bond for his lifetime achievement in the radiation sciences. Dr. Bond's research resulted in numerous influential scientific papers that contributed greatly to the understanding of radiation effects in biological systems. The workshop attracted internationally recognized experts in biophysics, experimental radiation biology, epidemiology, and risk assessment to discuss issues of low-dose risk. Participants included current and previously funded U.S. Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research

416

RADIATION ALERT User Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not contaminate the Inspector by touching it to radioactive surfaces or materials. If contamination is suspected Environmental Area Monitoring 16 Checking for Surface Contamination 16 5 Maintenance 17 Calibration 17, and x-ray radiation. Its applications include: · Detecting and measuring surface contamination

Haller, Gary L.

417

Radiative Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems, and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g.\\ at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H \\textsc{ii} region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick "adiabatic" regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved,for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state, and we derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability conditi...

Jacquet, Emmanuel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

Strom, Daniel J.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

419

Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection: Annual Occupational Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report Print information on Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report (pdf). This webpage provides information to help you understand the dose quantities being reported to you on your Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report. If you would like general information about radiation exposure, please refer to www.radiationanswers.org. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835), requires assessment, recording and reporting of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or radioactive contamination. This includes assessing external exposure from a variety of radiation types, such as, beta, photon, and neutron radiation. External exposures may be uniform over the whole body or occur in a non-uniform (i.e., limited body location) fashion. Internal doses occur when radioactive material is taken into the body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption or wounds. The requirements include assessing doses to the whole body, skin, lens of the eyes, extremities and various organs and tissues.

420

Effect of radiation on the response of dental pulp to operative and endodontic procedures: an experimental study  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six 56-day-old male Sprague-Dawley albino rats served as two groups of experimental animals. Group 1 was irradiated with 400 rads delivered as total-body radiation from a cesium source. Group 2 served as the control group and was not irradiated. Three weeks later, the dental microscope was used to facilitate various dental procedures in both groups of animals (cavity preparation filled with zinc oxide-eugenol, pulp exposure capped with zinc oxide-eugenol, and pulp exposure left open). Two animals for each procedure from Groups 1 and 2 were killed at time intervals of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The results showed that (1) radiation at this dose resulted in a depression of the normal response of the dental pulp to the trauma and infection induced by pulpal exposure, (2) there were no pathologic changes in the untreated molars of the irradiated animals, and (3) the use of the dental microscope greatly facilitated cavity preparation in the molars of rats.

Fawzi, M.I.; Shklar, G.; Krakow, A.A.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Quantum Theory of Synchroton Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The classical relativistic expression for the synchrotron radiation spectrum has been generalized to include quantum corrections up to second order in ??/E [1]. The modifications can be traced to the discrete ...

Heimo G. Latal

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function of human skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function...Stanford, CA 94305 The ubiquitous presence of solar UV radiation in human life is essential for...defense against environmental exposures like solar UV radiation, and its effects on UV targets...

Krysta Biniek; Kemal Levi; Reinhold H. Dauskardt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Effect of Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy on the Risk of Mucositis During Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To define the roles of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the risk of Grade 3+ mucositis during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: 164 consecutive patients treated with IMRT at two institutions in nonoverlapping treatment eras were selected. All patients were treated with a dose painting approach, three dose levels, and comprehensive bilateral neck treatment under the supervision of the same radiation oncologist. Ninety-three patients received concomitant chemotherapy (cCHT) and 14 received induction chemotherapy (iCHT). Individual information of the dose received by the oral mucosa (OM) was extracted as absolute cumulative dose-volume histogram (DVH), corrected for the elapsed treatment days and reported as weekly (w) DVH. Patients were seen weekly during treatment, and peak acute toxicity equal to or greater than confluent mucositis at any point during the course of IMRT was considered the endpoint. Results: Overall, 129 patients (78.7%) reached the endpoint. The regions that best discriminated between patients with/without Grade 3+ mucositis were found at 10.1 Gy/w (V10.1) and 21 cc (D21), along the x-axis and y-axis of the OM-wDVH, respectively. On multivariate analysis, D21 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.016, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.009-1.023, p < 0.001) and cCHT (OR = 4.118, 95% CI, 1.659-10.217, p = 0.002) were the only independent predictors. However, V10.1 and D21 were highly correlated (rho = 0.954, p < 0.001) and mutually interchangeable. cCHT would correspond to 88.4 cGy/w to at least 21 cc of OM. Conclusions: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy act independently in determining acute mucosal toxicity; cCHT increases the risk of mucosal Grade 3 toxicity Almost-Equal-To 4 times over radiation therapy alone, and it is equivalent to an extra Almost-Equal-To 6.2 Gy to 21 cc of OM over a 7-week course.

Sanguineti, Giuseppe, E-mail: gsangui1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sormani, Maria Pia [Department of Biostatistics, University of Genoa (Italy); Marur, Shanthi [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gunn, G. Brandon; Rao, Nikhil; Cianchetti, Marco [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Ricchetti, Francesco; McNutt, Todd; Wu Binbin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Forastiere, Arlene [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Designing Radiation Resistance in Materials for Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

Proposed fusion and advanced (Generation IV) fission energy systems require high performance materials capable of satisfactory operation up to neutron damage levels approaching 200 atomic displacements per atom with large amounts of transmutant hydrogen and helium isotopes. After a brief overview of fusion reactor concepts and radiation effects phenomena in structural and functional (non-structural) materials, three fundamental options for designing radiation resistance are outlined: Utilize matrix phases with inherent radiation tolerance, select materials where vacancies are immobile at the design operating temperatures, or construct high densities of point defect recombination sinks. Environmental and safety considerations impose several additional restrictions on potential materials systems, but reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (including thermomechanically treated and oxide dispersion strengthened options) and silicon carbide ceramic composites emerge as robust structural materials options. Materials modeling (including computational thermodynamics) and advanced manufacturing methods are poised to exert a major impact in the next ten years.

Zinkle, Steven J [University of Tennessee (UT)] [University of Tennessee (UT); Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Extension of the semi-empirical correlation for the effects of pipe diameter and internal surface roughness on the decompression wave speed to include High Heating Value Processed Gas mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The decompression wave speed, which is used throughout the pipeline industry in connection with the Battelle two-curve method for the control of propagating ductile fracture, is typically calculated using GASDECOM (GAS DECOMpression). GASDECOM, developed in the 1970's, idealizes the decompression process as isentropic and one-dimensional, taking no account of pipe wall frictional effects or pipe diameter. Previous shock tube tests showed that decompression wave speeds in smaller diameter and rough pipes are consistently slower than those predicted by GASDECOM for the same conditions of mixture composition and initial pressure and temperature. Previous analysis based on perturbation theory and the fundamental momentum equation revealed a correction term to be subtracted from the ‘idealized’ value of the decompression speed calculated by GASDECOM. One parameter in this correction term involves a dynamic spatial pressure gradient of the outflow at the rupture location. While this is difficult to obtain without a shock tube or actual rupture test, data from 14 shock tube tests, as well as from 14 full scale burst tests involving a variety of gas mixture compositions, were analyzed to correlate the variation of this pressure gradient with two characteristics of the gas mixture, namely; the molecular weight and the higher heating value (HHV). For lean to moderately-rich gas mixes, the developed semi-empirical correlation was found to fit very well the experimentally determined decompression wave speed curve. For extremely rich gas mixes, such as High Heating Value Processed Gas (HHVPG) mixtures of HHV up to 58 MJ/m3, it was found that it overestimates the correction term. Therefore, additional shock tube tests were conducted on (HHVPG) mixes, and the previously developed semi-empirical correlation was extended (revised) to account for such extremity in the richness of the gas mixtures. The newly developed semi-empirical correlation covers a wider range of natural gas mixtures from as lean as pure methane up to HHVPG mixtures of HHV = 58 MJ/m3.

K.K. Botros; L. Carlson; M. Reed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Ionizing radiation and atherosclerosis: Current knowledge and future challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The evaluation of the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation has always been a focus of debate and investigation within the scientific community. During the last decade, epidemiological studies provided evidence that an excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can be associated with moderate and low dose radiation. The precise quantification of CVD risk in the low-dose radiation range (dose below which there is no risk. A limited number of studies with imaging surrogate endpoints and cardiovascular biomarkers in asymptomatic patients revealed early signs of cardiovascular alterations, even at a low dose. In vitro studies have shown that several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, alterations of coagulation and platelet activity may have a relevant role in radiation-induced cardiovascular effects. Exposure to high-dose data in experimental models accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, predisposing to the formation of an inflammatory, thrombotic plaque phenotype, especially in animals that are genetically predisposed to this disease. On the contrary, low dose exposure produced both protective and detrimental effects, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may influence radiation-induced atherosclerosis. However, only very limited and specific information can be obtained from cell cultures and animal models. Planned studies of radiation-exposed cohorts need to be conducted to explore biological mechanisms of low-dose radiation-associated cardiovascular disease. Further investigations with functional imaging to assess vascular function and cardiovascular biomarkers have great potential for providing new insights into low-dose radiation cardiovascular risk, especially in occupational exposure and modern medicine.

Andrea Borghini; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo; Eugenio Picano; Maria Grazia Andreassi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same  

SciTech Connect

A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to stochastic hydrologic properties and flow processes.

C. Tsang

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

430

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Infrared radiation: Herschel revisited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The year 2000 marks the 200th anniversary of Herschel’s discovery of infrared radiation. Using a car light in place of the Sun and a liquid crystal sheet instead of thermometers the experiment is an effective classroom demonstration of invisible light.

Erin E. Pursell; Richard Kozlowski

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Radiation Emergency Medicine Fact Sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Global Response Improving Global Response to Radiation Emergencies Improving Radiation Emergency Response Through Education and Specialized Expertise In the event of a radiological or nuclear incident, first responders as well as hospital and emergency management personnel must call on their knowledge and training to provide immediate and effective care for victims. Through practical, hands-on education programs, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is improving global response to radiation emergencies. In addition, dedicated 24/7 deployable teams of physicians, nurses, and health physicists from the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), which is managed by ORAU for DOE/NNSA, provide expert medical management of radiological incidents

433

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Image Gallery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Image Gallery Image Gallery These are images, photographs, and charts presented or developed for Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators’ Meetings. They may be used for presentations or reports. To save, right click on the picture, then choose "Save picture as." U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 1980. various sources 1980 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 2006. various sources 2006 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources in the United States for 2006. man-made 2006 Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience (Rem) Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience

434

Effect of neutral collision and radiative heat-loss function on self-gravitational instability of viscous thermally conducting partially-ionized plasma  

SciTech Connect

The problem of thermal instability and gravitational instability is investigated for a partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations. We use normal mode analysis method in this problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Effects of collisions with neutrals, radiative heat-loss function, viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field strength, on the instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the effect of various physical parameters on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. The temperature-dependent heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field and neutral collision have stabilizing effect, while density-dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing effect on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. With the help of Routh-Hurwitz's criterion, the stability of the system is discussed.

Kaothekar, Sachin [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, Madhya Pradesh (India); Department of Physics, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain-456664, Madhya Pradesh (India); Soni, Ghanshyam D. [Government Girls Degree College, Dewas, Madhya Pradesh (India); Chhajlani, Rajendra K. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010, Madhya Pradesh (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Three-dimensional, two-species magnetohydrodynamic studies of the early time behaviors of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite G2 barium release  

SciTech Connect

We present a three-dimensional, two-species (Ba{sup +} and H{sup +}) MHD model to study the early time behaviors of a barium release at about 1 R{sub E} like Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite G2, with emphasis placed on the three-dimensional evolution of the barium cloud and its effects on the ambient plasma environment. We find that the perturbations caused by the cloud are the combined results of the initial injection, the radial expansion, and the diamagnetic effect and propagate as fast MHD waves in the magnetosphere. In return, the transverse expansion and the cross-B motion of barium ions are constrained by the magnetic force, which lead to a field-aligned striation of ions and the decoupling of these ions from the neutrals. Our simulation shows the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity in the barium cloud. The estimated time scale for the cavity evolution might be much shorter if photoionization time scale and field aligned expansion of barium ions are considered. In addition, our two species MHD simulation also finds the snowplow effect resulting from the momentum coupling between barium ions and background H{sup +}, which creates density hole and bumps in the background H{sup +} when barium ions expanding along the magnetic field lines.

Xie, Lianghai, E-mail: xielh@nssc.ac.cn; Li, Lei; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Yiteng [Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coordinately induced by UV radiation and alkylating agents...rapidly after X rays at doses as low as 2 Gy. After...isolation & purification radiation effects DNA Damage Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Genes radiation effects...

M A Papathanasiou; N C Kerr; J H Robbins; O W McBride; I Alamo Jr; S F Barrett; I D Hickson; A J Fornace Jr

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Diffraction phenomena in spontaneous and stimulated radiation by relativistic particles in crystals (Review)  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses: the dispersion characteristics of parametric x-ray radiation (PXR) and diffraction radiation of oscillator; cooperative effects in x-radiation by charged particles in crystals; and diffraction x-radiation by relativistic oscillator.

Baryshevsky, V.G. [Inst. of Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Dubovskaya, I.Ya. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

Mace, Gerald

439

Effect of {gamma}-ray radiation on electrical properties of heat-treated Tb{sub x}Sn{sub 1-x}Se single crystals  

SciTech Connect

The effect of {gamma}-ray radiation on the electrical properties of heat-treated Tb{sub 0.01}Sn{sub 0.99}Se (sample 1) and Tb{sub 0.05}Sn{sub 0.95}Se (sample 2) samples is studied. It is found that, as a result of irradiation with {gamma}-ray 1.25-MeV photons, the charge-carrier concentration decreases in the temperature range T = 77-200 K by 17 and 6.3% for samples 1 and 2, respectively. It is assumed that, in the course of irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons, terbium impurity atoms are located between sites of the crystal lattice; in addition, Frenkel defects are formed.

Huseynov, J. I., E-mail: cih_58@mail.ru; Jafarov, T. A. [Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Azerbaijan)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Calculation of collective effects and beam lifetimes for the LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source  

SciTech Connect

In designing a third-generation high brightness synchrotron radiation source, attention must be paid to the various collective effects that can influence beam performance. We report on calculations, performed with the code ZAP, of the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime (from both Touschek and gas scattering) for our 1-2 GeV storage ring. In addition, we estimate the growth times for both longitudinal and transverse coupled bunch instabilities. Bunch lengths of about 20 ps should be obtainable and intrabeam scattering emittance growth is small. For a limiting undulator gap of 1 cm and residual gas pressure of 1n Torr, the beam lifetime is about 5 hours in the single-bunch mode; in the multibunch mode, lifetimes in excess of 6 hours are expected. These results indicate that all performance goals for the facility should be achievable.

Chattopadhyay, S.; Zisman, M.S.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including radiation effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Radiation and Background Levels in a CLIC Detector due to Beam-Beam Effects Optimisation of Detector Geometries and Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The high charge density---due to small beam sizes---and the high energy of the proposed CLIC concept for a linear electron--positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3~TeV lead to the production of a large number of particles through beam-beam interactions at the interaction point during every bunch crossing (BX). A large fraction of these particles safely leaves the detector. A still significant amount of energy will be deposited in the forward region nonetheless, which will produce secondary particles able to cause background in the detector. Furthermore, some particles will be created with large polar angles and directly cause background in the tracking detectors and calorimeters. The main sources of background in the detector, either directly or indirectly, are the incoherent $mathrm{e}^{+}mathrm{e}^{-}$ pairs and the particles from $gammagamma ightarrow$ hadron events. The background and radiation levels in the detector have to be estimated, to study if a detector is feasible, that can han...

Sailer, André; Lohse, Thomas

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

442

The effect of ionizing radiation on dielectric properties of bovine achilles tendon collagen in the temperature range of thermal denaturation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ?-irradiation, with doses from 102?2×103 kGy, on the dielectric properties of solid-state collagen was studied. The temperature dependence of the constants ?? and ??' revealed a decrease in the dena...

F. Jaroszyk; E. Marzec

1994-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Study of Ultraviolet Radiation and Genotoxic Effects of Natural Sunlight in Relation to Skin Cancer in Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...supplied by the Solar Light Company, Philadelphia...UV meter measures energy between 290 and 320...sunlight varies with solar angle and atmospheric...1983. The effective energy of a sunburn unit...the International Solar Energy Society Congress...

Mohammed A. Hannan; Manik Paul; Magid H. Amer; and Farouk H. Al-Watban

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Formation with Protostellar Outflows  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of a series of AMR radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive star forming clouds using the ORION code. These simulations are the first to include the feedback effects protostellar outflows, as well as protostellar radiative heating and radiation pressure exerted on the infalling, dusty gas. We find that that outflows evacuate polar cavities of reduced optical depth through the ambient core. These enhance the radiative flux in the poleward direction so that it is 1.7 to 15 times larger than that in the midplane. As a result the radiative heating and outward radiation force exerted on the protostellar disk and infalling cloud gas in the equatorial direction are greatly diminished. The simultaneously reduces the Eddington radiation pressure barrier to high-mass star formation and increases the minimum threshold surface density for radiative heating to suppress fragmentation compared to models that do not include outflows. The strength of both these effects depends on the initial core surface density. Lower surface density cores have longer free-fall times and thus massive stars formed within them undergo more Kelvin contraction as the core collapses, leading to more powerful outflows. Furthermore, in lower surface density clouds the ratio of the time required for the outflow to break out of the core to the core free-fall time is smaller, so that these clouds are consequently influenced by outflows at earlier stages of collapse. As a result, outflow effects are strongest in low surface density cores and weakest in high surface density one. We also find that radiation focusing in the direction of outflow cavities is sufficient to prevent the formation of radiation pressure-supported circumstellar gas bubbles, in contrast to models which neglect protostellar outflow feedback.

Cunningham, A J; Klein, R I; Krumholz, M R; McKee, C F

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

445

Effects of Substerilization Doses of Co60 Gamma Radiation on the Cold-Storage Life Extension of Shucked Soft-Shelled Clams and Haddock Fillets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless...indicate that in the dose range from 400,000...

E. B. Masurovsky; S. A. Goldblith; J. T. R. Nickerson

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...samples for radiation exposure has...different types of ionizing radiation: X rays...mum, and a range of 301 mm in...mum, and a range of 99 mm in...dosimetry, and dose calculations...the dose of ionizing radiation killing 90...

Ralf Moeller; Marina Raguse; Günther Reitz; Ryuichi Okayasu; Zuofeng Li; Stuart Klein; Peter Setlow; Wayne L. Nicholson

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

<