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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Residential heating oil price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.10 from a year ago, based on the...

2

Residential heating oil price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to 2.84 per gallon. That's down 1.22 from a year ago, based on the...

3

Residential heating oil price  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.97 per gallon. That's down 1.05 from a year ago, based on the...

4

Residential heating oil price  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to 3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the...

5

Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and past heating season. As you can see, prices have started the heating season, about 40 to 50 cents per gallon higher than last year at this time. The data presented are from EIA's State Heating Oil and Propane Program. We normally collect and publish this data twice a month, but given the low stocks and high prices, we started tracking the prices weekly. These data will also be used to determine the price trigger mechanism for the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. The data are published at a State and regional level on our web site. The slide is to give you some perspective of what is happening in these markets, since you probably will get a number of calls from local residents about their heating fuels bills

6

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified...

7

Heating oils, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Properties of 235 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between BETC and API. The fuels were manufactured by 25 petroleum refining companies in 88 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1982 compared with data for 1981 are tabulated. Analyses of grade 6 foreign import oils are presented.

Shelton, E.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Heating oils, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Properties of 247 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center and the American Petroleum Institute. The fuels were manufactured by 26 petroleum refining companies in 87 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The six grades of fuel are defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials Specification D396. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1980 compared with data for 1979 are shown in tables. Analyses of grades 2, 5(light), and 6 foreign import oils are presented.

Shelton, E.M.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Heating oils, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Properties of 249 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The fuels were manufactured by 28 petroleum refining companies in 92 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The six grades of fuels are defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specification D396. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1981 compared with data for 1980 are shown in Tables 1 through 6. Analyses of grade 6 foreign import oils are presented in Table 13.

Shelton, E.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Residential heating oil prices decline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices decline The average retail price for home heating oil is 3.48 per gallon. That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by...

11

Heating oils, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Properties of 195 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The fuels were manufactured by 25 petroleum refining companies in 83 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The six grades of fuels are defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specification D396. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1983 are compared with data for 1982. 7 figures, 12 tables.

Shelton, E.M.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Residential heating oil prices decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.7 cents from a week ago to 4.02 per gallon. That's up 1.7 cents from a year ago, based on the...

13

Residential heating oil price decreases  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.8 cents from a week ago to 3.14 per gallon. That's down 81.1 cents from a year ago, based on the...

14

Residential heating oil price decreases  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to 3.22 per gallon. That's down 73.6 cents from a year ago, based on the...

15

Residential heating oil price decreases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to 2.82 per gallon. That's down 1.36 from a year ago, based on the...

16

Residential heating oil prices decline  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2 cents from a week ago to 3.36 per gallon. That's down 52.5 cents from a year ago, based on the...

17

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 3.9 cents last week to 3.96 per gallon. That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the...

18

Residential heating oil price decreases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

05, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 3.43 per gallon. That's down 39 cents from a year...

19

Residential heating oil price decreases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.6 cents from a week ago to 3.42 per gallon. That's down 39.5 cents from a year ago,...

20

Residential heating oil prices decrease  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.45 per gallon. That's down 36.6 cents from a year ago, based on the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Residential heating oil prices decline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.3 cents from a week ago to 3.38 per gallon. That's down 43.9 cents from a year ago, based on the...

22

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6.5 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year...

23

Residential heating oil price decreases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.6 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 8.9 cents from a year...

24

Residential heating oil prices decline  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 3.08 per gallon. That's down 90.3 cents from a year ago, based on the...

25

Residential heating oil price decreases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.8 cents from a week ago to 3.33 per gallon. That's down 59.1 cents from a year ago, based on the...

26

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to 4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the...

27

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based...

28

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to 4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year...

29

Residential heating oil prices decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to 4.00 per gallon. That's down 2-tenths of a cent...

30

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to 4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the...

31

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map...

32

Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winter's market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices through February 28, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Heating oil prices for East Coast consumers started this winter at just over $1 per gallon, but rising crude oil prices drove them up nearly 21 cents through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of heating oil

33

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average *...

34

Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Slide 2 of 11 Notes: One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winter’s market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices through February 7, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Heating oil prices for East Coast consumers started this winter at just over $1 per gallon, but rising crude oil prices drove them up nearly 21 cents per gallon through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude oil markets, magnified by a regional shortfall of

35

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Using the Northeast as a regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming that weather is "normal." The previous three winters were warmer than average and generated below normal consumption rates. Last winter, consumers saw large increases over the very low heating oil prices seen during the winter of 1998-1999 but, outside of the cold period in late January/early February they saw relatively low consumption rates due to generally warm weather. Even without particularly sharp cold weather events this winter, we think consumers are likely to see higher average heating oil prices than were seen last winter. If weather is normal, our projections imply New England heating oil

36

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Information on the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve is available from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Petroleum Reserves web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/reserves/heatingoil/. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) inventories now classified as ultra-low sulfur distillate (15 parts per million) are not considered to be in the commercial sector and therefore are excluded from distillate fuel oil supply and disposition statistics in Energy Information Administration publications, such as the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and This Week In Petroleum. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Terminal Operator Location (Thousand Barrels) Hess Corp. Groton, CT 500*

37

Residential heating oil prices available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel price survey. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at 3.48 per gallon,...

38

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

data not collected over the summer? The residential pricing data collected on heating oil and propane prices are for the Winter Heating Fuels Survey. The purpose of this survey...

39

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: The outlook for heating oil costs this winter, due to high crude oil costs and tight heating oil supplies, breaks down to an expected increase in heating expenditures for a typical oil-heated household of more than $200 this winter, the result of an 18% increase in the average price and an 11% increase in consumption. The consumption increase is due to the colder than normal temperatures experienced so far this winter and our expectations of normal winter weather for the rest of this heating season. Last winter, Northeast heating oil (and diesel fuel) markets experienced an extremely sharp spike in prices when a severe weather situation developed in late January. It is virtually impossible to gauge the probability of a similar (or worse) price shock recurring this winter,

40

Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations.

Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil Workship on biomass derivatives competitive with heating oil costs.

42

Winter Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Residential heating oil prices reflect a similar pattern to that shown in spot prices. However, like other retail petroleum prices, they tend to lag changes in wholesale prices in both directions, with the result that they don't rise as rapidly or as much, but they take longer to recede. This chart shows the residential heating oil prices collected under the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP), which only runs during the heating season, from October through March. The spike in New York Harbor spot prices last winter carried through to residential prices throughout New England and the Central Atlantic states. Though the spike actually lasted only a few weeks, residential prices ended the heating season well above where they had started.

43

Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook 8/13/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Crude Oil, Heating Oil, and Propane Market Outlook Short-Term World Oil Price Forecast Price Movements Related to Supply/Demand Balance OPEC Production Likely To Remain Low U.S. Reflects World Market Crude Oil Outlook Conclusions Distillate Prices Increase With Crude Oil Distillate Stocks on the East Coast Were Very Low Entering Last Winter Distillate Demand Strong Last Winter More Supply Possible This Fall than Forecast Distillate Fuel Oil Imports Could Be Available - For A Price Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Reflected in Spreads Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low Winter Crude Oil and Distillate Price Outlook Heating Oil Outlook Conclusion Propane Prices Follow Crude Oil

44

Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane bills Lower oil prices are not only driving down gasoline costs, but U.S. consumers will also see a bigger savings in...

45

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating Oil Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release The Energy Policy and Conservation...

46

Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices virtually unchanged The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago to 3.95 per gallon. That's down 8-tenths of a penny...

47

Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.1 cents from a week ago to 4.20 per gallon. That's up 13.6 cents from a year ago,...

48

Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 4.23 per gallon. That's up 5.1 cents from a year...

49

Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.6 cents from a week ago to 4.23 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year...

50

Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.2 cents from a week ago to 4.12 per gallon. That's up 9.4 cents from a year...

51

Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2-tenths of a cent from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 8.2 cents...

52

DOE to Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE to Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve June 23, 2008 - 1:29pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a solicitation seeking to purchase heating oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) using $3 million in appropriated funds. The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve provides an important safety cushion for millions of Americans residing in the Northeast region of the country. Due to the modest volume of heating oil expected to be purchased with the available funds, no impact on market prices is expected. In 2007 a 35,000 barrel sale was conducted to raise funds necessary to award new long-term storage contracts to fill NEHHOR to its authorized

53

Tips For Residential Heating Oil Tank Owners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Tips For Residential Heating Oil Tank Owners Source: DEP Fact Sheet Residential heating oil tanks are used to store fuel for furnaces or boilers to heat homes. The tanks can either be aboveground tanks, normally located in basements or utility rooms

Maroncelli, Mark

54

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

55

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

56

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: With the worst of the heating season (October-March) now behind us, we can be fairly confident that retail heating oil prices have seen their seasonal peak. Relatively mild weather and a softening of crude oil prices have helped ease heating oil prices. Spot heating oil prices recently reached their lowest levels in over six months. Because of relatively balmy weather in the Northeast in January and February, heating oil stock levels have stabilized. Furthermore, heating oil production has been unusually robust, running several hundred thousand barrels per day over last year's pace. Currently, EIA expects winter prices to average around $1.41, which is quite high in historical terms. The national average price in December 2000 was 44 cents per gallon above the December 1999 price. For February

57

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Holiday Release Schedule Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard release time and day of the week will be at 1:00 p. m. (Eastern time) on Wednesdays with the following exceptions. All times are Eastern. Data for: Alternate Release Date Release Day Release Time Holiday October 14, 2013 October 17, 2013 Thursday Cancelled Columbus/EIA Closed November 11, 2013 November 14, 2013 Thursday 1:00 p.m. Veterans December 23, 2013 December 27, 2013 Friday 1:00 p.m. Christmas December 30, 2013 January 3, 2014 Friday 1:00 p.m. New Year's January 20, 2014 January 23, 2014 Thursday 1:00 p.m. Martin Luther King Jr. February 17, 2014 February 20, 2014 Thursday 1:00 p.m. President's

58

Warm Winters Held Heating Oil Demand Down While Diesel Grew  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: To understand the inventory situation, we must look the balance between demand and supply that drives inventories up or down. First consider demand. Most of the remaining charts deal with total distillate demand. Total distillate demand includes both diesel and heating oil. These are similar products physically, and prior to the low sulfur requirements for on-road diesel fuel, were used interchangeably. But even today, low sulfur diesel can be used in the heating oil market, but low sulfur requirements keep heating oil from being used in the on-road transportation sector. The seasonal increases and decreases in stocks stem from the seasonal demand in heating oil shown as the bottom red line. Heating oil demand increases by more than 50 percent from its low point to its high

59

Heat Requirements for Retorting Oil Shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat Requirements for Retorting Oil Shale ... Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of the Shell in Situ Conversion Process ... Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energy Inputs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of the Shell in Situ Conversion Process ...

H. W. Sohns; L. E. Mitchell; R. J. Cox; W. I. Barnet; W. I. R. Murphy

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Emissions characteristics of modern oil heating equipment  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 10 years there have been some very interesting developments in oil heating. These include higher static pressure burners, air atomizing nozzles, low firing rate nozzles, low heat loss combustion chambers and condensing boilers and furnaces. The current data base on the emissions characteristics of oil-fired residential heating equipment is based primarily on data taken in the 1970's. The objective of the work described in this report is to evaluate the effects of recent developments in oil-fired equipment on emissions. Detailed emissions measurements have been made on a number of currently available residential oil burners and whole systems selected to represent recent development trends. Some additional data was taken with equipment which is in the prototype stage. These units are a prevaporizing burner and a retention head burner modified with an air atomizing nozzle. Measurements include No{sub x}, smoke numbers, CO, gas phase hydrocarbon emissions and particulate mass emission rates. Emissions of smoke, CO and hydrocarbons were found to be significantly greater under cyclic operation for all burners tested. Generally, particulate emission rates were found to be 3 to 4 times greater in cyclic operation than in steady state. Air atomized burners were found to be capable of operation at much lower excess air levels than pressure atomized burners without producing significant amounts of smoke. As burner performance is improved, either through air atomization or prevaporization of the fuel, there appears to be a general trend towards producing CO at lower smoke levels as excess air is decreased. The criteria of adjusting burners for trace smoke may need to be abandoned for advanced burners and replaced with an adjustment for specific excess air levels. 17 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Coughlan, R.; Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.J.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

SHOPP Financial Forms - for State Energy Officials SHOPP Financial Forms - for State Energy Officials The Federal forms below are required for State Energy Officials participating in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) to execute their cooperative agreements with the U. S. Energy Information Administration. The Application for Federal Assistance, Form SF-424, is required to be submitted annually no later than May 15th in order for the applicant to receive funds for the upcoming season. This form consists of three parts: SF-424 - general funding information SF-424A - annual budget SF-424B - assurance pages The Federal Financial Report, Form SF-425, collects basic data on federal and recipient expenditures related to the SHOPP grant. This form should be submitted by August 1st of each year after the end of the season.

62

U.S. Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: One of the first places where consumers are feeling the impact of this winter’s market pressures is in home heating oil prices. This chart shows prices for the last four winters, with this year’s prices shown through January 24, the most recent EIA data available. The general level of heating oil prices each year is largely a function of crude oil prices, and the price range over the course of the heating season is typically about 10 cents per gallon. Exceptions occur in unusual circumstances, such as very cold weather, large changes in crude oil prices, or supply problems. Although heating oil prices for consumers started this winter at similar levels to those in 1997, they already rose nearly 20 cents per gallon through mid-January. With the continuing upward pressure from crude

63

Heat of combustion of retorted and burnt Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Heats of combustion were measured for 12 samples of retorted and 21 samples of burnt Colorado oil shale originating from raw shales with grades that ranged from 13 to 255 cm/sup 3/ of shale oil/kg of oil shale. For the retorted shales, the authors resolve the heat of combustion into exothermic contributions from combustion of carbon residue and iron sulfides and endothermic contributions from carbonate decomposition and glass formation. Eight samples reported in the literature were included in this analysis. Variations in the first three constituents account for over 99% of the variation in the heats of combustion. For the burnt shales, account must also be taken of the partial conversion of iron sulfides to sulfates. Equations are developed for calculating the heat of combustion of retorted and burnt oil shale with a standard error of about 60 J/g. 13 refs.

Burnham, A.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Carley, J.F.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Heat of combustion of retorted and burnt Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Heats of combustion were measured for 12 samples of retorted and 21 samples of burnt Colorado oil shale originating from raw shales with grades that ranged from 13 to 255 cm/sup 3/ of shale oil/kg of oil shale. For the retorted shales, the heat of combustion was resolved into exothermic contributions from combustion of carbon residue and iron sulfides and endothermic contributions from carbonate decomposition and glass formation. Eight samples reported in the literature were included in this analysis. Variations in the first three constituents account for over 99% of the variation in the heats of combustion. For the burnt shales, account must also be taken of the partial conversion of iron sulfides to sulfates. Equations are developed for calculating the heat of combustion of retorted and burnt oil shale with a standard error of about 60 J/g.

Burnham, A.K.; Carley, J.F.; Crawford, P.C.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Cryostat including heater to heat a target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

1990-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

66

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we now expect prices this winter for residential heating oil deliveries to peak at $1.52 per gallon in January. This is significantly above the monthly peak reached last winter. Because these figures are monthly averages, we expect some price movements for a few days to be above the values shown on the graph. This winter's expected peak price would be the highest on record in nominal terms, eclipsing the high set in February 2000. However, in real (constant dollar) terms, both of these prices remain well below the peak reached in March 1981, when the average residential heating oil price was $1.29 per gallon, equivalent to over $2.50 per gallon today.

67

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we now expect prices this winter for residential heating oil deliveries to peak at about $1.52 per gallon in January. This is significantly above the monthly peak reached last winter. Because these figures are monthly averages, we expect some price movements for a few days to be above the values shown on the graph. This winter's expected peak price would be the highest on record in nominal terms, eclipsing the high set in February 2000. However, in real (constant dollar) terms, both of these prices remain well below the peak reached in March 1981, when the average residential heating oil price was $1.29 per gallon, equivalent to over $2.50 per gallon today.

68

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

State Energy Offices State Energy Offices Q1: What price should be reported to EIA when submitting weekly data? EIA requests that you collect / report the residential credit price (keep-full prices being preferred) and that all prices exclude taxes for the Monday of each survey week, even if that Monday falls on a holiday. Prices should not include discounts for payment of cash or for payment made within a short period of time. However, if a company deals exclusively in cash, then this price should be reported and noted in the file sent to EIA. Q2: When is this data due to EIA each week? The EIA-877 "Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey" will begin the first Monday in October. Data should be submitted to EIA as soon as they are available but no later than noon on Tuesday of each week. Data collection

69

New York Home Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 of 15 5 of 15 Notes: The severity of this spot price increase is causing dramatic changes in residential home heating oil prices, although residential price movements are usually a little slower and spread out over time compared to spot prices. Wholesale prices increased over 50 cents from January 17 to January 24, while retail increased 44 cents in New York. Diesel prices are showing a similar pattern to residential home heating oil prices, and are indicating that home heating oil prices may not have peaked yet, although spot prices are dropping. Diesel prices in New England and the Mid-Atlantic increased 30-40 cents January 24 over the prior week, and another 13-15 cents January 31. Spot prices plummeted January 31, closing at 82 cents per gallon, indicating the worst part of the crisis may be over, but it is still a

70

Residential heating oil prices decline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

propane price increase slightly The average retail price for propane is 2.41 per gallon, up 1-tenth of a cent from last week, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the...

71

Insulated dipole antennas for heating oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Insulated dipole antennas in the HF band are potentially useful in heating shale i n s i t u to extract oil. To help evaluate the efficiency of such antennas the spatial distribution of the power absorbed per unit volume in the shale is computed.

John P. Casey; Rajeev Bansal

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Retail Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Because of the higher projected crude oil prices and because of increased tightening in the Northeast heating oil market since the last Outlook, we have raised expected peak prices this winter for residential heating oil deliveries to $1.55 per gallon (January) compared to $1.43 per gallon in last month's projections. This is significantly above the monthly peak reached last winter. Because these figures are monthly averages, we expect some price movements for a few days to be above the values shown on the graph. Primary distillate inventories in the United States failed to rise significantly in November despite some speculation that previous distributions into secondary and tertiary storage would back up burgeoning production and import volumes into primary storage that month. Average

73

Heat of combustion of Green River oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat of combustion of Green River oil shale ... AMSOs Novel Approach to In-Situ Oil Shale Recovery ... AMSOs Novel Approach to In-Situ Oil Shale Recovery ...

Michael J. Muehlbauer; Alan K. Burnham

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution fuel in New England.

75

DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve March 14, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy, through its agent, DLA Energy, has issued a solicitation for new contracts to store two million barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve in New York Harbor and New England. Offers are due no later than 9:00 a.m. EDT on March 29, 2011. Of the U.S. households that use heating oil to heat their homes, 69% reside in the Northeast. The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve was established by the Energy Policy Act of 2000 to provide an emergency buffer that can supplement commercial fuel supplies in the event of an actual or imminent severe supply disruption. The Reserve can provide supplemental supplies for

76

Microwave heating for adsorbents regeneration and oil sands coke activation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave heating has unique advantages compared to convection-radiation heating methods including fast heating rate and selective heating of objects. This thesis studied two applications of (more)

Chen, Heng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating...

78

Applying Bayesian Forecasting to Predict New Customers' Heating Oil Demand.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a new forecasting technique that estimates energy demand by applying a Bayesian approach to forecasting. We introduce our Bayesian Heating Oil Forecaster (more)

Sakauchi, Tsuginosuke

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Heating Oil and Propane Update - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

all Petroleum Reports all Petroleum Reports Heating Oil and Propane Update Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season, which extends from October through March. U.S. Heating Oil and Propane Prices Residential Heating Oil Graph. Residential Propane Graph. change from change from Heating Oil 12/16/2013 week ago year ago Propane 12/16/2013 week ago year ago Residential 3.952 values are down 0.004 values are down 0.008 Residential 2.712 values are up 0.091 values are up 0.469 Wholesale 3.074 values are down 0.063 values are not available NA Wholesale 1.637 values are up 0.113 values are not available NA Note: Price in dollars per gallon, excluding taxes. Values shown on the graph and corresponding data pages for the previous week may be revised to account for late submissions and corrections.

80

DOE to Sell 35,000 Barrels of Oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to Sell 35,000 Barrels of Oil from the Northeast Home Heating to Sell 35,000 Barrels of Oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE to Sell 35,000 Barrels of Oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve May 24, 2007 - 4:16pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that it will sell approximately 35,000 barrels of home heating oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR). The Reserve's current 5-year storage contracts expire on September 30, 2007 and market conditions have caused new storage costs to rise to a level that exceeds available funds. Revenue from the sale will be used to supplement funds for the award of new long-term storage contracts that will begin on October 1, 2007. The Department will work with Congress to resolve these funding issues in order

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

DOE to Sell 35,000 Barrels of Oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sell 35,000 Barrels of Oil from the Northeast Home Heating Sell 35,000 Barrels of Oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE to Sell 35,000 Barrels of Oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve May 24, 2007 - 4:16pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that it will sell approximately 35,000 barrels of home heating oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR). The Reserve's current 5-year storage contracts expire on September 30, 2007 and market conditions have caused new storage costs to rise to a level that exceeds available funds. Revenue from the sale will be used to supplement funds for the award of new long-term storage contracts that will begin on October 1, 2007. The Department will work with Congress to resolve these funding issues in order to restore the inventory of the Reserve to its full authorized size.

82

Retorting Oil Shale by a Self-Heating Route  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Retorting is a frequently used method for producing shale oil from oil shale. During retorting, heat is usually supplied to the retort by heat-carrier gas of high temperature, such as 700 C, until retorting ends. In this work, a low-energy-input ...

Hongfan Guo; Siyuan Peng; Jiadong Lin; Jiang Chang; Shan Lei; Tianbo Fan; Yunyi Liu

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

83

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Online Bidding System | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Petroleum Reserves » Heating Oil Reserve » Northeast Services » Petroleum Reserves » Heating Oil Reserve » Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Online Bidding System Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Online Bidding System The U.S. Department of Energy has developed an on-line bidding system - an anonymous auction program - for the sale of product from the one million barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. We invite prospective bidders and other interested parties to try out this system and give us your views. You must register to use the system to practice or to participate in an actual emergency sale. Registration assures that you will receive e-mail alerts of sales or other pertinent news. You will also have the opportunity to establish a user ID and password to submit bids. If you establish a user ID, you will receive a temporary password by

84

Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Personal) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Personal) Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Personal) Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Personal) < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Bioenergy Maximum Rebate $500 per year Program Info Start Date 01/01/2008 State Maryland Program Type Personal Tax Credit Rebate Amount $0.03/gallon of biodiesel Provider Revenue Administration Division Maryland allows individuals and corporations to take an income tax credit of $0.03/gallon for purchases of biodiesel used for space heating or water heating. The maximum credit is $500 per year. It may not be refunded or carried over to subsequent years. In order to qualify for the tax credit, the heating oil must be at least 5% biodiesel sourced from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved feedstocks or be accepted

85

Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Corporate) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Corporate) Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Corporate) Bio-Heating Oil Tax Credit (Corporate) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Bioenergy Maximum Rebate $500 per year Program Info Start Date 01/01/2008 State Maryland Program Type Corporate Tax Credit Rebate Amount $0.03/gallon Provider Revenue Administration Division Maryland allows individuals and corporations to take an income tax credit of $0.03/gallon for purchases of biodiesel used for space heating or water heating. The maximum credit is $500 per year. It may not be refunded or carried over to subsequent years. In order to qualify for the tax credit, the heating oil must be at least 5% biodiesel sourced from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved feedstocks or be accepted

86

Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

1989-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

87

Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel  

SciTech Connect

The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has chosen these oils for experimentation. Trials have been conducted in a conventional warm air oil furnace, fitted with a flame retention head burner. Performance has been measured with pure vegetable oils as well as a series of blends with conventional No. 2 oil. The effects of increased fuel pressure and fuel preheating are established. Emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates are given for both steady state and cyclic operation. Canola oil cannot be fired in cyclic operation above 50:50 blends with No. 2 oil. At any level above a 10% blend, canola is difficult to burn, even with significant increased pressure and temperature. Sunflower oil is much easier to burn and can be fired as a pure fuel, but with high emissions of incomplete combustion products. An optimum blend of 50:50 sunflower in No. 2 oil yields emissions and performance similar to No. 2 oil. This blend offers potential as a means of reducing demand of imported crude oil for domestic heating systems.

Hayden, A.C.S.; Begin, E.; Palmer, C.E.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

The stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs with electrical resistance heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-307. Stuckey, W. D. : "A Study of the Pyrolysis of Oil Shale By Microwave Heating, " MS Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder (1977). Bridges, J. E. , Taflove, A. , and Snow, R. H. : eNet Energy Recoveries for the In-Situ Dielectric Heating of Oil Shales..., w Proc. 1978 Oil Shale Symposium, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Apr. 12-14. Solomon, B. : "Shale Oil Via Microwaves: Illinois Institute Says Yes, e Energy Daily (May 1978) 2-4; Energy Abstr. Policy Anal. (Nov. 1978) 831. Snowi R H i et. el...

Baylor, Blake Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 5:41pm Addthis Install a new energy-efficient furnace to save money over the long term. Install a new energy-efficient furnace to save money over the long term. If you plan to buy a new heating system, ask your local utility or state energy office about the latest technologies on the market. For example, many newer models have designs for burners and heat exchangers that are more efficient during operation and cut heat loss when the equipment is off. Consider a sealed-combustion furnace -- they are safer and more efficient. Long-Term Savings Tip Install a new energy-efficient furnace to save money over the long term. Look for the ENERGY STAR® and EnergyGuide labels to compare efficiency and

90

DOE Awards Storage Contracts for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Awards Storage Contracts for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Awards Storage Contracts for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Awards Storage Contracts for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve August 18, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that new contracts have been awarded for commercial storage of 650,000 barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate (ULSD) for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR). Awards were made to two companies for storage in New England--Hess Corporation in Groton, CT for 400,000 barrels, and Global Companies LLC in Revere, MA for 250,000 barrels. The procurement was conducted by the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA Energy), acting as the agent for DOE. Acquisition of storage services for an additional 350,000 barrels is planned to complete the establishment of a

91

Additional Storage Contracts Awarded for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Additional Storage Contracts Awarded for Northeast Home Heating Oil Additional Storage Contracts Awarded for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Additional Storage Contracts Awarded for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve September 30, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed the acquisition of commercial storage services for the one million barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR). Two awards totaling 350,000 barrels have been made to companies that had earlier received storage contracts totaling 650,000 barrels. Hess Corporation in Groton, CT has been awarded a second contract for 100,000 barrels, increasing its storage obligation to 500,000 barrels. Global Companies LLC in Revere, MA was awarded a second contract for 250,000 barrels, increasing its obligation to 500,000 barrels.

92

PADD 1 (East Coast) Heating Oil Stocks Low  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The East Coast (PADD 1) is the primary heating oil region, and it depends heavily on production from the Gulf Coast (PADD 3) as well. The biggest decline in U.S. stocks has taken place in the heating oil markets of PADD 1 (East Coast), which consumed 86 percent of the nation’s heating oil in 1998. It also is the region with the largest volume of heating oil stocks. PADD 1 was down over 8.4 million barrels on January 21 from the 5-year average stock level for end of January PADD 3, which supplies PADD 1, was down 4.6 million barrels from its 5-year January ending levels. During the week ending January 21, weather in New England was nearly 20% colder than normal for this time of year. This cold weather on top of low stocks was pushing prices up, with

93

Additional Storage Contracts Awarded for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Additional Storage Contracts Awarded for Northeast Home Heating Oil Additional Storage Contracts Awarded for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Additional Storage Contracts Awarded for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve September 30, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed the acquisition of commercial storage services for the one million barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR). Two awards totaling 350,000 barrels have been made to companies that had earlier received storage contracts totaling 650,000 barrels. Hess Corporation in Groton, CT has been awarded a second contract for 100,000 barrels, increasing its storage obligation to 500,000 barrels. Global Companies LLC in Revere, MA was awarded a second contract for 250,000 barrels, increasing its obligation to 500,000 barrels.

94

Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve- Guidelines for Release  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, sets conditions for the release of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. The Secretary of Energy has the authority to sell, exchange, or...

95

Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OIL PRODUCTION RESPONSE TO I? SITU ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING A Thesis by FRED WILLIAM MCDOUGAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OIL PRODUCTION RESPONSE TO IN SITV ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING A Thesis by FRED WILLIAM MCDOUGAL Approved to style and content by: R. A. Wattenbar (Chair of Commi ee) L. D. Piper (Member) D. D. Van...

McDougal, Fred William

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Division requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory to help design and conduct an up-to-date assessment of the Program. The evaluation includes five separate studies; the fuel oil study is the subject of this paper. The primary goal of the fuel-oil study was to provide a region-wide estimate of the space-heating fuel oil saved by the Program in the Northeast during the 1991 and 1992 program years. Other goals include assessing the cost effectiveness of the Program within the fuel-oil submarket, and identifying factors which caused fuel-oil savings to vary. This paper reports only the highlights from the fuel-oil study`s final report.

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP  

SciTech Connect

This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

Elder, Betsy

2002-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

98

Design of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of Crude Oil Pre-heat Trains G.T.Po]Jey B.L.Yeap D.I.Wilson M.H.Panjeh Shahi Pinchtechnology.com Dept of Chern. Engng. Dept. of Chern. Engng. University of Cambridge University of Tehran Pre-heat trains differ from most other heat... recovery networks in a number of important ways. Combination offactors gives rise to the need for a design procedure specific to pre heat trains. Outlining these factors, we first observe that one cold stream (the incoming crude) dominates the heat...

Polley, G. T.; Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Panjeh Shahi, M. H.

99

Including radiative heat transfer and reaction quenching in modeling a Claus plant waste heat boiler  

SciTech Connect

Due to increasingly stringent sulfur emission regulations, improvements are necessary in the modified Claus process. A recently proposed model by Nasato et al. for the Claus plant waste heat boiler (WHB) is improved by including radiative heat transfer, which yields significant changes in the predicted heat flux and the temperature profile along the WHB tube, leading to a faster quenching of chemical reactions. For the WHB considered, radiation accounts for approximately 20% of the heat transferred by convection alone. More importantly, operating the WHB at a higher gas mass flux is shown to enhance reaction quenching, resulting in a doubling of the predicted hydrogen flow rate. This increase in hydrogen flow rate is sufficient to completely meet the hydrogen requirement of the H[sub 2]S recovery process considered, which would eliminate the need for a hydrogen plant.

Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Heating Oil Reserve | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Energy Support Center issued a solicitation to companies willing to provide the storage tanks, heating stocks, or a combination. Contracts were awarded and, by October 13, 2000,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season  

SciTech Connect

The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

Hunton, G.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Increasing Oil Productivity Through Electromagnetic Induction Heat Generation of Salt Water as a Stimulant for Heavy Oil Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brine is usually exist in the oil reservoir. Varying salinity brine are used as stimulants for heavy oil recovery processes using electromagnetic induction heating. The heated heavy oil is floating on top of the brine since it becomes less viscous and lighter. As the temperature increased more heavy oil is produced/recovered. An increasing salinity of brine will result in more recovery of heavy oil.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Advanced oil burner for residential heating -- development report  

SciTech Connect

The development of advanced oil burner concepts has long been a part of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) oil heat research program. Generally, goals of this work include: increased system efficiency, reduced emissions of soot and NO{sub x}, and the practical extension of the firing rate range of current burners to lower input rates. The report describes the results of a project at BNL aimed at the development of air atomized burners. Two concepts are discussed. The first is an air atomizer which uses air supplied at pressures ranging from 10 to 20 psi and requiring the integration of an air compressor in the system. The second, more novel, approach involves the use of a low-pressure air atomizing nozzle which requires only 8-14 inches of water air pressure for fuel atomization. This second approach requires the use of a fan in the burner instead of a compressor although the fan pressure is higher than with conventional, pressure atomized retention head burners. In testing the first concept, high pressure air atomization, a conventional retention head burner was modified to accept the new nozzle. In addition, the burner head was modified to reduce the flow area to maintain roughly 1 inch of water pressure drop across the head at a firing rate of 0.25 gallons of oil per hour. The burner ignited easily and could be operated at low excess air levels without smoke. The major disadvantage of this burner approach is the need for the air compressor as part of the system. In evaluating options, a vane-type compressor was selected although the use of a compressor of this type will lead to increased burner maintenance requirements.

Butcher, T.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve July 23, 2008 - 2:15pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced the award of a contract to Hess Corporation for the delivery of approximately 808,625 gallons (approximately 19,250 barrels) of home heating oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR). The purchased oil is expected to be delivered to the Hess First Reserve terminal at Perth Amboy, NJ in New York Harbor later this week. The award resulted from a solicitation issued on June 23, 2008, to repurchase heating oil using $3 million in funds appropriated after the

105

Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

Hall, Julian

107

Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

DOE Accepts Bids for Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Accepts Bids for Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks Accepts Bids for Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks DOE Accepts Bids for Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks February 3, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today has awarded contracts to three companies who successfully bid for the purchase of 984,253 barrels of heating oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. Awardee Amount Morgan Stanley 500,000 barrels Shell Trading U.S. Company 250,000 barrels George E. Warren Corporation 234,253 barrels Today's sale was the first held as part of the Department's initiative to convert the current 1,984,253-barrel heating oil reserve to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate. Contracts for the heating oil will be executed upon final payment to DOE; final payment is required no later than

109

Dynamics of heating oil market prices in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper concerns the German and French heating oil market and attempts to establish long- and short-term relationships between German and French monthly heating oil prices in dollars, the Rotterdam spot price for the same product and the DM/US$ and FF/US$ exchange rates during the period from January 1987 to December 1997. To model the market over the period under consideration, incorporating the Gulf War, we have used conventional unit root tests and sequential tests allowing structural changes. Long-term relationships, with shifts in regime detected by cointegration tests taking structural breaks into consideration, are estimated. The short-term dynamics defined by a vector error correction (VEC) mechanism is derived in a classic manner when in presence of a cointegrated VAR system. The econometric results obtained are commented on from an economic point of view. Weak exogeneity tests are performed and the conditional VEC model is deduced, enabling measurement of the instantaneous impact of variations in weakly exogenous exchange rates on variations in heating oil prices in Germany and France. Lastly, a study is made of the asymmetric reaction of domestic prices to positive and negative variations in exchange rates and the Rotterdam spot quotation.

J.P. Indjehagopian; F. Lantz; V. Simon

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Strengthening the applicability of self-heating retorting process to oil shale via co-retorting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Recently a facile low-energy-input retorting route but without marked loss in the shale-oil yield is developed, which is achieved by a self-heating effect, that is, spontaneously increasing retorting temperature in the absence of external heat provision (Guo et al., 2013, 2014). In this work, the applicability of self-heating retorting (SHR) process to three Chinese oil shales from different places (i.e., Longkou, Huadian and Fushun) is studied. Of these three oil shales, Fushun oil shale is associated with coal and was previously abandoned during coal mining due to its not high kerogen or oil content. The results show that its hard for Fushun oil shale to obtain satisfying self-heating effect, while Longkou or Huadian oil shale with higher kerogen or oil content shows satisfactory SHR. However, by adding suitable amounts of Longkou or Huadian oil shale into Fushun oil shale, a satisfying self-heating effect can be obtained as well. Thus, the relatively low-grade Fushun oil shale can also be well utilized to produce shale oil via this facile SHR route. Moreover, to utilize Fushun oil shale with a greener SHR process, the process can be performed by co-retorting Fushun oil shale with pine needles, a kind of renewable biomass. This finding also provides a new starting point for exploring plentiful biomass resources to utilize low-grade oil shale to produce oil in the future work.

Hongfan Guo; Yindong Yang; Kuikui Wang; Yansong Pei; Qicheng Wu; Yunyi Liu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4. Distilled naphtha can be used only to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce

Hall, Julian

112

Application of bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass to transportation, heat and power generationA review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This review will be concentrated on the application of bio-oil produced from the cellulosic biomass among the various liquid biofuels to transport fuels, heat and power generation as substitute. Main application of bio-oil and biocrude from two main thermochemical processes, i.e., pyrolysis and liquefaction include boiler for heat and electricity production, diesel engine or gas turbine for power generation, and diesel engine for transportation fuel. Fast pyrolysis is the most popular process for converting cellulosic biomass to high yield of bio-oil with relatively low cost. For the application of bio-oils to transportation, heat and power generation, physical upgrading methods such as emulsions (bio-oil/diesel or bio-oil/biodiesel ) and blends of bio-oil/oxygenated fuel (ethanol, diglyme) were mainly used and tested. The studies on the spray characteristics of emulsions and blends in diesel engine condition are not available in the literature. In most studies on the combustion and emission characteristics of emulsions and blends, CO emission was increased in most fuels and engines tested and HC was increased or comparable to diesel operation. However, \\{NOx\\} and soot emissions were decreased in most case of experiments. In the pressure-swirl nozzle for gas turbine application, preheating and blending techniques were employed to reduce the SMD of spray. In case of blend for the application of heat and power generation, E20 blend was mainly selected in most studies. Most studies related to bio-oil combustion in burners, diesel engines and gas turbines demonstrated the higher HC, CO and soot emissions than the original design fuel. Although the properties of bio-oil/methanol blend were widely investigated, there are no studies available about the application of bio-oil/methanol blend to transportation, heat and power generation in the literature. In addition, more research is required for the combustion of upgraded bio-oils for transportation application.

Soo-Young No

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Emerging Heat Exchanger Technologies for the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last three years ESDU have been working with engineers from oil companies and the companies that serve them in order to produce a guide describing the current state of knowledge on fouling in pre-heat trains and ways in which it can...

Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.; King, D. C.

114

Heating with energy saving alternatives to prevent biodeterioration of marine fuel oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examined how alternative handling practices, including heat shock, can facilitate the prevention of biodeterioration of fuel oil onboard ships. At temperatures exceeding 50C, no microbes were observed after incubation for 2days. Under 30C incubation, the total number of viable aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas maltophilia, decreased gradually during the incubation period. Conversely, most fungi were destroyed after incubation for 5days. Fungi generally had a better tolerance in marine fuel than E. coli after heat shock treatment. After incubation starting at ?45C, followed by different heat shock patterns, the total number of viable fungi and E. coli increased steadily during the 10-h incubation period. In contrast to fungi, heat shock effectively controlled E. coli growth. Heat shock treatment can control the growth of certain types of microbes at temperatures of up to 10C lower than commonly used.

J. Hua

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The term "Heat Stress" refers to a group of heat related illnesses that include heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. This safety meeting will review the hazards and symptoms of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It's Hot The term "Heat Stress" refers to a group of heat related illnesses that include heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. This safety meeting will review the hazards and symptoms of working in the heat. Also, how to reduce risks of working in hot temperatures and respond to danger

Li, X. Rong

116

Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of Carbon Nanocatalysts in Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Assisted with Microwave Heating, Stanford, California 94305, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Heavy crude oil can that by using carbon nano- catalysts, heavy crude oil can be efficiently upgraded to lighter oil at a relatively

Cui, Yi

117

State heating oil and propane program: 1995-96 heating season. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1995/96 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. EIA provides ECS with a list of oil and propane retailers that serve customers in New Hampshire. In turn ECS conduct phone surveys twice per month from October through March to determine the average retail price for each fuel. Data collected by ECS is entered into the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO) and transmitted via modem to EIA. The results of the state retail price surveys along with wholesale prices, supply, production and stock levels for oil, and propane are published by EIA in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report. Data is also published electronically via the internet or through the Electronic Publication System.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

Evaluation of Engineered Geothermal Systems as a Heat Source for Oil Sands Production in Northern Alberta  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The project costs presented in the following section are intended ... give a basic understanding of the economics of geothermal heat as an energy source for oil sands extraction. Long et...2005) reported that oil...

V. Pathak; T. Babadagli; J. A. Majorowicz; M. J. Unsworth

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate February 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) said today. The State of New York and other Northeastern states are implementing more stringent fuel standards that require replacement of high sulfur (2,000 parts per million) heating oil to ultra low sulfur fuel (15 parts per million). As a result, DOE will sell the current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, a total of approximately 2 million barrels, and

120

DOE Completes Sale of Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Completes Sale of Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks Completes Sale of Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks DOE Completes Sale of Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks February 10, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today has awarded contracts to four companies who successfully bid for the purchase of 1,000,000 barrels of heating oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve storage sites in Groton and New Haven, CT. Hess Groton Terminal, Groton, CT Shell Trading U.S. Company 150,000 barrels Sprague Energy Corp. 100,000 barrels Magellan New Haven Terminal, New Haven, CT Hess Corporation 300,000 barrels Morgan Stanley 450,000 barrels Today's sale was the second held as part of the Department's initiative to convert the 1,984,253 barrel heating oil reserve to cleaner burning

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect

The following is a report of New Hampshire`s participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO).

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report summarizes the results of an information exchange sponsored by the DOE/EERE Bioenergy Technologies Office in Manchester, New Hampshire, on May 9-10, 2012. The participand identifies top challenges regarding feedstocks and production, logistics and compatibility, and operational issues, then prioritized next steps for expanding use of pyrolysis oil as a replacement for home heating oil in the Northeast

124

Recovery of stranded heavy oil by electromagnetic heating.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??High oil-viscosity is a major concern for the recovery of oil from heavy-oil reservoirs. Introducing energy to the formation has proven to be an effective (more)

Carrizales, Maylin Alejandra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The technology of the New South Wales torbanite : including an introduction on oil shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Although the nature of the products of thermal decomposition of oil shale has attracted the attention of both scientist and industrialist, oil shale possibly ranks (more)

Cane, Reginald Frank

1946-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate February 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) said today. The State of New York and other Northeastern states are implementing more stringent fuel standards that require replacement of high sulfur (2,000 parts per million) heating oil to ultra low sulfur fuel (15 parts per million). As a result, DOE will sell the current inventory of the Northeast

127

Final report of the Rhode Island State Energy Office on residential no. 2 heating oil and propane prices [SHOPP  

SciTech Connect

Summary report on residential No.2 heating oil and propane prepared under grant. Summarizes the monitoring and analysis of heating oil and propane prices from October 2000 through March 2001.

McClanahan, Janice

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil) Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

including taxes) including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 01/13/14 4.24 4.68 4.33 7.21 5.43 4.67 4.00 01/06/14 4.33 4.71 4.47 7.26 5.26 4.23 4.02 12/30/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 4.04 12/23/13 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.98 12/16/13 4.31 4.73 4.45 7.37 5.29 4.16 3.95 12/9/13 4.40 4.75 4.52 7.44 5.37 4.24 3.96 12/2/13 4.34 4.66 4.45 7.31 5.29 4.23 3.92 11/25/13 4.21 4.61 4.33 7.25 5.22 4.17 3.89 11/18/13 4.16 4.34 4.31 7.20 5.18 4.08 3.82 11/11/13 4.22 4.53 4.31 7.01 5.13 4.01 3.82 11/4/13 4.26 4.59 4.39 7.20 5.22 4.12 3.83 10/28/13 4.39 4.67 4.47 7.29 5.30 4.10 3.82 10/21/13 4.40 4.69 4.54 7.29 5.33 4.20 3.85 10/14/13 4.36 4.64 4.50 7.32 5.28 4.19 3.84 10/7/13 4.23 4.63 4.43 7.14 5.22 4.24 3.82

129

A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

Coburn, T.T.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

130

High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Heat of combustion of Green River oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The authors derive simple equations for estimating the heat of combustion of raw shale by thermochemical estimates and by linear regression of experimental data. They find that the heat can be estimated well by an exothermic term that accounts for the combustion of organic matter and a constant that accounts for pyrite combustion, carbonate decomposition, and glass formation. The net contribution of reactions included in the constant is endothermic for the standard state products of bomb calorimetry. As a sample application, the authors perform an energy balance on a modified Fischer assay of average Green River shale by using one of our formulas for raw shale along with previously derived formulas for pyrolysis products.

Muehlbauer, M.J.; Burnham, A.K.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Analysis of the Thermonuclear Instability including Low-Power ICRH Minority Heating in IGNITOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nonlinear thermal balance equation for classical plasma in a toroidal geometry is analytically and numerically investigated including ICRH power. The determination of the equilibrium temperature and the analysis of the stability of the solution are performed by solving the energy balance equation that includes the transport relations obtained by the kinetic theory. An estimation of the confinement time is also provided. We show that the ICRH heating in the IGNITOR experiment, among other applications, is expected to stabilize the power of the thermonuclear burning by automatic regulation of the RF coupled power. Here a scenario is considered where IGNITOR is led to operate in a slightly sub-critical regime by adding a small fraction of ${}^3He$ to the nominal 50-50 Deuterium-Tritium mixture. The difference between power lost and alpha heating is compensated by additional ICRH heating, which should be able to increase the global plasma temperature via collisions between ${}^3He$ minority and the background...

Cardinali, Alessandro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Comparison of Heating Methods for In-Situ Oil Shale Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil shales are lamellar, non-porous, impermeable hydrocarbon bearing rocks that contain organic matter called kerogen which, when heated at pyrolysis temperature of approximately 600-800 ?, thermo-chemically decomposes to liberate hydrocarbons...

Hazra, Kaushik Gaurav

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

DOE Seeks Commercial Storage to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to Complete Fill of Northeast Home to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Seeks Commercial Storage to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve August 26, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE), through its agent DLA Energy, has issued a solicitation seeking commercial storage contracts for the remaining 350,000 barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate needed to complete the fill of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. Offers are due no later than 9:00 a.m., August 31, 2011. Earlier this year, DOE sold its entire inventory of heating oil stocks with plans to replace it with cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate. New storage contracts were awarded in August 2011 for 650,000 barrels, and awards from this solicitation will complete the fill of the one million

135

Electromagnetic Induction Heat Generation of Nano?ferrofluid and Other Stimulants for Heavy Oil Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nano?ferrofluid and graphite?fluid are proposed to be used as stimulants for heavy oil recovery processes using electromagnetic induction. The heat generation in the stimulants will be used for reducing the viscosity of heavy oil. The temperature increase of the stimulants are observed with the presence of electromagnetic induction. These increments are better compared to those of the varying concentration of salt water (brine) usually exist in the oil reservoir.

A. A. Pramana; D. Abdassah; S. Rachmat; A. Mikrajuddin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax Antonio Fasano1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mario Primicerio1 Abstract Deposition of wax at the wall of pipelines during the flow of mineral oilsHeat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax solutions Antonio Fasano1 of the main mechanisms at the origin of wax deposition, i.e. diffusion in non-isothermal solutions. We

Primicerio, Mario

137

Plant Oil Fuels Combined Heat and Power (CHP)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the simultaneous generation of both useable heat and power in a single process by a heat and power supply station or an engine. The mechanical energy is usuall...

Dr. Klaus Thuneke

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Plant Oil Fuels Combined Heat and Power (CHP)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the simultaneous generation of both useable heat and power in a single process by a heat and power supply station or an engine. The mechanical energy is usuall...

Dr. Klaus Thuneke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

No. 2 heating oil/propane program 1994--1995. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During the 1994--95 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1994 through March 1995. This program augmented the existing Massachusetts data collection system and served several important functions. The information helped the federal and state governments respond to consumer, congressional and media inquiries regarding No. 2 oil and propane. The information also provided policy decision-makers with timely, accurate and consistent data to monitor current heating oil and propane markets and develop appropriate state responses when necessary. In addition, the communication network between states and the DOE was strengthened through this program. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events that had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1994--95 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

McBrien, J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fluidized bed steam reactor including two horizontal cyclone separators and an integral recycle heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A reactor is described comprising: a vessel; a first furnace section disposed in said vessel; a second furnace section disposed in said vessel; means in each of said furnace sections for receiving a combustible fuel for generating heat and combustion gases; a first heat recovery area located adjacent said furnace sections; a second heat recovery area located adjacent said furnace sections; means for passing said combustion gases from said first furnace section to said first heat recovery area; and means for passing said combustion gases from said second furnace section to said second heat recovery area.

Gorzegno, W.P.

1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Pyrolysis Using Microwave Heating: A Sustainable Process for Recycling Used Car Engine Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pyrolysis Using Microwave Heating: A Sustainable Process for Recycling Used Car Engine Oil ... A reaction temperature of 600 C provided the greatest yield of commercially valuable products: the recovered liquid oils were composed of light paraffins and aromatic hydrocarbons that could be used as industrial feedstock; the remaining incondensable gases comprised light hydrocarbons that could potentially be used as a fuel source to power the process. ... The pyrolysis products leave the reactor and pass through a system of three water-cooled Liebig condensers [5, 6, 7], which collect condensed hydrocarbons in main and secondary collection flasks [8, 9]. ...

Su Shiung Lam; Alan D. Russell; Howard A. Chase

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

143

Research on viscosity-reduction technology by electric heating and blending light oil in ultra-deep heavy oil wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Tahe oilfield in China, heavy oil is commonly lifted using the light oil blending technology. However, due to the lack of light oil, the production of heavy oil has been seriously limited. Thus, a new c...

Mo Zhu; Haiquan Zhong; Yingchuan Li

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Numerical Simulations of Bubble Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling--Including the Effects of Conjugate Conduction, Level of Gravity, and Noncondensable Gas Dissolved in the Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microgravity Fluid Physics and Heat Transfer, 62-71. 47.that included the heat transfer between the fluid and solidflux, only one fluidwatershowed significant heat transfer

Aktinol, Eduardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Dynamic optimization of heated oil pipeline operation using PSODE algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil, with relatively high viscosity, freezing-point and content of wax, is usually transported by heated oil pipelines (HOP) containing many pumping and heating stations. There are many different selections of operation parameters or values of pumps and heating furnaces, but all these different selections can satisfy output task and safety requirements. The power and fuel cost of pumping and heating account for 13% of the total energy consumption. For the energy saving purpose, it is necessary to optimize the HOP operations. In this paper a dynamic model of HOP was proposed and used to calculate the soil temperature field outside HOP, and then both the spatial and temporal distributions of pressure and temperature of field inside HOP. Using this calculation method and its results, an optimization model is established aiming at minimizing energy cost of running HOP, with outlet temperatures of each heating station, onoff states of each pump, and their head matrix of delivery as the optimization variables. Then a mixed algorithm combining differential evolution algorithm with particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to solve this model. The optimization results are applied to RizhaoYizheng digital long distance HOP (375km). Research shows that: verified by real time data acquired by the SCADA, the relative error of the dynamic models result is 4.042%, much less than that of the steady-state models result (22.67%). The optimized operation scheme can save 17.59% of energy cost for oil transportation task of 2640m3/h. Energy saving effect is remarkable.

Ming Zhou; Yu Zhang; Shijiu Jin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Performance model and annual yield comparison of parabolic-trough solar thermal power plants with either nitrogen or synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The majority of commercial parabolic-trough plants in the world operate with synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid in the solar field. However, the synthetic oils that are available at affordable cost present some challenges such as their flammability, environmental toxicity and a temperature limitation of around 400C. As alternative, this work proposes the use of pressurized nitrogen as heat transfer fluid. In order to analyze the feasibility of this technology, a comparison between a plant with nitrogen and a conventional plant with synthetic oil has been carried out. In both cases, 50MWe parabolic-trough plants with 6h of thermal storage are used as reference. A performance model including the solar field, the thermal storage system and the power block has been developed for each plant in the TRNSYS simulation software. This paper also describes the specifications, design and sizing of the solar field and explains the basic operation strategy applied in each model. Both annual simulations have been performed considering the same location, Almera (Spain), and meteorological data. In summary, the results show that similar net annual electricity productions can be attained for parabolic-trough plants with the same collection area using either nitrogen or synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid.

Mario Biencinto; Lourdes Gonzlez; Eduardo Zarza; Luis E. Dez; Javier Muoz-Antn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary  

SciTech Connect

In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years` relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine`s prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other.

Elder, B.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane  

SciTech Connect

The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

Eugene A. Fritzler

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Causality and volatility spillovers among petroleum prices of WTI, gasoline and heating oil in different locations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the time series properties of daily spot and futures prices for three petroleum types traded at five commodity centers within and outside the United States. Examining five combinations of the spot and futures prices by petroleum type and trading center, the cointegration tests of each of these five groups suggest that spot and futures contracts offer little room for long-run commodity portfolio diversification. In the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude-oil group, the VEC model indicates that the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) 1-month futures price has the upper hand in terms of directional causality and volatility spillovers. In the NYMEX gasoline system, there are bi-directional causality relationships among all the gasoline spot and futures prices, but the spot price produces the greatest spillover. In the NYMEX heating oil system, information transmission and predictability among the spot, 1- and 3-month futures are found to be particularly strong and significant. In the international gasoline spot market, contrary to the world crude-oil market, there is no apparent world gasoline spot leader for the gasoline spot prices.

Shawkat Hammoudeh; Huimin Li; Bang Jeon

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Analysis of transient temperature distribution in oil shale due to heat source propagating in retort  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The initial?boundary?value problem for the transient temperature fields in oil shale which is heated by a propagating combustionflame in an i n s i t u retort chimney is formulated and solved analytically. The heat source of the flame is represented by a Gaussian distribution which models the average statistical variations in radial and axial flame extensions and is assumed to build up to maximum strength in accordance with a temporal relaxation process. The transient temperature fields in the oil shale surrounding the retort are calculated and discussed with respect to their spatial variations and dependence on the flamerelaxation time. The theoretical temperature distributions are shown to be consistent with those observed experimentally. The high?temperature core extends less than a retort radius into the surrounding shale bed. This result has implications for (i) the i n s i t u retort design and (ii) the environmental impact of i n s i t u retorts. It appears that the spacing between neighboring retorts can be reduced and that the thermal effects of retorts on the environment are less severe than previously anticipated.

H. E. Wilhelm; J. B. DuBow; S. H. Hong

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Computational fluid dynamic modelling of enhanced heat transfer in tubes with inserts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat transfer is an important process in many different industrial processes including oil refming and energy generation. A shell and tube heat exchanger is one (more)

Osley, William Gruffydd

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

The flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore coupled with flow in heavy oil reservoirs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As a new improved oil-recovery technique, multi-thermal fluid injection technology through a horizontal well has been widely used in the development process of heavy oil reservoirs. The flow and heat transfer characteristic of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore is significantly important for the productivity evaluation and parameters design of the horizontal well. Considering the specific physical properties of multi-thermal fluid, fluid absorption in perforation holes and pressure drop characteristics along the horizontal wellbore, this paper developed the flow and heat transfer model of multi-thermal fluid in perforated horizontal wellbore. In order to evaluate the heating effect of the multi-thermal fluid, a concept of effective heating length of a horizontal well is proposed. Then, a sensitivity analysis process is performed to study the influence of reservoir/fluid parameters and operating parameters on the flowing process of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore. Simultaneously, using the method of orthogonal numerical test, differential analysis and variance analysis are also conducted. Results show that the flowing process of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore includes a single-phase flowing process and a gasliquid two-phase flowing process. The influence of oil viscosity on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid in horizontal wellbore is most significant. Thereafter, the solution of our semi-analytical model is compared against the test results of an actual horizontal well from an oilfield in China. It is shown that the model results are in good agreement with the real test results. This model could be used to calculate and predict the flow and heat transfer characteristics of multi-thermal fluid (or saturated steam) in a perforated horizontal wellbore.

Xiaohu Dong; Huiqing Liu; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Changjiu Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Combustion and performance of a diesel engine with preheated Jatropha curcas oil using waste heat from exhaust gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The viscosity and density of CJO (crude Jatropha oil) were reduced by heating it using the heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine with an appropriately designed helical coil heat exchanger. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combustion characteristics of a DI (direct injection) diesel engine using PJO (preheated Jatropha oil). It exhibited a marginally higher cylinder gas pressure, rate of pressure rise and heat release rate as compared to HSD (high speed diesel) during the initial stages of combustion for all engine loadings. Ignition delay was shorter for PJO as compared to HSD. The results also indicated that BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and EGT (exhaust gas temperature) increased while BTE (brake thermal efficiency) decreased with PJO as compared to HSD for all engine loadings. The reductions in CO2 (carbon dioxide), HC (hydrocarbon) and \\{NOx\\} (nitrous oxide) emissions were observed for PJO along with increased CO (carbon monoxide) emission as compared to those of HSD.

Priyabrata Pradhan; Hifjur Raheman; Debasish Padhee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Fluid Mechanics -1 An oil is used in a heat exchanger. The internal geometry consists of many small diameter tubes of fixed length  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluid Mechanics - 1 An oil is used in a heat exchanger. The internal geometry consists of many small diameter tubes of fixed length (mounted in a bundle as indicated in the sketch). The oil is pumped). Assume the steady flow of the oil through each small tube is in the laminar regime. It is proposed

Virginia Tech

155

A 2D finite element with through the thickness parabolic temperature distribution for heat transfer simulations including welding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The arc welding process involves thermal cycles that cause the appearance of undesirable residual stresses. The determination of this thermal cycle is the first step to a thermomechanical analysis that allows the numerical calculation of residual stresses. This study describes the formulation of a 2D finite element with through the thickness parabolic temperature distribution, including an element estabilization procedure. The 2D element described in this paper can be used to perform thermal analysis more economically than 3D elements, especially in plates, because the number of degrees of freedom through the thickness will always be three. A numerical model of a tungsten arc welding (GTAW) setup was made based on published experimental results. Size and distribution of the heat source input, thermal properties dependent on temperature, surface heat losses by convection and latent heat during phase change were considered. In parallel the same setup was modeled using ANSYS software with 3D elements (SOLID70) to compare against 2D numerical results. The results obtained by 2D model, 3D model and experimental data showed good agreement.

Darlesson Alves do Carmo; Alfredo Rocha de Faria

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Comparative cost evaluation of heating oil and small-scale wood chips produced from Euro-Mediterranean forests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work performs a cost evaluation of small-scale produced wood chips from forests in the Euro-Mediterranean region to be used for heating purposes. The study is focused on forests located in the Argenola municipality (Catalonia, northeastern Spain). The use of such easy-to-produce biofuel is appealing since it may be used as a valid substitute of heating oil to produce thermal energy in the same area where it is produced, thus minimizing transportation requirements and reducing dependence on the rising prices of heating oil. Additionally, it allows facing environmental and social concerns related to the current lack of management in the forests under analysis, which has led to an important increase in the biomass stock and wildfires risk. As wildfires in the Euro-Mediterranean region generate important impacts, an average economic cost of wildfires has been evaluated in this paper. The economic assessment of small-scale production and consumption of wood chips as proposed in this study has shown interesting economic benefits when compared with current heating oil prices. Results indicate that it is a realistic option since production costs range from 12.2/GJ to 18.5/GJ depending on the applied forestry practices, whereas current cost of heating oil is about 23.9/GJ. A sensitivity analysis has also been conducted to assess the impact of the data with higher uncertainty on the final results. It has been shown that the key factors that determine the viability of the proposed model are heating oil price, biomass stock growth rate, transportation requirements and applied forest management practices. Results presented prove that wood chips cost is quite independent of fossil fuel prices, thus higher fossil fuel prices greatly favors the use of wood chips when produced and consumed in the same area, thus minimizing transportation requirements. In addition, higher biomass growth rates than those considered in this work may reduce the final cost of small-scale produced wood chips.

Bernat Esteban; Jordi-Roger Riba; Grau Baquero; Antoni Rius

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)  

SciTech Connect

Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Identification of R&D Needs Relating to the Mitigation of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identification of R&D needs relating to tbe mitigation of fouling in crude oil pre-heat trains G.T.Polley ESDU International pic Worrell & Price [1] (at a paper presented at the Industrial Energy Technology Conference organised by Texas A... - but not always flows through the tubes). The threshold occurs because of the existence of two competing processes: one promoting fouling, the other mitigating against it. Models for the prediction of this threshold have been derived from measurements...

Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Models for the Prediction of Fouling in Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fouling has two significant effects upon pre-heat train performance. Firstly, any of layer of foulant on the heat transfer surface presents a resistance to heat transfer. This thermal resistance increases as the layer builds up, so fouling reduces...

Yeap, B. L.; Wilson, D. I.; Polley, G. T.

162

Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at 95% Watercut ................................................ 35 Figure 18: Polymer flood [LH] ? Oil Saturation at 95% Watercut .................................. 36 Figure 19: Base Cases ? Incremental Oil Production... 22: DDG ? Incremental Oil Production with 0 md Block .................................... 39 Figure 23: DDG ? Incremental Water Production with 0 md Block................................ 39 Figure 24: Polymer Flood ? Oil Production at Different...

Okeke, Tobenna

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

Sludge, fuel degradation and reducing fouling on heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract to the US Department of Energy, operates an oil heat research primarily to lower energy consumption in the 12 million oil heated homes in the US. The program objectives include: Improve steady state efficiency of oil heating equipment, Improve seasonal efficiencies, Eliminate or minimize factors which tend to degrade system performance. This paper provides an overview of the status of three specific projects which fall under the above objectives. This includes our fuel quality project, oil appliance venting and a project addressing efficiency degradation due to soot fouling of heat exchangers.

Butcher, T.; Litzke, Wai Lin; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Correct conditions for heat treatment of butt welded oil drilling pipes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of optimum normalization conditions decreases the hardness and increases the impact strength of drilling pipes used in geological survey work by 100% and that of oil drilling pipes by 2530%, the ...

F. N. Tavadze; Z. G. Napetvaridze

1965-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs  

SciTech Connect

The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Heating of heavy oil by circulating hot water in closed double casing in ultra-deep wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In heavy oil production, the loss of energy to ambient surroundings decreases the temperature of the heavy oil flowing upwards in a vertical wellbore, which increases the oil viscosity and the oil may not flow...

Riyi Lin; Fangzheng Wang; Xinwei Wang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to establish a heating oil component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the Northeast, and 2 million barrels of heating oil are now stored in the reserve. Other possible policy options are outlined.

None

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

renewable heating oil substitution Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical...

170

Dependence of thermal diffusivity on organic content for Green River oil shalesExtension of the modified Cheng?Vachon model to the parallel heat?flow case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In an earlier paper [J. Appl. Phys. 50 2776 (1979)] the modified Cheng?Vachon model was found to give good agreement with experimental data on the variation of thermal diffusivity with organic content for Green River oil shales. Calculations using the model were carried out for the case where heat flows in directions perpendicular to the shale stratigraphic planes. In the present paper the above model is modified to account for experimental trends in the parallel heat?flow case. The modified model provides a self?consistent explanation for the lower degree of anisotropy (relative to theory) that has been experimentally observed for the thermal diffusivity of Green River oil shales.

Y. Wang; K. Rajeshwar; J. DuBow

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Consideration of Fouling During the Design of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

case study, based on network in Figure 6(a) Time Ihours R f EI, E4, E5, E6 Im 2 KW' R f E2,E3,E7,E8 Im 2 KW'\\ 0 0.0 0.0 1000 0.00155 0.00248 2000 0.0026 0.0042 3000 0.0033 0.0053 4000 0.00385 0.00616 5000 0.00425 0.0068 6000 0.0046 0... of Bound point bound Tempe rature Kerosene EI sheJi lower 20 ?C HGO E2 shell lower 30 ?C Naptha E3 shell lower 110 ?C Desalter feed E3 tube upper 135 ?C Gas oil E5 shell lower l50 ?C Residue E6 shell lower 170 ?C ._~- Gas oil PA E7 shell lower...

Polley, G. T.; Pugh, S. J.; Wilson, D. I.

172

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Winter Crude Oil and  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: While the relatively low stock forecast (although not as low as last winter) adds some extra pressure to prices, the price of crude oil could be the major factor affecting heating oil prices this winter. The current EIA forecast shows residential prices averaging $1.29 this winter, assuming no volatility. The average retail price is about 7 cents less than last winter, but last winter included the price spike in November 2000, December 2000, and January 2001. Underlying crude oil prices are currently expected to be at or below those seen last winter. WTI averaged over $30 per barrel last winter, and is currently forecast to average about $27.50 per barrel this winter. As those of you who watch the markets know, there is tremendous uncertainty in the amount of crude oil supply that will be available this winter. Less

174

Numerical Simulations of Bubble Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling--Including the Effects of Conjugate Conduction, Level of Gravity, and Noncondensable Gas Dissolved in the Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

boiling. Journal of heat transfer, 124(4), 4. Basu, N. ,development. Journal of Heat Transfer, 127(2), 5. CareyA Review. Journal of Heat Transfer, 135(6), 061502. 10.

Aktinol, Eduardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Numerical Simulations of Bubble Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling--Including the Effects of Conjugate Conduction, Level of Gravity, and Noncondensable Gas Dissolved in the Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flow boiling. Journal of heat transfer, 124(4), 4. Basu,Dhir, V. K. (2005). Wall heat flux partitioning duringdevelopment. Journal of Heat Transfer, 127(2), 5. Carey

Aktinol, Eduardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Electric resistive space heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cost of heating residential buildings using electricity is compared to the cost employing gas or oil. (AIP)

David Bodansky

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Process for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

178

Modeling global and local dependence in a pair of commodity forward curves with an application to the US natural gas and heating oil markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The goal of this paper is to present a model for the joint evolution of correlated commodity forward curves. Each forward curve is directed by two state variables, namely slope and level, and the model is meant to capture both the local and global dependence structures between slopes and levels. Our framework can be interpreted as an extension of the concept of cointegration to forward curves. The model is applied to a US database of heating oil and natural gas futures prices over the period February 2000February 2009. We find the long-run slope and level relationships between natural gas and heating oil markets, analyze the lead and lag properties between the two energy commodities, the volatilities and correlations between their daily co-movements and evaluate the robustness of these observations to the turmoil experienced by energy markets since 2003.

Steve Ohana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

units with tank volumes of 40 to 50 gallons. Standby loss associated with the center flue gas storage energy use. Whereas natural gas, (liquefied petroleum gas), LPG or oil can be burned directly to heat code from 2008 are listed below: Instantaneous (or tankless) water heaters including gas, oil, small

180

POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the

V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

association of companies and the Edison Electric Institute (1953). Their final report cites investigations from 1945 through 1953 and includes correlated information on coil data, heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The house has passive solar features consisting of south-facing glass with manually operable insulated to determine the heat pump capacity. The heating capacity of the heat pump in use is 34,100 Btu/hr (10 kw) at TEVAP = 35.6 F (2'C) and TCOND = 86.0 F (30°C). The cooling capacity of the heat pump was determined

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

182

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Gulf of Alaska (including Lower Cook Inlt) and their onshore impacts: a summary report, September 1980  

SciTech Connect

The search for oil and gas on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the Gulf of Alaska subregion of the Alaska leasing region began in 1967, when geophysical surveys of the area were initiated. Two lease sales have been held in the subregion. Lease Sale 39, for the Northern Gulf of Alaska, was held on April 13, 1976, and resulted in the leasing of 76 tracts. Lease Sale CI, for Lower Cook Inlet, was held on October 27, 1977, and resulted in the leasing of 87 tracts. Exploratory drilling on the tracts leased in Sale 39 began in September 1976, and exploratory drilling on tracts leased in Sale CI began in July 1978. Commercial amounts of hydrocarbons have not been found in any of the wells drilled in either sale area. Seventy-four of the leases issued in the Northern Gulf of Alaska have been relinquished. As of June 1980, exploratory drilling in both areas had ceased, and none was planned for the near future. The next lease sale in the Gulf of Alaska, Sale 55, is scheduled for October 1980. Lease Sale 60 (Lower Cook Inlet and Shelikof Strait) is scheduled for September 1981, and Lease Sale 61 (OCS off Kodiak Island) is scheduled for April 1983. Sale 60 will be coordinated with a State lease sale in adjacent State-owned waters. The most recent estimates (June 1980) by the US Geological Survey of risked, economically recoverable resources for the 2 tracts currently under lease in the Northern Gulf of Alaska are negligible. For the 87 tracts currently under lease in Lower Cook Inlet, the USGS has produced risked, economically recoverable resource estimates of 35 million barrels of oil and 26 billion cubic feet of gas. These resource estimates for the leased tracts in both areas are short of commercially producible amounts. Onshore impacts from OCS exploration have been minimal. Two communities - Yakutat and Seward - served as support bases for the Northern Gulf of Alaska.

Jackson, J.B.; Dorrier, R.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Future of Home Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

NG in PM 2.5 emissions B10 equal to NG in CO2e emissions High heating efficiency Lowest oil for oil replacement cost Ideal for high bio fraction future Best for existing oil...

185

Oil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Oil Oil Oil Prices, 2000-2008 For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Oil is used for heating and transportation -- most notably, as fuel for gas-powered vehicles. America's dependence on foreign oil has declined in recent years, but oil prices have increased. The Energy Department supports research and policy options to increase our domestic supply of oil while ensuring environmentally sustainable supplies domestically and abroad, and is investing in research, technology and

186

Used oil re-refining  

SciTech Connect

Used oils, especially used lubricating oils which are normally considered waste and are discarded or burned, are reclaimed for reuse by a re-refining procedure involving the steps of: heat soaking the used oil; distilling the heat soaked oil; passing the distillate through a guard bed of activated material; hydrotreating the guard bed treated distillate under standard hydrotreating conditions. If the used oil to be re-refined contains a quantity of water and/or fuel fraction which the practioner considers sufficiently large to be detrimental, the used oil may be subjected to a dewatering/defueling step prior to being heat soaked.

Reid, L. E.; Ryan, D. G.; Yao, K. C.

1985-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

187

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

188

The development of a wax layer on the interior wall of a circular pipe transporting heated oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of oil in long subsea pipelines is a common occurrence...formation of a paraffinic wax deposit on the inside...Striegler, Studies of wax deposition in the trans Alaska pipeline, Journal of Petroleum...review of the modeling of wax deposition mechanisms......

D. J. Needham; B. T. Johansson; T. Reeve

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England This...

190

Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has severely impacted diesel fuel prices, especially in the Northeast. Diesel fuel is bascially the same product as home heating oil. The primary difference is that diesel has a lower sulfur content. When heating oil is in short supply, low sulfur diesel fuel can be diverted to heating oil supply. Thus, diesel fuel prices rise with heating heating oil prices. Retail diesel fuel prices nationally, along with those of most other petroleum prices, increased steadily through most of 1999. But prices in the Northeast jumped dramatically in the third week of January. Diesel fuel prices in New England rose nearly 68 cents per gallon, or 47 percent, between January 17 and February 7. While EIA does not have

191

3D slicing of radiogenic heat production in Bahariya Formation, Tut oil field, North-Western Desert, Egypt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 3D block of radiogenic heat production was constructed from the subsurface total gamma ray logs of Bahariya Formation, Western Desert, Egypt. The studied rocks possess a range of radiogenic heat production varying from 0.21?Wm?3 to 2.2?Wm?3. Sandstone rocks of Bahariya Formation have higher radiogenic heat production than the average for crustal sedimentary rocks. The high values of density log of Bahariya Formation indicate the presence of iron oxides which contribute the uranium radioactive ores that increase the radiogenic heat production of these rocks. The average radiogenic heat production produced from the study area is calculated as 6.3kW. The histogram and cumulative frequency analyses illustrate that the range from 0.8 to 1.2?Wm?3 is about 45.3% of radiogenic heat production values. The 3D slicing of the reservoir shows that the southeastern and northeastern parts of the study area have higher radiogenic heat production than other parts.

I.M. Al-Alfy; M.A. Nabih

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

194

Silica gel as a model surface for adsorption calorimetry of enhanced-oil-recovery systems. [Heat of immersion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a method for studying interaction of fluids with surfaces by measuring the heat of immersion and then measuring simultaneously the surface excess and enthalpy of replacement for a series of binary solutions. The method of calculating surface excess is described. These techniques are applied to silica gel which has had different activation temperatures. Heating overnight to 400/sup 0/C results in a reproducible surface. The adsorption of n-butyl alcohol from toluene and from water upon these surfaces is compared.

Noll, L.A.; Burchfield, T.E.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The Economic and Environmental Aspects of Heat Exchanger Cleaning -- How FP&L Has Used the Newly Patented MCC Process to Clean Turbine Lube Oil Coolers to Maximize Efficiency and Minimize Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of efficient and timely cleaning of heat exchangers. There are great differences in the cleaning processes that are used to clean exchanger bundles in industry today. The cleaning of turbine lube oil coolers is a specialized case in point. A newly patented...

Wood, H. A. T.

196

HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

Lenert, Andrej

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

Tingley, Joseph V.

199

Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation of biodiesel using waste cooking oil and algae oil. We consider 5 different technologies: Energy, Biofuels, Biodiesel, Cooking Oil, Mathematical optimization, Algae1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Nebraska Preparing for the Upcoming Heating Season  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Drivers * Crops Proactive Moves Heating Season Preparations by Nebraska Dealers * Contracting a bigger percentage of the amount of propane or heating oil that they estimate...

202

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power.

203

Biochemical upgrading of oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

204

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

SciTech Connect

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils?¢???? physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

205

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the carbon, oil, and gas from the shale are combusted; andceases t II Burner gas and shale heat shale ll>" ~Air AirFigure 2. Oil recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

No Oil: The coming Utopia/Dystopia and Communal Possibilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supplies of conventional oil, and exploitable supplies of alternative forms of oil and related hydrocarbons, including tar sands and oil shale. Because new supplies of conventional oil are declining steadily, there is quite a lot of activity in the oil... to exploit the huge deposits of oil sands in Canada. Oil sands and oil shale look good because they contain vast amounts of oil. The problem is that of turning the reserves, locked into other geological formations, into useful oil. According to current...

Miller, Timothy

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

The Future of Home Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Biofuels Report Final...

208

Heavy oil production from Alaska  

SciTech Connect

North Slope of Alaska has an estimated 40 billion barrels of heavy oil and bitumen in the shallow formations of West Sak and Ugnu. Recovering this resource economically is a technical challenge for two reasons: (1) the geophysical environment is unique, and (2) the expected recovery is a low percentage of the oil in place. The optimum advanced recovery process is still undetermined. Thermal methods would be applicable if the risks of thawing the permafrost can be minimized and the enormous heat losses reduced. Use of enriched natural gas is a probable recovery process for West Sak. Nearby Prudhoe Bay field is using its huge natural gas resources for pressure maintenance and enriched gas improved oil recovery (IOR). Use of carbon dioxide is unlikely because of dynamic miscibility problems. Major concerns for any IOR include close well spacing and its impact on the environment, asphaltene precipitation, sand production, and fines migration, in addition to other more common production problems. Studies have indicated that recovering West Sak and Lower Ugnu heavy oil is technically feasible, but its development has not been economically viable so far. Remoteness from markets and harsh Arctic climate increase production costs relative to California heavy oil or Central/South American heavy crude delivered to the U.S. Gulf Coast. A positive change in any of the key economic factors could provide the impetus for future development. Cooperation between the federal government, state of Alaska, and industry on taxation, leasing, and permitting, and an aggressive support for development of technology to improve economics is needed for these heavy oil resources to be developed.

Mahmood, S.M.; Olsen, D.K. [NIPER/BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Thomas, C.P. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

Oil shale retorting method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

York, E.D.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

210

OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seyitmer, Himmeto?lu and Hat?lda? oil shale deposits. The results demonstrate that these oil shales are

Fields (in-situ Combustion Approach; M. V. Kk; G. Guner; S. Bagci?

211

Residential Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October -  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.815 3.822 3.888 3.917 3.956 3.952 1990-2013 3.815 3.822 3.888 3.917 3.956 3.952 1990-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 3.817 3.825 3.891 3.920 3.960 3.956 1990-2013 New England (PADD 1A) 3.766 3.773 3.840 3.865 3.918 3.921 1990-2013 Connecticut 3.943 3.943 4.038 4.064 4.119 4.104 1990-2013 Maine 3.559 3.558 3.584 3.626 3.658 3.688 1990-2013 Massachusetts 3.813 3.822 3.896 3.897 3.963 3.971 1990-2013 New Hampshire 3.619 3.621 3.671 3.718 3.787 3.793 1990-2013 Rhode Island 3.835 3.875 3.925 3.949 4.0 3.992 1990-2013 Vermont 3.575 3.575 3.682 3.710 3.734 3.716 1990-2013 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 3.859 3.867 3.933 3.965 3.996 3.987 1990-2013 Delaware 3.668 3.667 3.728 3.774 3.786 3.802 1990-2013 District of Columbia 4.402 4.426 4.461 4.580 4.581 4.573 1990-2013

212

Wholesale Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices (October -  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.990 3.042 3.150 3.152 3.137 3.074 2013-2013 2.990 3.042 3.150 3.152 3.137 3.074 2013-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.977 3.044 3.151 3.159 3.168 3.107 2013-2013 New England (PADD 1A) 3.012 3.084 3.194 3.205 3.222 3.166 2013-2013 Connecticut 3.001 3.074 3.187 3.198 3.207 3.143 2013-2013 Maine 3.006 3.074 3.179 3.181 3.202 3.158 2013-2013 Massachusetts 3.018 3.092 3.200 3.215 3.229 3.161 2013-2013 New Hampshire 3.003 3.076 3.200 3.216 3.247 3.238 2013-2013 Rhode Island 2.970 3.038 3.147 3.150 3.171 3.113 2013-2013 Vermont 3.115 3.190 3.301 3.309 3.334 3.274 2013-2013 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 2.964 3.030 3.135 3.144 3.149 3.084 2013-2013 Delaware 2.916 3.101 3.207 3.087 3.103 3.130 2013-2013 Maryland 2.920 2.992 3.109 3.099 3.111 3.047 2013-2013

213

Residential Heating Oil Weekly Heating Oil and Propane Prices...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.453 3.436 3.416 3.383 3.364 3.326 1990-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3.454 3.436 3.415 3.383 3.363 3.326 1990-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 3.407 3.381 3.362 3.327 3.314 3.277 1990-2014...

214

Field application of a chemical heat and nitrogen generating system  

SciTech Connect

Heat is often required to stimulate production in wells with recurrent histories of paraffin deposition and plugging. A chemical system which produces heat and nitrogen at a predetermined well depth is proposed as an alternative to the traditional hot oil and steam generation treatments. The system is described briefly and case histories are given for 3 wells in California and 5 wells in Wyoming. The field results indicate that heat produced by the nitrogen generating system effectively stimulates production from paraffin plugged wells. The heat and nitrogen generating system further shows increased production cycle lengths over those which result from hot oil or paraffin solvent treatments. Beneficial effects of including a paraffin inhibitor in the treatment design are discussed, along with other potential applications for the heat produced by this system.

Mitchell, T.I.; Collesi, J.B.; Donovan, S.C.; McSpadden, H.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

Kessler, A. F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Segmented heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

219

Utah Heavy Oil Program  

SciTech Connect

The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Parts 1 and 2 of this chapter contain a broad range of regulations pertaining to oil and gas conservation, including requirements for the regulation of oil and gas exploration and extraction by the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Effect of flow and physical parameters on the wax deposition of Middle East crude oil under subsea condition: heat transfer viewpoint  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Change in pressure, temperature, flow rate and concentration of oil causes precipitation and deposition of wax particles in the pipelines which has become a major problem for ... reserves increases. Change in tem...

Reza Gooya; Mehdy Gooya; Bahram Dabir

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" 8. Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings Using Any Energy Source","Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",67338,65753,65716,45525,13285,5891,2750,6290,2322 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,6309,6280,3566,620,"Q","Q",635,292 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7721,7721,5088,583,"Q","Q",986,"Q"

223

Heavy oil transportation by pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide there are a number of pipelines used to transport heavy crude oils. The operations are facilitated in a variety of ways. For example, the Alyeska pipeline is an insulated pipeline transporting warm oil over 800 miles. This 48-inch line experiences limited heat loss due to the insulation, volume of oil contained, and heat gain due to friction and pumping. Some European trunk lines periodically handle heavy and waxy crudes. This is achieved by proper sizing of batches, following waxy crudes with non-waxy crudes, and increased use of scrapers. In a former Soviet republic, the transportation of heavy crude oil by pipeline has been facilitated by blending with a lighter Siberian crude. The paper describes the pipeline transport of heavy crudes by Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. The paper describes enhancing heavy oil transportation by emulsion formation, droplet suspension, dilution, drag reducing agents, and heating.

Gerez, J.M.; Pick, A.R. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale  

SciTech Connect

The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Home Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Home Heating Everything you need to know about home heating, including how heating systems work, the different types on the market and proper maintenance. Read more Thermostats...

226

Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger for Geologic Deposits - Energy Innovation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heating apparatus that efficiently heats subterranean geological deposits, such as oil shale, to extract hydrocarbons for energy needs. The apparatus provides more efficient...

227

OIl Speculation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investor Investor Flows and the 2008 Boom/Bust in Oil Prices Kenneth J. Singleton 1 August 10, 2011 1 Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, kenneths@stanford.edu. This research is the outgrowth of a survey paper I prepared for the Air Transport Association of America. I am grateful to Kristoffer Laursen for research assistance and to Kristoffer and Stefan Nagel for their comments. Abstract This paper explores the impact of investor flows and financial market conditions on returns in crude-oil futures markets. I begin by arguing that informational frictions and the associated speculative activity may induce prices to drift away from "fundamental" values and show increased volatility. This is followed by a discussion of the interplay between imperfect infor- mation about real economic activity, including supply, demand, and inventory accumulation, and speculative

228

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

229

Soybean Oil as Diesel Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soybean Oil as Diesel Fuel ... TESTS are reported from Japan on the use of soybean oil as Diesel fuel in a 12-horsepower engine of 150-mm. ... This trouble was overcome by passing through some of the Diesel cooling water to heat the fuel tank and supply line. ...

C.H.S. TUPHOLME

1940-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

230

Peak Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wissenschaftliche Voraussagen deuten auf Peak Oil, das Maximum globaler Erdlfrderung, in unserer ... der demokratischen Systeme fhren. Psychoanalytische Betrachtung darf Peak Oil fr die Zivilisation als e...

Dr. Manuel Haus; Dr. med. Christoph Biermann

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

10,433 1,047 18,983 9,592 488 -617 17,890 3,998 19,273 10,433 1,047 18,983 9,592 488 -617 17,890 3,998 19,273 PADD 1 130 25 3,403 1,515 3,374 230 -269 3,374 264 5,307 PADD 2 1,993 892 4,464 2,094 500 -317 -225 4,240 386 5,224 PADD 3 6,249 96 7,346 4,283 -3,758 511 -211 6,723 2,976 5,239 PADD 4 887 14 643 287 -425 -18 51 615 10 713 PADD 5 1,174 20 3,127 1,413 310 82 36 2,939 362 2,789 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Imports at the PAD District level represent the PAD District in which the material entered the U.S. and not necessarily where the crude oil or product is processed and/or consumed. PAD District level net receipts includes implied net receipts for fuel ethanol and oxygenates (excluding fuel ethanol). Implied net receipts are calculated as the sum of stock change, refinery and blender net inputs, and exports minus the sum of renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production, imports, and adjustments. Adjustments include an adjustment for crude oil, previously referred to as Unaccounted For Crude Oil. Also included is an adjustment for motor gasoline blending components, fuel ethanol, and distillate fuel oil. A negative stock change indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive number indicates an increase in stocks. Total stocks do not include distillate fuel oil stocks located in the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. Total residual fuel oil stocks include stocks held at pipelines. Residual fuel oil stocks by sulfur content exclude pipeline stocks. Therefore, the sum of residual fuel oil stocks by sulfur content may not equal total residual fuel oil stocks. Exports of distillate fuel oil with sulfur greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm may include distillate fuel oil with sulfur content 15 ppm and under due to product detail limitations in exports data received from the U.S. Census Bureau. LRG = Liquefied Refinery Gas. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table.

232

Waste oil reduction: GKN  

SciTech Connect

This report details the steps required to establish a waste oil management program. Such a program can reduce operational costs, cut wastewater treatment costs and produce a better quality wastewater effluent through such means as: reducing the volume of oils used; segregating oils at the source of generation for recovery and reuse; and reducing the quality of oily wastewater generated. It discusses the metal-working fluid recovery options available for such a program, namely settling, filtration, hydrocyclone, and centrifugation. Included are source lists for vendors of oil skimmer equipment and coolant recovery systems.

Hunt, G.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Antioxidant Activity of Capsaicinoid in Canola Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Antioxidant Activity of Capsaicinoid in Canola Oil ... The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. ... The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid in canola oil. ...

Wenhui Si; Yintong Liang; Ka Ying Ma; Hau Yin Chung; Zhen-Yu Chen

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

234

Product Price Spreads Over Crude Oil Vary With Seasons and Supply/Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Of course, petroleum product prices don't move in lockstep to crude oil prices, for a number of reasons. We find it useful to look at variations in the spread between product and crude oil prices, in this case comparing spot market prices for each. The difference between heating oil and crude oil spot prices tends to vary seasonally; that is, it's generally higher in the winter, when demand for distillate fuels is higher due to heating requirements, and lower in the summer. (Gasoline, as we'll see later, generally does the opposite.) However, other factors affecting supply and demand, including the relative severity of winter weather, can greatly distort these "typical" seasonal trends. As seen on this chart, the winters of 1995-96 and 1996-97 featured

235

Distillate and Spot Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: This slide shows the strong influence crude oil prices have on retail distillate prices. The price for distillate fuel oil tracks the crude price increases seen in 1996 and the subsequent fall in 1997 and 1998. Distillate prices have also followed crude oil prices up since the beginning of 1999. Actual data show heating oil prices on the East Coast in June at $1.20 per gallon, up 39 cents over last June. However, if heating oil prices are following diesel, they may be up another 5 cents in August. That would put heating oil prices about 40 cents over last August prices. Crude oil prices are only up about 25 cents in August over year ago levels. The extra 15 cents represents improved refiner margins due in part to the very low distillate inventory level.

236

Energy & Financial Markets: What Drives Crude Oil Prices? - Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

& Financial Markets - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) & Financial Markets - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & Efficiency Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Coal Reserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable & Alternative Fuels

237

Floatable solar heat modules  

SciTech Connect

A floating solar heat module for swimming pools comprises a solid surface for conducting heat from the sun's rays to the water and further includes a solid heat storage member for continual heating even during the night. A float is included to maintain the solar heat module on the surface of the pool. The solid heat storage medium is a rolled metal disk which is sandwiched between top and bottom heat conducting plates, the top plate receiving the heat of the sun's rays through a transparent top panel and the bottom plate transferring the heat conducted through the top plate and rolled disk to the water.

Ricks, J.W.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

Advances in induction heating  

SciTech Connect

Electric induction heating, in situ, can distill (underground) high-heat-value (HHV) gas, coal tar, bitumen, and shale oil. This technique permits potentially lower cost exploitation of the solid fossil fuels: coal, oil shale, tar sand, and heavy oil. The products, when brought to the surface in gaseous form and processed, yield chemical feedstocks, natural gas, and petroleum. Residual coke can be converted, in situ, to low-heat-value (LHV) gas by a conventional water-gas process. LHV can be burned at the surface to generate electricity at low cost. The major cost of the installation will have been paid for by the HHV gas and tar distilled from the coal. There are 2 mechanisms of heating by electric induction. One uses displacement currents induced from an electric field. The other uses eddy currents induced by a magnetic field.

Not Available

1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

239

Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

Burton, III, Robert S. (Mesa, CO)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

244

Thermoelectric heat exchange element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

245

Reducing the Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil by Use of a Solar-Assisted Steam Generation System with Heat Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

utility equipment ... The utilities cost is $692?000/year, which represents 13.1% of the total cost . ... Absorption refrigeration is used to utilize excess process heat and external energy in the form of fossil and solar energy. ...

Robert Brunet; Ekaterina Antipova; Gonzalo Guilln-Goslbez; Laureano Jimnez

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water...

Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hydrothermal systems near Mexico (6). The sulfate-reducing...generation of H2S in geothermal heated oil wells when suitable substrates...and steel alloys in oil wells and in the oil-processing...in the production well head or in the oil-water...

Janiche Beeder; Roald Kre Nilsen; Jan Thomas Rosnes; Terje Torsvik; Torleiv Lien

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Calculation of the heat value of biofuels with calorimetric and chromatographic data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The values of the gross (net) heating value were determined by burning samples of liquid biofuels-rapeseed and soy oils-and rapeseed oil...

V. G. Semenov; A. A. Zinchenko

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

The effect of heat treatment on the digestibility of wheat gluten in a model food system containing wheat gluten, corn starch and corn oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ntestinal epithelium to free amino acids (8, 9). The bioavailability of am1no acids in a protein depends on the protein source, the type of processing it undergoes and the inter- actions between the protein and other diet components (10). If a protein... of the batter. The protein used was wheat gluten (Teklad Test Diets, Ma'dison, Wise. ), the fat, corn oil (ICN Nutritional Biochemicals, Cleveland, Ohio) and the carbohydrate, corn starch (United States Biochemical Corp. , 19 Cleveland, Ohio). The batter...

Fox, Debra Marie Ruzicka

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

250

Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

Utah, University of

251

,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" 7. Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings Using Any Energy Source","Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",4657,4403,4395,2670,434,117,50,451,153 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,2193,2186,1193,220,"Q","Q",215,93 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,1036,1036,684,74,"Q","Q",124,"Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,689,688,448,65,24,"Q",74,19

252

Bio-oil fractionation and condensation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

253

Volatility Relationship between Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper utilizes calculated historical volatility and GARCH models to compare the historical price volatility behavior of crude oil, motor gasoline and heating oil in U.S. markets since 1990. ... GARCH/TARCH m...

Thomas K. Lee; John Zyren

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils  

SciTech Connect

This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

Klasson, E.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

comment period. STATEMENT OF BASIS RED LEAF RESOURCES SOUTHWEST #1 OIL SHALE MINE Ground Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

extraction of kerogen from oil shale ore using heat. This represents a new technology for extraction of

unknown authors

256

Investigation of oil adsorption capacity of granular organoclay media and the kinetics of oil removal from oil-in-water emulsions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Produced water, a byproduct of oil and gas production, includes almost 98% of all waste generated by oil and gas exploration and their production activities. This oil contaminated waste water has a great impact on our environment and is considered...

Islam, Sonia

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

257

Peak Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At the start of the new millennium, the expression Peak Oil was unknown. Nevertheless, a discussion about when the worlds rate of oil production would reach its maximum had already ... . King Hubbert presented...

Kjell Aleklett

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Peak Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Between 2000 and 2010, world oil prices advanced from approximately $25 per barrel to more than $100 per barrel. The price appreciation of oil over the decade was around ten times the rate of inflation.

Robert Rapier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Energy Efficient Design of a Waste Heat Rejection System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and oil preheaters. The heating requirements for these heat sinks are generally met by burning fossil fuels or even by using electric heaters while available waste heat is rejected to the surrounding environment using devices such as cooling towers...

Mehta, P.

260

Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

An Experimental Investigaton of the Effect of Oil on Convective Heat Trasfer and Pressure Drop of a HFC-32/HRC-125 Mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of HCFC-22 and a 50% mass mixture of HFC-32/HFC-125 were experimentally measured under flow boiling conditions in a smooth tube. The refrigerants were flowed through an 8 mm diameter smooth tube...

McJimsey, Bert Ashford

262

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

264

Nanofluid heat capacities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin mineral oil ethylene glycol a mixture of water and ethylene glycol and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate) and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

Anne K. Starace; Judith C. Gomez; Jun Wang; Sulolit Pradhan; Greg C. Glatzmaier

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Industrial Heating with Creosote Pitch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Industrial Heating with Creosote Pitch ... TO REDUCE the demand for imported petroleum fuel oil, some British plants are using a mixture of creosote and pitch, obtained during the manufacture of city gas. ... Thus these tar oils, the most commonly used being creosote pitch, must be maintained at a temperature of not less than 90 F. at all times and delivered warm into suitably heated tanks. ...

C. H. S. TUPHOLME

1942-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

268

STEO October 2012 - home heating supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural gas, propane, and electricity supplies seen plentiful Natural gas, propane, and electricity supplies seen plentiful this winter for U.S. home heating Supplies of the major heating fuels used by most U.S. households are expected to be plentiful this winter, with the possible exception of heating oil, which is consumed mostly by households in the Northeast. Heating oil stocks are expected to be low in the East Coast and Gulf Coast states. And with New York state requiring heating oil with lower sulfur levels for the first time, the heating oil market is expected to be tighter this winter, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. However, U.S. inventories of natural gas, the most common primary heating fuel used by households and a key fuel for electricity generation, is expected to reach 3.9 trillion cubic feet by

269

Enhancing the heat transfer in a heat treatment furnace through improving the combustion process in the radiation tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......energy efficiency in the heating processes. The heat...chamber and lead to shorter heating time to achieve the objective...chamber as a part of oil quenching heat treatment...energy efficiency in the heating processes. The heat...The rising of fuel prices and the increasing requirements......

E. M. Elmabrouk; Y. Wu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Oil shale: The environmental challenges III  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

Petersen, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

playing key role in peak-oil debate, future energy supply.of di?ering views of peak oil, including Yergins, isHubberts Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage. Princeton

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution fuel in New England - Agenda Time Pre-Conference Presentation and Discussion (Grenier Room) May 8, 2012; Manchester New Hampshire...

273

Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co?mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil?in?water and oil?water?solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers water can be discharged and oil is collected. High?frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale residual oil drill cuttings tar sands oil contaminated dredge/sediments tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly fuel?generating recycler to reduce waste cut emissions and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Home Heating Anderson [21 Oil Price Electric Share Gas ShareBaughman and Joskow [3] Oil Price Gas Price Lin, Hirst,and Cohn [10] Gas Price Oil Price Hartman and Hollyer [8] (

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has severely impacted diesel fuel prices, especially in the Northeast. Retail diesel price data are available sooner than residential heating oil data. This graph shows that diesel prices turned the corner sometime after February 7 and are heading down. Retail diesel fuel prices nationally, along with those of most other petroleum prices, increased steadily through most of 1999. Prices jumped dramatically (by over 11 cents per gallon) in the third week of January, and rose 2 or more cents a week through February 7. The increases were much more rapid in the Northeast. From January 17 through February 7, diesel fuel prices in New England rose nearly 68 cents per gallon, or 47 percent. Prices in the Mid-Atlantic region rose about 58

276

Peak Oil and REMI PI+: State Fiscal Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, nation, and states) · Shale oil not included ­ Shale oil reserve estimates 2.0 Trillion bbls in USPeak Oil and REMI PI+: State Fiscal Implications Jim Peach Arrowhead Center Prosper Project is peak oil? · Why peak oil (and gas) matters ­ (In energy and non-energy states) ­ National Real GDP

Johnson, Eric E.

277

Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Water issues associated with heavy oil production.  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

279

Starting Up Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of the...

Michael Siegert; Jana Sitte; Alexander Galushko; Martin Krger

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary recovery, the natural pressure of the reservoir or gravity drive oil into the wellbore, combined with artificial lift techniques (such as pumps) which bring the oil to the surface. But only about 10 percent of a reservoir's original oil in place is typically produced during primary recovery. Secondary recovery techniques extend a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Booming markets for Moroccan argan oil appear to benefit some rural households while threatening the endemic argan forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...booming argan prices have not improved...Article | 0 Plant Oils | Endangered Species...and charcoal for heating and cooking...explosion in argan oil demand, and argan prices have skyrocketed...1999, whereas oil prices in these markets...

Travis J. Lybbert; Abdellah Aboudrare; Deborah Chaloud; Nicholas Magnan; Maliha Nash

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Heat Treating Apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

Flameless heat generator  

SciTech Connect

A heating device generates heat by working a liquid in a closed container with a rotating stack of finely perforate square plates and recovering the heat from the thus heated liquid. In one embodiment a stack of a multiplicity of flat square plates radially offset one from another is rotated in an oil bath in a container under an inner perforate non-rotating cover over which is a similar non-rotating cover that is imperforate. The thermal energy developed through the mechanical working of the liquid is transferred to the main liquid bath and is then removed, as for example, by circulating air or a liquid around the outside of the container with the thus heated air or liquid being used to heat a house or the like.

Leary, C. L.; Leary, G. C.

1983-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

284

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems...

285

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fue -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487 32 345 -- Process Cooling and Refrigeration -- 206 * 1 32 * * -- Machine Drive

286

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- -- 62 6 838 1 417 -- Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487

287

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547 Conventional Boiler Use 84 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,639 62 52 2,788 39 412 Process Heating 379 59 19 2,487 32 345 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

288

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21 46 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 24,584 21 4 2,059 2 25 Conventional Boiler Use 24,584 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process 773,574 10 9 2,709 10 19 Process Heating

289

Monitoring Seismic Attenuation Changes Using a 4D Relative Spectrum Method in Athabsca Heavy Oil Reservoir, Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating heavy oil reservoirs is a common method for reducing the high viscosity of heavy oil and thus increasing the recovery factor. Monitoring these changes in the reservoir is essential for delineating the heated region ...

Shabelansky, Andrey Hanan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

Mustafa Hamid Al-abbas; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Mohd. Marsin Sanagi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Residential Boiler Efficiencies (1) Gas-Fired Boilers Oil-Fired Boilers Average shipped in 1985 (2): 74% AFUE Average shipped in 1985 (2): 79% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 81% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 86% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 96% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 89% AFUE Note(s): Source(s): 1) Federal appliance standards effective Jan. 1, 1992, require a minimum of 80% AFUE (except gas-fired steam boiler, which must have a 75% AFUE or higher). 2) Includes furnaces. GAMA, Consumer's Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Residential Heating and Water Heating Equipment, Aug. 2005, p. 88 and 106 for best- available AFUE; and GAMA for 1985 average AFUEs; GAMA Tax Credit Eligible Equipment: Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers 95% AFUE or Greater, May 2007; and GAMA Consumer's Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Heating and Water Heating Equipment, May 2007

292

Extension of the semi-empirical correlation for the effects of pipe diameter and internal surface roughness on the decompression wave speed to include High Heating Value Processed Gas mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The decompression wave speed, which is used throughout the pipeline industry in connection with the Battelle two-curve method for the control of propagating ductile fracture, is typically calculated using GASDECOM (GAS DECOMpression). GASDECOM, developed in the 1970's, idealizes the decompression process as isentropic and one-dimensional, taking no account of pipe wall frictional effects or pipe diameter. Previous shock tube tests showed that decompression wave speeds in smaller diameter and rough pipes are consistently slower than those predicted by GASDECOM for the same conditions of mixture composition and initial pressure and temperature. Previous analysis based on perturbation theory and the fundamental momentum equation revealed a correction term to be subtracted from the idealized value of the decompression speed calculated by GASDECOM. One parameter in this correction term involves a dynamic spatial pressure gradient of the outflow at the rupture location. While this is difficult to obtain without a shock tube or actual rupture test, data from 14 shock tube tests, as well as from 14 full scale burst tests involving a variety of gas mixture compositions, were analyzed to correlate the variation of this pressure gradient with two characteristics of the gas mixture, namely; the molecular weight and the higher heating value (HHV). For lean to moderately-rich gas mixes, the developed semi-empirical correlation was found to fit very well the experimentally determined decompression wave speed curve. For extremely rich gas mixes, such as High Heating Value Processed Gas (HHVPG) mixtures of HHV up to 58MJ/m3, it was found that it overestimates the correction term. Therefore, additional shock tube tests were conducted on (HHVPG) mixes, and the previously developed semi-empirical correlation was extended (revised) to account for such extremity in the richness of the gas mixtures. The newly developed semi-empirical correlation covers a wider range of natural gas mixtures from as lean as pure methane up to HHVPG mixtures of HHV=58MJ/m3.

K.K. Botros; L. Carlson; M. Reed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Modeling a set of heavy oil aqueous pyrolysis experiments  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous pyrolysis experiments, aimed at mild upgrading of heavy oil, were analyzed using various computer models. The primary focus of the analysis was the pressure history of the closed autoclave reactors obtained during the heating of the autoclave to desired reaction temperatures. The models used included a means of estimating nonideal behavior of primary components with regard to vapor liquid equilibrium. The modeling indicated that to match measured autoclave pressures, which often were well below the vapor pressure of water at a given temperature, it was necessary to incorporate water solubility in the oil phase and an activity model for the water in the oil phase which reduced its fugacity below that of pure water. Analysis also indicated that the mild to moderate upgrading of the oil which occurred in experiments that reached 400{degrees}C or more using a FE(III) 2-ethylhexanoate could be reasonably well characterized by a simple first order rate constant of 1.7xl0{sup 8} exp(-20000/T)s{sup {minus}l}. Both gas production and API gravity increase were characterized by this rate constant. Models were able to match the complete pressure history of the autoclave experiments fairly well with relatively simple equilibria models. However, a consistent lower than measured buildup in pressure at peak temperatures was noted in the model calculations. This phenomena was tentatively attributed to an increase in the amount of water entering the vapor phase caused by a change in its activity in the oil phase.

Thorsness, C.B.; Reynolds, J.G.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

NONE

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

RTO heat recovery system decreases production costs and provides payback  

SciTech Connect

Application of a heat recovery system to an existing regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) was considered, tested, and selected for decreasing production costs at a pressure sensitive tape manufacturing facility. Heat recovery systems on RTO's are less common than those on other thermal oxidizers (e.g., recuperative) because RTO's, by the nature of the technology, usually provide high thermal efficiencies (without the application of external heat recovery systems). In this case, the production processes were integrated with the emission controls by applying an external heat recovery system and by optimizing the design and operation of the existing drying and cure ovens, RTO system, and ductwork collection system. Integration of these systems provides an estimated annual production cost savings of over $400,000 and a simplified capital investment payback of less than 2 years, excluding possible savings from improved dryer operations. These additional process benefits include more consistent and simplified control of seasonal dryer performance and possibly production throughput increases. The production costs savings are realized by substituting excess RTO heat for a portion of the infrared (IR) electrical heat input to the dryers/ovens. This will be accomplished by preheating the supply air to the oven zones with the excess RTO heat (i.e., heat at the RTO exceeding auto-thermal conditions). Several technologies, including direct air-to-air, indirect air-to-air, hot oil-to-air, waste heat boiler (steam-to-air) were evaluated for transferring the excess RTO heat (hot gas) to the ovens. A waste heat boiler was selected to transfer the excess RTO heat to the ovens because this technology provided the most economical, reliable, and feasible operation. Full-scale production test trials on the coating lines were performed and confirmed the IR electrical costs could be reduced up to 70%.

Lundquist, P.R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

System for utilizing oil shale fines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Oil Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Protection Agency regulations 40 CFR Part 112, Oil Pollution Prevention,'' include requirements for a written Oil Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan. This document provides such an SPCC Plan for facilities at 100-N Area managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co. Should an oil spill occur at 100-N Area, the following actions should be followed: stop the flow of oil, contain the oil spill in order to prevent it from reaching the river, and notify Environmental Protection. Environmental Protection will assess the oil spill and determine if remedial action is necessary. If needed, an oil spill response team will deploy oil spill control and clean-up equipment at the river shoreline to remove any oil that enters the river.

Zoric, J P

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

CAKIR, NIDA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

CAKIR, NIDA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Oil and Gas Air Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Heating technologies for energy efficiency Vol.III-1-2 Oil and Gas Air Heaters1 Guangxiao Kou Hanqing Wang Jiemin Zhou Doctoral Ph.D Ph.D Candidate Professor Professor Hunan University of Technology Hunan...

Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Borate-containing oil-in-water microemulsion fluid  

SciTech Connect

An oil-in-water emulsion is described that contains water, oil, borate and a surfactant to prevent the separation of the components into various phases. Suitable oils include both natural and synthetic oil. Preferred are the lower viscosity mineral oils having viscosities ranging from 10 centistroke at 40 C to 100 centistroke at 40 C. Mineral oil fractions of naphthenic-based stocks also are preferred because of their ease of emulsification as compared to paraffinic-based stocks. Suitable synthetic oils include the diesters, alkyl benzenes, and polyalphaolefins. The hydrated potassium borates are preferred. Suitable surfactants include the anionic, nonionic, cationic and amphoteric surfactants. 5 claims.

Stayner, R.A.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

International Energy Outlook 2006 - World Oil Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oil Markets Oil Markets International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 3: World Oil Markets In the IEO2006 reference case, world oil demand increases by 47 percent from 2003 to 2030. Non-OECD Asia, including China and India, accounts for 43 percent of the increase. In the IEO2006 reference case, world oil demand grows from 80 million barrels per day in 2003 to 98 million barrels per day in 2015 and 118 million barrels per day in 2030. Demand increases strongly despite world oil prices that are 35 percent higher in 2025 than in last year’s outlook. Much of the growth in oil consumption is projected for the nations of non-OECD Asia, where strong economic growth is expected. Non-OECD Asia (including China and India) accounts for 43 percent of the total increase in world oil use over the projection period.

306

Research and Development Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologi...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

fuels are split approximately evenly between gas and electric, with other (e.g., fuel oil, propane) representing only 5% of residential water heating energy consumption. Figure...

307

RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Design Considerations for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in these high-quality waste heat streams, at today's oil prices, is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Heat recovery is perhaps one of the largest energy conservation opportunities available to U. S. industries today. The author reviews basic heat...

Bywaters, R. P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

Oil from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... sources are not capable of indefinite expansion, since their industrial stability is dependent upon adequate markets for the main productscoke of various kinds or gas. They were, however, ... gallon and remain in operation until 1950, and that it should be extended to include diesel oil used in motor vehicles. It might be feared that this extension would involve ...

C. H. LANDER

1938-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

311

Production of hydrogen from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

1985-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

312

Co-pyrolysis of oil shale and High density polyethylene: Structural characterization of the oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study describes a detailed characterization of the oil obtained by co-pyrolysis of Tarfaya oil shale (Morocco) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) and by pyrolysis of oil shale and HDPE individually. The oil (obtained under the most suitable conditions, temperature of 500525C and heating rate of 10C/min) was characterised by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, column chromatography was used group composition of oil was determined. Gas chromatography was achieved on n-hexane fractions. Adding HDPE to the oil shale results in increased oil yields, which indicates synergetic effect between the oil shale and HDPE. The addition of HDPE to oil shale improved fuel properties of shale oil leading to a decrease in the oxygen content of shale oil. The results show that the oil obtained by co-pyrolysis has similar properties with commercial gasoline. HDPE acts as a hydrogenation medium for the oil shale product as revealed by FTIR results.

A. Aboulkas; T. Makayssi; L. Bilali; K. El harfi; M. Nadifiyine; M. Benchanaa

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Numerical simulations of the Macondo well blowout reveal strong control of oil flow by reservoir permeability and exsolution of gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

simulation of reservoir depletion and oil flow from themodel included the oil reservoir and the well with a toppressures of the deep oil reservoir, to a two-phase oil-gas

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently. Crude oil rose about 36 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to the middle of January 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, heating oil spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled slightly higher as the New York Harbor market began to

315

Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including air-source; geothermal; ductless, mini-split; and absorption heat pumps. Learn more about the different options and how to use your heat pump efficiently to save money and energy at home. Featured Heat Pump Systems A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

316

Bakken Shale Oil Production Trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) database and in the format of monthly production for oil, water and gas. Additional 95 well data including daily production rate, completion, Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT), pressure data are given from companies who sponsor for this research study...

Tran, Tan

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

317

Peaking of World Oil Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonrenewable and renewable energy sources make up the two major energy categories of interest to our industrial civilization. Nonrenewable energy includes different fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) th...

J. Edward Gates

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

OIL IMPORTS: For and Against  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

OIL IMPORTS: For and Against ... The eightAshland Oil, Atlantic Richfield, Cities Service, Marathon Oil, Mobil Oil, Standard Oil (Ind.), ...

1969-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

319

PBMR as an Ideal Heat Source for High-Temperature Process Heat Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is an advanced helium-cooled, graphite-moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). A 400 MWt PBMR Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) for the production of electricity is being developed in South Africa. This PBMR technology is also an ideal heat source for process heat applications, including Steam Methane Reforming, steam for Oil Sands bitumen recovery, Hydrogen Production and co-generation (process heat and/or electricity and/or process steam) for petrochemical industries. The cycle configuration used to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant or to convert the reactor's heat into electricity or steam directly influences the cycle efficiency and plant economics. The choice of cycle configuration depends on the process requirements and is influenced by practical considerations, component and material limitations, maintenance, controllability, safety, performance, risk and cost. This paper provides an overview of the use of a PBMR reactor for process applications and possible cycle configurations are presented for applications which require high temperature process heat and/or electricity. (authors)

Correia, Michael; Greyvenstein, Renee [PBMR - Pty Ltd., 1279 Mike Crawford Avenue, Centurion, 0046 (South Africa); Silady, Fred; Penfield, Scott [Technology Insights, 6540 Lusk Blvd, Suite C-102, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996 report provides information, illustrations and State-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996. 24 tabs.

NONE

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Study of Dielectric Properties of Dry and Saturated Green River Oil Shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Study of Dielectric Properties of Dry and Saturated Green River Oil Shale ... We measured the dielectric permittivity of dry and fluid saturated Green River oil shale samples over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz. ... Implications of these observations for the in situ electromagnetic or radio frequency heating of oil shale to produce oil and gas are discussed. ...

Jerry J. Sweeney; Jeffery J. Roberts; Philip E. Harben

2007-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

322

Palm oil - towards a sustainable future?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and (more)

Nilsson, Sara

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Bioconversion of Heavy oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??70 % of world?s oil reservoirs consist of heavy oil, and as the supply of conventional oil decreases, researchers are searching for new technologies to (more)

Steinbakk, Sandra

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

23,431 32,462 588,466 297,359 15,122 -19,137 554,586 123,943 23,431 32,462 588,466 297,359 15,122 -19,137 554,586 123,943 597,448 1,812,484 PADD 1 4,022 783 105,480 46,972 104,579 7,133 -8,328 104,584 8,184 164,527 145,574 PADD 2 61,781 27,645 138,371 64,904 15,509 -9,838 -6,968 131,427 11,955 161,957 273,603 PADD 3 193,724 2,967 227,728 132,784 -116,513 15,829 -6,533 208,398 92,256 162,398 1,211,066 PADD 4 27,499 433 19,935 8,906 -13,181 -544 1,567 19,066 310 22,105 38,275 PADD 5 36,406 635 96,952 43,793 9,606 2,542 1,124 91,111 11,237 86,461 143,965 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Imports at the PAD District level represent the PAD District in which the material entered the U.S. and not necessarily where the crude oil or product is processed and/or consumed. PAD District level net receipts includes implied net receipts for fuel ethanol and oxygenates (excluding fuel ethanol). Implied net receipts are calculated as the sum of stock change, refinery and blender net inputs, and exports minus the sum of renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production, imports, and adjustments. Adjustments include an adjustment for crude oil, previously referred to as Unaccounted For Crude Oil. Also included is an adjustment for motor gasoline blending components, fuel ethanol, and distillate fuel oil. A negative stock change indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive number indicates an increase in stocks. Total stocks do not include distillate fuel oil stocks located in the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. Total residual fuel oil stocks include stocks held at pipelines. Residual fuel oil stocks by sulfur content exclude pipeline stocks. Therefore, the sum of residual fuel oil stocks by sulfur content may not equal total residual fuel oil stocks. Exports of distillate fuel oil with sulfur greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm may include distillate fuel oil with sulfur content 15 ppm and under due to product detail limitations in exports data received from the U.S. Census Bureau. LRG = Liquefied Refinery Gas. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table.

325

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

326

5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil market. Will world oil demand increase and, if so, by how much? How will world oil prices be affected

327

Effect of alumina nanoparticles in the fluid on heat transfer in double-pipe heat exchanger system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was performed to investigate the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids made of several alumina ... transformer oil which flow through a double pipe heat exchanger system in the laminar flo...

Byung-Hee Chun; Hyun Uk Kang; Sung Hyun Kim

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil corporations including Conoco, Petrofina, Texaco, Elf Aqui- taine, British Petroleum, Braspetro, Total, Cities Services, Mitsubishi, and Marathon

Reed, Kristin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Cross-cutting Research and Development Priorities Speaker(s): Sachin Nimbalkar Date: January 17, 2013 - 11:00am Location: 90-2063 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Aimee McKane Waste heat is generated from several industrial systems used in manufacturing. The waste heat sources are distributed throughout a plant. The largest source for most industries is exhaust / flue gases or heated air from heating systems. This includes the high temperature gases from burners in process heating, lower temperature gases from heat treat, dryers, and heaters, heat from heat exchangers, cooling liquids and gases etc. The previous studies and direct contact with the industry as well as equipment suppliers have shown that a large amount of waste heat is not

330

[Waste water heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

Not Available

1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

331

Pulping black liquor used directly as a green and effective source for neat oil and as an emulsifier of catalytic cracking heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of emulsified heavy oils to conduct the FCC reaction. The emulsified heavy oil was prepared by homogenizing. Properties of emulsified heavy oil, including int...

Ge Xu; Ji-he Yang; Hui-hui Mao; Zhi Yun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - analyze oil quality Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rock, and other units. The heating value is useful for determining the quality of an oil shale... , then adapted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines for analyzing oil shale of the Green...

333

Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Heating Electric Resistance Heating Electric Resistance Heating June 24, 2012 - 4:51pm Addthis Baseboard heaters are one type of electric resistance heaters. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/drewhadley Baseboard heaters are one type of electric resistance heaters. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/drewhadley Electric resistance heating converts nearly 100% of the energy in the electricity to heat. However, most electricity is produced from coal, gas, or oil generators that convert only about 30% of the fuel's energy into electricity. Because of electricity generation and transmission losses, electric heat is often more expensive than heat produced in the home or business using combustion appliances, such as natural gas, propane, and oil furnaces. If electricity is the only choice, heat pumps are preferable in most

334

An Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

our dependence on petroleum-based fuels, paper, glass, and agricultural and automotive and hence improve our merchandise .trade balance. equipment industries have all had proven success with heat recovery projects. Solar, wind, geothermal, oil shale...

Darby, D. F.

335

of oil yields from enhanced oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oil yields from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO oil yields from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO 2 storage capacity in depleted oil reservoirs. The primary goal of the project is to demonstrate that remaining oil can be economically produced using CO 2 -EOR technology in untested areas of the United States. The Citronelle Field appears to be an ideal site for concurrent CO 2 storage and EOR because the field is composed of sandstone reservoirs

336

Hydrotreating of oil from eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale provides one of the major fossil energy reserves for the United States. The quantity of reserves in oil shale is less than the quantity in coal, but is much greater (by at least an order of magnitude) than the quantity of crude oil reserves. With so much oil potentially available from oil shale, efforts have been made to develop techniques for its utilization. In these efforts, hydrotreating has proved to be an acceptable technique for upgrading raw shale oil to make usuable products. The present work demonstrated the use of the hydrotreating technique for upgrading an oil from Indiana New Albany oil shale.

Scinta, J.; Garner, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

338

FEMP Expands ESPC ENABLE Program to Include More Energy Conservation...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

(ESPC) ENABLE program to include two new energy conservation measures (ECMs): solar photovoltaic (PV) and simple one-for-one heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)...

339

PreHeat: Controlling Home Heating Using Occupancy Prediction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

@comp.lancs.ac.uk ABSTRACT Home heating is a major factor in worldwide energy use. Our system, PreHeat, aims to more, and measuring actual gas consumption and occupancy. In UK homes PreHeat both saved gas and reduced MissTime (the Home heating uses more energy than any other residential energy expenditure including air conditioning

Krumm, John

340

Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line  

SciTech Connect

When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

State Heating Oil and Propane Program  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

- season ends July 1- funding applications due July 15 - applications submitted to contracting office for review August 1 - applications submitted into STRIPES Late August -...

342

Effects of low temperature preheating on the pyrolysis products from blocks of oil shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil shale is a sedimentary rock composed of inorganic and organic fractions. The inorganic minerals contained in oil shale include: dolomite, calcite, quartz, i1 lite, (more)

Alston, David W.

1905-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547 Conventional Boiler Use 84 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,639 62 52 2,788 39 412 Process Heating 379 59 19 2,487 32 345 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

344

Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill 1, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text  

SciTech Connect

The intent and scope of the work plan are to assemble all data necessary to facilitate selection of remediation alternatives for the sites in Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (BCV OU 1) such that the risk to human health and the environment is reduced to acceptable levels based on agreements with regulators. The ultimate goal is to develop a final Record Of Decision (ROD) for all of the OUs in BCV, including the integrator OU. However, the initial aim of the source OUs is to develop a ROD for interim measures. For source OUs such as BCV OU 1, data acquisition will not be carried out in a single event, but will be carried out in three stages that accommodate the schedule for developing a ROD for interim measures and the final site-wide ROD. The three stages are as follows: Stage 1, Assemble sufficient data to support decisions such as the need for removal actions, whether to continue with the remedial investigation (RI) process, or whether no further action is required. If the decision is made to continue the RI/FS process, then: Stage 2, Assemble sufficient data to allow for a ROD for interim measures that reduce risks to the human health and the environment. Stage 3, Provide input from the source OU that allows a final ROD to be issued for all OUs in the BCV hydrologic regime. One goal of the RI work plan will be to ensure that sampling operations required for the initial stage are not repeated at later stages. The overall goals of this RI are to define the nature and extent of contamination so that the impact of leachate, surface water runoff, and sediment from the OU I sites on the integrator OU can be evaluated, the risk to human health and the environment can be defined, and the general physical characteristics of the subsurface can be determined such that remedial alternatives can be screened.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Heat pump having improved defrost system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

Western oil shale conversion using the ROPE copyright process  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing to develop the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process to recover liquid hydrocarbon products from oil shale, tar sand, and other solid hydrocarbonaceous materials. The process consists of three major steps: (1) pyrolyzing the hydrocarbonaceous material at a low temperature (T {le} 400{degrees}C) with recycled product oil, (2) completing the pyrolysis of the residue at a higher temperature (T > 400{degrees}C) in the absence of product oil, and (3) combusting the solid residue and pyrolysis gas in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor to produce process heat. Many conventional processes, such as the Paraho and Union processes, do not use oil shale fines (particles smaller than 1.27 cm in diameter). The amount of shale discarded as fines from these processes can be as high as 20% of the total oil shale mined. Research conducted to date suggests that the ROPE process can significantly improve the overall oil recovery from western oil shale by processing the oil shale fines typically discarded by conventional processes. Also, if the oil shale fines are co-processed with shale oil used as the heavy recycle oil, a better quality oil will be produced that can be blended with the original shale oil to make an overall produce that is more acceptable to the refineries and easier to pipeline. Results from tests conducted in a 2-inch process development unit (PDU) and a 6-inch bench-scale unit (BSU) with western oil shale demonstrated a maximum oil yield at temperatures between 700 and 750{degrees}F (371 and 399{degrees}C). Test results also suggest that the ROPE process has a strong potential for recovering oil from oil shale fines, upgrading shale oil, and separating high-nitrogen-content oil for use as an asphalt additive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Fahy, L.J.; Grimes, R.W.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

Busche, Frederick D. (Highland Village, TX); Rollins, John B. (Southlake, TX); Noyes, Harold J. (Golden, CO); Bush, James G. (West Richland, WA)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in logarithms has important implications for the stability of estimates of pass through when oil price levels rise significantly. Second, considering spot prices for refined prices improves significantly the fit of the estimated models relative to using crude oil prices. It also results in more economically meaningful results concerning the extent of pass through. Third, oil price pass through occurs quickly, with 90% occurring within three to five weeks. Fourth, using a relatively broad specification allowing for asymmetry in the pass through from upstream to downstream prices, there is little evidence of statistically significant asymmetries. Furthermore, even where asymmetry is found to be statistically significant, it is generally not economically significant. Lastly, these results generally hold across most euro area countries with few exceptions.

Aidan Meyler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

PREDICTIVE MODELS. Enhanced Oil Recovery Model  

SciTech Connect

PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1 chemical flooding, where soap-like surfactants are injected into the reservoir to wash out the oil; 2 carbon dioxide miscible flooding, where carbon dioxide mixes with the lighter hydrocarbons making the oil easier to displace; 3 in-situ combustion, which uses the heat from burning some of the underground oil to thin the product; 4 polymer flooding, where thick, cohesive material is pumped into a reservoir to push the oil through the underground rock; and 5 steamflood, where pressurized steam is injected underground to thin the oil. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes.

Ray, R.M. [DOE Bartlesville Energy Technology Technology Center, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1992-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

351

LLNL oil shale project review: METC third annual oil shale contractors meeting  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory combines laboratory and pilot-scale experimental measurements with mathematical modeling of fundamental chemistry and physics to provide a technical base for evaluating oil shale retorting alternatives. Presented herein are results of four research areas of interest in oil shale process development: Recent Progress in Solid-Recycle Retorting and Related Laboratory and Modeling Studies; Water Generation During Pyrolysis of Oil Shale; Improved Analytical Methods and Measurements of Rapid Pyrolysis Kinetics for Western and Eastern Oil Shale; and Rate of Cracking or Degradation of Oil Vapor In Contact with Oxidized Shale. We describe operating results of a 1 tonne-per-day, continuous-loop, solid-recycle, retort processing both Western And Eastern oil shale. Sulfur chemistry, solid mixing limits, shale cooling tests and catalyst addition are all discussed. Using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, we measure individual species evolution with greater sensitivity and selectivity. Herein we discuss our measurements of water evolution during ramped heating of Western and Eastern oil shale. Using improved analytical techniques, we determine isothermal pyrolysis kinetics for Western and Eastern oil shale, during rapid heating, which are faster than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the rate of cracking of oil vapor in contact with oxidized shale, qualitatively using a sand fluidized bed and quantitatively using a vapor cracking apparatus. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Cena, R.J.; Coburn, T.T.; Taylor, R.W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Putting oil prices in perspective  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the flawed'' energy policy of the US that seems to be: protect access to Persian Gulf oil with every means at its disposal. He discusses in general terms the real cost of oil which should include the military cost of the continuing conflicts in the Middle East. Full-cycle measurement (from the point of origin to the point of use) to determine energy costs would show natural gas and alternative fuels in their true cost.

Kauffmann, B.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, submerged oil refers to near shore oil which has picked up sediments You Should Know About Submerged Oil 1. Submerged oil is relatively uncommon: DWH oil is a light crude

355

Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains a minimum of 228 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Energy dependence, oil prices and exchange rates: the Dominican economy since 1990  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies the impact that oil prices have had on the floating exchange rate ... these two variables for large developed economies and oil-producing countries, always including the 1970s oil crises in the...

Diego Mndez-Carbajo

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Fact #652: December 6, 2010 U.S. Crude Oil Production Rises ...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

2: December 6, 2010 U.S. Crude Oil Production Rises Fact 652: December 6, 2010 U.S. Crude Oil Production Rises The production of crude oil in the U.S., including lease...

359

U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, says that households using propane and heating oil will see the biggest savings....with propane expenditures down 27% this winter compared...

360

Technical assessment of the Office of Industrial Programs' Advanced Heat Exchanger Program  

SciTech Connect

The DOE's AHX Program is an integral part of the OIP's Waste Heat Recovery Program whose goals are to increase the end-use energy efficiency of industry and agricultural operations, and to expand the energy options for manufacturing processes by providing technologies which use various fuels including coal, renewables, oil, and natural gas. The OIP and PNL convened a panel of industry experts to conduct a technical assessment of OIP's AHX program. This report documents the results of the panel's assessment.

Rinker, F.G.; Bergles, A.E.; Marciniak, T.J.; Batman, J.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf January - June 2013 | Release Date: August 29, 2013 | Next Release Date: February 27, 2014 2013 Crude Oil Imports From Persian Gulf Highlights It should be noted that several factors influence the source of a company's crude oil imports. For example, a company like Motiva, which is partly owned by Saudi Refining Inc., would be expected to import a large percentage from the Persian Gulf, while Citgo Petroleum Corporation, which is owned by the Venezuelan state oil company, would not be expected to import a large percentage from the Persian Gulf, since most of their imports likely come from Venezuela. In addition, other factors that influence a specific company's sources of crude oil imports would include the characteristics of various crude oils as well as a company's economic

362

Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program  

SciTech Connect

This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

None

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Minerals and potentially hazardous trace elements in marine oil shale: new insights from the Shengli River North surface mine, northern Tibet, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Shengli RiverChangshe Mountain oil shale zone, including the Changliang MountainShengli River oil shale, the Shengli River North oil shale, and the Changshe Mountain oil shale, represents potentially the la...

Xiugen Fu; Jian Wang; Fuwen Tan; Xinglei Feng

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Chemical and Oil Spill/Release Clean-Up and Reporting Requirements Chemicals and oils are used throughout Penn State University. Chemicals may be loosely defined as any material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical and Oil Spill/Release Clean-Up and Reporting Requirements Chemicals and oils are used, reactive, flammable, or toxic. This can include, for example, oil-based paints, alcohol, WD-40, and any number of laboratory materials. Oils include petroleum products, vegetable oils, hydraulic and mineral

Maroncelli, Mark

365

Heat and Power Systems Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS DESIGN H. D. Spriggs and J. V. Shah, Leesburg. VA ABSTRACT The selection of heat and power systems usually does not include a thorough analysis of the process heating. cooling and power requirements. In most cases..., these process requirements are accepted as specifications before heat and power systems are selected and designed. In t~is article we describe how Process Integration using Pinch Technology can be used to understand and achieve the minimum process heating...

Spriggs, H. D.; Shah, J. V.

366

LOW COST BIOHEATING OIL APPLICATION.  

SciTech Connect

The report describes primarily the results of combustion tests carried out with a soy methyl ester (SME) that can be considered as a biofuel that does not quite meet the ASTM D 6751-02 specifications for biodiesel. The tests were performed in a residential boiler and a commercial boiler. Blends of the SME in distillate fuel (home heating fuel or equivalently, ASTM No.2 fuel oil) were tested in both the boilers. Similar tests had been conducted in a previous project with ASTM biodiesel blends and hence provided a comparison. Blends of the SME in ASTM No.6 oil (residual oil) were also tested in the commercial boiler using a different burner. Physical properties of the blends (in both the petroleum based fuels) were also measured. It was found that the SME blends in the distillate burned, not surprisingly, similarly to biodiesel blends. Reductions in NOx with blending of the SME were the most significant finding as before with biodiesel blends. The blends in No.6 oil also showed reductions in NOx in the commercial boiler combustion tests, though levels with No.6 blends are higher than with No.2 blends as expected. A significant conclusion from the physical property tests was that even the blending of 10% SME with the No.6 oil caused a significant reduction in viscosity, which suggests a potential direction of application of such blends.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Category:Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Gas Jump to: navigation, search This category includes companies and information related to oil (petroleum) or natural gas. Pages in category "Oil and Gas" The following 114 pages are in this category, out of 114 total. A Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Al Furat Petroleum Company Alabama Oil and Gas Board Alaska Division of Oil and Gas Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission Algeria Ministry of Energy and Mining Archaeological Resource Protection Act Archaeological Resources Protection Act Arizona Oil and Gas Commission Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission B Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act C California Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources California Environmental Quality Act

368

Heat Pipes: An Industrial Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews the basics of heat pipe exchangers. Included are how they are constructed, how they operate, where they have application, and various aspects of evaluating a potential application. After discussing the technical aspects of heat...

Murray, F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Geothermal Heat Pumps- Heating Mode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building.

370

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

RMOTC - Testing - Enhanced Oil Recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Notice: As of July 15th 2013, the Department of Energy announced the intent to sell Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR3). The sale of NPR-3 will also include the sale of all equipment and materials onsite. A decision has been made by the Department of Energy to complete testing at RMOTC by July 1st, 2014. RMOTC will complete testing in the coming year with the currently scheduled testing partners. For more information on the sale of NPR-3 and sale of RMOTC equipment and materials please join our mailing list here. RMOTC will play a significant role in continued enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology development and field demonstration. A scoping engineering study on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3's (NPR-3) enhanced oil recovery

372

State Home Oil Weatherization (SHOW) Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Oil Weatherization (SHOW) Program Home Oil Weatherization (SHOW) Program State Home Oil Weatherization (SHOW) Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Manufacturing Maximum Rebate $500/household Program Info State Oregon Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Blower-door test - 100% of the cost up to $100. All other technologies are 25% of the total cost, up to $150 or $500, depending on the upgrade. Provider Oregon Department of Energy Oregon homeowners and renters who heat with oil, wood, propane, kerosene, or butane are eligible for home weatherization rebates of up to $500. A

373

Thermal Effects by Firing Oil Shale Fuel in CFB Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that during firing of oil shale fuel the amount of heat released during its combustion per kg of fuel is significantly affected by the endothermic and exothermic processes taking place in mine...

D. Neshumayev; A. Ots; T. Parve; T Pihu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

capability to secure oil transport security. Additionally,international oil agreements: 1) ensuring energy security;security, and many argue that as the second-largest consumer of oil

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007. comparison, Mexico used 6.6 Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexicos Cantarell,Mexico, Italy, France, Canada, US, and UK. Figure 10. Historical Chinese oil

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. OPECs Optimal Crude Oil Price, Energy Policy 32(2),023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton Junedirectly. Understanding Crude Oil Prices* James D. Hamilton

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

business of having some oil in inventory, which is referredKnowledge of all the oil going into inventory today for salebe empty, because inventories of oil are essential for the

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. OPECs Optimal Crude Oil Price, Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. OPECs Optimal Crude Oil Price, Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by this point, Chinas demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supplycurrent pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Income on Energy and Oil Demand, Energy Journal 23(1),2006. Chinas Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.in the supply or demand for oil itself could be regarded as

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Oil market power and United States national security  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cooperation to defend against some future price collapse. The cooperation challenge...in its Who Gets What from Imported Oil campaign: OPEC is perceived as being...responsible for high gasoline or heating oil prices. Nothing could be further from the...

Roger Stern

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Understanding Crude Oil Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007. comparison, Mexico used 6.6 Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexicos Cantarell,

Hamilton, James Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Desulfurization of heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Strategies for heavy oil desulfurization were evaluated by reviewing desulfurization literature and critically assessing the viability of the various methods for heavy oil. The desulfurization methods includin...

Rashad Javadli; Arno de Klerk

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chinas domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, Chinas demand Oil

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Tall oil pitch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n....Undistilled residue from the distillation of crude tall oil. It is generally recognized that tall oil pitches contain some high-boiling esters and neutral...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysts agree that the Persian Gulf region will continue tos oil imports. 17 The Persian Gulf region is particularlyaccess to oil from the Persian Gulf because of conflict

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

oil1990.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

(dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Table 1. Consumption and Expenditures in U.S. Households that Use Fuel OilKerosene, 1990 Residential Buildings Average Fuel Oil...

389

Oil Sands Feedstocks  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centre for Upgrading Technology 'a Canada-Alberta alliance for bitumen and heavy oil research' Oil Sands Feedstocks C Fairbridge, Z Ring, Y Briker, D Hager National Centre...

390

Crude Oil Domestic Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net...

391

HTGR process heat program design and analysis. Semiannual progress report, October 1, 1979-March 28, 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of concept design studies implemented at General Atomic Company (GA) during the first half of FY-80. The studies relate to a plant design for an 842-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor utilizing an intermediate helium heat transfer loop to provide high temperature thermal energy for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas (H/sub 2/ + CO) by steam-reforming a light hydrocarbon. Basic carbon sources may be coal, residual oil, or oil shale. Work tasks conducted during this period included the 842-MW(t) plant concept design and cost estimate for an 850/sup 0/C reactor outlet temperature. An assessment of the main-loop cooling shutdown system is reported. Major component cost models were prepared and programmed into the Process Heat Reactor Evaluation and Design (PHRED) code.

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Re-refined lubrication oils. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatments and re-refining of used lubrication oils. Topics include the decontamination processes, reclamation of automobile oils, and handling and storage of waste oils. Environmental analyses of used oil recycling are included. Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of recycled lubricating oils are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The great Arctic oil race begins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... oil, and up to 30% of its gas and most of it is offshore. On 17January, Moe awarded 26 production licences for developed ... . On 17January, Moe awarded 26 production licences for developed offshore oil areas in the Norwegian and Barents Sea to companies including Statoil, Total, ExxonMobil ...

Quirin Schiermeier

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

CONGRESS STALLS ON OIL-SPILL RESPONSE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CONGRESS STALLS ON OIL-SPILL RESPONSE ... Efforts to pass OFFSHORE DRILLING safety legislation have sputtered over the past year ... In response, the Interior Department has revised the rules governing offshore oil and natural gas drilling to include a lengthier and more extensive permitting process, and the industry has developed new well control and deepwater spill containment technology. ...

GLENN HESS

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

395

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

396

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Oil shale as an energy source in Israel  

SciTech Connect

Reserves, characteristics, energetics, chemistry, and technology of Israeli oil shales are described. Oil shale is the only source of energy and the only organic natural resource in Israel. Its reserves of about 12 billion tons will be enough to meet Israel`s requirements for about 80 years. The heating value of the oil shale is 1,150 kcal/kg, oil yield is 6%, and sulfur content of the oil is 5--7%. A method of oil shale processing, providing exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential, developed in the Technion, is described. The principal feature of the method is a two-stage pyrolysis of the oil shale. As a result, gas and aromatic liquids are obtained. The gas may be used for energy production in a high-efficiency power unit, or as a source for chemical synthesis. The liquid products can be an excellent source for production of chemicals.

Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Heat exchanger-accumulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Economic vulnerability to Peak Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Peak Oil, which refers to the maximum possible global oil production rate, is increasingly gaining attention in both science and policy discourses. However, little is known about how this phenomenon will impact economies, despite its apparent imminence and potential dangers. In this paper, we construct a vulnerability map of the U.S. economy, combining two approaches for analyzing economic systems, i.e. inputoutput analysis and social network analysis (applied to economic data). Our approach reveals the relative importance of individual economic sectors, and how vulnerable they are to oil price shocks. As such, our dual-analysis helps identify which sectors, due to their strategic position, could put the entire U.S. economy at risk from Peak Oil. For the U.S., such sectors would include Iron Mills, Fertilizer Production and Transport by Air. Our findings thus provide early warnings to downstream companies about potential trouble in their supply chain, and inform policy action for Peak Oil. Although our analysis is embedded in a Peak Oil narrative, it is just as valid and useful in the context of developing a climate roadmap toward a low carbon economy.

Christian Kerschner; Christina Prell; Kuishuang Feng; Klaus Hubacek

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Evaluating incentives in the tax legislation applicable to the South African oil, petroleum and gas industry / Moolman A.M.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The oil and gas sector holds several advantages for South Africa: direct benefits include providing growth in the countrys economy by optimising available oil and (more)

Moolman, Anneke Mar.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Diesel Engine Combustion of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis oils are manufactured through a moderate-temperature process (?500 C) in which the biomass feedstock is subjected to rapid heating in the absence of air, where it vaporizes, cracks, and is condensed after a short residence time (?500 ms) into a dark brown liquid composed of a complex mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons whose heating value is approximately half that of No. 2 diesel fuel. ... The combustion air inlet temperature can be preheated up to 130 C through the use of an in-line electric heater, which allows engine operation with fuels that have long ignition delay, without relying on any ignition additives. ... Their data showed that in addition to reducing the peak heat release magnitude, slower chemical kinetics resulted in reduced rate of instantaneous heat release (the slope of the instantaneous heat release curve) in the early combustion phase, resulting in delayed peak heat release timing relative to SOC. ...

Alan Shihadeh; Simone Hochgreb

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

403

High Fuel Costs Spark Increased Use of Wood for Home Heating by Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

families reducing their costly household oil or gas dependence by turning to a traditional fuel is typically delivered to homes in tanks, and is almost as expensive as heating oil. Berry manages the EIA Hampshire. Just last week, Erik said, he had a discussion with his fuel-oil supplier about how little oil

South Bohemia, University of

404

A Century of Oil-Shale Patents (1845 to 1945)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Century of Oil-Shale Patents (1845 to 1945) ... Oil Shale Research and Demonstration Plant Division, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C. ... THE research and development program of the Bureau of Mines relating to synthetic liquid fuels includes a project for the compilation and study of all patents concerned with the treatment of oil shale and its products. ...

SIMON KLOSKY

1946-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

405

RFID BASED GRAIN AND OIL PRODUCTS TRACEABILITY1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RFID BASED GRAIN AND OIL PRODUCTS TRACEABILITY1 AND ITS COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION Haiyan Hu ,*2 the study of the traceability of grain and oil products. Include the study contents, and a system we developed for traceability of grain and oil products, and the demonstration of the study. The system we

Boyer, Edmond

406

Oil depletion or a market problem? A framing analysis of peak oil in The Economist news magazine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Despite an increase of oil production from unconventional resources, concerns about the depletion of cheap oil are more imminent than ever. Recognising the importance of media in influencing public opinion, risk perceptions and policy making, this research presents a framing analysis of peak oil in The Economists news magazine (2008 and 2012). One hundred and seventy articles, of which 58 focused on energy security and oil production, were analysed using content and discourse analysis. Coverage was multi-facetted, and included oil depletion as one storyline within the supply challenge frame, especially during times of very high oil prices. Oil prices and the rapid growth in fracking were found to be critical discourse moments, influencing the nature of oil coverage in The Economist. Overall, due to The Economist's neoliberal ideology and the resulting optimistic framing of market forces and new technologies, this research found that the news magazine does not contribute majorly to enhancing the public debate on peak oil.

Susanne Becken

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Ships After Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ships After Oil ... Special self-propelled tenders planned for offshore drilling operations in Gulf ...

1956-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

Mottram, Nigel

409

Effect of demineralization of El-lajjun Jordanian oil shale on oil yield  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of demineralization on oil yield and mineral composition of Jordanian oil shale was investigated. A standard digestion procedure using a range of inorganic and organic acids including HCl, HNO3, HF, and CH3COOH was used to enhance the oil recovery of oil shale samples collected from the El-lajjun area. The total yield of the digested samples, as determined by Fischer Assay, has shown a maximum value (two folds the untreated sample) obtained when using CH3COOH. The kaolin in the treated oil shale with a high concentration of CH3COOH is believed to have transformed to illite as found in the XRD analysis. The treatment of oil shale using \\{HCl\\} has shown an increased ratio of oil to gas as a result of the digestion of calcite in the oil shale. At higher concentrations of HNO3, the acid is believed to react with the kerogen in the oil shale resulting in high levels of low molecular weight compounds. Therefore, the amount of non-condensable gases produced by Fischer assay after treatment with a high concentration of HNO3 is relatively high. HF is believed to drive off water from the oil shale by dissolving the clay minerals leading to increased oil to gas ratio.

Adnan Al-Harahsheh; Mohammad Al-Harahsheh; Awni Al-Otoom; Mamdoh Allawzi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper a multi-agent model for a domestic heating task is introduced and analysed. The model includes two alternative heating agents (for gas-based heating and for heatpump-based heating), and a third allo...

Jan Treur

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Heat flow and geothermal studies in the Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

In continental heat flow studies, sedimentary basins are usually avoided because of difficulties in obtaining thermal conductivity measurements and because temperature gradients may contain advective signals caused by moving groundwater. These problems are superimposed in the Denver, Kennedy and Williston Basins where complex geothermal gradients derive both from large contrasts among thermal conductivities of strata and from regional groundwater flow. The occurrence and magnitude of advective heat flow within the Denver, Kennedy and Williston Basins is conceptually consistent with simple models that relate groundwater flow to the piezometric surface and to subsurface structures, i.e., folds and faults. An advective heat flow of +25 mW/m/sup 2/ has been determined for an area in the eastern margin of the Denver Basin, and quantities of +35 mW/m/sup 2/ and +10 MW/m/sup 2/ have been determined respectively for parts of the southeastern and northeastern parts of the Williston Basin. A detailed analysis of bottom hole temperatures obtained from drill holes in the area of the Billings Anticline in the Williston Basin indicates that information on subsurface structures and groundwater flow may be obtained from heat flow studies. Additional information that may be derived from these heat flow studies includes: the occurrence and nature of geothermal resources, oil source rock maturation and secondary migration of petroleum, formation and deposition of strata-bound ores. 43 references.

Gosnold, W.D.; Fischer, D.W.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

About OGEL OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law, regulation, treaties, judicial and arbitral cases, voluntary guidelines, tax and contracting, including the oil-gas- energy geopolitics. For full Terms & Conditions and subscription rates

Dixon, Juan

413

Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil) Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Countries Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 12/9/13 3.38 3.34 3.44 3.58 3.35 3.17 3.21 12/2/13 3.40 3.28 3.42 3.52 3.30 3.14 3.22 11/25/13 3.21 3.23 3.44 3.46 3.27 3.09 3.23 11/18/13 3.47 3.17 3.37 3.41 3.23 3.06 3.15 11/11/13 3.20 3.12 3.23 3.38 3.17 3.04 3.13 11/4/13 3.22 3.14 3.35 3.41 3.24 3.04 3.19 10/28/13 3.43 3.28 3.37 3.54 3.32 3.15 3.22 10/21/13 3.36 3.27 3.43 3.56 3.36 3.16 3.28 10/14/13 3.37 3.22 3.41 3.53 3.35 3.13 3.28 10/7/13 3.31 3.26 3.41 3.56 3.39 3.15 3.28 9/30/13 3.39 3.29 3.48 3.61 3.44 3.26 3.34 9/23/13 3.31 3.36 3.47 3.68 3.54 3.41 3.40 9/16/13 3.62 3.41 3.52 3.73 3.54 3.41 3.45

414

Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil) Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

excluding taxes) excluding taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 12/9/13 3.54 3.68 3.48 4.00 2.11 3.35 3.54 12/2/13 3.49 3.61 3.43 3.93 2.07 3.34 3.50 11/25/13 3.38 3.56 3.33 3.88 2.02 3.29 3.47 11/18/13 3.34 3.53 3.31 3.84 1.99 3.21 3.40 11/11/13 3.40 3.50 3.31 3.70 1.96 3.14 3.40 11/4/13 3.42 3.55 3.38 3.84 2.02 3.25 3.41 10/28/13 3.53 3.61 3.44 3.87 2.04 3.23 3.40 10/21/13 3.54 3.63 3.50 3.89 2.09 3.32 3.44 10/14/13 3.51 3.59 3.47 3.93 2.06 3.32 3.42 10/7/13 3.41 3.58 3.46 3.85 2.02 3.32 3.40 9/30/13 3.40 3.58 3.41 3.83 2.02 3.35 NA 9/23/13 3.53 3.66 3.45 3.89 2.06 3.33 NA 9/16/13 3.57 3.67 3.50 3.94 2.12 3.42 NA 9/9/13 3.59 3.67 3.56 3.92 2.16 3.48 NA

415

Oil Dependencies and Peak Oil's Effects on Oil Consumption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? During the year of 2007, the world has experienced historically high oil prices both in nominal and in real terms, which has reopened discussions (more)

Tekin, Josef

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue (more)

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The regional geothermal heat flow regime of the north-central Gulf of Mexico continental slope.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Eighty-eight oil and gas wells located in the Texas-Louisiana continental slope were analyzed to obtain heat flow and geothermal gradient values. Present-day geothermal heat flow (more)

Jones, Michael S

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power Steve Lupton presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil...

419

Turbine cooling waxy oil  

SciTech Connect

A process for pipelining a waxy oil to essentially eliminate deposition of wax on the pipeline wall is described comprising: providing a pressurized mixture of the waxy oil and a gas; effecting a sudden pressure drop of the mixture of the oil and the gas through an expansion turbine, thereby expanding the gas and quickly cooling the oil to below its cloud point in the substantial absence of wax deposition and forming a slurry of wax particles and oil; and pipelining the slurry.

Geer, J.S.

1987-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

420

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Utilization of Estonian oil shale at power plants  

SciTech Connect

Estonian oil shale belongs to the carbonate class and is characterized as a solid fuel with very high mineral matter content (60--70% in dry mass), moderate moisture content (9--12%) and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg). Estonian oil shale deposits lie in layers interlacing mineral stratas. The main constituent in mineral stratas is limestone. Organic matter is joined with sandy-clay minerals in shale layers. Estonian oil shale at power plants with total capacity of 3060 MW{sub e} is utilized in pulverized form. Oil shale utilization as fuel, with high calcium oxide and alkali metal content, at power plants is connected with intensive fouling, high temperature corrosion and wear of steam boiler`s heat transfer surfaces. Utilization of Estonian oil shale is also associated with ash residue use in national economy and as absorbent for flue gas desulfurization system.

Ots, A. [Tallin Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Department

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

World frontiers beckon oil finders  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Venezuela with Mexico, another major oil pro- ducing countryOil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .

CAKIR, NIDA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .2.6: Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico 350 Productivity

CAKIR, NIDA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

AN ENGINE OIL LIFE ALGORITHM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An oil-life algorithm to calculate the remaining percentage of oil life is presented as a means to determine the right time to change the oil (more)

Bommareddi, Anveshan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

SUPRI heavy oil research program  

SciTech Connect

The 14th Annual Report of the SUPRI Heavy Oil Research Program includes discussion of the following topics: (1) A Study of End Effects in Displacement Experiments; (2) Cat Scan Status Report; (3) Modifying In-situ Combustion with Metallic Additives; (4) Kinetics of Combustion; (5) Study of Residual Oil Saturation for Steam Injection and Fuel Concentration for In-Situ Combustion; (6) Analysis of Transient Foam Flow in 1-D Porous Media with Computed Tomography; (7) Steam-Foam Studies in the Presence of Residual Oil; (8) Microvisualization of Foam Flow in a Porous Medium; (9) Three- Dimensional Laboratory Steam Injection Model; (10) Saturation Evaluation Following Water Flooding; (11) Numerical Simulation of Well-to-Well Tracer Flow Test with Nonunity Mobility Ratio.

Aziz, K.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Castanier, L.M.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Solar heated swimming pool  

SciTech Connect

A swimming pool construction incorporating solar heating means to heat the pool water to a desired level. The pool includes a surrounding safety fence supported by a plurality of fence supports which are hollow and which include internal passageways. The pool water is passed through the pool support passageways whereupon it absorbs heat from the sidewalls of the fence supports, the surfaces of which have been heated by solar radiation. The fence supports can be made of plastic or other materials, but preferably are dark for improved absorptivity. The pool water can be passed serially through each of the fence supports and suitable thermostat control means can be provided to limit the water temperature increase.

Pettit, F.M.

1984-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

431

Economics of Peak Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Peak oil refers to the future decline in world production of crude oil and the accompanying potentially calamitous effects. The peak oil literature typically rejects economic analysis. This article argues that economic analysis is indeed appropriate for analyzing oil scarcity because standard economic models can replicate the observed peaks in oil production. Moreover, the emphasis on peak oil is misplaced as peaking is not a good indicator of scarcity, peak oil techniques are overly simplistic, the catastrophes predicted by the peak oil literature are unlikely, and the literature does not contribute to correcting identified market failures. Efficiency of oil markets could be improved by instead focusing on remedying market failures such as excessive private discount rates, environmental externalities, market power, insufficient innovation incentives, incomplete futures markets, and insecure property rights.

S.P. Holland

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Acoustic Energy: An Innovative Technology for Stimulating Oil Wells  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the effectiveness of sonication in reducing the viscosity of heavy crude oils. Sonication is the use of acoustic or sound energy to produce physical and/or chemical changes in materials, usually fluids. The goal of the first project phase was to demonstrate a proof of concept for the project objective. Batch tests of three commercially available, single-weight oils (30-, 90-, and 120-wt) were performed in the laboratory. Several observations and conclusions were made from this series of experiments. These include the following: (1) In general, the lower the acoustic frequency, the greater the efficiency in reducing the viscosity of the oils; (2) Sonication treatment of the three oils resulted in reductions in viscosity that ranged from a low of 31% to a high of 75%; and (3) The results of the first phase of the project successfully demonstrated that sonication could reduce the viscosity of oils of differing viscosity. The goal of the second project phase was to demonstrate the ability of sonication to reduce the viscosity of three crude oils ranging from a light crude to a heavy crude. The experiments also were designed to examine the benefits of two proprietary chemical additives used in conjunction with sonication. Acoustic frequencies ranging from 800 Hz to 1.6 kHz were used in these tests, and a reactor chamber was designed for flow-through operation with a capacity of one gallon (3.8 liters). The three crude oils selected for use in the testing program were: (1) a heavy crude from California with a viscosity of approximately 65,000 cP (API gravity about 12{sup o}), (2) a crude from Alabama with a significant water content and a viscosity of approximately 6,000 cP (API gravity about 22 {sup o}), and (3) a light crude from the Middle East with a viscosity of approximately 700 cP (API gravity about 32{sup o}). The principal conclusions derived from the second project phase include the following: (1) The application of acoustic energy (sonication) significantly reduced the viscosity of crude oils, and the amount of viscosity reduction resulting is greater for more viscous, heavy crude oils than it is for less viscous, light crude oils. (2) Test results showed that after being heated, resulting viscosity reductions were not sustained following treatment to the extent that post-sonication reductions were sustained. (3) The maximum viscosity reductions in Oils 1, 2, and 3 due to sonication were 43%, 76%, and 6%, respectively. Samples of Oil 2 associated with larger viscosity reductions often exhibited a definite water separation layer follow the tests, whereas reductions of approximately 23% were measured when this separation was not observed. (4) It was observed that neither horn design nor the reduction of input power by 25% had very little effect on the ability of sonication to alter crude oil viscosity. (5) The chemical additives produced a range of viscosity reduction from 37% to a maximum of 94% with the largest reductions being facilitated by the abundant water present Oil 2. If the Oil 2 results are not considered, the maximum reduction was 73%. The effects of the additives and sonication are enhanced by each other. (6) In only one test did the viscosity return to as much as 50% of the pre-treatment value during a period of 30 days following treatment; recovery was much less in all other cases. Therefore, more than half of the viscosity reduction was maintained for a month without additional treatment. (7) Possible applications, market potential, and economic value of the implementation of a mature sonication technology within the petroleum industry were identified, and it was estimated that the potential exists that more than a billion barrels of oil could be upgraded or produced annually as a result. The project results successfully demonstrated that sonication alone and in combination with chemical additives can effectively reduce the viscosity of crude oils having a broad range of viscosity/API gravity values. Several recommendations are made for follow-on

Edgar, Dorland E.; Peters, Robert W.; Johnson, Donald O.; Paulsen, P. David; Roberts, Wayne

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources The Continuing Evolution of Americas Oil Shale and Tar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

domestic oil shale and tar sands industries since the first release and to include profiles of additional

Sands Industries

434

NOTES AND DISCUSSIONS Note on thermal heating efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This is the conversion problem faced in every home, where one has heat from a gas, oil, wood, or coal flame but wants, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 Received 25 April 2002; accepted for publication 26 July

Rodriguez, Carlos

435

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

amounts of heating oil back to Teller. Brevig Mission, which was also running low on fuel, had plans to increase the price per gallon, thus raising the cost for Teller...

436

FACT SHEET: Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

reuses excess heat to warm Frito-Lay's chip fryer oil - cutting costs and reduce harmful air pollution. The Department is also supporting new CHP technologies that are cleaner,...

437

NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OR&R 42 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OR&R 42 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Salt Marsh Oiling Conditions, evaluating, and responding to threats to coastal environments, including oil and chemical spills, releases to prepare for and respond to oil and chemical releases. Determines damage to natural resources from

438

Mapping oil spills on sea water using spectral mixture analysis of hyperspectral image data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mapping oil spills on sea water using spectral mixture analysis of hyperspectral image data Javier large spill oil events threatening coastal habitats and species. Some recent examples include the 2002 Prestige tanker oil spill in Galicia, Northern Spain, as well as repeated oil spill leaks evidenced

Plaza, Antonio J.

439

Vertical pump turbine oil environmental evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In Oregon low-temperature geothermal injection well construction, siting and receiving formations requires approval by the Water Resources Department (OWRD). In addition, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) has regulations concerning injection. Conversations with the OWRD and ODEQ representatives indicated they were very concerned about the potential for contamination of the geothermal (and cooler but hydraulically connected) aquifers by oils and grease. Their primary concern was over the practice of putting paraffin, motor oils and other hydrocarbons in downhole heat exchanger (DHE) wells to prevent corrosion. They also expressed considerable concern about the use of oil in production well pumps since the fluids pumped would be injected. Oregon (and Idaho) prohibit the use of oil-lubricated pumps for public water supplies except in certain situations where non-toxic food-grade lubricants are used. Since enclosed-lineshaft oil-lubricated pumps are the mainstay of direct-use pumping equipment, the potential for restricting their use became a concern to the Geo-Heat Center staff. An investigation into alternative pump lubrication schemes and development of rebuttals to potential restrictions was proposed and approved as a contract task. (SM)

Culver, G.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Application of polymeric quenchant in heat treatment of crack-sensitive steel mechanical parts: Modeling and experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Success or failure of a quenching process is determined by selecting an appropriate quenchant. In this work, the quenching process of the automobile tie rods in different media including water, oil, and a polymeric solution was investigated. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the rods were predicted by a finite element simulation model. Several specimens were cut from the tie rods and heat treated by quenching in five different quenching media including water, oil, and PAG aqueous solutions with polymer concentrations of 10, 20, and 30%. The hardness tests and metallographic analyses were performed on the specimens. Considering the results of the simulations and the experiments, the optimum quenchant was selected and the tie rods were heat treated using this quenchant. The results showed that the use of Poly Alkylene Glycol (PAG) solution quenchants, with respect to its unique cooling mechanism, outperformed water and oil quenchants. The distortion and cracking was reduced compared to water quenching and, on the other hand, the mechanical properties which were not achievable by oil quenching were resulted using polymer-based quenching medium.

M. Eshraghi-Kakhki; M.A. Golozar; A. Kermanpur

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Solar heating for indoor community swimming pool  

SciTech Connect

This project demonstrates the application of solar technology to an existing public indoor swimming pool. An application makes use of a new type of solar collector material called SolaRoll. The pool water is cycled through collectors made of the material mounted on the pool's dome roof, reducing reliance on natural gas and fuel oil. Approximately 60% of the energy to heat pool water will be provided. The specific objective of the project is to reduce reliance on natural gas and fuel oil consumption used to heat the community's pool and in so doing provide an example for residential applications.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Economic analysis of Western cooperation on oil: 1974-1980  

SciTech Connect

Western cooperation on oil in the International Energy Agency (IEA) began as an effort to deter future selective oil embargoes and predatory OPEC pricing. Later, cooperation was extended to include more-general emergency-preparedness measures and collective efforts to reduce oil imports. Economic theory suggests that cooperation will lead to a more nearly optimal level of oil imports and oil stocks than action taken solely on a national basis. Nevertheless, the experience of the period between 1974 and 1980 demonstrates that cooperation is difficult to achieve. IEA countries made little progress in building oil stocks and implementing oil-import-reduction policies. They were unprepared for the Iranian oil-supply interruption and failed to take sufficiently effective steps to mitigate the effects of the interruption. A case study with several appendices reviews the agreements reached in the IEA and at annual economic summit meetings and details an evolution toward national oil-import targets a means of enforcing the discipline of oil-importing nations. Closer cooperation in oil-import reduction was slowed by burden-sharing problems. The study recommends policy measures that would enhance Western cooperation. These include market pricing and free trade of fuels, increased national oil and gas stocks, and a method of encouraging more flexible use of stocks during supply interruptions too small to trigger the formal IEA sharing system.

Larson, A.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

445

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Technical assessment of an oil-fired residential cogeneration system  

SciTech Connect

The definition of cogeneration, within the context of this project, is the simultaneous production of electricity and heat energy from a single machine. This report will present the results of an engineering analysis of the efficiency and energy-conservation potential associated with a unique residential oil-fired cogeneration system that provides both heat and electric power. The system operates whenever a thermostat signals a call for heat in the home, just as a conventional heating system. However, this system has the added benefit of cogenerating electricity whenever it is running to provide space heating comfort. The system is designed to burn No. 2 heating oil, which is consumed in an 11-horsepower, two cylinder, 56.75-cubic-inch, 1850-RPM diesel engine. This unit is the only pre-production prototype residential No. 2 oil-fired cogeneration system known to exist in the world. As such, it is considered a landmark development in the field of oil-heat technology.

McDonald, R.J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Engineering economic assessment of whole-house residential wood heating in New York  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Wood devices increasingly are being used for residential space heating in New York. Motivations include avoiding high and variable fuel costs, promoting energy independence, mitigating climate change, and stimulating local economic development. In this study, the influence of fuel prices, device costs, and device efficiencies on heating costs was examined. Lifetime costs of alternative heating technologies were calculated for a house in Syracuse, New York. Calculations were repeated to explore discount rates and fuel price projections. Combinations of wood price and device cost and efficiency were identified at which wood is competitive with other fuels. The results suggest that fuel costs drive competitiveness more than capital and installation costs. At typical wood prices, natural gas often is the least expensive option. Many rural areas do not have access to gas, however, and high-efficiency wood-heating devices can be very competitive with heat pumps, propane boilers, and fuel-oil boilers. Availability of low-cost or on-site wood can make wood the least expensive option. However, even free wood is not free when the equipment, labor, space and time required are considered. Furthermore, efficiencies of wood devices and their pollutant emissions can differ greatly. High emission rates have led to restrictions on use of specific wood-heating devices in some locations. Improved information and tools should be available to consumers for evaluating the suitability of wood heating for their particular situations. The work presented here is an example of such information.

Daniel H. Loughlin; Rebecca S. Dodder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Oil and Gas Supply Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule1, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description...

449

Oil and Gas Supply Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of...

450

Waste oil reclamation, January 1980-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Aug 91  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains 144 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

21, 2008. Ying, Wang. China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. Chinaaccessed April 21, Venezuela and China sign oil deal. BBC

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Using Oils As Pesticides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. Sources of oils, preparing...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

US Crude oil exports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2014 EIA Energy Conference U.S. Crude Oil Exports July 14, 2014 By Lynn D. Westfall U.S. Energy Information Administration U.S. crude oil production has grown by almost 50% since...

455

Propane: A Mid-heating Season Assessment  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9, 2001 9, 2001 Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment by David Hinton and Alice Lippert, Petroleum Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration In early October 2000, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecast that heating fuel markets would be expected to start the season with much higher prices and lower inventories than in recent years. While this assessment was true for both the heating oil and natural gas markets, propane markets actually began the season with adequate supplies but with high prices. Since EIA's forecast, propane inventories have plunged nearly 20 million barrels from their peak during the first half of the 2000-01 heating season while propane prices have continued to soar even higher than expected during this same period. This report will analyze some

456

Heat Stroke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stress, from exertion or hot environments, places stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke A condition that occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature, and can cause death or permanent disability. Symptoms ■ High body temperature ■ Confusion ■ Loss of coordination ■ Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating ■ Throbbing headache ■ Seizures, coma First Aid ■ Request immediate medical assistance. ■ Move the worker to a cool, shaded area. ■ Remove excess clothing and apply cool water to their body. Heat Exhaustion The body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through sweating. Symptoms ■ Rapid heart beat ■ Heavy sweating ■ Extreme weakness or fatigue ■

457

Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

NONE

1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Co-cracking Experiment and Application Route of Waste Plastics and Heavy Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The co-cracking experiment of waste plastics and heavy oil was done in the condition of 400C and pressure not higher than 2.0MPa. The experimental results showed that the yield of heavy oil and coke decreased but the light oil and gas yield increased with the increasing amount of waste plastics. The products of heavy oil's solidifying point, flash point, viscosity and density decreased and had a good pour point depression effect. Heavy oil containing heat conduction oil and solvent contributed to heat transfer, melting and transport and had the effect of dissolution and co-cracking. It would have a good prospect when the co-cracking of waste plastics and heavy oil was applied to the combination processes of visbreaking and delayed coking and catalytic cracking and delayed coking.

Shikui Wu; Kaixiong Xu; Lusen Jiang; Li Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems collect and absorb solar radiation, then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system, from which the heat is distributed. If the system cannot provide adequate space heating, an auxiliary or back-up system provides the additional heat. Liquid systems are more often used when storage is included, and are well

460

PREDICTIVE MODELS. Enhanced Oil Recovery Model  

SciTech Connect

PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1 chemical flooding; 2 carbon dioxide miscible flooding; 3 in-situ combustion; 4 polymer flooding; and 5 steamflood. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes. The IBM PC/AT version includes a plotting capability to produces a graphic picture of the predictive model results.

Ray, R.M. [DOE Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1992-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents Jan for a domestic heating task is introduced and analysed. The model includes two alternative heating agents (for gas-based heating and for heatpump-based heating), and a third allocation agent which determines

Treur, Jan

462

Oil shale retorted underground  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oil shale retorted underground ... Low-temperature underground retorting of oil shale produces a crude oil with many attractive properties, Dr. George R. Hill of the University of Utah told a meeting of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers last week in Los Angeles. ... Typical above-ground retorting of oil shale uses temperatures of 900 to 1100 F. because of the economic need ... ...

1967-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

463

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Summary World Oil Data (from World on the Edge) | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oil Data (from World on the Edge) Oil Data (from World on the Edge) Dataset Summary Description This dataset presents summary information related to world oil. It is part of a supporting dataset for the book World On the Edge: How to Prevent Environmental and Economic Collapse by Lester R. Brown, available from the Earth Policy Institute. This world oil dataset includes the following data: World oil production (1950 - 2009): Top 20 producing countries (2009); Oil production in U.S. (1900 - 2009); Oil consumption in U.S. (950 - 2010); Oil consumption in China (1965 - 2009); Oil consumption in E.U. (1965 - 2009); Top 20 oil importing countries (2009); World's 20 largest oil discoveries; Real price of gasoline (2007); Retail gas prices by country (2008); and fossil fuel consumption subsidies (2009).

465

Exploiting heavy oil reserves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

North Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen the potential of heavy oil 8/9 Taking the legal lessons learned in the north Sea to a global audience 10 potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Aberdeen: A community of science AT WORK FOR THE ENERGY SECTOR ISSUE

Levi, Ran

466

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

467

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Innovative Techniques of Multiphase Flow in Pipeline System for Oil?Gas Gathering and Transportation with Energy?Saving and Emission?Reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multiphase flow measurement desanding dehumidification and heat furnace are critical techniques for the oil and gas gathering and transportation which influnce intensively the energy?saving and emission?reduction in the petroleum industry. Some innovative techniques were developed for the first time by the present research team including an online recognation instrument of multiphase flow regime a water fraction instrument for multuphase flow a coiled tube desanding separator with low pressure loss and high efficiency a supersonic swirling natural gas dehumifier and a vacuum phase?change boiler. With an integration of the above techniques a new oil gas gathering and transpotation system was proposed which reduced the establishment of one metering station and several transfer stations compared with the tranditional system. The oil and gas mixture transpotation in single pipes was realized. The improved techniques were applied in the oilfields in China and promoted the productivity of the oilfields by low energy consumption low emissions high efficiency and great security.

Bofeng Bai; Liejin Guo; Shaojun Zhang; Ximin Zhang; Hanyang Gu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Laser Heat Treatment [Laser Applications Laboratory] - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat Treatment Heat Treatment Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Overview Laser Oil & Gas Well Drilling Laser Heat Treatment Laser Welding of Metals On-line Monitoring Laser Beam Delivery Laser Glazing of Railroad Rails High Power Laser Beam Delivery Decontamination and Decommissioning Refractory Alloy Welding Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Laser Applications Laboratory Laser Heat Treatment Project description: Optimization of laser beam heat treatment. Category: Project with industrial partner (Caterpillar and USCAR) Bookmark and Share Heat treatment optics

471

Meals included in Conference Registrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Meals included in Conference Registrations Meals included as part of the cost of a conference the most reasonable rates are obtained. Deluxe hotels and motels should be avoided. GSA rates have been for Georgia high cost areas. 75% of these amounts would be $21 for non- high cost areas and $27 for high cost

Arnold, Jonathan

472

Canadian operators boost heavy oil production  

SciTech Connect

Recent technological advances in slurry pipelining, horizontal wells, and thermal recovery techniques have made recovery of Canadian heavy oil resources more economical. In addition, reduced government royalties have made investment in these difficult reservoirs more attractive. As a result, activity has increased in heavy-oil fields in Alberta and Saskatchewan. This paper review the various oil sand recovery projects under development in the area and the current government policies which are helping to develop them. The paper also provides brief descriptions of the equipment and technologies that have allowed a reduced cost in the development. Items discussed include surface mining techniques, horizontal drilling, reservoir engineering techniques, separation processes, and thermal recovery.

Perdue, J.M.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1995  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains the 1995 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the seventh year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the product supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). 24 tabs.

NONE

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Diesel fuel oils, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Properties of diesel fuels produced during 1980 were submitted for study and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy, Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Bartlesville, Oklahoma and the American Petroleum Institute. Tests of 192 samples of diesel fuel oils from 95 refineries throughout the country were made by 28 petroleum groups according to type of diesel fuel. Each group of analyses is subdivided into five tabulations according to five general regions of the country where the fuels are marketed. The regions, containing a total of 16 districts, are shown on a map in the report. Data from 13 laboratory tests on each individual diesel fuel sample are listed and arranged by geographic marketing districts in decreasing order of sales volumes. Charts are included showing trends of averages of certain properties for the four types of diesel fuels for the years 1960-1980. Summaries of the results of the 1980 survey, compared with similar data for 1979, are shown.

Shelton, E.M.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Manufacture of refrigeration oils  

SciTech Connect

Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

476

In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

Robertson, Eric P

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

477

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

478

Used oil recycling: Closing the loop  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the recycling and re-refining of used oil. Recommended best management practices to encourage the safe management, collection, recovery and purchasing of this resource are identified. Management practices address handling, separating, and specifications. Other topics outlined include collection methods, market research, state studies and programs, environmental and economic factors of recycling, re-refining, and oil filters. References, studies, regulations, and other sources of information are noted in the bibliography.

Arner, R. [Northern Virginia Planning District Commission, Annandale, VA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

NREL: Learning - Solar Process Heat  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process Heat Process Heat Photo of part of one side of a warehouse wall, where a perforated metal exterior skin is spaced about a foot out from the main building wall to form part of the transpired solar collector system. A transpired collector is installed at a FedEx facility in Denver, Colorado. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be impractical for a home. These technologies include ventilation air preheating, solar process heating, and solar cooling. Space Heating Many large buildings need ventilated air to maintain indoor air quality. In cold climates, heating this air can use large amounts of energy. But a

480

Abstract 3691: Fish oil increases immune cell infiltration of tumors and reduces the incidence of mammary carcinogenesis in Her2neu mice.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pattern on fatty acid composition of edible oil in Bangladesh: From preclinical studies...essential commodities, including edible oils, because of insufficient local production...million, and its improving economy. Edible oil is an energy-dense food nutrient providing...

William J. Turbitt; Shawntawnee D. Collins; Haifang Xu; Sharlene Washington; Cesar Aliaga; Karam El-Bayoumy; Andrea Manni; Connie J. Rogers

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including heating oils" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Oil shale retorting and combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Energy-efficient water heating  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Review of needs for thermophysical property data on solid feedstocks. 2. Oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This report, a comprehensive survey concerning oil shale, is the second in a series dealing with needs, particularly for thermophysical properties, for solid fuels/feedstocks. The survey shows the need for experimental work on heat of combustion, heat of retorting, heat capacity/enthalpy, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and heat of immersion for raw, spent and burnt shale, for kerogen, and for the mineral matter found in shale. These studies should be preceded by agreement on the properties necessary for good characterization of the shale and on the methods of measuring these properties; the thermal properties measurements should be made on well-characterized samples. Standardized measurement techniques do not exist for thermal properties, with the possible exception of heat of combustion, and must be developed. Existing data must be evaluated and reliable data generated. Theoretical studies that will allow for modeling of thermal properties should proceed along with the experimental investigations to improve the ability to predict shale properties for process design. Recommendations for work appropriate to the National Bureau of Standards are included.

Callanan, J.E.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

ATOMISTIC MODELING OF OIL SHALE KEROGENS AND ASPHALTENES ALONG WITH THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE INORGANIC MINERAL MATRIX  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald; Pimienta, Ian

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

485

Carcinogenicity Studies of Estonian Oil Shale Soots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

determine the carcinogenicity of Estonian oil shale soot as well as the soot from oil shale fuel oil. All

A. Vosamae

486

Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

487

Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Maryland) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Maryland) Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Maryland) Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maryland Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission This legislation authorizes the State to join the Interstate Compact for the Conservation of Oil and Gas. The Compact is an agreement that has been entered into by 30 oil- and gas-producing states, as well as eight associate states and 10 international affiliates (including seven Canadian provinces). Members participate in the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact

488

Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

INSULATION OF HEATING SYSTEMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... C. PALLOT gave a Cantor Lecture to the Royal Society of Arts on Thermal Insulation at Medium Temperature on November 23 ; the lecture, which included many topics of ... many topics of current interest, has now been published1. In a bulletin on heat insulation issued by the Ministry of Fuel and Power, it was pointed out that "In ...

1943-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

490

A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production  

SciTech Connect

The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Crude Oil Analysis Database  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

Shay, Johanna Y.

492

Oil Overcharge Refund Cases 2004 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Overcharge Refund Cases 2004 Oil Overcharge Refund Cases 2004 Oil Overcharge Refund Cases 2004 During the period 1973 through 1981, the Federal government imposed price and allocation controls of crude oil and refined petroleum products, such as gasoline and heating oil. During that period and for many years afterwards, the DOE had an enforcement program. When a firm was found to have overcharged, the DOE generally required the firm to make refunds to its customers. However, because of the price controls in place at the time and the manner in which the petroleum industry operates, it was impossible for the DOE to determine in many cases who was injured by the overcharges. In those cases involving overcharges related to the price of refined petroleum products, the Office of Hearings and Appeals instituted claims

493

Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Biodiesel production using waste frying oil  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. {yields} Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. {yields} Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. {yields} Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil