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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

THE NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROVERSY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including observed nitrogen dioxide," Pure App. Geophys.HN0 ) and probably nitrogen dioxide (N0 ) at a few parts perorganic molecule and nitrogen dioxide. Several examples

Johnston, Harold S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

4, 23012331, 2004 Nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) were performed simul- taneously with aerosolACPD 4, 2301­2331, 2004 Nitrogen oxides measurements in an Amazon site A. M. Cordova et al. Title and Physics Discussions Nitrogen oxides measurements in an Amazon site and enhancements associated with a cold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

red power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is one of the sixeffects, including nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ground-levelgradually oxidized to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) once emitted

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethane BackgroundFacilityOther Aircraft CampaignsOxides

5

Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

Skinn, Brian Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

Apel, W.A.

1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

7

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

9

Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

Lauterbach, Jochen (Newark, DE); Snively, Christopher M. (Clarks Summit, PA); Vijay, Rohit (Annandale, NJ); Hendershot, Reed (Breinigsville, PA); Feist, Ben (Newark, DE)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

11

Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

Haak, Hein

12

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

14

Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

15

Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

16

Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

Rochelle, Gary T.

17

Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

Li, Sonny X.

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

KINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the conversion of nitrogen oxides,1,2,4-10 sulfur dioxide,11 and volatile organic car- bons.12 Despite itsKINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures: NOx in Nitrogen Gui-Bing Zhao, Xudong Hu, Man-Chung Yeung, Ovid A. Plumb,§ and Maciej Radosz

Yeung, Man-Chung

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Assessment of soil nitrogen oxides emissions and implementation in LOTOS-EUROS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the formation and transport of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter and other species throughout EuropeAssessment of soil nitrogen oxides emissions and implementation in LOTOS-EUROS Date 18 March 2013, climate and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen availability is in turn determined by N-deposition from

Haak, Hein

22

Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

Reynolds, J.G.

1993-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient nitric oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxides (NOx)." Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. While... . Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known...

24

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxygen react to give nitrogen dioxide, which rapidly reactsis simultaneous, the nitrogen dioxide formed reacts withaccomplished by absorbing nitrogen dioxide in water, usually

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

27

Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have experimentally measured that laser filaments in air generate up to 10{sup 14}, 3x10{sup 12}, and 3x10{sup 13} molecules of O{sub 3}, NO, and NO{sub 2}, respectively. The corresponding local concentrations in the filament active volume are 10{sup 16}, 3x10{sup 14}, and 3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, and allows efficient oxidative chemistry of nitrogen, resulting in concentrations of HNO{sub 3} in the parts per million range. The latter forming binary clusters with water, our results provide a plausible pathway for the efficient nucleation recently observed in laser filaments.

Petit, Yannick; Henin, Stefano; Kasparian, Jerome; Wolf, Jean-Pierre [GAP Biophotonics, Universite de Geneve, 20 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, CH1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland)

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

The effects of nitrogen oxides on cytochrome P-450 mediated mixed-function oxidations in mammalian lung  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN OXIDES ON CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATIONS IN ~IAN IUNG A Thesis by LEO DEAN TUCKER, II Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Biology THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN OXIDES ON CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATIONS IN MAMMALIAN LUNG A Thesis by LEO DEAN TUCKER, II Approved as to style and content by...

Tucker, Leo Dean

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hypersonic reentry vehicles. In the Earth's atmosphere, oxygen and nitrogen atoms are generated in the shock1 Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms Dusan A. Pejakovi from the recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on quartz. The experiments employ two-photon laser

Martn, Pino

30

Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

Pence, Dallas T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

32

Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

33

Method of removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of removing nitrogen oxides (NOX) from exhaust gas mixtures is described. The removal of NOX from exhaust gas mixtures is accomplished by exposing the exhaust gas mixture, in a manner that does not substantially impede the gas flow, to a ceramic material containing from about 75% to about 95% by weight silicon carbide and from about 0.3% to about 10.0% silica. A reduction of at least 85% of NOX from the mixture is to be expected and reductions up to 95 to 100% are attainable. Ceramic mixtures containing silicon nitride in amounts between about 10% and about 30% are found to reduce the amount of NOX in exhaust gases at temperatures as low as 200* C.

Batha, H.D.; Mason, J.H.; Thompson, S.R.

1980-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

34

Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

McGill, R.N.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

35

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Lin Sun B.S. Chemistry, Peking University, China: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Lin Sun Submitted

36

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ace079mukundan2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

37

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2014: Robust Nitrogen oxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines...

38

Nitrogen oxides removal by pulsed corona enhanced wet electrostatics precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a bench-scale pulsed-corona enhanced wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) application for removal of nitrogen oxides. This wESP is designed to operate wet/dry, positive/negative, and pulsed/non-pulsed conditions. The applied pulsed voltage is varied from 0 to 60 kV at 70 Hz. Gas flow rate is a nominal 7 m{sup 3}/hr and the collecting electrode area is 0.20 m{sup 2}. A simulated flue gas with NO concentration up to 1,200 ppm{sub v} has been used to determine the feasibility of NO{sub x} removal in the wESP. NO has to be oxidized to N{sub 2} before any removal takes place. NO{sub x} removal efficiency increased with gas residence time, inlet NO concentration and applied corona power. In the air stream with 10 seconds gas residence time, up to 20% of 1,000 ppm NO (or 22% NO{sub x}) was removed from an air stream of 1.9x10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3}/s with a water flow of 6.3 x 10{sup {minus}5} m{sup 3}/sec and 20 W, 70 Hz pulsed corona. Both ammonia and ozone injections improve the NO{sub x} removal for both the corona and non-corona cases. With the inclusion of NH{sub 3} (NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio 1.3) and 25 watts corona power, NO removal efficiency was increased from 28% to 57%. The amount of in-situ ozone is not enough to be considered as a major NO{sub x} removal mechanism in this wESP. However, the additional injection of ozone improves the NO removal from 29% to 38% for both the corona and non-corona cases. When the oxygen concentration is dropped to 3% in a simulated flue gas with 12% CO{sub 2} and 800 ppm NO and 70% relative humidity at 11.5 s of gas residence time, the removal efficiency of NO is only 5%. Adding NH{sub 3} (NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio 1) at 76 watts corona power, NO removal is increased to 13%.

Tseng, C.H.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

TITLE: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Types and Rates and Irrigation on Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Turfgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1). The effects of drought were also evident in clippings biomass, which was 61 to 70% less in dry28 TITLE: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Types and Rates and Irrigation on Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in concentrations of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas, and agriculture is considered a significant

40

Dissimilatory Metabolism of Nitrogen Oxides in Bacteria:Comparative Reconstruction of Transcriptional Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bacterial response to nitric oxide (NO) is of major importance since NO is an obligatory intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. Transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is diverse and involves FNR-like transcription factors HcpR, DNR and NnrR, two-component systems NarXL and NarQP, NO-responsive activator NorR, and nitrite sensitive repressor NsrR. Using comparative genomics approaches we predict DNA-binding signals for these transcriptional factors and describe corresponding regulons in available bacterial genomes. Within the FNR family of regulators, we observed a correlation of two specificity-determining amino acids and contacting bases in corresponding DNA signal. Highly conserved regulon HcpR for the hybrid cluster protein and some other redox enzymes is present in diverse anaerobic bacteria including Clostridia, Thermotogales and delta-proteobacteria. NnrR and DNR control denitrification in alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, respectively. Sigma-54-dependent NorR regulon found in some gamma- and beta-proteobacteria contains various enzymes involved in the NO detoxification. Repressor NsrR, which was previously known to control only nitrite reductase operon in Nitrosomonas spp., appears to be the master regulator of the nitric oxides metabolism not only in most gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (including well-studied species like Escherichia coli), but also in Gram-positive Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Positional analysis and comparison of regulatory regions of NO detoxification genes allows us to propose the candidate NsrR-binding signal. The most conserved member of the predicted NsrR regulon is the NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp. In enterobacteria, the regulon includes also two nitrite-responsive loci, nipAB (hcp-hcr) and nipC(dnrN), thus confirming the identity of the effector, i.e., nitrite. The proposed NsrR regulons in Neisseria and some other species are extended to include denitrification genes. As the result, we demonstrate considerable interconnection between various nitrogen-oxides-responsive regulatory systems for the denitrification and NO detoxification genes and evolutionary plasticity of this transcriptional network.

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, EricJ.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns NO + NO2), and combine these with a priori information from a bottom- up emission inventory (with error and a factor of 2 over remote regions. We derive a top-down NOx emission inventory from the GOME data by using

Chance, Kelly

42

Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the staged combustion of the LCV gas, hydrocarbons are oxidized during the Erst stage mto CO, COz, and HtO. A portion of thc CO and Hz gases contained in the LCV gas are converted to CO z and HzO, espctively, daring this Sist stage. The remaining CO and H z...

Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Oxidation of heterocyclic nitrogen yields to nitroheterocycles. [Nitrofurazans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the process of finding new routes to synthesize nitrofurazans the investigators compared the oxidation of a sulfilimide and a phosphine imine derived from 3-amino-4-(chlorophenyl)furazan (1). The sulfilimine, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-dimethyl-sulfiliminofurazan (2), was prepared by treating 1 with dimethyl sulfide ditriflate. Oxidation of 1 with peroxytrifluoroacetic acid (ptfa) in dichloromethane gave a mixture that was chromatographed to give 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4- nitro-furazan (5) in 11% yield and azoxy(4-chlorophenylfurazan) (6) in 32% yield. Under the same conditions, 2 gave a 96% yield of 5 with no trace of 6. Oxidation of diaminofurazan (7) with ptfa gives 3-amino-4-nitrofurazan (8), which was converted to the sulfilimine. Treatment of the sulfilimine with anhydrous ptfa in dichloromethane gave a solution that contained dimethyl sulfone according to /sup 13/C-NMR analysis, but no nitrocarbon could be detected. However, the /sup 14/N-NMR spectrum contained a very sharp singlet with a width at half-height of 19 Hz and a chemical shift almost identical to that of 5. Thus, it appears that we may have formed dinitrofurazan in solution, but we have not been able to isolate it in pure form as yet. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Coburn, M.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Effect of adding nitrogen on the yield of hydrogen cyanide in oxidative ammonolysis of methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of an empirical model of the process of oxidative ammonolysis of methane, a study was made of the effect of adding nitrogen to the initial methane-ammonia-air mixture. In the general case, the N{sub 2} introduction was shown to decrease the autothermal temperature of the synthesis, though at small flows of the initial mixture some increase in t{sub conv} is possible. An explanation of this phenomenon was proposed.

Grin, G.I.; Trusov, N.V.; Dmitriev, N.M.

1994-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Dynamic Incompressible Navier-Stokes Model of Catalytic Converter in 1-D Including Fundamental Oxidation Reaction Rate Expressions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this work includes the history of the fundamental reactions of automotive catalysts including carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2) and nitric oxide (NO) oxidation on a widely used material formulation (platinum catalyst on alumina washcoat). A detailed report...

Loya, Sudarshan Kedarnath

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

Ho, Min-Da.

1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

47

KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clarified the role of aqueous-phase production of strong acids in the atmosphere. Oxidation of dissolvedKINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ) are the precursors of the strong acids (i.e., HzS04 and HN03) found in precipitation,! the detailed mechanisms

Schwartz, Stephen E.

48

Direct deposition of aluminum oxide gate dielectric on graphene channel using nitrogen plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deposition of high-quality dielectric on a graphene channel is an essential technology to overcome structural constraints for the development of nano-electronic devices. In this study, we investigated a method for directly depositing aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on a graphene channel through nitrogen plasma treatment. The deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on graphene demonstrated excellent dielectric properties with negligible charge trapping and de-trapping in the gate insulator. A top-gate-structural graphene transistor was fabricated using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the gate dielectric with nitrogen plasma treatment on graphene channel region, and exhibited p-type transistor characteristics.

Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Dongchool; Ju, Sanghyun [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nitrogen oxide stack sampling at the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On November 7, 1997, the EPA proposed a Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan Call (NO{sub x} SIP Call) for 22 states in the Eastern US which included the state of Tennessee. This initial proposal was followed by proposed statewide NO{sub x} budgets in the May 11, 1998, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. In the development of the NO{sub x} SIP Call, EPA performed a number of air quality analyses and determined that NO{sub x} emissions from Tennessee should be reduced. Industrial boilers, turbines, stationary internal combustion engines, and cement manufacturing are the only non-electric generating unit sources for which reductions are assumed in the budget calculation. Emission reductions are required if specific source heat input capacity is greater than 250 million Btu per hour. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes pulverized coal fired boilers each rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 298 million Btu per hour, and will therefore be impacted by these regulatory actions. Each boiler is equipped with two pulverizing mills. Coal or natural gas or a combination of these two fuels may be fired. This paper provides the results of NO{sub x} emission stack testing conducted June 15--21, 1999, on the Y-12 Steam Plant Boilers 1 and 2. Measurements of oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and stack gas flow were also performed. Information gained from these stack tests will be used to determine NO{sub x} emission control strategies for the steam plant for compliance with future emission requirements resulting from the NO{sub x} SIP Call.

L.V. Gibson, jr.; M.P. Humphreys; J.M. Skinner

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complexes between nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, nitrous1992) Indoor ozone and nitrogen dioxide: A potential pathwaybed of SiO 2 pellets. Nitrogen dioxide is introduced from a

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. , (2008a). Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions fromstudy of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratoryand modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. All

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Catalytic and stoichiometric bromination of aromatic compounds in aqueous trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mono- and polybromination of benzene, halogenobenzenes, toluene, p-xylene, anisole, biphenyl, benzotrifluoride, benzoic acid, p-nitro- and p-carboxytoluene, p-methoxybenzonitrile, tetralin, and naphthalene were studied in trifluoroacetic acid and its aqueous solutions in systems containing stoichiometric amounts of bromine or alkali-metal bromide and stoichiometric or catalytic (in the presence of oxygen or air) amounts of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent (nitrogen(IV) oxide, alkali-metal nitrate or nitrite). It is suggested that the brominating agent under the investigated conditions is nitryl bromide NO/sub 2/Br. Under the conditions of catalytic bromination anthracene is oxidized to anthraquinone with a preparative yield.

Cheprakov, A.V.; Makhon'kov, D.I.; Rodkin, M.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

1988-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

53

Nitrogen oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality regulations may not effectively target a large source of fine, organic particle pollutants that contribute to hazy skies and poor air quality over the Los Angeles region. See also:

Tropospheric Ozone

54

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, it was planned to investigate the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and to obtain data on the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane. The investigation of the reaction mechanism will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations. The last component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long- term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the second year of the project, the catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than rhodium on the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study; the effectiveness of the promoter increases with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. The TPD profiles of the unpromoted catalyst (Cu/Ce=3) is different than those promoted with 0.1% rhodium. In the current reporting period, the screening of the promoted catalysts were completed, sufficient amount of the selected catalysts were prepared and delivered to TDA for long term deactivation testing.

Dr. Ates Akyurlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

55

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process #12;#include #include pid_t pid = fork(); if (pid () failed */ } else if (pid == 0) { /* parent process */ } else { /* child process */ } #12;thread #12

Campbell, Andrew T.

56

Field emission effects of nitrogenated carbon nanotubes on chlorination and oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With reference to our recent reports [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 192107 (2007); Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202102 (2007)] about the electronic structure of chlorine treated and oxygen-plasma treated nitrogenated carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs), here we studied the electron field emission effects on chlorination (N-CNT:Cl) and oxidation (N-CNT:O) of N-CNT. A high current density (J) of 15.0 mA/cm{sup 2} has been achieved on chlorination, whereas low J of 0.0052 mA/cm{sup 2} is observed on oxidation compared to J=1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} for untreated N-CNT at an applied electric field E{sub A} of {approx}1.9 V/{mu}m. The turn-on electric field (E{sub TO}) was {approx}0.875. The 1.25 V/{mu}m was achieved for N-CNT:Cl and N-CNT:O, respectively, with respect to E{sub TO}=1.0 V/{mu}m for untreated one. These findings are due to the formation of different bonds with carbon and nitrogen in the N-CNT during the process of chlorine (oxygen)-plasma treatment by the charge transfer, or else that changes the density of free charge carriers and hence enhances (reduces) the field emission properties of N-CNTs:Cl (N-CNTs:O)

Ray, S. C.; Palnitkar, U.; Pao, C. W.; Tsai, H. M.; Pong, W. F.; Lin, I-N. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [NRI, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, County Antrim BT37OQB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ganguly, Abhijit; Chen, L. C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, K. H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

Wong, Ming-Show (Northbrook, IL); Li, Dong (Evanston, IL); Chung, Yip-Wah (Wilmette, IL); Sproul, William D. (Palantine, IL); Chu, Xi (Evanston, IL); Barnett, Scott A. (Evanston, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

Wong, Ming-Show (Northbrook, IL); Li, Dong (Evanston, IL); Chung, Yin-Wah (Wilmette, IL); Sproul, William D. (Palantine, IL); Chu, Xi (Evanston, IL); Barnett, Scott A. (Evanston, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Xi Chu; Barnett, S.A.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

60

Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Chu, X.; Barnett, S.A.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Lott, Stephen E. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Steven J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#include #include //Rappels : "getpid()" permet d'obtenir son propre pid // "getppid()" renvoie le pid du père d'un processus int main (void) { pid_t pid_fils; pid_fils = fork(); if(pid_fils==-1) { printf("Erreur de création du processus fils\

Poinsot, Laurent

63

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Preliminary evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with ammonia, but indicated low selectivity when methane was used as the reductant. Since the replacement of ammonia by another reductant is commercially very attractive, in this project, four research components will be undertaken. The investigation of the reaction mechanism, the first component, will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations (second component). If this research is successful, the combined SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal process based on alumina-supported copper oxide-ceria sorbent/catalysts will become very attractive for commercial applications. The objective of the third component of the project is to develop an alternative SCR process using another inexpensive fuel, residual fuel oil, instead of natural gas. This innovative proposal is based on very scant evidence concerning the good performance of coked catalysts in the selective reduction of NO and if proven to work the process will certainly be commercially viable. The fourth component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long-term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the first year of the project, the catalysts were investigated by the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) technique. The results from TPR indicated that the interaction with support appears to promote reduction at lower temperatures. Copper oxide in excess of monolayer coverage reduces at temperatures close to the reduction temperature of the unsupported copper oxide. Increased dispersion increases the support effect. Low activity of ceria in NO reduction may be due to its resistance to reduction at low temperatures.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Eddy-covariance observations of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Kesselmeier, J. : Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) uptake byM. : Leaf uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in a tropicalMorikawa, H. : Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide gas is a plant

Min, Kyung-Eun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Nitrogen spark denoxer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

Ng, Henry K. (Naperville, IL); Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Preliminary evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with ammonia, but indicated low selectivity when methane was used as the reductant. Since the replacement of ammonia by another reductant is commercially very attractive, in this project, four research components will be undertaken. The investigation of the reaction mechanism, the first component, will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations (second component). If this research is successful, the combined SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal process based on alumina-supported copper oxide-ceria sorbent/catalysts will become very attractive for commercial applications. The objective of the third component of the project is to develop an alternative SCR process using another inexpensive fuel, residual fuel oil, instead of natural gas. This innovative proposal is based on very scant evidence concerning the good performance of coked catalysts in the selective reduction of NO and if proven to work the process will certainly be commercially viable. The fourth component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long- term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the second year of the project, the catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than rhodium on the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study; the effectiveness of the promoter increases with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. The TPD profiles of the unpromoted catalyst (Cu/Ce=3) is different than those promoted with 0.1% rhodium.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on highly dispersed technetium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to study, in infrared spectroscopy, the surface compounds formed on adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on Tc/SiO/sub 2/. The samples were prepared by soaking Aerosil with aqueous solution of ammonium pertechnetate containing 10 wt.% of Tc. Reduction with hydrogen to the metal was carried out at 700-800/sup 0/C. Results indicated that chemisorption of CO on highly dispersed technetium gives rise to a single type of linear and several types of multicentered adsorption forms. Occurrence of bridge form of adsorbed CO was also suggested on the basis of the data on chemisorption stoichiometry. Formation of a structure characterizable by absorption at 1790 cm/sup -1/ may indicate, only after protracted analysis, that the surface of the technetium introduced gradually suffers significant rearrangement facilitating formation of this type of complexes.

Serebryakova, N.V.; Sokolova, N.P.; Spitsyn, V.S.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 7, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

69

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane was investigated. Unpromoted and promoted catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than the other metals (Rh, Li, K, Na, Zn, and Sn) for the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study. The effectiveness of the promoter increased with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. Among the catalysts tested, the Cu1Ce3 catalyst promoted with 1 weight % Mn was found to be the best catalyst for the SCR of NO with methane. This catalyst was subjected to long-term testing at the facilities of our industrial partner TDA Research. TDA report indicated that the performance of this catalyst did not deteriorate during 100 hours of operation and the activity and selectivity of the catalyst was not affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. The conversions obtained by TDA were significantly lower than those obtained at Hampton University due to the transport limitations on the reaction rate in the TDA reactor, in which 1/8th inch pellets were used while the Hampton University reactor contained 250-425-{micro}m catalyst particles. The selected catalyst was also tested at the TDA facilities with high-sulfur heavy oil as the reducing agent. Depending on the heavy oil flow rate, up to 100% NO conversions were obtained. The temperature programmed desorption studies a strong interaction between manganese and cerium. Presence of manganese not only enhanced the reduction rate of NO by methane, but also significantly improved the N{sub 2} selectivity. To increase the activity of the Mn-promoted catalyst, the manganese content of the catalyst need to be optimized and different methods of catalyst preparation and different reactor types need to be investigated to lower the transport limitations in the reactor.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

ODD NITROGEN PROCESSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including observed nitrogen dioxide, Pure Appl. Geophys,Stratosphere Observation of Nitrogen Dioxide Rates of Ozoneby photolysis of nitrogen dioxide and regeneration of ozone:

Johnston, Harold S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman Nitrogen dioxide: Less than 5% of the NOx BUT with an outstanding peak for the 2007 MY in Fresno 0. Nitrogen dioxide: less than 5% of NOx except the Fresno fleet containing the 2007 Sprinter ambulances. #12;

Denver, University of

72

System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

73

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

74

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

Martin, Katherine C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Reducing the contribution of the power sector to ground-level ozone pollution : an assessment of time-differentiated pricing of nitrogen oxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a prevalent air pollutant across the United States and a requisite precursor for tropospheric (ground-level) ozone formation. Both pollutants significantly impact human health and welfare, so National ...

Craig, Michael T. (Michael Timothy)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

79

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Catalyst support of mixed cerium zirconium titanium oxide, including use and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A durable catalyst support/catalyst is capable of extended water gas shift operation under conditions of high temperature, pressure, and sulfur levels. The support is a homogeneous, nanocrystalline, mixed metal oxide of at least three metals, the first being cerium, the second being Zr, and/or Hf, and the third importantly being Ti, the three metals comprising at least 80% of the metal constituents of the mixed metal oxide and the Ti being present in a range of 5% to 45% by metals-only atomic percent of the mixed metal oxide. The mixed metal oxide has an average crystallite size less than 6 nm and forms a skeletal structure with pores whose diameters are in the range of 4-9 nm and normally greater than the average crystallite size. The surface area of the skeletal structure per volume of the material of the structure is greater than about 240 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. The method of making and use are also described.

Willigan, Rhonda R. (Manchester, CT); Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry (Glastonbury, CT); Tulyani, Sonia (Manchester, CT); Radhakrishnan, Rakesh (Vernon, CT); Opalka, Susanne Marie (Glastonbury, CT); Emerson, Sean C. (Broad Brook, CT)

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

83

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

87

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDES OF NITROGEN Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2) Nitrous Oxide (NFigure 7. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (by AiResearch(8)) . Nitrogen dioxide emissions from a

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

91

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded research of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of bothZevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen 4.1 Introduction Probably the most damaging of the hazardous nitrogen compounds formed during combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen

Zevenhoven, Ron

94

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of bothZevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen 4.1 Introduction Probably the most damaging of the hazardous nitrogen compounds formed during combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen

Laughlin, Robert B.

95

Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by fluidized bed gasification at temperatures below the 1090 K (1500 F) ash fusion temperatur es. Subsequent burning of the LCV gas r esulted in the same type of severe slagging, fouling, and cor r osion pr oblems as wer e encounter ed dur ing combustion... concentrations during fuel rich combustion, can also fix N2 to give CN and HCN (Fenimore, 1971), thus contributing to the amount of fixed nitrogen available for the fuel NOx path. NOx formed by this path, suggested by Fenimore (1971), is known as "prompt...

Finch, Stanley Frank

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

Kimm, L.T.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Flow reactor experiments on the selective non-catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?CO, and H, O are initially present in exhaust stream [57]. .. . . . 42 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Reaction path diagram for RAPRENOx process [63]. .. . Reduction of nitric oxide as a function of temperature, concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and water... the influence of carbon monoxide [89]. . . . . . . . . 58 Fig. 28 Effect of residence time on the NOxOUT process as a function of temperature, NO(initial)=125ppm, 0-ratio of 4 [90]. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Fig. 29 Ammonia slip as a function...

Gentemann, Alexander M.G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtle

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-34 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the nitric oxide emission, the laughing gas emission at fluidized bed combustion must be accounted for too fluidized bed combustion, where the interaction between gas and particles is more intensive than in bubbling fluidized bed combustion In fluidized bed combustion, the combustion takes place in a bed of particles

Laughlin, Robert B.

102

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-35 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the nitric oxide emission, the laughing gas emission at fluidized bed combustion must be accounted for too fluidized bed combustion, where the interaction between gas and particles is more intensive than in bubbling fluidized bed combustion In fluidized bed combustion, the combustion takes place in a bed of particles

Zevenhoven, Ron

103

Zinc Thiolate Reactivity toward Nitrogen Oxides: Insights into the Interaction of Zn[superscript 2+] with S-Nitrosothiols and Implications for Nitric Oxide Synthase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zinc thiolate complexes containing N[subscript 2]S tridentate ligands were prepared to investigate their reactivity toward reactive nitrogen species, chemistry proposed to occur at the zinc tetracysteine thiolate site of ...

Kozhukh, Julia

104

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

Aulich, Ted R. (Grand Forks, ND); Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Jiang, Junhua (Grand Forks, ND)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

106

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen oxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen...

107

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude dependent. Measurements at one altitude, for example at the ground, where most air quality monitoring stations are located, are not representative for the rest of the NBL. Our model also revealed that radical chemistry is, in general, altitude dependent at night. We distinguish three regions: an unreactive, NO rich, ground layer; an upper, O3 and NO3 dominated layer, and a reactive mixing layer, where RO2 radicals are mixed from aloft with NO from the ground. In this reactive layer an active radical chemistry and elevated OH radical levels can be found. The downward transport of N2O5 and HO2NO2, followed by their thermal decay, was also identified as a radical source in this layer. Our observations also gave insight into the formation of HONO in the NBL. Based on our field experiments we were able to show that the NO2 to HONO conversion was relative humidity dependent. While this fact was well known, we found that it is most likely the uptake of HONO onto surfaces which is R.H. dependent, rather than the NO2 to HONO conversion. This finding led to the proposal of a new NO2 to HONO conversion mechanism, which is based on solid physical chemical principles. Noteworthy is also the observation of enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion during a dust storm event in Phoenix. The final activity in our project investigated the influence of the urban canopy, i.e. building walls and surfaces, on nocturnal chemistry. For the first time the surface area of a city was determined based on a Geographical Information System database of the city of Santa Monica. The surface to volume areas found in this study showed that, in the 2 lower part of the NBL, buildings provide a much larger surface area than the aerosol. In addition, buildings take up a considerable amount of the volume near the ground. The expansion of our model and sensitivity studies based on the Santa Monica data revealed that the surface area of buildings considerably influences HONO levels in urban areas. The volume reduction leads to a decrease of O3 and an increase of NO2 near the ground due to the stronger impact o

Jochen Stutz

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual nitric oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen... of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of both... O emissions at coal...

110

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects nitric oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen... of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of both... O emissions at coal...

111

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, ammonia and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.) ~Indirect: Phosphorus in excess causes eutrophication

Toohey, Darin W.

112

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

NONE

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

124

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

125

Field Demonstration of 0.2 Grams Per Horsepower-Hour (g/bhp-hr) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Natural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) which includes the Los Angeles and Long Beach ports, reduce engine fuel consumption, and add another technology available to meet the 2010 standards for new and to reduce the cost and promote the availability of non-petroleum fuels per the Energy Action Plan 2005 by

126

Personal and Ambient Air Pollution is Associated with Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1994. Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide: Method 6014. In:Molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide induced epithelialEC, OC), and 24-hr nitrogen dioxide. Ambient exposures

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

John E. Pinkerton [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Quality Program

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

6/4/2013 Page 1 of 12 Nitrogen Dioxide SOP Standard Operating Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/4/2013 Page 1 of 12 Nitrogen Dioxide SOP Standard Operating Procedures Nitrogen Dioxide and Nitric Oxide Print a copy and insert into your laboratory the precautions and safe handling procedures for the use of Nitrogen Dioxide

Cohen, Ronald C.

129

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

130

Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

133

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more ofVOCduring the calendar year and...

134

The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - aox total nitrogen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

appropriate environmental controls been applied? Summary: to the environment of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total particulate matter, mercury, absorbable organic...

136

Nitrogen-incorporation induced changes in the microstructure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the microstructure of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films. Abstract: Nitrogen doped tungsten oxide (WO3) films were grown by reactive magnetron sputter-deposition by varying the...

137

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and absolute contributions of nitric acid (HNO3) and NOx (nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) to totalTropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest A thesis. Steven C. Wofsy Cassandra Volpe Horii Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition

139

On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous acid (HONO) produced by internalOn-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities G A R Y measurements of reactive nitrogen compounds from light-duty vehicles. At the San Jose and wLA sites

Denver, University of

140

Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

Harris, Eliza

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Implementing a Time-and Location-Differentiated Cap-and-Trade Program: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Katherine C. Martin B.A., Physics Reed College Oxide Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Katherine C. Martin Submitted

de Weck, Olivier L.

142

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

143

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

144

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Semiannual report, Apr 1, 1998--Oct 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823--900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures. The sorbents consisting of cerium oxide and copper oxide impregnated on alumina have been prepared and characterized. Their sulfation performance has been investigated in a TGA setup, studying mainly the effects of temperature and sorbent composition. The results of the sulfation experiments have been evaluated and presented in this report. A study to model the sulfation selectivity of the two constituents of the sorbents is also underway.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

High-nitrogen explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Quantum-chemical investigation of the interaction of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with the Lewis acid sites of aluminium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the framework of the cluster approximation, using covalent and ionic models of Lewis acid sites of aluminumoxide, their electronic structure, as well as that of complexes of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with them, was calculated. It was shown that the Lewis acid sites, representing a truncated tetrahedron, exhibit stronger electron-acceptor properties than the corresponding sites in the form of a truncated octahedron. For both molecules, the linear form of adsorption is energetically more profitable than the T-shaped form. The results obtained by the nonempirical SCF MO LCAO method in the STO-3GF basis and by semiempirical methods in CNDO/2 and INDO approximatations, are qualitatively the same.

Senchenya, I.N.; Chuvylkin, N.D.; Kazanskii, V.B.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Lignite-based nitrogenous fertilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sample of lignite from Elbistan was oxidized by nitric acid in two stages, using relatively dilute acid in the first stage and concentrated acid in the second stage, and then the oxidized product was ammoniated so that a coal-based fertilizer could be produced. The experiments of all the stages were designed by a 1/2 X full factorial design. It was observed that base exchange capacity and nitrogen content of coal-based fertilizers produced in this work were as good as or better than those obtained by other investigators.

Baris, H.; Dincer, S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fe-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (PILC) catalysts were prepared and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by ammonia. They were also characterized for surface area, pore size distribution, and by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and FT-IR methods. The Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts showed high activities in the reduction of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3} in the presence of excess oxygen. SO{sub 2} further increased the catalytic activities at above 350 C, whereas H{sub 2}O decreased the activity slightly. The catalysts were about twice as active as commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Moreover, compared to the commercial catalyst, the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts had higher N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O product selectivities (e.g., 0--1% vs 9% N{sub 2}O at 400 C) and substantially lower activities (by 74--88%) for SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3} under the same reaction conditions. The activity was further increased to over three times that of the vanadia-based catalyst when Ce was added. The high activity and low N{sub 2}O selectivity for the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were attributed to their low activity in the oxidation of ammonia, as compared with vanadia catalysts. XRD patterns of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC were similar to those of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, showing no peaks due to iron oxide, even when the iron content reached 20.1%. The TPR results indicated that iron in the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts with lower iron contents existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} ions. The activities of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were consistent with their surface acidities, which were identified by FT-IR of the NH{sub 3}-adsorbed samples. The enhancement of activities by H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 2} was attributed to the increase of surface acidity resulting from the formation of surface sulfate species of iron.

Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

149

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

150

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

151

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Toward Institutional Sustainability: A Nitrogen Footprint for the Marine Biological Maggie Notopoulos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amounts of resources including electricity and food to maintain their daily activities. Food purchases of reactive nitrogen (Nr), all nitrogen compounds other than N2, associated with their use. Most of the Nr: Reactive Nitrogen, Nitrogen Footprint, Sustainability, Fertilizer, Nitrogen Uptake Factors, Virtual

Vallino, Joseph J.

153

The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

Delnick, Frank M.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - atrbohd-mediated oxidative burst Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Extinction Brandon Lohman Summary: triggered by cosmic events. A high intensity gamma ray burst directed toward Earth may have irradiated our... of nitrogen oxides. These oxides...

155

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA V.N. Owens a , D.R. Viands b , H Available online 17 August 2013 Keywords: Nitrogen removal Switchgrass Bioenergy Nitrogen use efficiency as a forage, conservation, and bioenergy crop [1e5]. It offers a number of distinct benefits including broad

Pawlowski, Wojtek

156

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

Kridelbaugh, Donna M [ORNL; Nelson, Josh C [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Nitrogen limiation and nitrogen fixation during alkane biodegradation in a sandy soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leaking underground storage tanks are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water. Hydrocarbon biodegradation studies have been conducted in both ground water and topsoil regions, but few studies have been done on the unsaturated zone between these two. This study examines the effects of Nitrogen on propane and butane biodegradiations in an unsaturated sandy soil. Results indicate that nitrogen additions initially stimulated both propane and butane oxidizing organisms in the soil, but that propane-amended soil became N limited whereas butane-amended soil eventually overcame its N limitations by fixing Nitrogen and that nitrogen fixing organisms grew in butane amended but not in propane amended soil. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Toccalino, P.L.; Johnson, R.L.; Boone, D.R. (Oregon Graduate Institute of Science Technology, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Reactions of inorganic nitrogen species in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Redox reactions of nitrate salts with NH3 and methanol were studied in near-critical and supercritical water at 350 to 530 C and constant pressure of 302 bar. Sodium nitrate decomposition reactions were investigated at similar conditions. Reactions were conducted in isothermal tubular reactor under plug flow. For kinetic modeling, nitrate and nitrite reactants were lumped into an NO{sub x}{sup -} reactant; kinetic expressions were developed for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X and sodium nitrate decomposition reactions. The proposed elementary reaction mechanism for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X reaction indicated that NO{sub 2} was the primary oxidizing species and that N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O selectivities could be determined by the form of MNO{sub 3} used. This suggest a nitrogen control strategy for use in SCWO (supercritical water oxidation) processes; nitrate or NH3 could be used to remove the other, at reaction conditions far less severe than required by other methods. Reactions of nitrate with methanol indicated that nitrate was a better oxidant than oxygen in supercritical water. Nitrogen reaction products included NH3 and nitrite, while inorganic carbon was the major carbon reaction product. Analysis of excess experiments indicated that the reaction at 475 C was first order in methanol concentration and second order in NO{sub x}{sup -} concentration. In order to determine phase regimes for these reactions, solubility of sodium nitrate was determined for some 1:1 nitrate electrolytes. Solubilities were measured at 450 to 525 C, from 248 to 302 bar. A semi-empirical solvation model was shown to adequately describe the experimental sodium nitrate solubilities. Solubilities of Li, Na, and K nitrates revealed with cations with smaller ionic radii had greater solubilities with nitrate.

Dell`Orco, P.C. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

164

Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

The biogeochemistry of marine nitrous oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric nitrous oxide N?O concentrations have been rising steadily for the past century as a result of human activities. In particular, human perturbation of the nitrogen cycle has increased the N?O production rates ...

Frame, Caitlin H

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Turn-on fluorescent probes for detecting nitric oxide in biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. Investigating the Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide and Other Reactive Nitrogen Species Using Fluorescent Probes: This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in the field of reactive nitrogen species ...

McQuade, Lindsey Elizabeth, 1981-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

Thaxton, Christopher S.

168

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

169

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

Chen, H.L.

1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

170

Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

171

Interactions of Fluorine Redistribution and Nitrogen Incorporation with Boron Diffusion in Silicon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interactions of Fluorine Redistribution and Nitrogen Incorporation with Boron Diffusion in Silicon Dioxide Mitra Navi and Scott Dunham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Boston University diffusion. Gate oxides were grown with nitrogen contents varying from 0 to 1.4%. A series of SIMS mea

Dunham, Scott

172

The design of stable high nitrogen systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general strategy for the design of high nitrogen systems with an adequate degree of stability has been elaborated. The design of nitro compounds in which terminal nitro groups are bonded to the chain of several heteroatoms is a specific case within the strategy. In the process of working out the strategy a number of new high nitrogen systems (dinitrazenic acid or dinitroamide HN{sub 3}O{sub 4} and its salts, nitrodiazene oxides RN{sub 3}O{sub 3} and tetrazine dioxides) were discovered. A new of new types of nitro compounds (bicyclo nitro-bis-hydroxylamine, nitrohydrazine, nitrohydroxylamine, sulfo-N-nitroimide and bis-N-nitroimide) were synthesized. This study opens new prospects in the field of the synthesis of high energy materials.

Tartakovsky, V.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Global update 2005. Primary sources of air pollutants include combustion products from power generationIntroduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide Air pollution can be defined as "the presence effects to man and/or the environment". (DEFRA) "Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthetic nitrous oxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

such concentrations of anesthetics are safe... ), hypoxemia (eg, nitrogen and carbon monoxide), addiction (eg, nitrous oxide), or health effects resulting... from chronic exposure...

175

Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Zinc oxide is a promising material for blue and UV solid-state lighting devices, among other applications. Nitrogen has been regarded as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO. However, recent calculations [Lyons, Janotti, and Van de Walle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 252105 (2009)] indicate that nitrogen is a deep acceptor. This paper presents experimental evidence that nitrogen is, in fact, a deep acceptor and therefore cannot produce p-type ZnO. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band near 1.7 eV, with an excitation onset of ~2.2 eV, was observed, in agreement with the deep-acceptor model of the nitrogen defect. The deep-acceptor behavior can be explained by the low energy of the ZnO valence band relative to the vacuum level.

McCluskey, M.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tarun, M.C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Iqbal, M. Zafar [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

176

New chemistry with gold-nitrogen complexes: synthesis and characterization of tetra-, tri-, and dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complexes. Oxidative-addition to the dinuclear gold(I) amidinate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalyst precursors for CO oxidation on TiO2 surface reported to date (87% conversion). The dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complex with a Au Au distance of 2.711(3) is rare. To our knowledge, there is only one other example of a symmetrical dinuclear gold...

Abdou, Hanan Elsayed

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

177

Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

together by one of nature?s strongest chemical bonds. As a result, converting dinitrogen to other forms of nitrogen requires a lot of energy to break that bond. Some natural processes that can break dinitrogen apart include lightning and nitrogen...- cultural Engi- neer; Research Technician II; Associate Profes- sor and Exten- sion Agricultural Engineer?Waste Management, The Texas A&M System E-464 02-08 J. K. Upadhyay, B. W. Auvermann, K. J. Bush, and S. Mukhtar* Texas AgriLife Extension...

Upadhyay, Jeetendra; Auvermann, Brent W.; Bush, K. Jack; Mukhtar, Saqib

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

Nitrogen cycling, plant biomass, and carbon dioxide evolution in a subsurface flow wetland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to ascertain the fate of nitrogen in a constructed wetland and the rate of bioremediation as indicated by carbon dioxide evolution. Research included a study of nitrogen uptake by plants and nitrification. A tracer isotope of nitrogen,?N, was used to follow...

Lane, Jeffrey J

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

179

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

180

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

Ferrell, P.C.

1998-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

ARM - Measurement - Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARM DatagovMeasurementsNitrogen ARM Data

183

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

Denver, University of

184

SciTech Connect: Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation....

185

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Understanding Nitrogen Fixation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from atmospheric nitrogen could, in principle, be more energy-efficient. This is particularly attractive giv

Paul J. Chirik

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

188

Reducible oxide based catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

189

Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication explains the chemistry of nitrogen, the processes by which nitrogen is added to and removed from the soil, and methods of preventing nitrogen losses on agricultural lands....

Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

191

Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

193

Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning...

194

Mapping the location and configuration of nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding how impurities such as nitrogen are included in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain approximately 2-3% nitrogen, but it is difficult to determine experimentally whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration and potential energy surface of substitutional nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles, directly comparing results of different sizes, shapes and surface chemistry. The results predict that nitrogen is metastable within the core of both hydrogenated and dehydrogenated particles, but that the binding energy, coordination and preferred location is dependent upon the structure of the nanoparticle as a whole.

Barnard, A. S.; Sternberg, M.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Oxford

2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

195

Investigation of formation of nitrogen compounds in coal combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report on DOE contract number DE-AC21-80MC14061. It concerns the formation of nitrogen oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen during coal combustion. The work reported was divided into three tasks. They addressed problems of time-resolving pyrolysis rates of coal under simulated combustion conditions, the combustion of the tar that results from such pyrolysis, and theoretical modeling of the pyrolysis process. In all of these tasks, special attention was devoted to the fate of coal nitrogen. The first two tasks were performed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. 49 references.

Blair, D.W.; Crane, I.D.; Wendt, J.O.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

The catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over tetraamminecopper (II) complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

primary goal has been to develop catalysts that will promote selective reduction of nitric oxide to nitrogen with various reducing agents. The use of metals and mixed metal oxide catalysts with reducing agents such as hydrogen, car- bon monoxide... the energy of the v* orbital of NO in relationship to tne energies 11, 12 of the d orbitals of the metal. ' Although nitric oxide is thermo- dynamically unstable, with respect to decomposition to nitrogen and The citations of the following cages follow...

Oates, Margaret Deron

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII polypeptides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the invention may be used to engineer organisms to overexpress wild-type or mutant P-PII regulatory protein. Engineered plants that overexpress or underexpress P-PII regulatory protein may have increased nitrogen assimilation capacity. Engineered organisms may be used to produce P-PII proteins which, in turn, can be used for a variety of purposes including in vitro screening of herbicides. P-PII nucleotide sequences have additional uses as probes for isolating additional genomic clones having the promoters of P-PII gene. P-PII promoters are light- and/or sucrose-inducible and may be advantageously used in genetic engineering of plants.

Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

200

Managing Nitrogen Fertilizer in Cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To be profitable, cotton producers must manage fertilization efficiently. This publication reports the results of a 5-year study that showed over-fertilization with nitrogen is a common problem. There are specific recommendations for soil testing...

Hons, F. M.; McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Nichols, Robert L.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Boman, R. K.; Saladino, V. A.; Jahn, R. L.; Stapper, J. R.

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Brown, Nancy J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this quarter, progress was made on the following tasks: TPD techniques were employed to study the reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia over iron oxide pillared clay catalyst; and a sulfur dioxide resistant iron oxide/titanium oxide catalyst was developed.

Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Proteome of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown with Fe(III) oxide or Fe(III) citrate as the electron acceptor.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

e(III) oxides are the most abundant source of reducible Fe(III) by microorganisms in most soils and sediments, yet few studies on the physiology of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms during growth on Fe(III) oxide have been conducted because of the technical difficulties in working with cell growth and harvest in the presence of Fe(III) oxides. Geobacter sulfurreducens is a representative of the Geobacter species that predominate in a variety of subsurface environments in which Fe(III) oxide is important. In order to better understand the physiology of Geobacter species during growth on Fe(III) oxide, the proteome of G. sulfurreducens grown on Fe(III) oxide was compared with the proteome of cells grown with soluble Fe(III) citrate. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) revealed 19 proteins that were more abundant during growth on Fe(III) oxide than on soluble Fe(III). These included proteins related to protein synthesis, electron transfer and energy production, oxidative stress, protein folding, outer membrane proteins, nitrogen metabolism and hypothetical proteins. Further analysis of the proteome with the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag method revealed additional proteins associated with growth on Fe(III) oxide. These included the outer-membrane c-type cytochrome, OmcS and OmcG, which genetic studies have suggested are required for Fe(III) oxide reduction. Furthermore, several other cytochromes, as yet unstudied, were detected to be significantly up regulated during growth on Fe(III) oxide and other proteins of unknown function were more abundant during growth on Fe(III) oxide than on soluble Fe(III). PilA, the structural protein for pili, which is required for Fe(III) oxide reduction, and other pilin-associated proteins were also more abundant during growth on Fe(III) oxide. Confirmation of the differential expression of proteins known to be important in Fe(III) oxide reduction was observed, and an additional number of previously unidentified proteins were found with significant abundance in the cells grown under conditions of Fe(III) oxide reduction.

Ding, Y-H R.; Hixson, Kim K.; Aklujkar, Ma; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Lovley, Derek R.; Mester, Tunde

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

EMSL - oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxides en Influence of Adsorption Site and Wavelength on the Photodesorption of NO from the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) Mixed Oxide Surface. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

206

Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

207

Oxidation Characteristics of Fe-18Cr-18Mn-stainless alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air oxidation studies of Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steels were conducted at 525C, 625C, and 725C. Alloys were evaluated with respect to changes in oxidation properties as a result of interstitial additions of nitrogen and carbon and of minor solute additions of silicon, molybdenum, and nickel. Interstitial concentrations possibly had a small, positive effect on oxidation resistance. Minor solute additions significantly improved oxidation resistance but could also reduce interstitial solubility resulting in formation of chromium carbides. Loss of solute chromium resulted in a slight reduction in oxidation protection. Oxidation lasting over 500 hours produced a manganese rich, duplex oxide structure: an outer sesquioxide and an inner spinel oxide.

James Rawers

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

Zeng Yang, E-mail: yang.zeng@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Rocky Mountain NP, Colorado Nitrogen emissions from a variety of human made sources, including ammonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gas production, wastewater treatment plants, landfills, fertilized crops, and livestock production comes into RMNP from both urban and rural areas in Colorado as well as from other states. Agricultural

MacDonald, Lee

210

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

211

Oxygen minimization effects on nitrogen dioxide generation during oxyacetylene metal cutting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxides lies in the characteristic remission of initial symptoms, such as cough and chest discomfort, for up to several hours prior to onset of acute, potentially lethal pulmonary edema. The generation rate of nitrogen oxides is dependent on many... tract w1th acute severity ranging from a revers1ble irritant coughing to potentially lethal pulmonary edema. ( The danger involved here lies 1n the sudden onset of pulmonary edema occurring an unpredictable length of time after exposure. Very little...

Clendenen, David Lee

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Nitrogen oxide removal using diesel fuel and a catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrocarbons, such as diesel fuel, are added to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x in the presence of a amphoteric catalyst support material. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbons.

Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Hsiao, Mark (San Jose, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernie M. (San Ramon, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Brusasco, Ray (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe Office of FossilMembershipoftheManagementHasdecDioxide Budget

214

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe OfficeUtility Fed. Government CommercialProgram andDetrimental

215

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," LBL-of Cellulose and the Production of Ethanol," LBL-6859,the cellulose is a major obstacle to hydrolysis. Ethanol The

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Meals included in Conference Registrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meals included in Conference Registrations Meals included as part of the cost of a conference the most reasonable rates are obtained. Deluxe hotels and motels should be avoided. GSA rates have been for Georgia high cost areas. 75% of these amounts would be $21 for non- high cost areas and $27 for high cost

Arnold, Jonathan

217

Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

Morgan Jones

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Nitrogen and Sulfur in Rocky Mountain National Park  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a variety of air pollution sources, including automobiles, power plants, industry, agriculture, and fires in nitrogen deposition in mountain ecosys- tems. Power plants and other point sources 26% Motor vehicles 25 threats to aquatic and terrestrial resources in the park. Lakes and streams have low concentrations

Fischer, Emily V.

219

Kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of nitrogen and carbon monoxide with liquid niobium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of N{sub 2} and CO with liquid niobium were investigated in the temperature range of 2,700 to 3,000 K in samples levitated in N{sub 2}/Ar and CO/Ar streams. The nitrogen absorption and desorption processes were found to be second-order with respect to nitrogen concentration, indicating that the rate controlling step is either the adsorption of nitrogen molecules on the liquid surface or dissociation of absorbed nitrogen molecules into adsorbed atoms. The carbon and oxygen dissolution in liquid niobium from CO gas is an exothermic process and the solubilities of carbon and oxygen (C{sub Ce}, C{sub Oe} in at%) are related to the temperature and the partial pressure of CO. The reaction CO {yields} (C) + (O) along with the evaporation of niobium oxide takes place during C and O dissolution, whereas C and O desorption occurs via CO evolution only.

Park, H.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - articles including cerium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

effect in cerium oxides Peng Gao, Zhenzhong Wang, Wangyang Fu, Zhaoliang Liao, Kaihui Liu... the resistance switching effect, including Mott transition (Fors et al., 2005; Oka...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 510 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wlczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sk?odowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?d?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?d? (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wlczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

222

Mechanistic models of oceanic nitrogen fixation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oceanic nitrogen fixation and biogeochemical interactions between the nitrogen, phosphorus and iron cycles have important implications for the control of primary production and carbon storage in the ocean. The biological ...

Monteiro, Fanny

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation? George Gregory Bates College, originating largely from septic systems and fertilizers, have caused significant eutrophication in freshwater nitrogen and phosphorus grew the highest concentration of phytoplankton, but eutrophic ponds grew a mean

Vallino, Joseph J.

224

Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

225

IN THIS ISSUE Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AGRONOMY NOTES July 2005 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Protecting Cotton Squares and Blooms / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim Dean. #12;2 Nitrogen on Cotton Now is the time to apply N

Watson, Craig A.

226

Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

227

Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Tropical Forests: Ecosystem-Level Patterns and Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was kept in open plastic containers and maintained nearconditions in open plastic containers Biological Nitrogen

Cusack, Daniela F.; Silver, Whendee; McDowell, William H.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anthropogenic carbon dioxide may result from this atmospheric nitrogen fertilization, leading to a decreaseImpacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean R. A. Duce,1 * J. LaRoche,2 K quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about

Ward, Bess

229

Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

Kim, Ji-Il [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

Klaunig, James E., E-mail: jklauni@indiana.edu; Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

The Effect of Iron Oxide on Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) in Lignin Cellulose medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of anthropogenic nitrogen into coastal habitats. Sources of nitrogen loading include agricultural and home Cod, Mass., indicate that nitrogen loading rates are directly related to macroalgal populations. A PRB contains a mixture of woodchips, limestone, sand, and gravel which provide a high carbon

Vallino, Joseph J.

234

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RG and JA Bassham, Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts.chloroplasts during photosynthesis. Plant Physiol ~0:22H-2?NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS James A. Bassham,

Bassham, James A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA); Frost, David G. (Maynard, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

Mills, Bernice E.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

238

Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

Song, Hoseok

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

239

Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study of the early stages of Cu(100) oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­3 catalytic conversion of nitrogen oxides,4 water-gas shift,5,6 and preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells.7 the nucleation limit of Cu2O, they are likely to exist due to kinetic hindrance. 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Oxidation

McGaughey, Alan

240

Mechanisms of plant species impacts on ecosystem nitrogen cycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this microbial nitrogen loop is driven by plant-supplied carbon and provides a strong negative feedback through by an increase in the relative nitrogen content in decomposing litter and a much lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio by a microbial nitrogen loop. Nitrogen is released from the soil organic matter and incorporated into microbial

Minnesota, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

242

Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

Michaels, E.D.

1981-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

243

High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

February 2010 Pasture Nitrogen Balance Worksheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agronomy Guide ­ Table 1.2-14A N Recommendation (lb/A) 3 Planned Fertilizer (lb/A) 1 Residual Manure N 4 Residual Legume N (lb/A) 5 Net Nitrogen Requirement (lb/A) Calculation of Uncollected Manure Nitrogen Available N/A deposited at this stocking rate is under N balanced rate; may need

Guiltinan, Mark

245

NITROGEN ISOTOPES IN PALEOCLIMATE JULIAN P. SACHS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

denitrification, the conversion of nitrate to N2 gas with its subsequent loss to the atmosphere (25-180 Tg N of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and is the precursor to petroleum deposits it is important to understand nitrogen of nitrogen is atmospheric dinitrogen gas (N2), consisting of 3.9 x 109 Tg N (Wada and Hattori, 1990

Sachs, Julian P.

246

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

support in a precision farming context. Keywords: Carbon balances, carbon sequestration, decompositionCarbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model

247

Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

Eagar, Thomas W.

248

Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen. Silicate can play a regulating role in the growth of such organisms that carry shells of silicate. Most important are diatoms, which may form phytoplankton blooms under conditions of sufficient silicate

Jochem, Frank J.

249

Nutrient Management Module No. 3 Nitrogen Cycling,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it is important to first understand the various transformations that N undergoes within the soil. Nitrogen Cycling to be the sum of ammonium and nitrate, although urea, a type of organic N, may also be plant available. Nitrogen a fraction) by dry yield (in lb/ac). It's useful to compare actual uptake rates to N fertilizer rates

Lawrence, Rick L.

250

Using Petiole Analysis for Nitrogen Management in Cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For cotton growers, maintaining proper nitrogen balance is a major concern. Petiole analysis, the laboratory analysis of the nitrogen content of leaf stems, can be coupled with plant monitoring to form an effective nitrogen management program...

Livingston, Stephen; Hickey, M. G.; Stichler, Charles

1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB--the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it too is a better explosive performer. The recently discovered tetrazol derivative, 3,6-bis-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-s-tetrazine (BTATz) was measured to have exceptional positive heats of formation and to be insensitive to explosive initiation. Because of its high burn rate with low sensitivity to pressure, this material is of great interest to the propellant community.

D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Nitrogen Fixation and Dentrification in Sediments of Eutrophic Mediterranean-Type Estuaries: Seasonal Patterns and Responses to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and mechanisms controlling sediment nitrogen fixation in aKane T & Fong P. 2007. Sediment nitrogen fixation in UpperKane T & Fong P. 2007. Sediment nitrogen fixation in Upper

Kane, Tonya Lynn

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

255

Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas Donghyun Rim, Jeffrey Siegel, Jarett Spinhirne, Alba Webb, Elena McDonald-Buller*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons, including formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1

Siegel, Jeffrey

256

ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

257

Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds...

258

Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by...

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced oxidative processes Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

processing, including oxidation, should not change that resistance; namely, once the silicide is formed its... determination of a specific oxidation process that ... Source:...

260

Air Pollution Grant Ideas Possible air pollutants to study: SO2, H2S, NO2, NH3, CO, CO2, O3.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known as "oxides://www.gradko.co.uk/ram/ Gradko tubes - http://www.gradko.co.uk/pdf/Nitrogen_Dioxide.pdf Grants and Funding Allegheny County of nitrogen," or "nitrogen oxides (NOx)." Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. While

Short, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Extended Durability Testing of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Durability testing was performed on an external fuel processor (EFP) for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The EFP enables the SOFC to reach high system efficiency (electrical efficiency up to 60%) using pipeline natural gas and eliminates the need for large quantities of bottled gases. LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) is developing natural gas-fired SOFC power plants for stationary power applications. These power plants will greatly benefit the public by reducing the cost of electricity while reducing the amount of gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides compared to conventional power plants. The EFP uses pipeline natural gas and air to provide all the gas streams required by the SOFC power plant; specifically those needed for start-up, normal operation, and shutdown. It includes a natural gas desulfurizer, a synthesis-gas generator and a start-gas generator. The research in this project demonstrated that the EFP could meet its performance and durability targets. The data generated helped assess the impact of long-term operation on system performance and system hardware. The research also showed the negative impact of ambient weather (both hot and cold conditions) on system operation and performance.

Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula; Mark Scotto

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

262

Formation and control of fuel-nitrogen pollutants in catalytic combustion of coal-derived gases. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program has been the elucidation of the mechanism of high temperature catalytic oxidation of coal-derived gases, including their individual constituents,and the effects of sulfur and nitrogen impurities. Detailed experimental data were obtained and a two-dimensional model is being developed and tested by comparison with the experimental data. When complete, the model can be used to optimize designs of catalytic combustors. The model at present includes axial and radial diffusion and gas and surface chemical reactions. Measured substrate temperatures are input in lieu of complete coupling of gas and solid energy conservation equations and radiative heat transfer. Axial and radial gas temperature and composition profiles inside a catalyst channel were computed and compared with experimental measurements at the catalyst outlet. Experimental investigations were made of carbon monoxide and medium-Btu gas combustion in the presence of platinum supported on a monolithic Cordierite substrate. Axial profiles of substrate temperature, gas temperature, and gas composition were determined at different gas velocities and equivalence ratios. The effects of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the medium-Btu gas were also investigated. Systems were proposed for making resonance absorption and Raman scattering measurements of gas temperature and/or species concentrations in a catalytic reactor. A new pulsed multipass Raman scattering technique for increasing photon yield from a scattering volume was developed.

Walsh, P. M.; Bruno, C.; Santavicca, D. A.; Bracco, F. V.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Lam, Hon-Ming (Hong Kong, HK); Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun (Woodside, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

SHORT COMMUNICATION Nitrogen recovery from shrimp pond efuent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water as ammonia (total ammonia nitrogen, TAN), through either direct excretion by animals or ammoni

Lorenzen, Kai

265

Microfluidic Facility, Harvard Medical School LIQUID NITROGEN TANK HANDLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Facility, Harvard Medical School LIQUID NITROGEN TANK HANDLING HMS microfluidics/microfabrication facility has one high pressure liquid nitrogen tank which supplies the nitrogen for some equipment normal operation. In case the liquid nitrogen tank is malfunctioning and requires to be shut down or replaced make

Paulsson, Johan

266

Simultaneous constraint and phase conversion processing of oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making an oxide superconductor article includes subjecting an oxide superconductor precursor to a texturing operation to orient grains of the oxide superconductor precursor to obtain a highly textured precursor; and converting the textured oxide superconducting precursor into an oxide superconductor, while simultaneously applying a force to the precursor which at least matches the expansion force experienced by the precursor during phase conversion to the oxide superconductor. The density and the degree of texture of the oxide superconductor precursor are retained during phase conversion. The constraining force may be applied isostatically.

Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Hellstrom, Eric E. (Madison, WI); Larbalestier, David C. (Madison, WI); DeMoranville, Kenneth L. (Jefferson, MA); Parrell, Jeffrey A. (Roselle Park, NJ); Reeves, Jodi L. (Madison, WI)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

267

Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the completion of the proposed work, we will have: 1) identified novel alleles in wild sorghum germplasm that is useful to improve both cultivated grain and sweet sorghum; 2) been able to select individuals plants that exhibit high NUE within a breeding population on the basis of these markers; 3) acquired essential information necessary to examine the roles of GS and GOGAT, AlaT, along with impact of transcription factor Dof1, on N assimilation in sweet sorghum; and 4) The information learned will provide new opportunities for improving NUE in sorghum and other cereals.

Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

268

Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Project Profile: High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy...

269

Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPETIZERS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths for the food tables.ucdavis.edu. BUTTERNUT SQUASH & BLACK BEAN ENCHILADAS #12;BUFFETS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen

California at Davis, University of

270

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

Dr. Gordon A. Irons

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Nitrogen is a natural and necessary part of every healthy ecosystem, but too much nitrogen in our rivers,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), sewage treatment plants, and animal ma- nure. Once in water, nitrogen can change in chemical form

Torgersen, Christian

272

Estimation of Nitric and Nitrous Nitrogen in Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, were found to check as well as could be expected with the zinc ferrous-sulphate methods, which include both nitrate and nitrite nitrogen. Some of the results obtained in the course of the investigation out- lined are here presented, together with a... in Series 1 mas 1.0 part per million on 7.7 parts per million, or about 12 per cect: the average difference of the 11 was 0.1 on 7.5 parts per million, or a little over one per cent. In Series 2, the maximum clifference was 3.3 parts per million on 25...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

274

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

275

Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

Not Available

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus Nitrogen Synergism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of nitrogen additives like urea, guanidine carbonate and melamine formaldehyde on the flame retardant efficacy of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of activation energy of decomposition of treated cotton indicated that nitrogen additives enhance the thermal stability during the burning process. SEM pictures of chars formed after LOI test showed the formation of protective polymeric coating on the surface. The surface of chars formed were evaluated using FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis which showed that the coating was composed of Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Oxygen containing species. Formation of this coating during the burning process could lead to the synergistic interaction of phosphorus and nitrogen. Based on the experimental data we have further proposed several reaction mechanisms which could contribute to synergistic action and formation of protective coating on the surface of char.

Gaan, Sabyasachi; Sun, Gang; Hutches, Katherine; Engelhard, Mark H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} using TiO{sub 2}/activated carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes experimental results for a method of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission control. NO{sub x} was oxidized photocatalytically to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) using different titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalysts. The addition of ferric oxide improved the performance of the TiO{sub 2}. Of four adsorbents tested, activated carbon performed best in suppressing NO{sub 2} concentration. Optimum catalyst compositions were determined. Initial results indicated that photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} offers several advantages over other emission control methods.

Wang, S.; Chen, D.H.; Li, K.Y. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Availability of Nitrous Nitrogen to Plants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V, .=DL ULL LI~C a~ailability 01 ILILKLL~: IIILIU~~I~ LU curn, l~aa, 8011 31LY3 1 27.3 .53 .I447 1 I 1 5: 1250 .I349 ic nitrogen ( 37.P' 1 -59 1 .2195 ru.. nv / 36.6 .57 1 .2086 I -2141 1 .O7b/ I 1. gm. nitrous nitrogen 30.2 1 .64 1 .I933 1... .12 -.01 ' .09 V1 -- I w 01 ---- I ------ el M - 1 --O6 X * ---- ------ U1 $ !z - --- i d $ --- - I -20 2 Y * F - I M 4 M .34 I --- .20 M .14 5 nitrogen --- --- -.02 .14 -.48 -.01 -12 .18 .OS...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic nitrogen cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biological nitrogen fixation of gaseous nitrogen. The water cycle is important to ecosystem... and Nitrogen Cycles As ... Source: Barboza, Perry - Institute of Arctic Biology,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

E-Print Network 3.0 - acquire organic nitrogen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and microorganisms can die of nitrogen defi- ciency, surrounded... nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizer is applied at planting to these legumes when grown on sandy or low organic......

282

The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogen mobilization and recycling in trees. Photosynthesisloci mapping for nitrogen recycling in rice. Journal ofNitrogen Assimilation and Recycling Stphanie M. Bernard 1

Bernard, S.M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Enzymatic solubilization of nitrogenous constituents of carrots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of enzyme concentration upon nitrogen so1ubi 1i zed in carrot tops ( 10g dry weight) . Conditions of assay: pH = 3. 5, i ncubati on time = 20 hr, incubation temperature = 45'C. 24 hydrolysis. These data confirm earlier reports that -. 01% is the pro... roots and tops, a concentration of 1. 0% A-12-C at pH 3. 5 provided the maximum increase in soluble ni trogenous consti tuents . For car~ot roots, a concentration of 1. 0/ ficin at pH 4, 5 provided the maximum increase in soluble nitrogen. With carrot...

Curry, James Cannon

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

285

Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

Collins, Jack L.

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

287

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

288

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

289

Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

290

Mechanisms of synfuel degradation. 3. Interactive effects in nitrogen compound induced storage instability in shale derived diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deterioration in fuel quality upon storage has been a continuing problem in the utilization of middle distillate fuels. For diesel fuels, instability is usually defined by the formation of insoluble sediments and gums and by the accumulation of hydroperoxides. Gravimetric accelerated storage stability tests conducted with model compounds as dopants in otherwise stable distillate fuels have demonstrated that oxidative condensation reactions of polar heterocycles are deleterious to stability. In particular, nitrogen containing aromatics (pyrroles, pyridines, indoles, etc.) appear to be very harmful.

Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Beaver, B.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO: The {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is used to characterize the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions associated with neutral nitrogen acceptors in zinc oxide. Data are obtained from an n-type bulk crystal grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method. Singly ionized nitrogen acceptors (N{sup ?}) initially present in the crystal are converted to their paramagnetic neutral charge state (N{sup 0}) during exposure at low temperature to 442 or 633?nm laser light. The EPR signals from these N{sup 0} acceptors are best observed near 5?K. Nitrogen substitutes for oxygen ions and has four nearest-neighbor cations. The zinc ion along the [0001] direction is referred to as an axial neighbor and the three equivalent zinc ions in the basal plane are referred to as nonaxial neighbors. For axial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine parameters are A{sub ?}?=?37.0?MHz and A{sub ?}?=?8.4?MHz with the unique direction being [0001]. For nonaxial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn parameters are A{sub 1}?=?14.5?MHz, A{sub 2}?=?18.3?MHz, and A{sub 3}?=?20.5?MHz with A{sub 3} along a [101{sup }0] direction (i.e., in the basal plane toward the nitrogen) and A{sub 2} along the [0001] direction. These {sup 67}Zn results and the related {sup 14}N hyperfine parameters provide information about the distribution of unpaired spin density at substitutional neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO.

Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C., E-mail: Nancy.Giles@afit.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Evans, S. M.; Halliburton, L. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

292

apoplastic polyamine oxidation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

di-oxidized spermine autodegradation, including trace amounts of stable and cytotoxic acrolein (arrested S phase), were unlikely to have contributed significantly to the arrest....

293

Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

295

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

296

Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 610?nm, we measure less than 1 at.% oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

David Henry, M., E-mail: mdhenry@sandia.gov; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert [Sandia National Labs, MESA Fabrication Facility PO Box 5800 MS 1084, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1084 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

297

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

298

First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Batteries. First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a...

299

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream (1st Grade) Lesson Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

substance. Materials: 5 or more Liters of liquid nitrogen (gloves, goggles, and lab coat recommended the liquid nitrogen and safety gear you wear have fun with it!) 4. Mix heavy cream, half & half, and sugar

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

302

Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

Laster, Walter R. (Oviedo, FL); Bandaru, Ramarao V. (Greer, SC)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

303

groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

producer profits. This will, in turn, benefit water bodies in the area that receive stream baseflow fromgroundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer water withdraws are used for irrigation while the cities of Vernon, Burk- burnett and Electra and many

304

Nitrogen chemistry during oil shale pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real time evolution of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), two major nitrogen-containing volatiles evolved during oil shale pyrolysis, was measured by means of a mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and by infrared spectroscopy. While the on-line monitoring of NH{sub 3} in oil shale pyrolysis games was possible by both techniques, HCN measurements were only possible by IR. We studied one Green River Formation oil shale and one New Albany oil shale. The ammonia from the Green River oil shale showed one broad NH{sub 3} peak maximizing at a high temperature. For both oil shales, most NH{sub 3} evolves at temperatures above oil-evolving temperature. The important factors governing ammonia salts such as Buddingtonite in Green River oil shales, the distribution of nitrogen functional groups in kerogen, and the retorting conditions. The gas phase reactions, such as NH{sub 3} decomposition and HCN conversion reactions, also play an important role in the distribution of nitrogen volatiles, especially at high temperatures. Although pyrolysis studies of model compounds suggests the primary nitrogen product from kerogen pyrolysis to be HCN at high temperatures, we found only a trace amount of HCN at oil-evolving temperatures and none at high temperatures (T {gt} 600{degree}C). 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Oh, Myongsook S.; Crawford, R.W.; Foster, K.G.; Alcaraz, A.

1990-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

305

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

Truong, Thanh N.

306

A Mechanistic Investigation of Nitrogen Evolution and Corrosion with Oxy-Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A premixed, staged, down-fired, pulverized coal reactor and a flat flame burner were used to study the evolution of nitrogen in coal contrasting differences in air and oxy-combustion. In the premixed reactor, the oxidizer was staged to produce a fuel rich zone followed by a burnout zone. The initial nominal fuel rich zone stoichiometric ratio (S.R.) of 0.85 selected produced higher NO reductions in the fuel rich region under oxy-combustion conditions. Air was found to be capable of similar NO reductions when the fuel rich zone was at a much lower S.R. of 0.65. At a S.R. of 0.85, oxy-combustion was measured to have higher CO, unburned hydrocarbons, HCN and NH{sub 3} in the fuel rich region than air at the same S.R. There was no measured difference in the initial formation of NO. The data suggest devolatilization and initial NO formation is similar for the two oxidizers when flame temperatures are the same, but the higher CO{sub 2} leads to higher concentrations of CO and nitrogen reducing intermediates at a given equivalence ratio which increases the ability of the gas phase to reduce NO. These results are supported by flat flame burner experiments which show devolatilization of nitrogen from the coal and char to be similar for air and oxy-flame conditions at a given temperature. A model of premixed combustion containing devolatilization, char oxidation and detailed kinetics captures most of the trends seen in the data. The model suggests CO is high in oxy-combustion because of dissociation of CO{sub 2}. The model also predicts a fraction (up to 20%, dependent on S.R.) of NO in air combustion can be formed via thermal processes with the source being nitrogen from the air while in oxy-combustion equilibrium drives a reduction in NO of similar magnitude. The data confirm oxy-combustion is a superior oxidizer to air for NO control because NO reduction can be achieved at higher S.R. producing better char burnout in addition to NO from recirculated flue gas being reduced as it passes back through the flame.

Dale Tree; Andrew Mackrory; Thomas Fletcher

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Evolutionary tradeoffs can select against nitrogen fixation and thereby maintain nitrogen limitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. evolutionary ecology model Biological nitrogen (N) fixation--the conversion of atmo- spheric N2 gas) but is equally important to explaining the paradox of N limitation. Unlike the successional question

Menge, Duncan

308

Comparative Analysis of Four Oxidized Guanine Lesions from Reactions of DNA with Peroxynitrite, Singlet Oxygen, and ?-Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxidative damage to DNA has many origins, including irradiation, inflammation, and oxidative stress, but the chemistries are not the same. The most oxidizable base in DNA is 2-deoxyguanosine (dG), and the primary oxidation ...

Cui, Liang

309

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Relation of Soil Nitrogen, Nitrification and Ammonification to Pot Experiments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................ 6 Relation of the Crops to the Total Nitrogen of the Soil ........... 7 Relation of the Different Crops ................................. 8 Relation of Surface Soil to Subsoil ............................. 13 Acid Soils Compared with Non-Acid... of Production of Nitrates to the Results of the Pot Ex- periments ................................................ 21 Extensive Work ............................................ 24 Relation of Nitric Nitrogen to Nitrogen Removed by First Crop .... 24...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

QuestionQuestion How does nitrogen deposition affect roadside  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. 2004. Concentrations of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at roadside verges, and their contributionQuestionQuestion How does nitrogen deposition affect roadside plant community composition? 1. Is there a gradient of nitrogen deposition to freeway verges from traffic exhaust? 2. Are there other sources of N

Hall, Sharon J.

312

Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D negative implications for local photochemical ozone production. Keywords: Nitrogen dioxide, automobile strategies, Lemaire [1] suggests that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was forgotten as a separate component of the NOx

Denver, University of

313

Simple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'' and spatial variations of gaseous dry N deposition (i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3)), thoughSimple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds Heather E. Golden the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on surface water quality requires accurate accounts

Elliott, Emily M.

314

NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature superconductor) power devices, such as HTS transformers, fault current limiters, and terminals power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath of subcooled liquid nitrogen system for an HTS transformer, operating at around 65 K. This system consists

Chang, Ho-Myung

315

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

work on other phases of this project concerning cata- lytic oxidation of hydrocarbons has been described by Sanderson (59), Looney (34), Burns (11), Dunlop (17), Woodham (71), and Perkins (49). The early work of Sanderson indicated that chromia-alumina... and pro- moted chromia?alumina agents possessed the ability to catalyze the oxidation of propane by air. Subsequent work of Looney suggested that propylene was a primary product of this oxidation; hence most investigations since then have been confined...

Billingsley, David Stuart

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison against 6th Power Plan (Update cyclically Data Clearinghouse BPA/RTF NEEA/Regional Programs Group Update Regional EE Technology Roadmap Lighting

317

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING HoloTV (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION) José J. Lunazzi , DanielCampinasSPBrasil Abstract: Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where

de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

318

Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential...

319

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

320

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Catalytic ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum wire is experimentally studied by using microcalorimetry and by restricting the flow to the low Reynolds number range so that axisymmetry prevails. The fuels studied are propane, butane, propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. Parameters investigated include flow velocity, fuel type and concentration, and oxygen concentration. The catalytic ignition temperatures of the various fuels are accurately determined over extensive ranges of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen concentrations. Results show two distinctly opposite ignition trends depending on the nature of the fuel. That is, the ignition temperature of lean propane/air and butane/air mixtures decreases as their fuel concentration is increased, while the reverse trend is observed for lean mixtures of propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen with air. Furthermore, the ignition of propane depends primarily on fuel concentration, while the ignition of carbon monoxide depends on fuel and oxygen concentrations to a comparable extent. These results are explained on the basis of hierarchical surface adsorption strengths of the different reactants in effecting catalytic ignition. Additional phenomena of interest are observed and discussed.

Cho, P.; Law, C.K.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Theory of nitrogen doping of carbon nanoribbons: Edge effects  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Nitrogen doping of a carbon nanoribbon is profoundly affected by its one-dimensional character, symmetry, and interaction with edge states. Using state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, including hybrid exact-exchange density functional theory, we find that, for N-doped zigzag ribbons, the electronic properties are strongly dependent upon sublattice effects due to the non-equivalence of the two sublattices. For armchair ribbons, N-doping effects are different depending upon the ribbon family: for families 2 and 0, the N-induced levels are in the conduction band, while for family 1 the N levels are in the gap. In zigzag nanoribbons, nitrogen close to the edge is a deep center, while in armchair nanoribbons its behavior is close to an effective-mass-like donor with the ionization energy dependent on the value of the band gap. In chiral nanoribbons, we find strong dependence of the impurity level and formation energy upon the edge position of the dopant, while such site-specificity is not manifested in the magnitude of the magnetization.

Jiang, Jie [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States) and Yale Univ, New Haven, CT (United States); Turnbull, Joseph [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Lu, Wenchang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States) and Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boguslawski, Piotr [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States) and Institute of Physics, Warsaw, and Bydgoszcz (Poland); Bernholc, J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States) and Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

323

Nitrogen-concentration control in GaNAs/AlGaAs quantum wells using nitrogen ?-doping technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GaNAs/Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with nitrogen ?-doping were fabricated on GaAs (100) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High controllability of nitrogen-concentrations in the MQWs was achieved by tuning nitrogen ?-doping time. The maximum nitrogen concentration in the MQWs was 2.8%. The MQWs exhibit intense, narrow photoluminescence emission.

Mano, Takaaki; Jo, Masafumi; Kuroda, Takashi; Noda, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Sakuma, Yoshiki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Elborg, Martin; Sakoda, Kazuaki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan and Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the vegetation feedbacks to climate in Earth system models.

Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

326

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

327

Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

328

Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution) The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a wide- spread invasive plant in the southeastern United the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia

Mickley, Loretta J.

329

Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

Not Available

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

332

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1 consumption, questions are being asked about the energy contribution of computing equipment. Al- though studies have documented the share of energy consumption by this type of equipment over the years, research

Namboodiri, Vinod

333

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless Nicholas Kottenstette and Panos J and networking in automation is given. Digital communication fundamentals are reviewed and networked control are presented. 1 Introduction 1.1 Why communication is necessary in automated systems Automated systems use

Antsaklis, Panos

334

Synthesis and energetic properties of TAGDNAT: a new high-nitrogen material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of Bis-(triaminoguanidinium)3,3'-dinitro5,5'-azo-1,2,4-triazolate (TAGDNAT), a novel high-nitrogen molecule that derives its energy release from both a high heat of formation and intramolecular oxidation reactions. TAGDNAT shows promise as a propellant or explosive ingredient not only due to its high nitrogen content (66.35 wt%) but additionally due to its high hydrogen content (4.34 wt%). This new molecule has been characterized with respect to its morphology, sensitivity properties, explosive and combustion performance. The heat of formation of TAGDNAT was also experimentally determined. The results of these studies show that TAGDNAT has one of the gastest low-pressure burning rates (at 1000 PSI) we have yet measured, 6.79 cm/s at 100 p.s.i. (39% faster than triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT), a comparable high-nitrogen/high-hydrogen material). Furthermore, its pressure sensitivity is 0.507, a 33% reduction compared to TAGzT.

Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogenoxides,nitrogendioxide,and thenumberof(liquefiednaturalgas,nitrogen dioxide,nitrogenoxides,nitrogenoxides,nitrogendioxide,particle number, and

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Subterranean barriers including at least one weld  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

337

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

338

Power generation method including membrane separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

Not Available

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir -- East Binger (Marchand) Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, has increased an average of 50% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. After decreasing to 20-25% early in the project, nitrogen recycle (produced nitrogen volume divided by injected nitrogen volume) within the pilot area has risen back to about 42%, still far below the 72% prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Given similar reservoir conditions of net thickness and gas sweep, vertical wells are performing nearly as well as horizontal wells. Additional vertical well drilling was completed in 2005 following the success of wells drilled from 2002 through 2004.

Joe Sinner

2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir--East Binger (Marchand) Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, has increased an average of 60% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. After decreasing to 20-25% early in the project, nitrogen recycle (produced nitrogen volume divided by injected nitrogen volume) within the pilot area has risen to about 40%, still far below the 72% prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Given similar reservoir conditions of net thickness and gas sweep, vertical wells are performing nearly as well as horizontal wells. Additional vertical well drilling was completed in 2005 following the success of wells drilled from 2002 through 2004.

Joe Sinner

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

343

Synthesis of transparent conducting oxide coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for preparing a light transmitting and electrically conductive oxide film. The method and system includes providing an atomic layer deposition system, providing a first precursor selected from the group of cyclopentadienyl indium, tetrakis (dimethylamino) tin and mixtures thereof, inputting to the deposition system the first precursor for reaction for a first selected time, providing a purge gas for a selected time, providing a second precursor comprised of an oxidizer, and optionally inputting a second precursor into the deposition system for reaction and alternating for a predetermined number of cycles each of the first precursor, the purge gas and the second precursor to produce the oxide film.

Elam, Jeffrey W.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T.

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

344

Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

low-density particles include spheres with silicate cores and organic mantles, carbonaceous spheres,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

low-density particles include spheres with silicate cores and organic mantles, carbonaceous spheres is primarily a single silicate with a mantle-core structure, whereas the others are complex aggregates of various micrometer- to nanometer-size phases such as oxides, metal, and sulfides, in addition to silicate

Napp, Nils

346

Failure of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to enhance lung tumor development in hamsters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We tested the hypothesis that the two common oxidant air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, modulate the development of respiratory tract tumors in Syrian golden hamsters. The animals received subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (20 mg/kg) twice a week while being exposed continuously to an atmosphere of 0.8 parts per million (ppm)* of ozone or 15 ppm of nitrogen dioxide. Animals were killed 16 weeks or 24 to 32 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Ozone delayed the appearance of tracheal tumors and reduced the incidence of tumors in the lung periphery. A suspected neuroendocrine differentiation of those lung tumors could not be established by immunocytochemistry due to overfixation of tissues. On the other hand, ozone seemed to mitigate development of hepatotoxic lesions mediated by diethylnitrosamine. In animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and exposed to nitrogen dioxide, fewer tracheal tumors and no lung tumors were found. Only a few lung tumors were produced in animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in an atmosphere of 65% oxygen. The previously observed neuroendocrine nature of tumors induced by simultaneous exposure to diethylnitrosamine and hyperoxia could not be established because the long fixation of tissues precluded immunocytochemical stains. Animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in filtered air while being housed in wire-mesh cages developed fewer lung tumors than animals given the same treatment and kept on conventional bedding in shoebox cages. Although all inhalants tested are known to produce substantial cell proliferation in the respiratory tract, it was not possible to document whether this would enhance lung tumor development. The role of the two common air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, as possible additional risks in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in animals continues to remain uncertain.

Witschi, H.; Breider, M.A.; Schuller, H.M. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

John W. Grula

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

A study on oxidized glassy carbon sheets for bipolar supercapacitor electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) for high energy and power density applications, based on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, are being developed in this laboratory. In the context of this project, GC sheets were oxidized and investigated with Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Nitrogen Gas Adsorption (BET). During oxidation on active film with open pores is built on the surface of the GC. Upon oxidation, the internal volumetric surface area of the active film decreases, whereas the volumetric electrochemical double layer capacitance increases. The authors show that this effect is correlated with the opening, the growth and the coalescence of the pores.

Braun, A.; Baertsch, M.; Geiger, F. [and others

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitric ox- ide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ammonia (NHNitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Oxides (Nitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Oxides (

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MICROSI'RUCTIJRALMETAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR David R. Clarke

Clarke, D. E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Determination of the Forms of Nitrogen Released in Coal Tar During Rapid Devolatilization. Semi-annual report, May 1-October 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this work is to determine the forms of nitrogen in coal that lead to nitrogen release during devolatilization. Experiments are to be performed in two existing laminar flow reactors available at Brigham Young University, which are both capable of temperatures (up to 2000 K), particle heating rates (104 to 105 K/s), and residence times (up to 500 ms) relevant to conditions commonly encountered in industrial pulverized coal combustors. The forms of nitrogen in coal, char, and tar samples are analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high resolution nitrogen-specific chromatography. These sophisticated analysis techniques are being performed in collaboration with other researchers at BYU, the University of Utah, and industrial organizations. Coals have been obtained as a function of rank, including eight coals from the University of Utah that are to be used in pilot scale tests in support of the DOE Coal-2000 HIPPS (High Performance Power Systems) and LEBS (Low- Emission Boiler Systems) programs. Anticipated results from the proposed research are (a) nitrogen release parameters during devolatilization for specific coals pertinent to the HIPPS and LEBS projects, (b) better fundamental understanding of the chemistry of nitrogen release, and (c) a nitrogen release submodel based on fundamental chemistry that may be more widely applicable than existing empirical relationships.

Fletcher, T.H., Goldberg, P.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

Kim, Sehun

357

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

358

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

Grula, J W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

364

agents including gadolinium: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de 13 Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets CERN Preprints Summary: 1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium...

365

Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains Nitrogen is necessary for life on earth, but  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. As a result, converting dinitrogen to other forms of nitrogen requires a lot of energy to break that bond from the air. Photosynthetic energy in plants and chemical energy in soil microorganisms also can originated from industrial fertilizer production since the early 1900s, when the Nobel Prize-winning German

Mukhtar, Saqib

366

Increasing Price of Nitrogen Nitrogen fertilizer is often the largest contributor to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

events; the distribution of more than 5,700 publications; and access to web-based guidance on deep and associated costs. Since 2007, the importance of deep-soil testing for nitrogen management has been-sampling methods and procedures. Economic and Environmental Impact The economic impact of deep-soil testing

367

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

a new technology with the potential to reduce operating costs and increase productivity in bar and flat-rolled products for the steel industry. Nitrogen Control in...

368

Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nitrogen by Cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wax, and nitrogen-15 absorption. Crop Science 37:807-811.water- deficit stress, and the absorption of foliar-appliedgrowth favorable for N absorption and translocation. Four

Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp....

370

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAE Paper 750173, 1975. L. , Fifteenth Symposium Combustion,The Combustion Institute, International Pittsburgh, on 64.chemistry of products of combustion: nitrogenous The

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

alter carbon nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen Physics Websites Summary: and for carbon sequestration (Jandl et al. 2007). Soil acidification and carbon sequestration are...

372

Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Abstract: Chemical doping with foreign...

373

Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of...

374

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogeneous Species in Gas Turbine Exhaust, from Conkle, et82) Percent of Organic Gas Turbine Emissions which containnitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (from the data presented

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Models of Procyon A including seismic constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed models of Procyon A based on new asteroseismic measurements by Eggenberger et al (2004) have been computed using the Geneva evolution code including shellular rotation and atomic diffusion. By combining all non-asteroseismic observables now available for Procyon A with these seismological data, we find that the observed mean large spacing of 55.5 +- 0.5 uHz favours a mass of 1.497 M_sol for Procyon A. We also determine the following global parameters of Procyon A: an age of t=1.72 +- 0.30 Gyr, an initial helium mass fraction Y_i=0.290 +- 0.010, a nearly solar initial metallicity (Z/X)_i=0.0234 +- 0.0015 and a mixing-length parameter alpha=1.75 +- 0.40. Moreover, we show that the effects of rotation on the inner structure of the star may be revealed by asteroseismic observations if frequencies can be determined with a high precision. Existing seismological data of Procyon A are unfortunately not accurate enough to really test these differences in the input physics of our models.

P. Eggenberger; F. Carrier; F. Bouchy

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

376

Effect of nitrogen incorporation on improvement of leakage properties in high-k HfO{sub 2} capacitors treated by N{sub 2}-plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nitrogen incorporation into the HfO{sub 2} films with an EOT (equivalent oxide thickness) of 9 A was performed by N{sub 2}-plasma to improve the electrical properties. The dielectric properties and a leakage current characteristics of the capacitors were investigated as a function of plasma power and plasma treatment temperature. The dielectric constant of the capacitors is not influenced by nitrogen incorporation. The N{sub 2}-plasma treatment at 300 deg. C and 70 W exhibits the most effective influence on improvement of the leakage current characteristics. Leakage current density of the capacitors treated at 300 deg. C and 70 W exhibits a half order of magnitude lower than that without plasma treatment. Nitrogen incorporated into the HfO{sub 2} films possesses the intrinsic effect that drastically reduce the electron leakage current through HfO{sub 2} dielectrics by deactivating the V{sub O} (oxygen vacancy) related gap states.

Seong, Nak-Jin; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Yeom, Seung-Jin; Woo, Hyun-Kyung; Kil, Deok-Sin; Roh, Jae-Sung; Sohn, Hyun-Chul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Hynix Semiconductor Inc., San 136-1 Ami-ri Bubal-eub Icheon-si Kyoungki-do, 467-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

377

Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

O`Brien, J.V. [Process Systems International, Inc., Westborough, MA (United States); Maloney, J.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Mixed oxide solid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Recent studies suggest that human activities accelerate the production of reactive nitrogen on a global scale. Increased  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

agricultural sources in the U.S. and Europe. In addition, several best management practices are explored on a global scale. Increased nitrogen emissions may lead to environmental impacts including photochemical air production in many developed countries. These agricultural production practices are increasingly subject

Niyogi, Dev

382

INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Nitrous Oxide Production in the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of the annual freshwater discharge, 98.5% of the annual nitrogen load, and 98% of the annual phosphorus load into the zone most likely to influence hypoxia (Rabalais et al. 2007). Ecosystem responses to hypoxia include diminished biodiversity and altered...

Visser, Lindsey A.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

384

Modified lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials products and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of improving certain vanadium oxide formulations is presented. The method concerns fluorine doping formulations having a nominal formula of LiV.sub.3 O.sub.8. Preferred average formulations are provided wherein the average oxidation state of the vanadium is at least 4.6. Herein preferred fluorine doped vanadium oxide materials, electrodes using such materials, and batteries including at least one electrode therein comprising such materials are provided.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kahaian, Arthur J. (Chicago, IL); Visser, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Benedek, Roy (Western Springs, IL)

1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

385

How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great Britain's forests? Protecting our forests from pollutant deposition is and has been a topical issue for some time. Nitrogen, as well as being an essential nutrient for trees, is one of the most important of these pollutants. This article

386

Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance Stephanie L for supercapacitor applications. Surface modification increases the amount of nitrogen by four times when compared elements in highly porous carbon used for electric double-layer supercapacitors.1 These elements modify

Cao, Guozhong

387

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath Ecosystems with Emphasis on Cold-season cycling of carbon and nitrogen in temperate and subarctic heath ecosystems. Over the last three years, I spend many hours introducing me to modeling carbon exchange, thank you. Also thanks to Karina Clemmensen

388

Nitrogen Dynamics in Sandy Freshwater Sediments (Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of added 15NH4 + from lake water passing over dark sediment cores. Sediment-water fluxes of nitrogen at the sediment- water interface is derived from ammonium pro- duced from organic matter mineralization in surface ABSTRACT. Sediment-water nitrogen fluxes and transformations were examined at two sites in Sagi- naw Bay

389

Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment S. Marsili wastewater is too low, full denitrification is difficult to obtain and an additional source of organic carbon predictive control; wastewater treatment plant Introduction The problem of improving the nitrogen removal

390

Ecological Modelling 192 (2006) 143159 Nitrogen transformation and transport modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model; Transformation; Transport; Nitrification; Denitrification; RT3D 1. Introduction Nitrogen of this paper are to develop a nitro- gen transport and transformation model for saturated groundwater systemsEcological Modelling 192 (2006) 143­159 Nitrogen transformation and transport modeling

Clement, Prabhakar

391

Nitrogen Loading and Attenuation in the West Falmouth Harbor Watershed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in nitrogen loading due to the opening of the wastewater treatment plant and increased septic inputs Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and septic tanks arrive in the form of plumes of higher nitrogen. The treatment plant provides secondary treatment to the incoming wastewater but is not designed to provide

Vallino, Joseph J.

392

Quantum optics with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the electronic level structure of the nitrogen-vacancy in diamond and some common experimental techniques to study its optical properties at low temperatures. We then summarize several recent experiments and advances in using nitrogen-vacancy centers for quantum optics.

Yiwen Chu; Mikhail D. Lukin

2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

393

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 245429 (2012) Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study of the early stages of Cu(100) oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- cluding methane synthesis,1­3 catalytic conversion of nitrogen oxides,4 water-gas shift,5,6 and preventing for oxygen chemical potentials below the nucleation limit of Cu2O, they are likely to exist due to kinetic

McGaughey, Alan

394

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

395

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas extinction. We retrieve ozone and nitrogen dioxide number densities and aerosol extinction from transmission), Retrieval of ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

397

Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: biodiversity, ecosystem, elevated carbon dioxide, nitrogen enrichment, parasites, plant pathogensEffects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal Three components of global change, elevated CO2 , nitrogen addition, and decreased plant species

Crews, Stephen

398

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant, community composition, grassland, niche partitioning hypothesis, nitrogen fertilization, plant richness

Minnesota, University of

399

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant enrichment, community composition, grassland, niche partitioning hypothesis, nitrogen fertilization, plant

Minnesota, University of

400

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission estimates #12 Satellite observations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide: from retrievals to emission es- timates / by Bas Subject headings: satellite retrieval / nitrogen dioxide / ozone / air pollution / emis- sion estimates

Haak, Hein

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

404

In situ oxidation of subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

405

Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part II: Assessment of exposure to nitrogen dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Repeated measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained from 1988 to 1991 in the homes of 1,205 infants living in Albuquerque, NM. Passive diffusion samplers were used to obtain a series of two-week integrated measurements from the home of each infant for use in a cohort study of the relation of residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses. Information on stove use and time spent inside the residence was collected at two-week and two-month intervals, respectively. During the winter, in the bedrooms of homes with gas cooking stoves, mean nitrogen dioxide concentrations were 21 parts per billion (ppb); mean concentrations in the living room and kitchen were 29 ppb and 34 ppb, respectively. In homes with electric cooking stoves, the mean bedroom concentration was 7 ppb during the winter. Lower indoor concentrations were observed during the summer in homes with both gas and electric stoves. On average, infants spent approximately 12.3 hours per day in their bedrooms, 7.3 hours in the living rooms, 35 minutes in the kitchens, and 3.8 hours out of their homes. (As a condition of participation, none of the infants spent more than 20 hours per week in day care outside of their homes). The mean time infants spent in the kitchen during cooking was approximately nine minutes per day. We tested whether exposures of infants living in homes with gas stoves could be reasonably estimated by measurements in the bedroom in comparison with time-weighted average concentrations based on time-activity data and simultaneous nitrogen dioxide measurements in the kitchen, living room, and bedroom. In 1,937 two-week intervals from 587 infants, 90% of time-weighted exposure (on the three-level classification used in this study) estimates were in agreement with estimates based on bedroom concentrations alone.

Lambert, W.E.; Samet, J.M.; Hunt, W.C.; Skipper, B.J.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Response of photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition in Juglans nigra L. with different nitrogen fertilizers Michael Nicodemus and Douglass F. Jacobs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response of photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition in Juglans nigra L. with different nitrogen INTRODUCTION N fertilization has been shown to positively affect photosynthesis in most studies N fertilization and photosynthesis is largely due to ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO

407

Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

Cha, C.Y.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

409

Production of a nitrogeneous humic fertilizer by the oxidation-ammoniation of lignite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two lignite samples were oxidised with HNO/sub 3/ (20% wt) at 75 C and treated afterwards with NH/sub 3/ in a fluidised-bed reactor in a temperature range 100-375 C. The effects of temperature, NH/sub 3/ flow rate, and reaction time on the total N/sub 2/ content of the product are reported. The product contained 7-13% wt of total N/sub 2/ which increased as the ammoniation temperature increased. Soil nitrification measurements of the N/sub 2/-enriched lignites showed that the maximum conversion to nitrates and rate of nitrification are exhibited by the product obtained at the lowest ammoniation temperature, i.e. 100 C. Maximum conversion to nitrates at that temperature was 45%, which compares well with similar products such as ammoniated peat (35%) and ammonium nitrohumates (45%).

Coca, J.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of total nitrate and ammonia were made during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study using a steam

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Nanocomposites for nitrogen oxide emissions control in lean-burn engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) reducing agent than propane in the SCR of NO. Pt-Rh/CuO/A1?O? nanocomposites capable of adsorbing SO? in oxygen-rich environment as metal sulfates and releasing SO? in reducing atmosphere were synthesized with ...

Pitukmanorom, Pemakorn, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* 53% NO x sensors that meet stringent vehicle requirements are not available: a) Cost (Complex sensors compared to the automotive sensor) b) Sensitivity (Need 5ppm or...

413

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

complete NO x sensors that meet stringent vehicle requirements are not available: a) Cost (Complex sensors compared to the automotive sensor) b) Sensitivity (Need 5ppm or...

414

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosoland its role in regional air quality. Science, 311, 67-70.aerosol in Fresno, CA. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. , 56,

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Eddy-covariance observations of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4.9 0.2 ppm NOx in N 2 , PRAXAIR) was diluted to 3-20 ppb5.4 ppm 5% NO in N 2 , PRAXAIR) was diluted with zero air

Min, Kyung-Eun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Gas chromatographic determination of nitrogen oxide and dioxide using a photoionization detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, fundamentally new possibilities of detecting NO and NO{sub 2} have been connected with the use of a photoionization detector (PID), which is based on the ionization of analyzed components under vacuum UV radiation. The extensive experimental material on the employment of PID in the gas chromatographic analysis of different samples of organic and inorganic origin is given earlier. However there is no information about the practical use of PIDs for the analysis of NO and NO{sub 2}. The results obtained by using a PID for the gas-chromatographic analysis of a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} are presented in this work. A specific Kuprumsorb sorbent based on a macroporous sulfonated cation-exchange resin in the Cu{sup 2+} form was used.

Bulycheva, Z.Yu.; Panina, L.I. [Research Center for Testing Automobile Technics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rudenko, B.A. [Vernadskii Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Effect of additives on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using cyanuric acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Cylinder Concentrations of Flow Constituents. . . . . 16 Table 2. Maximum Output and Use of Flow ControHers. . . . 17 Table 3. Manufacturers and Purity Levels of Four Liquid Additives. . . . 30 Table 4. Nominal Inlet Concentrations of Simulated... OF THE EXPERIMENT Experimental Apparatus Species Calibration . Liquid Additive Mixture Preparation. Baseline Testing Additive Testing . . Data Acquisition and Reduction. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Baseline Case . . Hydrogen . Methane. . . Ethylene...

Standridge, Brad Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

419

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the unfired ceramic sample during thermal processing steps.ceramic samples were affixed to 4 silicon handle wafers using the following bonding agents: thermal

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Satellite constraints of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from India based on OMI observations and WRFChem simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Ghude et al., 2008]. Thermal power plants are the largest consumer of coal in India [Garg et al., 2001 and WRFChem simulations Sachin D. Ghude,1,2 Gabriele G. Pfister,2 Chinmay Jena,1 R.J. van der A,3 Louisa K tropospheric NO2 column retrievals over the Indian region, with tropospheric NO2 columns simulated

Haak, Hein

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methods for manufacturing patterned ceramic green- sheetsMethods for manufacturing patterned ceramic green-sheets and

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

garbage burning (7), incineration of municipal and medicalindustrial settings, incineration fa- cilities (5), biomass

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

122 Table 22. Equivalent circuit model resistances for NOof the resistance elements of the equivalent circuit offersOver time, the resistance values of the equivalent circuit

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Turfgrass: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Rates and Types Dale J. Bremer*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) inventories are unknown. Our objectives were to: (i) measure the magnitude, seasonal patterns, and annual inventories is unknown (Bouwman et al., 1995; Kroeze, 1999). Turfgrass has historically been excluded from re- gional N2O inventories because of the assumption that urban land area is too small to make significant

425

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= Au, Pd, and TiO 2 ) with varying counter electrode", Solid= Au, Pd, and TiO 2 ) with varying counter electrode", Solidelectrodes (dense gold wires) Conductive paste (Au-Pd)

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Eddy-covariance observations of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the mean of vertical wind speed and concentration.observed between vertical wind speed and temperature sincethe cospectral density of vertical wind speed and NO X as

Min, Kyung-Eun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Nitrogen oxide removal processes for coal-fueled electric power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a global trend requiring lower NO{sub x}, emissions from stationary combustion sources. When NO{sub x} is released into the atmosphere it contributes to photochemical smog and acid rain. Elevated ozone concentrations have been implicated in crop and forest damage, and adverse effects on human health. Several alternative technologies have been developed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions resulting from the combustion of coal. The alternatives, which range from combustion modifications, to addition of post-combustion systems, to use of alternate coal combustion technologies, provide different degrees of NO{sub x} reduction efficiency with different associated costs. Only by careful evaluation of site specific factors can the optimum technology for each application be chosen. This chapter will investigate the alternatives for NO{sub x} control for new, large utility steam generators using coal as a fuel.

Van Nieuwenhuizen, Wm.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cell that is derived from oxygen sensor technology.are derived from oxygen sensor technology. This sectionoverview of the technology underpinning oxygen sensors and

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understand and control this air pollutant. The effectivenessair pollution time series requires long records of pollutant concentrations to control

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN7 Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased ProductsTRobRobert

431

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

432

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at several frequencies. EIS is performed as follows: - Applyand Saruhan performed EIS on NO x sensors with sputtered NiOTransformation (Aging) EIS was performed on LSM sensors on

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-furnace, combustion control technology for NOx reduction. Another environmental issue that needs to be addressed is the rapidly growing feedlot industry in the United States. The production of biomass from one or more animal species is in excess of what can safely...

Arumugam, Senthilvasan

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

434

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accomplishments * Extensive sensor characterization - Optical, SEM, X-ray micro tomography, XRD, and EDAX * Identified interfacial issues and worked with ESL to address these...

435

Does the location of aircraft nitrogen oxide emissions affect their climate impact?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximately balancing the IRF associated with aviation CO2 emissions (28 mWm?2 yr (TgNO2)?1 ). The overall climate impact of global aviation is often represented by a simple multiplier for CO2 emissions­3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions [Lee et al., 2009], yet these emissions fall outside the remit

436

Faraday rotation spectroscopy of nitrogen dioxide based on a widely tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faraday rotation spectroscopy of nitrogen dioxide based on a widely tunable external cavity quantum: Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy, external-cavity quantum cascade laser, nitrogen dioxide, trace

437

In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High...

438

E-Print Network 3.0 - accessible critical nitrogen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air & Waste Summary: for concentrations and isotopes to avoid storage artifacts. Bucket collection has been criticized because nitrogen... Matter and Nitrogen Isotopic...

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric nitrogen loads Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and in the water running down tree trunks. We investigated how nitrogen pollution affected which... how well the species could recover from high levels of nitrogen exposure....

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect additional nitrogen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nitrate solution to determine what happened to the nitrogen and how the deposition affected... on a range of key microbial activities. The nitrogen additions decreased the rate...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-induced atmospheric nitrogen Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and in the water running down tree trunks. We investigated how nitrogen pollution affected which... how well the species could recover from high levels of nitrogen exposure....

442

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic nitrogen fixation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 85 Nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Robert C. Thunell,1 Summary: . In recent budgets of oceanic fixed nitrogen, N2...

443

Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

Siegrist, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Murdoch, Lawrence C. (Clemson, SC)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

New high-nitrogen energetic materials for gas generators in space ordnance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-nitrogen nitroheterocyclic energetic compounds are used as explosives, propellants, and gas generants when safe, thermally stable, cool-burning energetic materials are desired. A series of compounds are compared for sensitivity properties and calculated burn performance. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations by NASA/Lewis rocket propellant and Blake gun propellant codes gave flame temperatures, average molecular weight, and identity of the equilibrium burn products for ambient, rocket, and gun pressure environments. These compounds were subjected to calculations both as monopropellants and as 50/50 weight ratio mixtures with ammonium nitrate (AN). Special attention was paid to calculated toxic products such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide, and how these were affected by the addition of an oxidizer AN. Several compounds were noted for further calculations of a formulation ad experimental evaluation.

Campbell, M.S.; Lee, Kien-Yin; Hiskey, M.A.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

Estochen, E.

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT); Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

447

Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

Rolllins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

448

Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. is provided. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Pullockaran, Jose D. (Hanover Park, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

451

NO.sub.x sensing devices having conductive oxide electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A NO.sub.x sensing device includes at least one pair of spaced electrodes, at least one of which is made of a conductive oxide, and an oxygen-ion conducting material in bridging electrical communication with the electrodes.

Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); West, David L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

453

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

454

Ductility Enhancement of Molybdenum Phase by Nano-sizedd Oxide Dispersions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present research is focused on ductility enhancement of molybdenum (Mo) alloys by adding nano-sized oxide particles to the alloy system. The research approach includes: (1) determination of microscopic mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic ductility enhancement effects through atomistic modeling of the metal-ceramic interface; (2) subsequent computer simulation-aided optimization of composition and nanoparticle size of the dispersion for improved performance; (3) synthesis and characterization of nanoparticle dispersion following the guidance from atomistic computational modeling analyses (e.g., by processing a small sample of Mo alloy for evaluation); and (4) experimental testing of the mechanical properties to determine optimal ductility enhancement.Through atomistic modeling and electronic structure analysis using full-potential linearized muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) techniques, research to date has been performed on a number of selected chromium (Cr) systems containing nitrogen (N) and/or magnesium oxide (MgO) impurities. The emphasis has been on determining the properties of the valence electrons and the characteristics of the chemical bonds they formed. It was found that the brittle/ductile behavior of this transitional metal system is controlled by the relative population of valence charges: bonds formed by s valence electrons yield metallic, ductile behavior, whereas bonds formed by d valence electrons lead to covalent, brittle behavior. The presence of valence bands from impurities also affects the metal bonding, thereby explaining the detrimental and beneficial effects induced by the inclusion of N impurities and MgO dispersions. These understandings are useful for optimizing ductility enhancement effects on the dispersion materials.

Bruce Kang

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

456

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The oxidation behavior of SiC sintered with Al-B-C and improved oxidation resistance via heat treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation behavior of high strength and high toughness SiC, sintered with Al, B, and C (ABC-SiC), was examined. Kinetic data were acquired and the parabolic rate constant for oxidation was determined and compared with literature data on various SiC materials. The role of secondary phases on the oxide morphology was explored. ABC-SiC was compared to commercially available SiC, Hexoloy, and SiC sintered with 10% yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG). Two-step sintering (pre-coarsening) was employed with holds for 48 hours at 600--1,600 C, prior to the typical hot-pressing conditions of 1,900 C for 1 hour, to change the chemistry and reduce the number of bubbles in the silica scale. The effects on the oxide thickness and integrity was examined as a function of the precoarsening heat treatment temperature. Additionally, the hot-pressed ABC-SiC was subjected to heat treatments (anneals) at 1,800 C for 1 hour in nitrogen, Ar, and vacuum environments, and the effects on subsequent oxidation were evaluated. The Ar and vacuum heat treatments dramatically improved the oxidation resistance of ABC-SiC. Finally, reoxidation experiments were performed to try to alter the surface chemistry of the SiC to improve the oxidation resistance. The four-point bend strengths and two-parameter Weibull plots of the most successful heat treatments were compared with the standard ABC-SiC to ensure that significant degradation did not result from altering the processing of the material.

Sixta, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Application of sewage sludge to non-agricultural ecosystems: Impacts of nitrogen on forests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 directed EPA to establish standards for use and disposal of sewage sludge (biosolids). This report is part of a larger study evaluating nutrient and contaminant impacts associated with the land application of biosolids in non-agricultural ecosystems. Ecological risk assessments rarely focus on nutrients as stressors. The nutrient components of municipal sewage sludge may impact tree community composition, growth and production, habitat and forage quality for wildlife, and nutrient cycling. The focus here is on three forest ecosystems: northwestern Douglas-fir forest (Pack Forest, WA), southeastern loblolly pine plantation (Athens, GA), and eastern deciduous forest (Hubbard Brook, NH). A model called LINKAGES has been developed at ORNL to examine the relationships between nitrogen cycling and long-term forest stand dynamics, limited by climate and soil water status. Plant-available nitrogen from biosolids is added in several application scenarios and compared to the no-amendment case. All changes are noted, even if they may be viewed as benefits rather than risks. Model outputs include: above-ground biomass, individual species biomass, net above-ground production, leaf litter, evapotranspiration, available nitrogen, and dead trunks. The changes in plant community composition and production are dependent on the rate, frequency, and duration of sludge application and on the age of the stand at the time of application. Model outputs are compared to empirical studies of forests where biosolids have been applied.

Efroymson, R.A.; Tharp, M.L.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Barnthouse, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Daniel, F.B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Prochlorococcus genetic transformation and genomics of nitrogen metabolism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prochlorococcus, a unicellular cyanobacterium, is the most abundant phytoplankton in the oligotrophic, oceanic gyres where major plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are at nanomolar concentrations. ...

Tolonen, Andrew Carl

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

The nitrogen cycle and ecohydrology of seasonally dry grasslands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis addresses the coupling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes and, specifically, the organization of ecosystem traits with the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles. Observations from a factorial irrigation- ...

Parolari, Anthony Joseph

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Solid Nitrogen at Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and temperature range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.

Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E

2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

464

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF[subscript 3]) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earths radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a ...

Ivy, Diane J.

465

Spin properties of very shallow nitrogen vacancy defects in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate spin and optical properties of individual nitrogen vacancy centers located within 110 nm from the diamond surface. We observe stable defects with a characteristic optically detected magnetic-resonance ...

Ofori-Okai, Benjamin Kwasi

466

Variable energy positron measurements at nitrogen ion bombarded steel surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen ion bombardment of steel samples has been studied by utilizing the Delft variable energy positron beam facility. The energy of the beam was varied between 250 eV and 25 keV and a line-shape parameter S describing the annihilation radiation has been measured. By use of the VEPFIT fitting program, up to five different layers, each having different densities, could be identified and characterized. The results show that carbon layers deposited during nitrogen implantation can be observed. A relation between the measured depth profiles of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and the results of positron annihilation is given and discussed. The wear and friction properties of the steel surfaces before and after nitrogen implantation are presented.

Brauer, G.; Kolitsch, A. [Research Centre Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Schut, H.; Veen, A. van [TU Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

467

An experimental investigation of nitrogen gas produced during...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AD Peacock, M Oostrom, and TW Wietsma.2007."An experimental investigation of nitrogen gas produced during denitrification."Ground Water 45(4):461-467. Authors: JD Istok MM Park AD...

468

Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

469

atomic nitrogen doping: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chris Greene 3:30 - 3:50 Nick Brewer, Wisconsin, Left-handed electromagnetic waves in rare-earth doped Kemner, Ken 154 4, 26412665, 2007 Nitrogen retention Physics Websites...

470

The relationship between iron and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium spp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trichodesmium spp. are considered the dominant nitrogen (N) fixing cyanobacteria in tropical and subtropical oceans, regimes frequently characterized by low iron (Fe). Limited information exists about what levels of Fe ...

Chappell, Phoebe Dreux

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Structural and electronic properties of dense liquid and amorphous nitrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present first-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of liquid nitrogen in the pressure-temperature range of 0-200 GPa and 2000-6000 K. The molecular-polymerization and molecular-atomic liquid phase boundaries have been mapped over this region. We find the polymeric liquid to be metallic, similar to what has been reported for the higher-temperature atomic fluid. An explanation of the electronic properties is given based on the structure and bonding character of the transformed liquids. We discuss the structural and bonding differences between the polymeric liquid and insulating solid cubic-gauche nitrogen to explain the differences in their electronic properties. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanism responsible for charge transport in polymeric nitrogen systems to explain the conductivity of the polymeric fluid and the semi-conducting nature of low-temperature amorphous nitrogen.

Boates, B; Bonev, S A

2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

472

anthropogenous nitrogen deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

F. J. Mazac Jr. 1,3 , R. L. Jahn 3 and J. R. Stapper 3 1 Department of Soil...- 9, 2004, San Antonio, TX. (In press). Gerwing, J. Soil test to save nitrogen costs. The Corn &...

473

anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

F. J. Mazac Jr. 1,3 , R. L. Jahn 3 and J. R. Stapper 3 1 Department of Soil...- 9, 2004, San Antonio, TX. (In press). Gerwing, J. Soil test to save nitrogen costs. The Corn &...

474

The nitrogen specific uptake of three strains of Prochlorococcus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Nitrogen uptake of Prochlorococcus under a range of light conditions was investigated. Strains of Prochlorococcus isolated from three locations were used: Mediterranean Sea (CCMP 1378), Sargasso Sea (CCMP 1375), and Pacific Ocean (H36-16). Cultures grown...

Williams, Eli

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

2005-2006 Coachella Valley MSHCP Monitoring Framework Priorities: Impacts of Exotic Weed Species including Saharan Mustard (Brassica TournefortiiI)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyzed for nitrogen and Phosphorous content. The patternswas detected for a nitrogen or phosphorous/mustard abundance

Barrows, Cameron W.; Allen, Michael F.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

Lokhandwala, K.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

Roche, Neil Gerard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

479

Reactions of nitrogen heterocycle-organolithium intermediates with lead halides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REACTIONS OF NITROGEN HETEROCYCLE- ORGANOLITHIUM INTERMEDIATES WITH LEAD HALIDES A Thesis by JERRY HEAL KINNEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ot MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1970 Major Subject: Chemistry REACTIONS OF NITROGEN HETEROCYCLE- ORGANOLITHIUM INTERMEDIATES WITH LFAD HALIDES A Thesis JERRY NEAL KINNEY Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commi ee) (Head of Department) (Member...

Kinney, Jerry Neal

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including nitrogen oxides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 27792787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings: a 15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abies; Air pollution; Dendroecology; Nitrogen deposition; Stable isotopes; Nitrogen dioxide 1Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 2779­2787 First detection of nitrogen from NOx in tree rings 2004; accepted 27 February 2004 Abstract Nitrogen isotope analysis (d15 N) of tree rings is potentially

482

Method for fluorination of uranium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly pure uranium hexafluoride is made from uranium oxide and fluorine. The uranium oxide, which includes UO.sub.3, UO.sub.2, U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and mixtures thereof, is introduced together with a small amount of a fluorine-reactive substance, selected from alkali chlorides, silicon dioxide, silicic acid, ferric oxide, and bromine, into a constant volume reaction zone. Sufficient fluorine is charged into the zone at a temperature below approximately 0.degree. C. to provide an initial pressure of at least approximately 600 lbs/sq. in. at the ambient atmospheric temperature. The temperature is then allowed to rise in the reaction zone until reaction occurs.

Petit, George S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Effect of Increasing Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Microbial Communities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing nitrogen deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and decreasing biodiversity are three main environmental changes occurring on a global scale. The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and Nitrogen) ecological experiment site at the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve started in 1997, to better understand how these changes would affect soil systems. To understand how increasing nitrogen deposition affects the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure impact soil microbial communities, 12 samples were collected from the BioCON plots in which nitrogenous fertilizer was added to simulate the effect of increasing nitrogen deposition and 12 samples from without added fertilizer. DNA from the 24 samples was extracted using a freeze-grind protocol, amplified, labeled with a fluorescent dye, and then hybridized to GeoChip, a functional gene array containing probes for genes involved in N, S and C cycling, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all genes detected was performed to analyze microbial community patterns. The first two axes accounted for 23.5percent of the total variation. The samples fell into two major groups: fertilized and non-fertilized, suggesting that nitrogenous fertilizer had a significant impact on soil microbial community structure and diversity. The functional gene numbers detected in fertilized samples was less that detected in non-fertilizer samples. Functional genes involving in the N cycling were mainly discussed.

Xiao, Shengmu; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; VanNostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Jianshe; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

485

Friction stir welding and processing of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of welding including forming a filler material of a first oxide dispersoid metal, the first oxide dispersoid material having first strengthening particles that compensate for decreases in weld strength of friction stir welded oxide dispersoid metals; positioning the filler material between a first metal structure and a second metal structure each being comprised of at least a second oxide dispersoid metal; and friction welding the filler material, the first metal structure and the second metal structure to provide a weld.

Ren, Weiju

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

486

Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir--East Binger (Marchand) Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2004 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, though limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, and has increased 70% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area is now only about 32%, far below the 72% recycle prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Four vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Additional vertical well drilling is planned due to the success of wells drilled to date.

Joe Sinner

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Miller, Michael A. (San Antonio, TX)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

488

Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStanding Friedel Waves,TheoryParliament'v0,MixturesCerium Oxide

489

Novel oxide-oxide fiber reinforced hot gas filter development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to fabricate and test oxide fiber reinforced composite hot gas filter elements for advanced power generation systems. The level of mechanical durability exhibited by the currently available filters in field tests indicates that more rugged filters are required to meet the demands of large power generation systems. Furthermore, long term corrosion resistance of currently available filters has yet to be demonstrated in PFBC systems. The essential requirements of a composite material designed to meet the program objective for a toughened hot gas filter include the following: Stable continuous fiber; rigid porous matrix; engineered fiber-matrix interface; and cost effectiveness. Based on properties, availability, and cost, Mitsui`s ALMAX alumina fiber and 3M`s NEXTEL 610 alumina fiber were selected as the oxide reinforcement fibers. In order to meet the economic goals of the program it is essential that the cost and amount of continuous fiber be minimized. A four axis filament winder will be used to fabricate filter Preforms in a variety of fiber architectures. Carbon was used as the initial fiber coating because it was known to be resistant to the Processing chemicals. The coating was produced by pyrolysis of the resin based sizings on the continuous fibers. The matrix of the composite filter is comprised of chopped ceramic fiber. Saffil fiber was used for all compositions in this program.

Wagner, R.A.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Thermo-Oxidation of Tokamak Carbon Dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of dust and flakes collected from the DIII-D tokamak, and various commercial dust specimens, has been measured at 350 C and 2.0 kPa O2 pressure. Following an initial small mass loss, most of the commercial dust specimens showed very little effect due to O2 exposure. Similarly, dust collected from underneath DIII-D tiles, which is thought to comprise largely Grafoil particulates, also showed little susceptibility to oxidation at this temperature. However, oxidation of the dust collected from tile surfaces has led to ~ 18% mass loss after 8 hours; thereafter, little change in mass was observed. This suggests that the surface dust includes some components of different composition and/or structure possibly fragments of codeposited layers. The oxidation of codeposit flakes scraped form DIII-D upper divertor tiles showed an initial 25% loss in mass due to heating in vacuum, and the gradual loss of 30-38% mass during the subsequent 24 hours exposure to O2. This behavior is significantly different from that observed for the oxidation of thinner DIII-D codeposit specimens which were still adhered to tile surfaces, and this is thought to be related to the low deuterium content (D/C ~ 0.03 0.04) of the flakes.

J.W. Davis; B.W.N. Fitzpatrick; J.P. Sharpe; A.A. Haasz

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

494

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

495

Molecular water oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

497

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z (n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Our lab focuses on materials durability in extreme environments for energy, power, and propulsion applications. Current research interests include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications. Current research interests include oxidation and corrosion of ceramics and ceramic matrix-the-art capabilities in isotopic mapping by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Ceramic Matrix Composites for Combustion Applications SiC-based Ceramic Matrix Composites are currently under development for turbine

Acton, Scott

499

Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors. Abstract: Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the...

500

Detailed modeling and laser-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH3-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

non-premixed methane/air flame John B. Bell, Marcus S. Day, Joseph F. Grcar Computing Sciences-induced fluorescence imaging of nitric oxide in a NH3-seeded non-premixed methane/air flame Abstract In this paper we study the formation of NO in laminar, nitrogen diluted methane diffusion flames that are seeded

Bell, John B.