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1

Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

Demirel, Melik C.

3

The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems  

SciTech Connect

Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Patrick, Brian (Jupiter Oxygen Corp.); Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Power generation method including membrane separation  

SciTech Connect

A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Boiler and Heat Recovery Steam Generator Tube Failures: Theory and Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler and heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) tube failures have been the primary availability problem for operators of conventional and combined cycle plants for as long as reliable statistics have been kept for each generating source. This book provides owners and operators with the technical basis to address tube failures and create permanent solutions.

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

7

Renewable electricity generation in California includes variable ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Power produced by geothermal, biomass, biogas, and small hydro generators can be easily dispatched, meaning it can be either increased, decreased, ...

8

Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics Furnace and Boiler Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces Furnaces are the most common heating systems used in homes in the United States. They can be all electric, gas-fired (including propane or natural gas), or oil-fired. Boilers Boilers consist of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such fuels as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam. Many buildings have their own boilers, while other buildings have steam or hot water piped in from a central plant. Commercial boilers are manufactured for high- or low-pressure applications.

9

Combined cycle electric power plant and a heat recovery steam generator having improved boiler feed pump flow control  

SciTech Connect

A combined cycle electric power plant is described that includes gas and steam turbines and a steam generator for recovering the heat in the exhaust gases exited from the gas turbine and for using the recovered heat to produce and supply steam to the steam turbine. The steam generator includes an economizer tube and a high pressure evaporator tube and a boiler feed pump for directing the heat exchange fluid serially through the aforementioned tubes. A condenser is associated with the steam turbine for converting the spent steam into condensate water to be supplied to a deaerator for removing undesired air and for preliminarily heating the water condensate before being pumped to the economizer tube. Condensate flow through the economizer tube is maintained substantially constant by maintaining the boiler feed pump at a predetermined, substantially constant rate. A bypass conduit is provided to feed back a portion of the flow heated in the economizer tube to the deaerator; the portion being equal to the difference between the constant flow through the economizer tube and the flow to be directed through the high pressure evaporator tube as required by the steam turbine for its present load.

Martz, L.F.; Plotnick, R.J.

1976-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

10

Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

An optical boiler generating singlet oxygen O{sub 2} (a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g})  

SciTech Connect

An ecologically perfect generator of singlet oxygen O{sub 2} (a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) is proposed which fundamentally differs from existing singlet-oxygen generators. Excited O{sub 2} (a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) molecules are generated due to interaction of the O{sub 2} (X{sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}{sub g}) molecules with a quasi-monochromatic field, which is supplied from an external source to a closed volume - an optical boiler containing oxygen. It is shown that, by pumping continuously the optical boiler by the light field of power {approx}3x10{sup 5} W, it is possible to accumulate up to 40% of singlet oxygen (O{sub 2}(b{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g})) + (O{sub 2} (a{sup 1}{Delta}{sub g})) in the boiler volume during {approx}10{sup -2} s. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Lipatov, N I; Gulyamova, E S [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Biryukov, A S [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

On-sun test results from second-generation and advanced-concepts alkali-metal pool-boiler receivers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two 75-kW{sub t} alkali-metal pool-boiler solar receivers have been successfully tested at Sandia National Laboratories` National Solar Thermal Test Facility. The first one, Sandia`s `` second-generation pool-boiler receiver,`` was designed to address commercialization issues identified during post-test assessment of Sandia`s first-generation pool-boiler receiver. It was constructed from Haynes alloy 230 and contained the alkali-metal alloy NaK-78. The absorber`s wetted side had a brazed-on powder-metal coating to stabilize boiling. This receiver was evaluated for boiling stability, hot- and warm-restart behavior, and thermal efficiency. Boiling was stable under all conditions. All of the hot restarts were successful. Mild transient hot spots observed during some hot restarts were eliminated by the addition of 1/3 torr of xenon to the vapor space. All of the warm restarts were also successful. The heat-transfer crisis that damaged the first receiver did not recur. Thermal efficiency was 92.3% at 750{degrees}C with 69.6 kW{sub t} solar input. The second receiver tested, Sandia`s ``advanced-concepts receiver,`` was a replica of the first-generation receiver except that the cavities, which were electric-discharge-machined in the absorber for boiling stability, were eliminated. This step was motivated by bench-scale test results that showed that boiling stability improved with increased heated-surface area, tilt of the heated surface from vertical, and added xenon. The bench-scale results suggested that stable boiling might be possible without heated-surface modification in a 75-kW{sub t} receiver. Boiling in the advanced-concepts receiver with 1/3 torr of xenon added has been stable under all conditions, confirming the bench-scale tests.

Moreno, J.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.; Cordeiro, P.G.; Dudley, V.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Converting Site Electricity to Include Generation and Transmission...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Electricity Consumption in the Manufacturing Division The energy intensities presented in this report do not reflect adjustments for losses in electricity generation...

14

BOILER PERF MODEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The BOILER PERFORMANCE MODEL is a package of eleven programs for predicting the heat transfer performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, provide boiler performance estimates for coal, oil or gaseous fuels, determine the influence of slagging and fouling characteristics on boiler performance, and calculate performance factors for tradeoff analyses comparing boilers and fuels. Given a set of target operating conditions, the programs can estimate control settings, gas and steam operating profiles through the boiler, overall boiler efficiency, and fuel consumption. The programs are broken into three categories: data, calculation, and reports with a central processor program acting as the link allowing the user to access any of the data or calculation programs and easily move between programs. The calculations are divided among the following five programs: heat duty calculation, combustion calculation, furnace performance calculation, convection pass performance calculation, and air heater performance calculation. The programs can model subcritical or supercritical boilers, most configurations of convective passes including boilers that achieve final reheat steam temperature control by split back pass, boilers with as many as two reheat circuits and/or multiple attemperator stations in series, and boilers with or without economizers and/or air heaters. Either regenerative or tubular air heaters are supported. For wall-fired or tangentially-fired furnaces, the furnace performance program predicts the temperature of the flue gases leaving the furnace. It accounts for variations in excess air, gas recirculation, burner tilt, wall temperature, and wall cleanliness. For boilers having radiant panels or platens above the furnace, the convective pass program uses the results of the combustion chamber calculation to estimate the gas temperature entering the convective pass.

Winslow, J.C. (USDOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Annual Electric Generator data - EIA-860 data file  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The "Boiler_Gen" identifies which boilers are associated with each generator; the "Boiler_Cool" tab shows which cooling systems are associated with each boiler; ...

16

Boiler Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4   Major international research and development efforts...650 °C Ferritic steel development EPRI, U.S.A. Electric Power Research Institute 1978??2003 ? Boiler and turbine thick-walled components; standardization

17

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

SNAP I MERCURY BOILER DEVELOPMENT, JANUARY 1957 TO JUNE 1959  

SciTech Connect

The mercury-boiler development program was undertaken to develop a system that would utilize the heat of radioisotope decay to boil and superheat mercury vapor for use with a small turbine-generator package. Through the use of a Rankine cycle, the mercury vapor can be provided continuously to power a turbine-driven alternator and produce electricity for extended periods of time. This mercury boiler and the related power-conversion system was planned for a satellite that would orbit the earth. This system design and development program was designated as SNAP-I. Development of the mercury boiler is described and a chronological description of the various mercury-boiler concepts is presented. The applicable results of an extensive literature survey of mercury are included. The mercury-boiler experimental-test-program description provides complete coverage of each experimental boiler and its relation to the system design of that period. A summary of all mercury boilers and their final disposition is also given. (auth)

Jicha, J.; Keenan, J.J.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Field Guide: Boiler Tube Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In conventional and combined-cycle plants, boiler tube failures (BTFs) have been the main availability problem for as long as reliable statistics have been kept for each generating source. The three volumes of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report Boiler and Heat Recovery Steam Generator Tube Failures: Theory and Practice (1012757) present an in-depth discussion of the various BTF and degradation mechanisms, providing plant owners and operators with the technical basis to address tube failu...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Fossil Boiler Life News July 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil Boiler Life News, published twice yearly, is the newsletter of EPRI's Boiler Life and Availability Improvement Program (P63). The July 2008 issue includes articles on upcoming meetings, new program personnel, R&D projects for 2009, a boiler drum fracture assessment guideline, protocols for manufacturing and inspecting CSEF steels, predictive FAC codes for fossil units, corrosion-resistant nanocoatings, preventive designs for eliminating boiler tube failures, and other deliverables. The newsletter ...

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

ECUT energy data reference series: boilers  

SciTech Connect

Information on the population and fuel consumption of water-tube, fire-tube and cast iron boilers is summarized. The use of each boiler type in the industrial and commercial sector is examined. Specific information on each boiler type includes (for both 1980 and 2000) the average efficiency of the boiler, the capital stock, the amount of fuel consumed, and the activity level as measured by operational load factor.

Chockie, A.D.; Johnson, D.R.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Fuel Cost Savings Through Computer Control of a Boiler Complex - - Two Case Histories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the growing need for energy efficiency in industry and describes a new, packaged approach to fuel optimization through direct digital control and accurate in-stack measurement of combustion products. Results are presented for a large pulp and paper mill complex in which multiple power boilers and turbine generators are controlled so as to meet the total energy demand of the mill at minimum cost. Also discussed are results from a second installation involving control of a combined bark and gas boiler, a gas package boiler and a turbine generator, including utility tie-line control.

Worthley, C. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

25

Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith  

SciTech Connect

A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes  

SciTech Connect

The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Boilers | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Boilers Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Boilers Incentives...

29

Computer Control of Boiler Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rapidly rising energy costs present the opportunity for substantial cost savings through improved boiler combustion control. A process computer control system was installed at an Air Products & Chemicals facility in 1978. As a result the boiler efficiency has increased over 11%. The control system includes; air flow, fuel flow, pressure and drum level control. Air flow control is achieved through modulation of the F.D. fan inlet vanes. Demand for airflow is produced from a high signal selection of the steam pressure controller or the total fuel signal. The output of the oxygen controller is used to modify this airflow index by the desired air/fuel ratio. The air/fuel ratio is a polynomial function of the type of fuel used. In summary, the computer control system provides for; greater overall boiler stability, operation within tight air/gas limits, increased boiler efficiency, capability to burn multiple fuels, faster response to demand changes, and fewer shutdowns.

Pareja, G. E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing complex. The measures include: 1) Reheating of dehumidified cleanroom make-up air with heat extracted during precooling. 2) Preheating of deionization feedwater with refrigerant heat of condensation. 3) Preheating of boiler combustion air with heat extracted from boiler flue gas. 4) Preheating of boiler feedwater with heat extracted from gas turbine exhaust. 5) Variable speed operation of boiler feedwater pumps and forced-draft fans. 6) Preheating of boiler make-up water with heat extracted from boiler surface blow-down. The first two advancements (steam conservation measures) reduced the amount of steam produced by about 25% and saved about $1,010,000/yr by using recovered waste heat rather than steam-derived heat at selected heating loads. The last four advancements (boiler plant efficiency measures) reduced the unit cost of steam produced by about 13% and saved about $293,500/yr by reducing natural gas and electricity usage at the steam boiler plant. The combined result was a 35% reduction in annual steam costs (fuel and power).

Fiorino, D. P.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Guidelines for the Nondestructive Examination of Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the boiler fleet ages, new demands are being placed upon them including operating in cycling modes for which they were not originally designed. Operators are experiencing an increasing incidence of boiler tube failures (BTFs). These guidelines provide guidance on the performance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) so that operators will know what type of NDE to perform and where to perform NDE within the boiler. The use of appropriate NDE methods is an essential approach to detecting and mitigating boi...

2007-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

32

Quantifying Energy Savings by Improving Boiler Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On/off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify energy savings from switching to modulation control mode and reducing excess air in natural gas fired boilers. The methods include calculation of combustion temperature, calculation of the relationship between internal convection coefficient and gas flow rate, and calculation of overall heat transfer assuming a parallel-flow heat exchanger model. The method for estimating savings from changing from on/off to modulation control accounts for purge and drift losses through the boiler and the improved heat transfer within the boiler due to the reduced combustion gas flow rate. The method for estimating savings from reducing excess combustion air accounts for the increased combustion temperature, reduced internal convection coefficient and increased residence time of combustion gasses in the boiler. Measured boiler data are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the methods.

Carpenter, K.; Kissock, J. K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

2006-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

34

Proceedings: International Conference on Boiler Tube Failures and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) Tube Failures and Inspections  

SciTech Connect

Tube failures remain the leading cause of availability loss in conventional fossil plants and combined cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plants. These conference proceedings address state-of-the-art practices and techniques worldwide for understanding and reducing tube failures.

None

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Implementation of Boiler Best Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boilers are an essential part of any industrial plant, and their efficient, economical operation can significantly affect the reliability and profitability of the entire plant. Best Practices for Boilers include tools to determine where a plant or corporation is with respect to boiler treatment, what needs to be done to make the plant (corporation) the "best of the best," and how to get there. When implemented, Best Practices provide a method to measure and track progress, and represent a benchmark for continuous improvement. Best Practices combine our global collective experience from the areas of research, consulting, sales and marketing, and involve not only recommendations and specifications, but also the rationale behind them for the application of the chosen treatment, monitoring, and instrumentation. Best practices provide energy savings, profitability improvement, reduction in total cost of operations, project management, optimized treatment choices, enhanced safety, system assessment processes and facilitated system improvements.

Blake, N. R.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Covered Product Category: Commercial Boiler  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial boilers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

37

Boiler efficiency methodology for solar heat applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains a summary of boiler efficiency measurements which can be applied to evaluate the performance of steam-generating boilers via both the direct and indirect methods. This methodology was written to assist industries in calculating the boiler efficiency for determining the applicability and value of thermal industrial heat, as part of the efforts of the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) funded by Sandia National Laboratories. Tables of combustion efficiencies are enclosed as functions of stack temperatures and the amount of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the gas stream.

Maples, D.; Conwell, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Boiler Efficiency Inst.; Pacheco, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Waste heat boiler with feed mixing nozzle  

SciTech Connect

A waste heat boiler of the type which is particularly suited for use in marine applications and which incorporates a feed mixing nozzle that is operative for purposes of effecting, by utilizing steam taken from the steam generating bank, a preheating of the feedwater that is fed to the steam drum. In addition to the aforesaid feed mixing nozzle, the subject waste heat boiler includes a feedwater control valve, a steam drum, a circulation pump, a steam generating bank and a centrifugal water separator. The feedwater control valve is employed to modulate the flow rate of the incoming feedwater in order to maintain the desired level of water in the steam drum. In turn the latter steam drum is intended to function in the manner of a reservoir for the circulating water that through the operation of the circulating pump is supplied to the steam generating bank. The circulating water which is supplied to the steam generating bank is heated therein to saturation temperature, and steam is generated thus. A water-steam mixture is returned from the steam generating bank to the steam drum and is directed into the centrifugal water separator that is suitably located within the steam drum. It is in the centrifugal water separator that the separation of the water-steam mixture is effected such that water is returned to the lower portion of the steam drum and the steam is supplied to the upper portion of the steam drum. The preheating of the feedwater is accomplished by directing the incoming feedwater through an internal feed pipe to the mixing nozzle, the latter being positioned in the line through which the water-steam mixture is returned to the steam drum.

Mastronarde, Th.P.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Industrial Boiler Optimization Utilizing CO Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Escalating energy costs have caused industry to search the technical section for the current state-of-the-art in combustion and control technology for power generation. Long a forgotten area in many industrial facilities, today the steam generating complex is the focus of many corporate and plant managers. This paper discusses the approach of a large chemical company that is effectively utilizing a direct digital control (DOC) system coupled with the measurement of carbon monoxide to optimize boiler combustion and generate steam in the most cost effective manner. Significant reductions in the amount of excess air have resulted from the use of CO as a control parameter. Previously, combustion effectiveness was determined by the more typical 02 measurement. For reasons of boiler leakage and gas stratification, this control technique was not suitable when operating close to stoichiometry. The use of DOC type control in our multiple boiler installation has also enabled the intelligent allocation of boiler capacity by evaluating steam demand versus incremental boiler steam cost. The system selectively increases or decreases boiler loads within specified constraints to provide the lowest overall steam production cost while continuing to meet the steam demand.

Ruoff, C. W.; Reiter, R. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Minimize Boiler Blowdown  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Shield for Water Boiler  

SciTech Connect

Siimplified shielding calculations indicating the proposed design for the water boiler assembly will reduce the radiation at normal operaton to values well below those which are considered tolerable.

Balent, R.

1951-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

42

Boilers and Fired Systems  

SciTech Connect

This chapter examines how energy is consumed, how energy is wasted, and opportunities for reducing energy consumption and costs in the operation of boilers.

Parker, Steven A.; Scollon, R. B.

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

43

Furnaces and Boilers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating.

44

Boiler Stack Economizer Tube Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Boiler Stack Economizer Tube Failure ... performed to investigate the failure of a type 304 stainless steel tube from a boiler stack economizer.

45

ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reviews the work performed during the quarter January-March 2003. The main objectives of the project are: To demonstrate the feasibility of the full-oxy combustion with flue gas recirculation on Babcock & Wilcox's 1.5MW pilot boiler, To measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection strategies, To perform an economical feasibility study, comparing this solution with alternate technologies, and To design a new generation, full oxy-fired boiler. The main objective of this quarter was to initiate the project, primarily the experimental tasks. The contractor and its subcontractors have defined a working plan, and the first tasks have been started. Task 1 (Site Preparation) is now in progress, defining the modifications to be implemented to the boiler and oxygen delivery system. The changes are required in order to overcome some current limitations of the existing system. As part of a previous project carried out in 2002, several changes have already been made on the pilot boiler, including the enrichment of the secondary and tertiary air with oxygen or the replacement of these streams with oxygen-enriched recycled flue gas. A notable modification for the current project involves the replacement of the primary air with oxygen-enriched flue gas. Consequently, the current oxygen supply and flue gas recycle system is being modified to meet this new requirement. Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization) has been initiated with a preliminary selection of four series of tests to be performed. So far, the project schedule is on-track: site preparation (Task 1) should be completed by August 1st, 2003 and the tests (Task 2) are planned for September-October 2003. The Techno-Economic Study (Task 3) will be initiated in the following quarter.

Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

Walsh, Peter M. (University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Blevins, Linda Gail

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Assessment of Impacts of Retrofit NOx Controls on Gas/Oil Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1997, when EPRI issued the version 2 of its Retrofit NOx Control Guidelines for Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers (EPRI report TR-108181), it was thought the most common NOx controls installed on gas and oil-fired boilers would include low NOx burners; selective catalytic reduction (SCR); and other vendor supplied, hardware-intensive approaches. In the years that followed, however, most of the gas and oil power generating fleet opted for less hardware intensive, more cost-effective approaches, with Induced F...

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Tone signal generator for producing multioperator tone signals using an operator circuit including a waveform generator, a selector and an enveloper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A frequency modulation (FM) tone signal generator for generating a FM tone signal is disclosed. The tone signal generator includes a waveform generator having a plurality of wave tables, a selector and an enveloper. The waveform generator furnishes a waveform signal in response to a phase angle address signal. Each wave table stores a different waveform. The selector selects one of the wave tables in response to a plurality of selection signals such that the selected wave table largely provides the waveform signal upon being addressed largely by the phase angle address signal. Selection of the selected wave table varies with each selection signal. The enveloper impresses an envelope signal on the waveform signal. The envelope signal is used as a carrier or modulator for generating the FM tone signal. 17 figs.

Dong, Q.; Jenkins, M.V.; Bernadas, S.R.

1997-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

49

Energy Conservation for Boiler Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last ten years energy costs have soared. The cost of coal and # 2 fuel oil have gone up by a factor of 3-5. Residual fuel oil cost has increased by approximately ten times. The cost of natural gas has gone up at an even higher rate. This paper reviews methods to conserve energy in industrial boiler water systems. Both mechanical and chemical approaches for energy conservation are discussed. The important aspects of efficient combustion are covered as well as other mechanical factors such as boiler blowdown heat recovery, economizers, air preheaters, and boiler blowdown control. The chemical aspects discussed for energy conservation include fuel additives, boiler internal treatment, and condensate treatments. The emphasis in this paper, for both mechanical and chemical approaches to energy conservation covers three areas: 1) maximizing the use of available Btu's in fuel through more efficient combustion, 2) improving the efficiency of heat transfer, and 3) recovering Btu's that have been previously considered uneconomical.

Beardsley, M. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Cost-Effective Industrial Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas and electricity are expensive to the extent that annual fuel and power costs can approach the initial cost of an industrial boiler plant. Within this context, this paper examines several cost-effective efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed boiler plant replacement project at a large semiconductor manufacturing complex. The "new" boiler plant began service in November, 1996 and consists of four 75,000 lb/hr water-tube boilers burning natural gas and producing 210 psig saturated steam for heating and humidification. Efficiency advancements include: 1) Reheating of cleanroom make-up air with heat extracted during precooling. 2) Preheating of combustion air with heat extracted from boiler flue gas. 3) Preheating of boiler feedwater with heat extracted from the exhaust of a nearby gas turbine. 4) Variable speed operation of boiler feedwater pumps and forced-draft fans. 5) Preheating of boiler make-up water with heat extracted from boiler blow-down. These efficiency advancements should prove of interest to industrial energy users faced with replacement of aging, inefficient boiler plants, rising fuel and power prices, and increasing pressures to reduce operating costs in order to enhance competitiveness.

Fiorino, D. P.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Drum-boiler dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonlinear dynamic model for natural circulation drum-boilers is presented. The model describes the complicated dynamics of the drum, downcomer, and riser components. It is derived from first principles, and is characterized by a few physical parameters. ...

K. J. StrM; R. D. Bell

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Recycle/reuse of boiler chemical cleaning wastes in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler chemical cleaning wastes (BCCW) are generated by the periodic waterside cleaning of utility boilers to remove metallic deposits from boiler tube surfaces. Depending on boiler metallurgy, BCCW generally contain high concentrations of iron and copper or both, as well as other heavy metals such as chromium, lead, nickel, and zinc. BCCW treatment and disposal methods include precipitation, coponding in an ash pond, evaporation in the fireside of an operating boiler (for organic solvents), and contracted off-site disposal. Depending on the type of BCCW chemical treatment methods achieve varying degrees of success. BCCW which contain organic chelating agents can be especially difficult to treat to national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) limits (1 mg/L for both iron and copper) with conventional lime precipitation.Research is being done to evaluate different BCCW treatment and disposal methods. One waste management option under consideration is reuse of BCCW in utility wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. To investigate this option, a series of laboratory tests were performed in which five different types of BCCW were added to the reaction tank of EPRI's bench-scale wet limestone FGD system. This paper presents the results and conclusions from this study.

Stohs, M.; Owens, D.R. (Radian Corp. (US)); Micheletti, W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Boiler Condition Assessment Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report Boiler Condition Assessment Guideline provides a concise overview of procedures developed by the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI to help power plant operators cost-effectively determine the extent of degradation and remaining life of key boiler components. The Guideline draws from EPRIs detailed area-specific guidelines, which in turn are based on extensive research findings by EPRI, member companies, and other organizations. This Guideline offers a starting point for power plant perso...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

54

BPM2.0. Fossil-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BOILER PERFORMANCE MODEL (BPM2.0) is a set of programs for predicting the heat transfer performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, provide boiler performance estimates for coal, oil or gaseous fuels, determine the influence of slagging and fouling characteristics on boiler performance, and calculate performance factors for tradeoff analyses comparing boilers and fuels. Given a set of target operating conditions, the programs can estimate control settings, gas and steam operating profiles through the boiler, overall boiler efficiency, and fuel consumption. The programs are broken into three categories: data, calculation, and reports with a central processor program acting as the link allowing the user to access any of the data or calculation programs and easily move between programs. The calculations are divided among the following five programs: heat duty calculation, combustion calculation, furnace performance calculation, convection pass performance calculation, and air heater performance calculation. The programs can model subcritical or supercritical boilers, most configurations of convective passes including boilers that achieve final reheat steam temperature control by split back pass, boilers with as many as two reheat circuits and/or multiple attemperator stations in series, and boilers with or without economizers and/or air heaters. Either regenerative or tubular air heaters are supported. For wall-fired or tangentially-fired furnaces, the furnace performance program predicts the temperature of the flue gases leaving the furnace. It accounts for variations in excess air, gas recirculation, burner tilt, wall temperature, and wall cleanliness. For boilers having radiant panels or platens above the furnace, the convective pass program uses the results of the combustion chamber calculation to estimate the gas temperature entering the convective pass.

Winslow, J.C. [USDOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

BPM3.0. Fossil-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The BOILER PERFORMANCE MODEL (BPM3.0) is a set of programs for predicting the heat transfer performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, provide boiler performance estimates for coal, oil or gaseous fuels, determine the influence of slagging and fouling characteristics on boiler performance, and calculate performance factors for tradeoff analyses comparing boilers and fuels. Given a set of target operating conditions, the programs can estimate control settings, gas and steam operating profiles through the boiler, overall boiler efficiency, and fuel consumption. The programs are broken into three categories: data, calculation, and reports with a central processor program acting as the link allowing the user to access any of the data or calculation programs and easily move between programs. The calculations are divided among the following five programs: heat duty calculation, combustion calculation, furnace performance calculation, convection pass performance calculation, and air heater performance calculation. The programs can model subcritical or supercritical boilers, most configurations of convective passes including boilers that achieve final reheat steam temperature control by split back pass, boilers with as many as two reheat circuits and/or multiple attemperator stations in series, and boilers with or without economizers and/or air heaters. Either regenerative or tubular air heaters are supported. For wall-fired or tangentially-fired furnaces, the furnace performance program predicts the temperature of the flue gases leaving the furnace. It accounts for variations in excess air, gas recirculation, burner tilt, wall temperature, and wall cleanliness. For boilers having radiant panels or platens above the furnace, the convective pass program uses the results of the combustion chamber calculation to estimate the gas temperature entering the convective pass.

Winslow, J.C. [USDOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Covered Product Category: Commercial Boiler | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Boiler Commercial Boiler Covered Product Category: Commercial Boiler October 7, 2013 - 10:27am Addthis What's Covered All Federal purchases of hot water or steam boilers (using either oil or gas) with a rated capacity (Btu/h) of 300,000-10,000,000 must meet or exceed FEMP-designated thermal efficiencies. FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial boilers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Meeting Energy Efficiency Requirements for Commercial Boilers Table 1 displays the FEMP-designated minimum efficiency requirements for

57

Assessment of black liquor recovery boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the paper making industry, pulpwood chips are digested and cooked to provide the pulp going to the refining and paper mills. Black liquor residue, containing the dissolved lignin binder from the chips, with a concentration of 12 to 16% solids, is further concentrated to 62 to 65% solids and mixed with salt cake, Sodium Sulfate (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The resulting concentrate of black liquor serves both as a fuel for generating steam in the boiler and also as the mother liquid from which other process liquors are recovered and recycled. Because the black liquor fuel contains high alkali concentrations, 18.3% sodium, 3.6% sulfur, an amount typical of midwestern bituminous coal, and measurable amounts of silica, iron oxides and other species, the black liquor boiler experience was reviewed for application to MHD boiler technology.

Not Available

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Inherently Reliable Boiler Component Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the lessons learned during the last decade in efforts to improve the reliability and availability of boilers used in the production of electricity. The information in this report can assist in component modifications and new boiler designs.

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Compilation of EPRI Boiler Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler component failures are the most common cause of unplanned outages in fossil steam plants. Headers and drums are two of the largest and most expensive boiler components; however, tube failures have posed the primary availability problem for operators of conventional and combinedcycle plants for as long as reliable statistics have been kept. This product provides a compilation of technical reports covering boiler condition assessment, header and drum failures, and boiler and heat recovery steam gene...

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

60

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems October 7, 2013 - 3:17pm Addthis Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned. Operation and Maintenance Options To maintain water efficiency in operations and maintenance, Federal agencies should: Develop and implement a routine inspection and maintenance program to check steam traps and steam lines for leaks. Repair leaks and replace faulty steam traps as soon as possible. Develop and implement a boiler tuning program to be completed a minimum of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Base load fuel comsumption with radiant boiler simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operating point of an oil fired radiant boiler, 580 Megawatt capacity, is critical in maximizing the availability, performance, reliability, and maintainability of a power producing system. Operating the unit above the design operating point causes outages to occur sooner than scheduled. When the boiler is operated below the design operating point, fuel is wasted because the quantity of fuel required to operate a radiant boiler is the same, whether the design setpoint is maintained or not. This paper demonstrates by means of simulation software that the boiler design setpoints is critical to fuel consumption and optimum output megawatts. A boiler with this capacity is used to provide a portion of the base load of an electric utility in order to sustain revenues and maintain reliable generation.

Shwehdi, M.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Wilkes-Barre, Lehman, PA (United States)); Hughes, C.M. (Naval Aviation Depot, NAS Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL (United States)); Quasem, M.A. (Howard Univ. School of Business, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system???¢????????the Super Boiler???¢????????for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to 50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today???¢????????s typical firetube boilers.

Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

63

Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system???¢????????the Super Boiler???¢????????for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to 50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today???¢????????s typical firetube boilers.

Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

64

Mitigation of Boiler Tubing Damage from Use of Explosive Cleaning Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion of fossil fuels results in formation of slags that cover boiler tubes. Efficient boiler operation requires periodic removal of these slags, and explosive cleaning is an excellent cleaning method. While boiler tube cleaning using explosives is an established technology, a number of cases of tube damage have been reported, including cracking and denting of boiler tubes. This report details the work accomplished in Phase I of this project to capture the current understanding and practice of explo...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Recovery boiler superheater corrosion - solubility of metal oxides in molten salt .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The recovery boiler in a pulp and paper mill plays a dual role of recovering pulping chemicals and generating steam for either chemical processes or (more)

Meyer, Joseph Freeman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste Management Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical cleaning to remove tube deposits/oxides that occur during unit operation or scale during unit commissioning from conventional fossil plants and combined cycle plants with heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) will result in the generation of a waste solution. The waste contains residual solvent and elevated levels of heavy metals (primarily iron and copper) in addition to rinse and passivation solutions. An earlier manual, Boiler Chemical Cleaning Wastes Management Manual (EPRI ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

68

Annual Electric Generator data - EIA-860 data file  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

equipment data collected on the Form EIA-860. The "BoilerGen" identifies which boilers are associated with each generator; the "BoilerCool" tab shows which cooling systems...

69

Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

Rapier, P.M.

1979-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

71

Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The project to build a PYROFLOW circulating fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler at the BFGoodrich Chemical Plant at Henry, Illinois, is described. This project is being partially funded by Illinois to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high-sulfur Illinois coal. Design production is 125,000 pounds per hour of 400 psig saturated steam. An Illinois EPA construction permit has been received, engineering design is under way, major equipment is on order, ground breaking occurred in January 1984 and planned commissioning date is late 1985. This paper describes the planned installation and the factors and analyses used to evaluate the technology and justify the project. Design of the project is summarized, including the boiler performance requirements, the PYROFLOW boiler, the coal, limestone and residue handling systems and the pollutant emission limitations.

Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

An Overview of Hot Corrosion in Waste to Energy Boiler ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, An Overview of Hot Corrosion in Waste to Energy Boiler ... boiler designers, and boiler tube manufacturers since quite a few number of boiler...

73

Modern Boiler Control and Why Digital Systems are Better  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam generation in petrochemical plants and refineries is in a state of change. Expensive fuels have resulted in greater use of waste heat recovery boilers and other energy conservation measures. As a result, many conventional boilers have been mothballed. Improved flue gas analyzers and digital controls are replacing less efficient and less reliable control hardware. As the production of steam becomes decentralized, control systems needed to meet expanded plant objectives must be installed. Production, engineering and maintenance personnel are finding increased need to learn more about this specialized control area. This article will discuss conventional controls systems common in industrial boilers plus improvements made possible with currently available hardware.

Hughart, C. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 3, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 73 Constraint-Based Control of Boiler Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Based Control of Boiler Efficiency: A Data-Mining Approach Zhe Song and Andrew Kusiak, Member, IEEE Abstract-utility boiler subject to operating constraints. Selection of process vari- ables to optimize combustion- fired boiler in the presence of operating constraints. Two schemes of generating control settings

Kusiak, Andrew

75

Recovery Boiler Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preliminary computations of the cold flow in a simplified geometry of a recovery boiler are presented. The computations have been carried out using a new code containing multigrid methods and segmentation techniques. This approach is shown to provide good resolution of the complex flow near the air ports and greatly improve the convergence characteristics of the numerical procedure. The improved resolution enhances the predictive capabilities of the computations, and allows the assessment of the relative performance of different air delivery systems.

Abdullah, Z.; Salcudean, M.; Nowak, P.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the commercial steam and power generation industry, deposits on heat transfer surfaces of the steam-water cycle equipment in fossil plant units have been a challenge. Deposits form at nearly all locations within the steam-water cycle, particularly in boiler tubes where failures can have substantial negative impacts on unit availability and reliability. Accumulation of internal deposits can adversely affect the performance and availability of boilers and turbines in fossil steam-wat...

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

77

RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) for Firetube Boilers PIER, industrial combined heat and power (CHP) boiler burner energy system technology ("BBEST"). Their research (unrecuperated) with an ultra- low nitrous oxide (NOx) boiler burner for firetube boilers. The project goals

78

Flame Doctor for Cyclone Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This development program was designed to enhance monitoring and diagnostic technology for cyclone furnaces using the Flame Doctor combustion diagnostic system. First developed for wall-fired pulverized-coal burner systems and boilers, Flame Doctor allows simultaneous, continuous monitoring and evaluation of each burner in a boiler using signals from optical flame scanners. An initial feasibility test conducted at the AmerenUE Sioux cyclone boiler indicated Flame Doctor technology could be extended to cyc...

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

79

Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have undertaken a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. Ultrasupercritical (USC...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

80

Return Condensate to the Boiler  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A review on boiler deposition/foulage prevention and removal techniques for power plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Burning coal in power plants produces significant amounts of deposits like fouling and slagging on boiler surfaces which contributes to the overall poor performance of the power plants (by reducing electricity generation capacity, decreasing boiler efficiency ... Keywords: coal, electricity generation, fouling, intelligent shoot blower, pulse detonation wave, slagging

N. Hare; M. G. Rasul; S. Moazzem

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Modeling, control, and power management of a power electrical system including two distributed generators based on fuel cell and supercapacitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on Distributed Generator (DG) integration in Power Electrical System (PES) for dispersed nodes. The main objective of the DG use can be classified into two aspects: a load following service and ancillary service systems. In this study

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in EPA's Boiler Rules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from commercial, industrial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. These new rules, known as the Boiler MACT (major sources) and...

85

Second law analysis of a natural gas-fired steam boiler and cogeneration plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A second law thermodynamic analysis of a natural gas-fired steam boiler and cogeneration plant at Rice University was conducted. The analysis included many components of (more)

Conklin, Eric D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Boiler Reliability Optimization: Interim Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Competitive pressures to drive costs down in the new business environment sometimes conflict with the demands of increased reliability and quality of supply. The Boiler Reliability Optimization program, which makes use of a number of applicable EPRI technologies, was developed to assess, create, and implement an effective boiler maintenance strategy for the changing business environment.

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

Flame Doctor for Cyclone Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NOx control and combustion optimization in cyclone boilers requires a monitoring technique that can assess the quality of combustion in the burner and barrel and provide guidance to the operator to make adjustments in the air distribution. This report describes the results through the end of 2008 of a beta demonstration of the Flame Doctor combustion diagnostic system at five working cyclone boilers.

2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

88

Technical Progress Report on Boiler Materials Development for USC Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major, 5-year, national effort is being sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to develop/evaluate materials for advanced ultrasupercritical (AUSC) boilers capable of operating with steam up to 760C (1400F), 35 MPa (5000 psia). This work is being carried out by a consortium comprised of Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), EPRI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and all domestic boiler manufacturers. The scope of the materials evaluation includes mechani...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 11-12, 2005 1 Quantifying Savings From Improved Boiler Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Savings From Improved Boiler Operation Kevin Carpenter Kelly Kissock Graduate Research Assistant Associate/off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify boilers. The methods include calculation of combustion temperature, calculation of the relationship

Kissock, Kelly

90

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in EPA's Boiler Rules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Opportunities in EPA's Boiler Rules Opportunities in EPA's Boiler Rules On December 20, 2012, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized new regulations to control emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from commercial, industrial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. These new rules, known as the Boiler MACT (major sources) and Boiler Area Source Rule (smaller sources), will reduce the amount of HAPS such as mercury, heavy metals, and other toxics that enter the environment. Since emissions from boilers are linked to fuel consumption, energy efficiency is an important strategy for complying with the new Boiler rules. Who is affected? Most existing industrial, commercial and institutional (ICI) boilers will not be affected by the Boiler MACT. These unaffected boilers are mostly small natural gas-fired boilers. Only about 14% of all existing

91

Form EIA-860 Annual Electric Generator Report

Open Energy Info (EERE)

equipment data collected on the Form EIA-860. The "BoilerGen" identifies which boilers are associated with each generator; the "BoilerCool" tab shows which cooling systems...

92

A power system includes an engine, a motor/generator operatively connected to the engine, and a starter operatively connected to at least one of the engine and the motor/generator.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A power system includes an engine, a motor/generator operatively connected to the engine, and a starter operatively connected to at least one of the engine and the motor/generator.

Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL); Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

93

New and Underutilized Technology: Condensing Boilers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The following information outlines key deployment considerations for condensing boilers within the Federal sector.

94

Practical Procedures for Auditing Industrial Boiler Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial boiler plants are an area of opportunity in virtually every industry to save energy and reduce costs by using relatively simple, inexpensive auditing procedures. An energy audit consists of inspection, measurement, analysis, and the preparation of recommendations. A complete boiler plant program will consider each individual boiler, boiler room auxiliary equipment, steam distribution and return systems, and steam end use equipment. This paper summarizes the practical procedures, techniques, and instrumentation which Nabisco uses in its boiler plant energy conservation program.

O'Neil, J. P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Development Background In an oxy-combustion system, combustion air (79 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen) is replaced by oxygen and recycled flue gas (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ] and water), eliminating nitrogen in the flue gas stream. When applied to an existing boiler, the flue gas recirculation rate is adjusted to enable the boiler to maintain its original air-fired heat absorption performance, eliminating the need to derate the boiler

96

Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

NaK pool-boiler bench-scale receiver durability test: Test results and materials analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pool-boiler reflux receivers have been considered as an alternative to heat pipes for the input of concentrated solar energy to Stirling-cycle engines in dish-Stirling electric generation systems. Pool boilers offer simplicity in design and fabrication. The operation of a full-scale pool-boiler receiver has been demonstrated for short periods of time. However, to generate cost-effective electricity, the receiver must operate Without significant maintenance for the entire system life, as much as 20 to 30 years. Long-term liquid-metal boiling stability and materials compatibility with refluxing NaK-78 is not known and must be determined for the pool boiler receiver. No boiling system has been demonstrated for a significant duration with the current porous boiling enhancement surface and materials. Therefore, it is necessary to simulate the full-scale pool boiler design as much as possible, including flux levels, materials, and operating cycles. On-sun testing is impractical because of the limited test time available. A test vessel was constructed with a porous boiling enhancement surface. The boiling surface consisted of a brazed stainless steel powder with about 50% porosity. The vessel was heated with a quartz lamp array providing about go W/CM2 peak incident thermal flux. The vessel was charged with NaK-78. This allows the elimination of costly electric preheating, both on this test and on fullscale receivers. The vessel was fabricated from Haynes 230 alloy. The vessel operated at 750{degrees}C around the clock, with a 1/2-hour shutdown cycle to ambient every 8 hours. The test completed 7500 hours of lamp-on operation time, and over 1000 startups from ambient. The test was terminated when a small leak in an Inconel 600 thermowell was detected. The test design and data are presented here. Metallurgical analysis of virgin and tested materials has begun, and initial results are also presented.

Andraka, C.E.; Goods, S.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Jones, S.A.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Boiler using combustible fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

1974-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Hybrid System for fouling control in biomass boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Renewable energy sources are essential paths towards sustainable development and CO"2 emission reduction. For example, the European Union has set the target of achieving 22% of electricity generation from renewable sources by 2010. However, the extensive ... Keywords: Biomass, Boiler fouling, Hybrid system

Luis M. Romeo; Raquel Gareta

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas is abundant, clean burning, and cost competitive with other fuels. In addition to superior economic fundamentals, the expanded use of natural gas will be enhanced by political and industry leaders. Natural gas therefore will continue to be the boiler fuel choice for Texas electric generating companies.

Kmetz, W. J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Gas Cofiring Assessment for Coal Fired Utility Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates gas co-firing as one option for coal-fired utility boilers. It provides electric power generators an objective review of the potential, experience to date, and economics of five gas co-firing technologies, plus a sixth pilot-scale application.

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

105

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

Heckman, T.P.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass cofired) gas compositions and ash deposits Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardisation

G. R. Holcomb and B. McGhee

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers  

SciTech Connect

In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Development of a Combination Boiler Simulator using General Purpose Simulation Tools, ISA01-P1063, paper presented at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the methodology with which a detailed simulation of a typical Combination Boiler (multiple-fuel) was developed for use in training and analysis. The boiler that was simulated is a vintage Riley Traveling Grate Spreader Stoker-fired drum unit that is fired by crushed coal and wood bark. It is controlled by a Digital Control System (DCS) and is installed in a paper-mill powerhouse, which is owned by a major paper-manufacturing corporation. Many of the personnel who have operated this boiler for the last 30 to 40 years are nearing retirement age, and the customer felt it was important to have a tool which could be used to familiarize new personnel with boiler operations, and to provide training for current personnel as they worked their way to Operator status. In addition, it could be used to evaluate system design changes prior to them being implemented on the real system. The customer desired a simulation platform that was open, that is, not dependent on a control vendor or special hardware. It needed to run in real-time to be useful for training, and it was also required that it be on a personal computer platform utilizing the Windows operating system. The simulator was constructed using general-purpose simulation software and graphic user interface (GUI) tools. The simulator system was delivered on a networked three-PC platform, with touch-screens and a special keyboard for emulating the actual DCS keyboard. The resulting simulation includes very detailed mathematical models of the combustion and steam generation processes. The simulator is used to teach startup, shutdown, maneuvering and the proper response to various system upsets. It was also utilized as the platform for testing design changes which significantly modified the over-fire air, coal and bark fuel systems, and a complete revision to the boiler control strategy.

Philip S. Bartells; Joseph S. Gauthier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces and Boilers June 24, 2012 - 4:56pm Addthis Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. What does this mean for me? To maintain your heating system's efficiency and ensure healthy indoor air quality, it's critical to maintain the unit and its venting mechanism. Proper maintenance extends the life of your furnace or boiler and saves you money. Most U.S. homes are heated with either furnaces or boilers. Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts. Boilers heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating. Steam is distributed via pipes to steam radiators, and hot water can be distributed

114

Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Boilers June 24, 2012 - 4:56pm Addthis Upgrading to a high efficiency furnace or boiler is an effective way to save money on home heating. Upgrading to a high efficiency...

115

Task 2: Boiler Corrosion,  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For continued use of coal for power generation, there are needs to: Improve efficiency Decrease emissions (esp. CO2) Use alternate fuels or fuel mixes

G. R. Holcomb, B. S. Covino, Jr., H.-S. Shim, K. Davis, D. A. Eden, M. White, and H. Ban

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Steam Boiler Control Specification Problem:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our solution to the specification problem in the specification language TLA+ is based on a model of operation where several components proceed synchronously. Our first specification concerns a simplified controller and abstracts from many details given in the informal problem description. We successively add modules to build a model of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed controller specification and prove that it refines the abstract controller. We also address the relationship between the physical state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss the reliability of failure detection. Finally, we discuss the implementability of our specification.

Tla Solution Frank; Frank Le Ke; Stephan Merz

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Laboratory illustrations of the transformations and deposition of inorganic material in biomass boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Boilers fired with certain woody biomass fuels have proven to be a viable, reliable means of generating electrical power. The behavior of the inorganic material in the fuels is one of the greatest challenges to burning the large variety of fuels available to biomass combustors. Unmanageable ash deposits and interactions between ash and bed material cause loss in boiler availability and significant increase in maintenance costs. The problems related to the behavior of inorganic material now exceed all other combustion-related challenges in biomass-fired boilers. This paper reviews the mechanisms of ash deposit formation, the relationship between fuel properties and ash deposit properties, and a series of laboratory tests in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor designed to illustrate how fuel type, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions impact ash deposit properties.

Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Argicultural Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance  

SciTech Connect

A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance  

SciTech Connect

A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

120

Research on virtual assembly of supercritical boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supercritical boiler is an important measure to solve problems like electricity shortage or energy intensity, with its high combustion efficiency. As supercritical boiler is a large and complex product, it may appear some problems of collision, location ... Keywords: interaction, lightweight model, supercritical boiler, virtools, virtual assembly, virtual reality

Pi-Guang Wei; Wen-Hua Zhu; Hao Zhou

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Daily energy use data was used to perform an energy efficiency survey of a medium-sized university boiler plant. The physical plant operates centralized mechanical plants to provide both chilled water and steam for building conditioning. Steam is used for heating buildings and to operate a 4000-ton steam-driven chiller. There are five natural gas-fired steam boilers that have rated capacities ranging from 40,000 lb/hr to 100,000 lb/hr at an operating pressure of 125 psig. This paper discusses the operating characteristics of the boiler and potential energy efficiency improvements. Results from the study included that reducing excess air levels to recommended minimums would save over $15,000 per year.

Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Climate Wise Boiler and Steam Efficiency Wise Rules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate Wise is an industrial energy efficiency program sponsored by the U.S. EPA, and supported by the U.S. DOE, working in partnership with more than 400 industrial companies. Many Climate Wise Partners are evaluating or implementing boiler and steam system efficiency measures and have requested assistance in quickly estimating the impacts of these projects through the Wise Line. Climate Wise has developed the Wise Rules for Industrial Efficiency (Wise Rules Tool Kit) to provide companies with simple rules of thumb, or Wise Rules, for estimating potential energy, cost, and greenhouse gas emissions savings from key industrial energy efficiency measures for a broad range of end uses, including boilers and steam systems. This paper presents excerpts from the Wise Rules Tool Kit on boiler and steam system efficiency measures.

Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers (Completed September 30, 2009)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers (Completed September 30, 2009) Project Description Wisconsin Electric Power Company (We Energies) has designed, installed, operated, and evaluated the TOXECON process as an integrated mercury, particulate matter, SO 2 , and NO X emissions control system for application on coal-fired power generation systems. TOXECON is a process in which sorbents, including powdered activated

125

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

126

Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

R. Viswanathan; J. Sarver; M. Borden; K. Coleman; J. Blough; S. Goodstine; R.W. Swindeman; W. Mohn; I. Perrin

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

128

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

130

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

131

Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2006.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

133

Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

In-Field Performance of Condensing Boilers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

IN-FIELD PERFORMANCE OF CONDENSING IN-FIELD PERFORMANCE OF CONDENSING BOILERS Lois B. Arena Steven Winter Associates, Inc. March 2012 Why Research Hydronic Heating? © 2012 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved Reasons to Research Boilers  Approx. 14 million homes (11%) in the US are heated with a steam or hot water system  Almost 70 percent of existing homes were built prior to 1980  Boilers built prior to 1980 generally have AFUE's of 0.65 or lower  Energy savings of 20+% are possible by simply replacing older boilers with standard boilers & up to 30% with condensing boilers.  Optimizing condensing boilers in new and existing homes could mean the difference of 8-10% savings with little to no

135

MULTI-FUEL BOILER TECHNOLOGY RICK A. HAVERLAND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-fired boiler was replaced with a N. V. Vyncke multi-fuel boiler with a rated capacity of 17,600 lb/hr (8000 kg of $0.785/gal ($0.208/L). The oil-fired boiler was replaced with a N. V. Vyncke multi-fuel boiler on the conveyor. Multi-Fuel Boiler Both boilers are the JUMBO OR) series boiler man ufactured by N. V. Vyncke

Columbia University

136

REED BESLER BOILER HIGH PRESSURE STEAM SYSTEM AND THERMAL CYCLING FACILITY. Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure boiler has been installed at ORNL. This Besler boiler is capabie of producing from 150 to 2000 psi saturated steam at steaming rates up to 5000 lbs/hr. The boiler is part of a water-steam circuit whteh also includes two spray water pumps, a steam pressure control valve, a high pressure trapping station, and a low pressure deaerated feedwater system. The new boiler system is piped and instrumented to serve as a thermal cycling facility. Shakedown test thermal cycles to requirements set forth in HRT Specification 1113a have been conducted using the existing Dump Test Autoclave as a test piece. Fourty-four cycles have been run through mid February, 1958. The boiler has been operated a total of 142 hours. Cycles are run completely automatically. Better than three- fourths of the cycles as run fall within the specification prescribed limits. (auth)

Holz, P.P.

1958-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

137

Application of advanced technologies to ash-related problems in boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prediction of ash behavior in boilers has, for many years, been based on relatively simple relationships involving the composition of inorganic material in fuels. In recent years, advanced analyses for both fuels and deposits have seen increasing use in the solid fuel combustion community. The combination of the standard and advanced analyses, together with a knowledge of boiler design and operating conditions, allow better interpretation of ash behavior in boilers than has previously been possible. This paper discusses several case histories where advanced technologies have been applied to interpret ash behavior in boilers where standard techniques were insufficient. Included in the discussion are: (1) the behavior of blends of fuels; (2) explanations for markedly different behavior between fuels with similar ASTM characteristics; and (3) effects of boiler operating conditions on ash deposit formation.

Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility); Richards, G.; Harb, J. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, (more)

Yang, Dong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Fluidized bed boiler feed system  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry  

SciTech Connect

Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a ??biomass-fired? boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using ??carbon neutral? fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. The boiler does require auxiliary ??functions,? however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO{sub 2} emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO{sub 2} per year.

Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

143

Retrofit NOx Control Guidelines for Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-level ozone concentrations continue to exceed the federal health-based standard in many parts of the country, especially urban areas. This condition led Congress to include in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 a requirement that states with nonattainment regions implement regulations to reduce NOx from all sources, including utility boilers. By providing a summary and analysis of all the available information on NOx control techniques for gas-and oil-fired boilers, this document can help utilit...

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

List of Boilers Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Boilers Incentives Boilers Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 550 Boilers Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-550) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Roofs Windows Yes AEP (Central, North and SWEPCO) - Commercial Solutions Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools

145

Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP steam tip sheet on upgrading boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

ENERGY STAR Qualified Boilers | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Qualified Boilers Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov Communities Consumer Data ENERGY STAR Qualified...

147

Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

preparation, and industrial processes. In homes with boilers, steam is distributed via pipes to steam radiators, and hot water can be distributed via baseboard radiators or...

148

Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility boilers Carlos E. Romero *, Ying Li, Harun Bilirgen, Nenad Sarunac, Edward K. Levy Energy Research Center type, boiler operation, fly ash characteristics and type of environmental control equipment installed

Li, Ying

149

OEIM 210. Industrial Mechanics III 4 cr. Air compressors, sliding surface bearings, boiler maintenance, boiler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OEIM 210. Industrial Mechanics III 4 cr. Air compressors, sliding surface bearings, boiler maintenance, boiler tube repairs, basic arc and gas welding, measurement tools, gauge glass maintenance, heat by employer and instructor on boiler inspection and cleaning, centrifugal pumps, basic rigging, piping

Castillo, Steven P.

150

Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation???¢????????s power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country???¢????????s total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760???????°C (1400???????°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

151

Application of the CALPHAD method for ferritic boiler steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Application of the CALPHAD method for ferritic boiler steels ... of the CALPHAD method on various questions concerning ferritic boiler steels...

152

FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System October 7, 2013 - 9:12am Addthis This composite photo shows...

153

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval...

154

Passivity based control of drum boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a novel state space model for the drum boilers with natural recirculation. This model uses the total mass and energy inventories of the boiler as the state variables, and has an affine structure in the control variables. A passivity ...

Chengtao Wen; B. Erik Ydstie

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the projects subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

156

Protecting the Investment in Heat Recovery with Boiler Economizers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many people consider energy to be a crisis in remission -- even with continuing high fuel costs. Some voice concern over the long term security of an investment in flue gas heat recovery equipment. The concern generally involves the ability of an economizer or air heater to continue to perform efficiently without corrosion. The recognized economic advantages of an economizer result from its ability to convert heat losses into sources of energy. One of the most productive means of obtaining reduced energy costs lies in the improvements of the efficiency of steam generating boilers. Industrial and institutional boilers operating at pressures of 75 psig or greater are excellent applications. The maximum gain that can be safely achieved is governed by a number of technical and physical limitations. Among these are considerations of the economics, temperatures of the flue gas and water, and the potential for corrosion. This paper will discuss the economic and practical considerations of an economizer installation.

Roethe, L. A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Retrofit NOx Controls for Coal-Fired Utility Boilers - 2000 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the last four years (1996-2000), NOx control retrofits increased significantly in response to further tightening of NOx regulations. Approximately one hundred complete burner retrofits of wall- and T-fired boilers were implemented during this period, bringing the total burner retrofits to 357. Also, 32 burner component modification BCM) projects were implemented. Other control options included combustion optimization in more than two hundred boilers, thirteen reburns, five selective non-catalytic ...

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effect of Flexible Operation on Boiler Components: Theory and Practice, Volume 1: Fundamentals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flexible operation plays an increasing role in power plant operation. Many conventional coal- and oil-fired power plants were originally designed for baseload operation; that is, either shut down or operating at full load. Flexible operation causes damage throughout a fossil-fired unit; however, this project focused on boiler components, including the boiler enclosure and high-energy piping leading up to the turbine stop valves.The objectives of this report are the ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

160

Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water movement inside a boiler has remained highly speculative. This paper and support test video of actual boiler operations will illustrate the effects steam quality vs. boiler efficiency during different boiler and steam system demands. There are four different operating situations that effect the steam quality. Each of the following situation will be described in detail using visual aids and supporting literature: Case I: On/Off Feedwater Control: Wide swings in the water level of the boiler can result in unnecessary low water alarms and shut downs. Case II: Reduced Operating Pressure: By running a boiler at a lower pressure, the boiling action within the boiler becomes much more violent causing water to be carried over in to the steam system. Case III: A Demand of 15% over Capacity: Over loading a boiler will cause excessive amounts of water to be carried along with the steam into the system. Case IV: TDS Control: Without proper control of IDS within the boiler carry-over of water into the steam system will occur causing damage to equipment and/or waterhammer.

Hahn, G.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits of applying cogeneration technology and barriers to implementing cogeneration technology; (2) applicable federal regulations and permitting issues; (3) descriptions of prime movers commonly used in CHP applications, including discussions about design characteristics, heat-recovery options and equipment, fuels and emissions, efficiency, maintenance, availability, and capital cost; (4) electrical generators and electrical interconnection equipment; (5) cooling and dehumidification equipment; (6) thermodynamic cycle options and configurations; (7) steps for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of applying cogeneration technology; and (8) information sources.

Oland, CB

2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

Determination of the 5 MW gross nominal design case binary cycle for power generation at Raft River, Idaho. [Using GEOSYS program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of Rankine cycle studies for power generation utilizing geothermal fluid as the heat source and isobutane as the working fluid are reported. To find the plant configuration which would most effectively utilize the available energy, a parametric study was performed. The desirability of supercritical, single boiler or double boiler cycles, and the relative boiler temperatures and percentage isobutane flow split between the boilers in the double cycles for geothermal fluid temperatures of 260/sup 0/F to 360/sup 0/F were considered. This study was designed to discover thermodynamic trends which would point to an optimum isobutane cycle for geothermal fluid temperatures in this temperature range. The results of the parametric study were applied to derive a Nominal Design Case for a demonstration plant at Raft River, with a geothermal fluid resource at 290/sup 0/F. In addition, plant variations due to tolerances applied to thermodynamic properties and other key factors are included.

Ingvarsson, I.J.; Madsen, W.W. (eds.)

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Design of an Inspection Robot for Boiler Tubes Inspection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A climbing robot with magnetic wheels is designed for the inspection of boiler tubes in fossil power plants, which can inspect the boiler tubes automatically. The climbing robot will move on the boiler tubes. The magnetic wheels of the robot can be move ... Keywords: boiler tubes, climbing robot, magnetic flux leakage sensor, VSC controller

Lu Xueqin; Qiu Rongfu; Liu Gang; Huang Fuzhen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection A. M. Pertew ,1 X. Sun ,1 R. Kent considers the blowdown effect in industrial boiler operation. This adds to the efficiency of recent advances in identification-based leak detection techniques of boiler steam- water systems. Keywords: Industrial Boilers, Tube

Marquez, Horacio J.

165

A Methodology for Optimizing Boiler Operating Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Among the many ways by which an energy manager can conserve energy is the establishment of a strategy for operation of fired boilers. In particular, he can effect total fuel consumption by his decision on how much on-line boiler surplus is required. There is a need to be able to balance the cost advantages of operating with less boiler surplus against the potential economic losses that might result from the increased risk of not meeting demand. A methodology for doing this along with an example calculation, is presented in this paper.

Jones, K. C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Furnaces Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Framework Meeting on AddThis.com... About Standards & Test Procedures Implementation, Certification & Enforcement

167

Circumferential Cracking Investigation on a Supercritical Boiler Martin Lake Unit 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Luminants Martin Lake unit 3 is one of three supercritical boilers at the site. Lignite from nearby mines is the principal source of fuel, which is mixed with 10-20% Powder River Basin or western coal to assist combustion. The boiler was originally designed to generate around 750 MW, although it is now generating up to 850 MW. In 2000, water cannons were installed in the walls as a replacement for the wall blowers. At about the same time, after 21 years of operation without signs of cracking, the unit wa...

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the convective pass into the hot recirculated fluidizing medium and adding an insulating layer to superh

Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Improve Boiler System Operations- Application of Statistical Process Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Utilities Department provides utility services to Monsanto and Cain Chemical Company production units at Chocolate Bayou. Over two years ago the department recognized that a significant reduction in waste and rework could be achieved by improving steam boiler and boiler feedwater system operations. The processes were experiencing high maintenance cost due to metering pump and analyzer failures, equipment failures and fouling due to poor control of chemical treatment, and steam vent losses due to unproven system reliability. The team used statistical process control to prevent overadjustment of the process, identified special causes, interviewed customers and applied the ten steps to quality improvement. Results include a six-fold reduction in process variability, $2.3 million/year cost reduction, and improved reliability and customer relations.

Scarr, D.; Shea, D.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

World Class Boilers and Steam Distribution System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

World class is a term used to describe steam systems that rank in the top 20% of their industry based on quantitative system performance data and energy management for the facility. The rating is determined through a proceduralized assessment process that includes technical features such as boiler efficiency and the percentage of failed steam traps. Management features such as the internal metrices and adequate staffing and training area also included in the assessment. These results are compared with benchmarks for the subject industry. Chemical plants are compared with other chemical plants instead of aggregated data from refining, food processing, health care, etc. This approach provides relevant comparisons and realistic performance targets. The assessment process and industry benchmarks have been developed through sources that include those in the public domain and proprietary industry data. Periodic review and updates are used to ensure that the data accurately represents the relevant industrial profile. Some companies may question why they should upgrade their system. The most obvious answer will be found in the benefits that derive from more efficient operations. Costs are reduced, reliability is improved, and adverse environmental impacts are mitigated. Successful upgrading and maintenance of the energy system requires management support. This may necessitate changes in current practices, technical upgrades to equipment, additional personnel, or other resources. Managers must communicate the message that they want energy management at their plant to be world class.

Portell, V. P.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute) L. Szymanski; R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

DOE Webcast: GTI Super Boiler Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Webcast Webcast GTI Super Boiler Technology by Dennis Chojnacki, Senior Engineer by Curt Bermel, Business Development Mgr. R&D > November 20, 2008 November 20, 2008 2 November 20, 2008 2 WHO WE ARE Gas Technology Institute >Leading U.S. research, development, and training organization serving the natural gas industry and energy markets ─ An independent, 501c (3) not-for-profit Serving the Energy Industry Since 1941 > Over 1,000 patents > Nearly 500 products commercialized November 20, 2008 3 November 20, 2008 3 Super Boiler Background > U.S. industrial and commercial steam boilers ─ Consume over 6 quads of natural gas per year ─ Wide range of steam uses from process steam to space heating > Installed base of steam boilers ─ Largely over 30 years old

174

Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low temperature corrosion proof heat exchangers designed to reduce boiler flue gas temperatures to 150F or lower are now being commercially operated on gas, oil and coal fired boilers. These heat exchangers, when applied to boiler flue gas, are commonly called condensing economizers. It has traditionally been common practice in the boiler industry to not reduce flue gas temperatures below the 300F to 400F range. This barrier has now been broken by the development and application of corrosion proof heat exchanger technology. This opens up a vast reservior of untapped recoverable energy that can be recovered and reused as an energy source. The successful recovery of this heat and the optimum use of it are the fundemental goals of the technology presented in this paper. This Recovered Low Level Heat Is Normally Used To Heat Cold Make-up Water Or Combustion Air.

Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Water treatment program raises boiler operating efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report details the boiler water treatment program which played a vital role in changing an aging steam plant into a profitable plant in just three years. Boiler efficiency increased from approximately 70 percent initially to 86 percent today. The first step in this water treatment program involves use of a sodium zeolite water softener that works to remove scale-forming ions from municipal water used in the system. A resin cleaner is also added to prolong the life of resins in the softener. The water is then passed through a new blow-down heat exchanger, which allows preheating from the continuous blow-down from the boiler system. The water gets pumped into a deaerator tank where sulfite treatment is added. The water then passes from feedpumps into the boiler system.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Boiler scale prevention employing an organic chelant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of treating boiler water which employs an oxygen scavenging compound and a compound to control pH together with a chelating agent, wherein the chelating agent is hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid.

Wallace, Steven L. (Lake Jackson, TX); Griffin, Jr., Freddie (Missouri City, TX); Tvedt, Jr., Thorwald J. (Angleton, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Power Plant Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wide range of steels has been used to manufacture boilers and associated piping components for fossil power plants. Detailed information on the various alloys and component design considerations is contained in applicable specifications and standards, but utility personnel often need to access basic metallurgical information to support decision making for various projects. This guidebook, developed to meet this need, provides information on all of the most common boiler and piping materials.

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

178

State emissions limitations for boilers: particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes regulations applicable to boilers as reflected in current state and local air regulations. Not all of these regulations are officially part of Federally-approved State Implementation Plans (SIPs). Several regulations have only recently been adopted by the State and are now undergoing EPA review for incorporation into the SIP. Each summary also contains local regulations more stringent than the State rules. Most local regulations in this handbook are included in the State Implementation Plan. Site-specific emission limits (variances from State limits or limits more stringent than State limits) are not included in these summaries. Appendix A contains maps showing the location of Air Quality Control Regions or other districts by which several States regulate emissions. Appendix B contains a summary of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, which States are required to meet as a minimum. Appendix C contains a description and summary of Federal New Source Performance Standards. Appendix D contains formulas for conversion of emmissions limits expressed in one set of units to the most common units - No. PM/MMBtu. Appendix E contains Figure 2 of ASME APS-1, used for determining particulate emissions limits in some States.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

Kychakoff, George (Maple Valley, WA); Afromowitz, Martin A. (Mercer Island, WA); Hogle, Richard E. (Olympia, WA)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 FURNACE AND BOILER TECHNOLOGY19 Furnace and Boiler Lifetimes Used in the LCC Analysis (PBP RESULTS FOR GAS BOILERS USING ALTERNATIVE INSTALLATION

Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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181

Section 5.2.1 Boilers: Greening Federal Facilities; Second Edition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

more efficient than single boilers, espe- cially under part-load conditions. * Consider solar-assisted systems and biomass-fired boilers as alternatives to conventional boiler...

182

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker.

K. Payette; D. Tillman

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas sw

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Typical Boiler Tube Damage from Flexible Operation or Cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power generation plants are under increasing pressure to cycle the boiler system to meet demand at the exact time it occurs. To survive in the new commercial sphere, it is essential that we adjust to a dynamic, flexible operating paradigm. The ability to adjust the overall system response to load demand is paramount; cycling is a fact in todays power-for-profit business dynamic.The challenge is that for most fossil power plants in operation todaywhich were designed and ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

186

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

187

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Predictive modelling of boiler fouling. Final report.  

SciTech Connect

A spectral element method embodying Large Eddy Simulation based on Re- Normalization Group theory for simulating Sub Grid Scale viscosity was chosen for this work. This method is embodied in a computer code called NEKTON. NEKTON solves the unsteady, 2D or 3D,incompressible Navier Stokes equations by a spectral element method. The code was later extended to include the variable density and multiple reactive species effects at low Mach numbers, and to compute transport of large particles governed by inertia. Transport of small particles is computed by treating them as trace species. Code computations were performed for a number of test conditions typical of flow past a deep tube bank in a boiler. Results indicate qualitatively correct behavior. Predictions of deposition rates and deposit shape evolution also show correct qualitative behavior. These simulations are the first attempts to compute flow field results at realistic flow Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4}. Code validation was not done; comparison with experiment also could not be made as many phenomenological model parameters, e.g., sticking or erosion probabilities and their dependence on experimental conditions were not known. The predictions however demonstrate the capability to predict fouling from first principles. Further work is needed: use of large or massively parallel machine; code validation; parametric studies, etc.

Chatwani, A

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

High Temperature Oxidation Issues in Fossil Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the conclusion of a multi-year project that examined the oxidation resistance of Al-rich coatings and a new project examining the effect of higher CO{sub 2} contents on corrosion mechanisms in oxy-fired coal-fueled boilers. The coating work primarily examined diffusion coatings for the steam side of typical ferritic (9-12%Cr) and austenitic (e.g., Type 304L) tube materials in accelerated testing at 650-800 C in wet air. The final phase of this work has attempted to obtain additional coating failures to determine a critical Al content (at coating failure) as a function of exposure temperature. However, no failures have been observed for austenitic substrates including >25 kh at 700 C and >6 kh at 800 C. Preliminary results are presented from the oxy-firing project, where the initial focus is on ferritic alloys. Initial coal-ash experiments were conducted at 600 C to evaluate some of the test parameters and three different levels of CO{sub 2} were investigated. An in-situ creep rig is being constructed to evaluate the effect of environment on creep properties. Initial ex-situ creep experiments are presented as a baseline.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

Crispin, Larry G. (Akron, OH); Weitzel, Paul S. (Canal Fulton, OH)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Results of heat tests of the TGE-435 main boiler in the PGU-190/220 combined-cycle plant of the Tyumen' TETs-2 cogeneration plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Special features of operation of a boiler operating as a combined-cycle plant and having its own furnace and burner unit are descried. The flow of flue gases on the boiler is increased due to feeding of exhaust gases of the GTU into the furnace, which intensifies the convective heat exchange. In addition, it is not necessary to preheat air in the convective heating surfaces (the boiler has no air preheater). The convective heating surfaces of the boiler are used for heating the feed water, thus replacing the regeneration extractions of the steam turbine (HPP are absent in the circuit) and partially replacing the preheating of condensate (the LPP in the circuit of the unit are combined with preheaters of delivery water). Regeneration of the steam turbine is primarily used for the district cogeneration heating purposes. The furnace and burner unit of the exhaust-heat boiler (which is a new engineering solution for the given project) ensures utilization of not only the heat of the exhaust gases of the GTU but also of their excess volume, because the latter contains up to 15% oxygen that oxidizes the combustion process in the boiler. Thus, the gas temperature at the inlet to the boiler amounts to 580{sup o}C at an excess air factor a = 3.50; at the outlet these parameters are utilized to T{sub out} = 139{sup o}C and a{sub out} = 1.17. The proportions of the GTU/boiler loads that can actually be organized at the generating unit (and have been checked by testing) are presented and the proportions of loads recommended for the most efficient operation of the boiler are determined. The performance characteristics of the boiler are presented for various proportions of GTU/boiler loads. The operating conditions of the superheater and of the convective trailing heating surfaces are presented as well as the ecological parameters of the generating unit.

A.V. Kurochkin; A.L. Kovalenko; V.G. Kozlov; A.I. Krivobok [Engineering Center of the Ural Power Industry (Russian Federation)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FEMP Technology FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP

193

Soft computing approach for modeling power plant with a once-through boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a soft computing approach is presented for modeling electrical power generating plants in order to characterize the essential dynamic behavior of the plant subsystems. The structure of the soft computing method consists of fuzzy logic, ... Keywords: Experimental data, Fuzzy modeling, Genetic algorithm, Neural network, Once-through boiler, Power plant, Soft computing

Ali Ghaffari; Ali Chaibakhsh; Caro Lucas

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Automatically verifying an object-oriented specification of the steam-boiler system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Correctness is a desired property of industrial software systems. Although the employment of formal methods and their verification techniques in embedded real-time systems has started to be a common practice, the same cannot be said about object-oriented ... Keywords: LOTOS, automatic verification, code generation, model-checking, object-oriented systems, steam-boiler

Paulo J. F. Carreira; Miguel E. F. Costa

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Annual fuel usage charts for oil-fired boilers. [Building space heating and hot water supplies  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of laboratory-determined boiler efficiency data, one may calculate the annual fuel usage (AFU) for any oil-fired boiler, serving a structure of a given design heat load, for any specified hourly weather pattern. Further, where data are available regarding the energy recapture rates of the strucutre due to direct gain solar energy (windows), lighting, cooking, electrical appliances, metabolic processes, etc., the annual fuel usage savings due to such (re) capture are straightforwardly determinable. Employing the Brookhaven National Laboratory annual fuel usage formulation, along with efficiency data determined in the BNL Boiler Laboratory, computer-drawn annual fuel usage charts can be generated for any selected boiler for a wide range of operating conditions. For two selected boilers operating in any one of the hour-by-hour weather patterns which characterize each of six cities over a wide range of firing rates, domestic hot water consumption rates, design heat loads, and energy (re) capture rates, annual fuel usages are determined and graphically presented. Figures 1 to 98, inclusive, relate to installations for which energy recapture rates are taken to be zero. Figures 97 to 130, inclusive, apply to a range of cases for which energy recapture rates are nonzero and determinable. In all cases, simple, direct and reliable annual fuel usage values can be determined by use of charts and methods such as those illustrated.

Berlad, A.L.; Yeh, Y.J.; Salzano, F.J.; Hoppe, R.J.; Batey, J.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

A methodology for in-situ calibration of steam boiler instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a broadly useful diagnostic methodology to engineers and plant managers for finding the in-situ operating characteristics of power plant boilers when metered data is either missing or obviously erroneous. The methodology is able to analyze conflicting measurements and utilize analytic redundancy (AR) to deduce the measurement or measurements which are substantially in error without shutting down the plant and recalibrating all instrumentation. It is shown, through the case study power plant, that the methodology is quite robust in identifying faulty instruments in plants which possess a low degree of hardware redundancy. Once the malfunctioning meters are identified and the historical data are corrected, boiler characteristic curves can be generated to guide the daily operation and assist future implementation of on-line optimal load allocation. Finally, suggestions are given for the on-line diagnostics of instrument performance, as well as some operational guidelines useful to plant engineers for improved boiler operation.

Wei, Guanghua

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

A Methodology for In-Situ Calibration of Steam Boiler Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a broadly useful diagnostic methodology to engineers and plant managers for finding the in-situ operating characteristics of power plant boilers when metered data is either missing or obviously erroneous. The methodology is able to analyze conflicting measurements and utilize analytic redundancy (AR) to deduce the measurement or measurements which are substantially in error without shutting down the plant and recalibrating all instrumentation. It is shown, through the case study power plant, that the methodology is quite robust in identifying faulty instruments in plants which possess a low degree of hardware redundancy. Once the malfunctioning meters are identified and the historical data are corrected, boiler characteristic curves can be generated to guide the daily operation and assist future implementation of on-line optimal load allocation. Finally, suggestions are given for the on-line diagnostics of instrument performance, as well as some operational guidelines useful to plant engineers for improved boiler operation.

Wei, Guanghua

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Investigation of the Relationship Between Particulate Bound Mercury and Properties of Fly Ash in a Full-Scale 100 MWE Pulverized Coal Combustion Boiler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is an increasing concern over mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. Coal-fired power generation accounts for approximately 33% of total mercury emission in the United (more)

Li, Sen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Heat Recovery Boilers for Process Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat recovery boilers are widely used in process plants for recovering energy from various waste gas streams, either from the consideration of process or of economy. Sulfuric, as well as nitric, acid plant heat recovery boilers are examples of the use of heat recovery due primarily to process considerations. On the other hand, cost and payback are main considerations in the case of gas turbine and incineration plants, where large quantities of gases are exhausted at temperatures varying from 800F to 1800F. This gas, when recovered, can result in a large energy savings and steam production. This paper attempts to outline some of the engineering considerations in the design of heat recovery boilers for turbine exhaust applications (combined cycle, cogeneration mode), incineration plants (solid waste, fume) and chemical plants (reformer, sulfuric acid, nitric acid).

Ganapathy, V.; Rentz, J.; Flanagan, D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Modeling Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers in U.S. homes Title Modeling Energy Consumption of Residential Furnaces and Boilers in U.S. homes Publication Type Report...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Energy Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

purchase? unit(s) Performance Factors Existing What is the capacity of the existing boiler? MBtuhr* What is the thermal efficiency of the existing boiler? % Et New What is the...

202

Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler | Department of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler December 27, 2012 - 4:30pm Addthis Using money from the Recovery Act, Blue Mountain...

203

Boiler Blowdown Heat Recovery Project Reduces Steam System Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

produced. Much of this heat can be recovered by routing the blown down liquid through a heat exchanger that preheats the boiler's makeup water. A boiler blowdown heat recovery...

204

Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boiler to Heat Oregon School Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School April 26, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Oregon Governor Kulongoski maneuvers a backhoe to break ground at the Vernonia...

205

Descriptions of Past Research: Boiler Life and Availability Improvement Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Descriptions of Past Research: Boiler Life and Availability Improvement Program contains summaries of many past Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Boiler Life and Availability Improvement Program research and development (R&D) efforts.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

207

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility and initial development of an integrated, deterministic model of the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 1: Feasibility Study (1004931), published in 2004; Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 2: Initial Deterministic Model Development and Deposit Characterization (1012207) published in 2007; and Boiler Water Deposition ...

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

208

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility and initial development of an integrated, deterministic model of the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in the following Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports: 1004931, Boiler Water Deposition Model: Part 1: Feasibility Study, published in 2004; 1012207, Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 2: Initial Deterministic Model Development and Deposit Characterization, published in 2007; 1014128, Boiler Water Deposition Model fo...

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

209

Best Practices: The Engineering Approach For Industrial Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A plant's boilers represent a large capital investment, as well as a crucial portion of overall plant operations, regardless of the industry our customers are in. It is important to have systems and procedures in place to protect this investment, as well as plant profitability. Boiler Best Practices represent The Engineering Approach for Boilers-a way to examine mechanical, operational and chemical aspects of the systems (pretreatment through condensate) to ensure reliable boiler operations with no surprises.

Blake, N. R.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Multifunctional robot to maintain boiler water-cooling tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robot has been developed to maintain boiler water-cooling tubes. This robot has a double tracked moving mechanism, an ash cleaning device, a slag purging device, a tubes' thickness measurement device, a marking device, and a control system. This robot ... Keywords: Boiler maintenance, Boiler water-cooling tube, Climbing robot, Mobile robot

Xueshan Gao; Dianguo Xu; Yan Wang; Huanhuan Pan; Weimin Shen

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Materials for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Materials for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers Mike Santella ORNL 25th Annual Conference ­ For Profit Cost Sharing Consortium #12;2 26-May-2010 Materials for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers Estimated Total Amount of Tubing for a Generic A-USC Boiler Images courtesy of The Babcock & Wilcox Company

213

Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Finite Transitions #12;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Goal

Vuik, Kees

214

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;?? Thomas A. Henzinger 1 Howard model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be­ havior of the boiler. For each model, we define and verify a controller that maintains

Henzinger, Thomas A.

215

1 | P a g e Boiler Gold Rush  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 | P a g e Boiler Gold Rush VISION STATEMENT The vision of BGR is twofold: first, help all new by participating in the premiere orientation program in the nation, Boiler Gold Rush. Second, enhance upper leaders for the betterment of the university. PROGRAM GOALS Boiler Gold Rush will provide the following

Ginzel, Matthew

216

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

?lveczky, Peter Csaba

217

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi- cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

Cengarle, María Victoria

219

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ?? Thomas A. Henzinger1 Howard model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be- havior of the boiler. For each model, we de ne and verify a controller that maintains the safe

Henzinger, Thomas A.

220

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank Le?ke and Stephan Merz Institut f of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi­ cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

Merz, Stephan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification.In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification problem is presented computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

?lveczky, Peter Csaba

222

Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

223

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of modeling the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in EPRI report 1004931, Boiler Water Deposition Model: Part 1: Feasibility Study, published in 2004. This report presents findings of follow-up activities directed toward the ultimate goal of developing an aggregate model that is applicable to the important deposition phenomena in fossil drum-type boilers.

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

224

Energy Basics: Furnaces and Boilers  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such fuels as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam. Many buildings have their own...

225

Adaptive Fuzzy PID Control for Boiler Deaerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The boiler deaerator temperature control system is a non-linear, time-varying, delay control process. It can not achieve satisfying effect using traditional control algorithm to control deaerator water temperature, the paper proposes an adaptive fuzzy ... Keywords: Deaerator, Adaptive, Fuzzy control, PID control

Lei Jinli

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks  

SciTech Connect

Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

Walker, S. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Competitive realities change focus of boiler/HRSG design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes how, faced with competing against gas-fired plants, coal-fired-boiler designers have squeezed cost and scheduling constraints out of their product. Meanwhile, HRSG design reflects the escalating demands placed on modern combined cycles. In the US, emphasis continues to center around reducing construction time and cost. The large capital investment, particularly during the erection phase of the project, and the need to get projects on-line as quickly as possible, have placed a significant premium on fast cycle time. Innovations appear in project implementation strategies rather than on advanced boiler technologies. Perhaps nothing illustrates this last statement better than comparing recent large utility units in the US to those in Europe and japan. At the other end of the scale, heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) technology is advancing rapidly to keep pace with ever more powerful gas turbines in combined-cycle (CC) configurations. In fact, the once simple HRSG now anchors a complex steam cycle fully integrated with the gas turbine. Triple pressure levels, NO{sub x} injection steam, steam turbine bypass, elevating steam pressures and temperatures, supplementary firing, selective catalytic reduction, and even accommodating a coal-gasification process are a sampling of extras HRSG designers must accommodate.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Energy Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only October 8, 2013 - 2:23pm Addthis This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the base model and other assumptions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement What is the deliverable fluid type? Water Steam What fuel is used? Gas Oil How many boilers will you purchase? unit(s) Performance Factors Existing What is the capacity of the existing boiler? MBtu/hr* What is the thermal efficiency of the existing boiler? % Et New What is the capacity of the new boiler?

229

Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Retrofitting for Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to further develop the oxy-combustion technology for commercial retrofit in existing wall-fired and Cyclone boilers by 2012. To meet this goal, a research project was conducted that included pilot-scale testing and a full-scale engineering and economic analysis.

Hamid Farzan

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Retrofit NOx Control Guidelines for Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers Version 2.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reviews and summarizes NOx control technologies to help utility engineering and operating staff evaluate and select appropriate retrofit strategies for natural gas- and oil-fired boilers. In addition to general discussions of the various technologies, the document includes an accompanying database on diskette with detailed information on 239 NOx retrofits.

1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

231

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

Not Available

1993-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

232

Renewable electricity generation in California includes variable ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Have a question, comment, or suggestion for a future article? Send your feedback to todayinenergy@eia.gov

233

ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reviews the work performed during the quarter October-December 2003. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed in the previous reporting period. In this reporting period, one week of combustion parameters optimization has been performed in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. Under full-oxy conditions (100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas) in 1.5MW{sub th} coal-fired boiler, the following parameters have been varied and their impact on combustion characteristics measured: the recirculated flue gas flow rate has been varied from 80% to 95% of total flue gas flow, and the total oxygen flow rate into the primary air zone of the boiler has been set to levels ranging from 15% to 25% of the total oxygen consumption in the overall combustion. In current reporting period, significant progress has also been made in Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: mass and energy balance calculations and cost assessment have been completed on plant capacity of 533MW{sub e} gross output while applying the methodology described in previous reporting periods. Air-fired PC Boiler and proposed Oxygen-fired PC Boiler have been assessed, both for retrofit application and new unit. The current work schedule is to review in more details the experimental data collected so far as well as the economics results obtained on the 533MWe cases, and to develop a work scope for the remainder of the project. Approximately one week of pilot testing is expected during the first quarter of 2004, including mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. The project was on hold from mid-November through December 2003 due to non-availability of funds. Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $497k have been spent to date ($480 reported so far), mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $330k has been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $827k ($810k reported so far) as on December 31st, 2003.

Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Hao, Ye [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development  

SciTech Connect

Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development  

SciTech Connect

Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Design and development for a low emission boiler system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy initiated the Combustion 2000 program to develop the next generation of coal-fired power plants. Sargent & Lundy (S&L) is working on the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) portion of the program led by Riley Stoker Corporation, with support from Textron Defense Systems, Tecogen, and Reaction Engineering International. Together these organizations form {open_quotes}the Riley Team.{close_quotes} There are four phases of the LEBS development program. Currently, we are working in Phase I, which involves the design of a 400 MWe unit. Phase II through IV will involve pilot scale component testing and a Proof-of-Concept facility ({approximately}40MWe) design, construction, and operation. This document comprises the Design and Development Report for the LEBS. The report describes the design basis, design uncertainties and development plan for each of the major LEBS subsystems.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Recovery Boiler Superheater Ash Corrosion Field Study  

SciTech Connect

With the trend towards increasing the energy efficiency of black liquor recovery boilers operated in North America, there is a need to utilize superheater tubes with increased corrosion resistance that will permit operation at higher temperatures and pressures. In an effort to identify alloys with improved corrosion resistance under more harsh operating conditions, a field exposure was conducted that involved the insertion of an air-cooled probe, containing six candidate alloys, into the superheater section of an operating recovery boiler. A metallographic examination, complete with corrosion scale characterization using EMPA, was conducted after a 1,000 hour exposure period. Based on the results, a ranking of alloys based on corrosion performance was obtained.

Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

Not Available

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas RecoveRy of WateR fRom BoileR flue Gas Background Coal-fired power plants require large volumes of water for efficient operation, primarily for cooling purposes. Public concern over water use is increasing, particularly in water stressed areas of the country. Analyses conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory predict significant increases in power plant freshwater consumption over the coming years, encouraging the development of technologies to reduce this water loss. Power plant freshwater consumption refers to the quantity of water withdrawn from a water body that is not returned to the source but is lost to evaporation, while water withdrawal refers to the total quantity of water removed from a water source.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

From Basic Control to Optimized Systems-Applying Digital Control Systems to Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This presentation examines the application of Distributed Digital Controls in order to review the application of this recent control technology towards Steam Boilers in a step-by-step manner. The main purpose of a steam generating boiler is to supply enough steam to meet process demands. Steam conditions must remain as stable as possible, because variations in the steam system can affect downstream processes. Pressure variations in the steam supply header, for example, can have a severe effect on heat transferred to a process. If that process suffers an upset, unstable conditions can propagate from one process to another via the steam supply system. The closer the tolerance in the boiler control system, the smaller the steam header disturbances will be. This reduces the interaction, or 'coupling', of upsets between steam-consuming processes. Also, it may reduce the complexity of instrumentation needed for those processes. If the boiler control system can eliminate major upsets, the downstream processes won't need exotic schemes to compensate for such upsets.

Hockenbury, W. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Waste minimization and pollution prevention initiatives within Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) boiler house operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mission of ANL-E Plant Facility and Services-Utilities and Systems (PFS-US) is to operate and maintain utility services in a cost-effective manner, while utilizing new and innovative methods whenever possible. PFS-US operates an on-site coal burning boiler plant that generates steam for use throughout the Laboratory as a source to heat buildings, as well as for use in research experiments. In the recent past, PFS-US has embarked upon a series of initiatives to improve operating efficiency of boiler house operations. The results of these projects have had the following impacts on boiler house performance and operations: (1) boiler house efficiency and operations have improved, (2) boiler house operating costs have been reduced, (3) specific operating and maintenance costs have been avoided or eliminated, and (4) the amount of waste and pollution generated has been reduced. Through the implementation of these initiatives, over $250,000 of revenue and cost savings have been incurred by ANL-E. In addition, the Laboratory and DOE will benefit annually from revenues, cost savings, and the reduction of environmental liability resulting from these initiatives.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Simulating aerosol formation and effects in NOx absorption in oxy-fired boiler gas processing units using Aspen Plus.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oxy-fired boilers are receiving increasing focus as a potential response to reduced boiler emissions limits and greenhouse gas legislation. Among the challenges in cleaning boiler (more)

Schmidt, David Daniel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Effect of Operational Transients on Boiler Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is increasingly the case that utility systems demand more flexibility in a unit's ability to respond to dispatch requirements, which can create a conflict between maximizing efficient operation and limiting damage accumulation. A boiler can be operated in various cycling modes and can be subjected to planned and unplanned transients associated with load following, minimum load operation, forced cooling, variable pressure operation, increased ramp rates, increased attemperation, over-temperature operat...

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

245

Impact of Operating Factors on Boiler Availability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As utilities strive to achieve higher reliability and lower operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for their fossil-fired power plants, changing plant operating conditions will provide even greater challenges in meeting those objectives. This report summarizes the cause and effect relationships that exist between operating conditions and boiler component reliability. It is an initial step in developing the tools and technology that will enable utilities to meet their objectives in an ever more competitive...

2000-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

246

Demonstration of Advanced Boiler Instrumentation Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New and increasing limits on emissions (in particular, NOx) and new emphasis on heat rate have underscored the need to measure flue gas constituents more accurately and in more locations. Utilities are making large capital investments in boiler improvements and emission control devices. These investments can be enhanced through the use of innovative, on-line instrumentation closer to the furnace combustion zone. Traditionally, sensors for flue gas constituents, such as NOx and CO, are implemented as part...

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Cyclone Boiler Reburn NOx Control Improvements via Cyclone Design Improvements and Advanced Air Staging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Eastman Kodak owns three Babcock & Wilcox coal fired cyclone boilers and one Combustion Engineering pulverized coal boiler located at Kodak Park in Rochester, New York. Duke Energy Generation Services (DEGS) operates and maintains the steam and electric generation equipment for Kodak and has primary responsibility for related capital project development and execution. The Kodak plant is capable of generating approximately 1,900,000 pounds of steam and 130 MWs of electrical power. To achieve the required level of NOx control, Kodak chose The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company's, Natural Gas Reburn technology for the three cyclone boilers. The relatively low capital cost of the system and reasonable cost of natural gas in the mid 1990s made Natural Gas Reburn an economic fit for the RACT requirements of 0.60#s/Mmbtu NOx. The run up in natural gas prices since 2002 has increased the cost of NOx removed from ~ $2000/ton to ~$5000/ton based on fuel expense alone. In an effort to curtail the cost of control, Duke Energy Generations Services and Kodak implemented a series of projects that integrated Cyclone Design Improvements and Advancements in Air Staging along with ESP inlet flue modifications that resulted in decreasing the Natural Gas required for NOx control ~ 40% from baseline levels saving the plant several million dollars per year in fuel expense. Significant improvements in opacity and filterable PM were also realized by these changes.

Morabito, B.; Nee, B.; Goff, V.; Maringo, G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Improving boiler performance through operator training  

SciTech Connect

The majority of the technical training in many plant facilities is the self-study type. These courses consist of packaged text materials as well as plant specific lessons. Video-based training is more effective than textbooks alone, and computer interactive training is becoming increasingly popular. Demonstration of technical competence can be conducted in a variety of ways: supervised system check off and verification system walk-throughs; simulator evaluation; written examinations required for promotion; and oral examinations. Boiler operators can be required to demonstrate in a practical way that they can apply the boiler plant theory to actual job performance in the plant. Some classifications may be required to perform a supervised system check off and verification before promotion to the next higher classification. Personnel who operate boilers from a control room or gauge board may be required to successfully complete simulator training and evaluation. All classifications may require successful completion of written and oral examinations before being promoted to the next higher classification.

DeHart, R.M. [Cogentrix Energy, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 11, April 1995--June 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quotes} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: (1) NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (2) SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (3) Particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: (1) Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation. (2) Reduced air toxics emissions. (3) Increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24-month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36-month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

NONE

1995-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

New Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County New Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County New Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County August 25, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Officials at Sherburne County's Government Center in Minnesota had a problem: the complex's original boilers, installed in 1972, were in desperate need of replacing. The two boilers were inefficient, labor intensive and well past their life expectancy. Any upgrades to the system were put on hold as the county tightened its purse strings amid a tough economy. "We kept asking: 'Can we make these things last one more year?'" says Dave Lucas, Sherburne County's solid waste administrator. However, hopes for a new set of boilers were revived in April after the

251

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 4:36pm Addthis A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of your home. Your gas boiler or furnace can be retrofitted to improve its energy efficiency. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels. Propane is usually more expensive as a fuel, but is available throughout the United States. Natural gas supplies depend on having a natural gas distribution system in your area, and areas at the end of the pipeline (such as the Northeast) tend to pay higher prices for natural gas.

252

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. What does this mean for me? If you have an oil furnace or boiler, you can now burn oil blended

253

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown here is required only for single-wall tanks and would extend the full width of the tank. | Photo courtesy State of Massachusetts. What does this mean for me? If you have an oil furnace or boiler, you can now burn oil blended

254

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 4:36pm Addthis A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of your home. Your gas boiler or furnace can be retrofitted to improve its energy efficiency. Gas boilers and furnaces can be fueled by either natural gas or propane with simple modifications accounting for the different characteristics of the fuels. Propane is usually more expensive as a fuel, but is available throughout the United States. Natural gas supplies depend on having a natural gas distribution system in your area, and areas at the end of the pipeline (such as the Northeast) tend to pay higher prices for natural gas.

255

Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler efficiency and availability. Proper control of boiler blowdown is also important to assure clean boiler surfaces without wasting water, heat, and chemicals. Recovering hot condensate for reuse as boiler feedwater is another means of improving system efficiency. Condensate which is contaminated with corrosion products or process chemicals, however, is ill fit for reuse; and steam which leaks from piping, valves, traps and connections cannot be recovered. Effective chemical treatment, in conjunction with mechanical system improvements, can assure that condensate can be safely returned and valuable energy recovered.

Bloom, D.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

New Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County New Boilers, Big Savings for Minnesota County August 25, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Officials at Sherburne County's Government Center in Minnesota had a problem: the complex's original boilers, installed in 1972, were in desperate need of replacing. The two boilers were inefficient, labor intensive and well past their life expectancy. Any upgrades to the system were put on hold as the county tightened its purse strings amid a tough economy. "We kept asking: 'Can we make these things last one more year?'" says Dave Lucas, Sherburne County's solid waste administrator. However, hopes for a new set of boilers were revived in April after the

257

Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

258

NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance  

SciTech Connect

Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

METHODOLOGIES FOR REVIEW OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF PROPOSED NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL SITES AND FACILITIES. VOLUME 9 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators," U.S. Environmentalbasin Boiler or PWR Steam Generator Blowdown Transmissionreactor coolant pumps, steam generators, piping, main stream

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accumulation of internal deposits can adversely affect the performance and availability of boilers and turbines in fossil steam-water cycles. Deposition in drum boilers has been identified as the area of broadest concern to the industry; therefore, an improved understanding of deposition in drum boilers is expected to represent the greatest source of benefits and value to end users. The overall objective of the modeling described here is to develop a comprehensive, integrated model for deposition process...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, opacity and temperature levels. A microcomputer-based control system which recognizes the inter-relationship of these variables has produced fuel savings averaging about 3% on coal and oil fired boilers. The system is described and case study data is presented for both coal and oil fired boilers.

Swanson, K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

Drost, M.K.

1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on boiler combustion efficiency provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Simulation of Combustion and Thermal Flow inside an Industrial Boiler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Industrial boilers that produce steam or electric power represent a large capital investment as well as a crucial facility for overall plant operations. In real (more)

Saripalli, Raja

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State and local government resources Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy: AstraZeneca - Newark This profiles explains how Astrazeneca's Newark...

267

Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State and local government resources Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy: Allergan - Westport This profiles explains how Allergan's Westport facility...

268

Boiler Tune-ups: Improve efficiency, reduce pollution, and save...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boiler Tune-ups: Improve efficiency, reduce pollution, and save money Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing...

269

Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State and local government resources Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy: Boeing Philadelphia This profiles explains how Beoing's Philadelphia plant...

270

Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State and local government resources Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy: Cargill Krefeld This profiles explains how Cargill's Krefeld mill saved...

271

Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State and local government resources Profiles in Energy Efficiency Boiler Upgrades Save Money & Energy: GM Marion & Orion This profiles explains how GM's Marion & Orion facilities...

272

Flame Doctor for Cyclone Boilers: Beta Demonstration Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of the beta demonstration of the Flame Doctor system as it is applied to cyclone boilers.

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

273

Shattering Kraft Recovery Boiler Smelt by a Steam Jet.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Kraft recovery boiler smelt is shattered into small droplets by an impinging steam jet to prevent smelt-water explosions in the dissolving tank. Inadequate shattering increases (more)

Taranenko, Anton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Modeling of a Drum Boiler Using MATLAB/Simulink.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A dynamic simulator was developed for a natural circulation drum type boiler through a joint Youngstown State University/The Babcock and Wilcox Company cooperative agreement. The (more)

Anderson, Scott B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Factors Affecting the Resistivity of Recovery Boiler Precipitator Ash.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are commonly used to control particulate emissions from recovery boilers in the kraft pulping process. The electrical resistivity of entrained particulates is (more)

Sretenovic, Ivan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Nanostructured Environmental Barrier Coatings for Corrosion Resistance in Recovery Boilers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Corrosion of components in a recovery boiler is a major problem faced by the pulp and paper industry. The superheater tubes get severely corroded due (more)

Rao, Shishir

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based on Ambient Air Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimum economic operation in a large power plant can cut operating costs substantially. Individual plant equipment should be operated under conditions that are most favorable for maximizing its efficiency. It is widely accepted that boiler load significantly effects boiler efficiency. In the study reported here, the measured performance of a 300,000 lb/h steam boiler was found to show more dependence on ambient air temperature than on boiler load. It also showed an unexplained dependence on the month of the year that is comparable to the load dependence.

Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based On Ambient Air Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimum economic operation in a large power plant can cut operating costs substantially. Individual plant equipment should be operated under conditions that are most favorable for maximizing its efficiency. It is widely accepted that boiler load significantly effects boiler efficiency. In the study reported here, the measured performance of a 300,000 lb/h steam boiler was found to show more dependence on ambient air temperature than on boiler load. It also showed an unexplained dependence on the month of the year that is comparable to the load dependence.

Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency...

280

FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System October 7, 2013 - 9:12am Addthis This composite photo shows technicians observing operation at the monitoring station and making subsequent fine adjustments on combustion system controls Technical staff are making boiler adjustments with the control and monitoring system. Photo courtesy of the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. Technology Description A novel combustion control system, along with gas sensors, sets the opening of fuel and air inlets based on flue-gas concentrations. Continuous feedback from measurements of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide concentrations enable the control system

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

allow ultra-supercritical boilers to achieve still higherthat supercritical-coal boilers, at least in the 1970s, didGW/year) by type of boiler. Source: [25]. Net Efficiency (

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Robust Output Feedback Stabilization of Nonlinear Interconnected Systems with Application to an Industrial Utility Boiler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to an Industrial Utility Boiler Adarsha Swarnakar, Horacio Jose Marquez and Tongwen Chen Abstract-- This paper boiler (Utility boiler), where the nonlinear model describes the complicated dynamics of the drum

Marquez, Horacio J.

283

The reapplication of energetic materials as boiler fuels  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of weapons stockpiles, off-specification production, and upgrading of weapons systems results in a large amount of energetic materials (EM) such as rocket propellant and primary explosives that need to be recycled or disposed of each year. Presently, large quantities of EM are disposed of in a process known as open-burn/open-detonation (OB/OD), which not only wastes their energy content, but may release large quantities of hazardous material into the environment. Here the authors investigate the combustion properties of several types of EM to determine the feasibility of reapplication of these materials as boiler fuels, a process that could salvage the energy content of the EM as well as mitigate any potential adverse environmental impact. Reapplication requires pretreatment of the fuels to make them safe to handle and to feed. Double-base nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroguanidine, and a rocket propellant binder primarily composed of polybutidiene impregnated with aluminum flakes have been burned in a 100-kW downfired flow reactor. Most of these fuels have high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen, much of it bound in the form of nitrate groups, resulting in high NO{sub x} emissions during combustion. The authors have measured fuel-bound nitrate conversion efficiencies to NO{sub x} of up to 80%, suggesting that the nitrate groups do not follow the typical path of fuel nitrogen through HCN leading to NO{sub x}, but rather form NO{sub x} directly. They show that staged combustion is effective in reducing NO{sub x} concentrations in the postcombustion gases by nearly a factor of 3. In the rocket binder, measured aluminum particle temperatures in excess of 1700{degrees}C create high levels of thermal NO{sub x}, and also generate concern that molten aluminum particles could potentially damage boiler equipment. Judicious selection of the firing method is thus required for aluminum-containing materials.

Buckley, S.G.; Sclippa, G.C.; Ross, J.R. [and others

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

285

Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of fluorocarbon resin covered tubes has advanced to the point where full scale marketing in connection with condensing heat exchangers has begun. Field installations show simple paybacks of one to one and a half years with resulting steam boiler fuel to steam efficiencies in excess of 90%. The studies and evaluations done to date indicate that units of this type will be cost effective in sizes ranging from 10,000 to 300,0000 steam per hour as long as cold makeup water is available for preheating with the waste flue gases.

Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Flame Spectral Analysis for Boiler Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An instrument has been developed by Tecogen, Inc., to determine the combustion characteristics of individual burners in multiburner installations. The technology is based on measuring the emissions in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectral range from the flames and using these measurements to determine the burner operating conditions. Two prototype instruments have been installed on package boilers at a Con Edison powerplant and Polaroid facility, and their performance has been evaluated. These instruments provide data relating to the variations in the IR and UV spectrum with a change in the combustion condition in individuals burners. This paper describes the instruments operation and these tests.

Metcalfe, C. I.; Cole, W. E.; Batra, S. K.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Failure Analysis of Two 80 HP Multiport Boilers - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Failure Analysis of Two 80 HP Multiport Boilers ... microstructure and the scale collected suggested overheating of the boiler during service.

288

Sigma Phase Embrittlement of a Boiler Tube Lug - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Sigma Phase Embrittlement of a Boiler Tube Lug ... which dissolves in temperatures above 1800 F. Boilers commonly operate at 1800- 2100...

289

Identification and predictive control for a circulation fluidized bed boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces the design and presents the research findings of the identification and control application for an industrial Circulation Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) model is used in the model identification where ... Keywords: CFB boilers, Identification, LPV model, Linear models interpolation, MPC

Guoli Ji, Jiangyin Huang, Kangkang Zhang, Yucai Zhu, Wei Lin, Tianxiao Ji, Sun Zhou, Bin Yao

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Heat Flux Electrochemical Studies of Underdeposit Boiler Tube Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler water-side corrosion in fossil plants represents a key cause of availability loss and performance degradation, with underdeposit corrosion (UDC) being a major damage mechanism. UDC results from concentration of impurities and contaminants within the structure of the deposit residing on the heated internal surfaces of boiler waterwall tubing. The EPRI cycle chemistry guidelines provide control curves based on ...

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700) jeb@math.purdue.edu #12;#12;#12;David McCullough, Jr help Always be prepared #12;Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700) jeb@math.purdue.edu #12;

Brown, Johnny E.

292

Modelling of a Utility Boiler Using Parallel Computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model for the simulation of the turbulent reactive flow and heat transfer in a power station boiler has been parallelized. The mathematical model is based on the numerical solution of the governing equations for mass, momentum, energy ... Keywords: boilers, computational fluid dynamics, discrete ordinates, parallel processing, radiative heat transfer, turbulent reactive flows

P. J. Coelho; P. A. Novo; M. G. Carvalho

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Residual carbon from pulverized coal fired boilers 1: Size distribution and combustion reactivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of residual, or unburned, carbon in fly ash is an important concern in the design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers. Char oxidation is the slowest step in the coal combustion process, and the rate at which this heterogeneous reaction-proceeds has an important effect on the degree of carbon burnout. There is an extensive literature on char combustion kinetics based on data in the early and intermediate stages of carbon conversion. A critical fundamental question is whether the small fraction of the fuel carbon that passes unreacted through a boiler is representative of the char during the main portion of the combustion process. This article addresses that question through a detailed characterization of eight carbon-containing fly ash samples acquired from commercial-scale combustion systems. The fly ash characterization included measurement-of joint carbon/size distribution and determination.of the combustion reactivity of the residual carbon. To minimize mineral matter interactions in the reactivity tests, the technique of incipient fluidization was developed for separation of carbon-rich extracts from the inorganic portion of the fly ash. Reactivity measurements were made at 1400--1800 K to represent conditions in pulverized coal fired boilers. Measurements were also made at 700--1100 K to. minimize transport effects and isolate the influence of char chemistry and microstructure. In both temperature regimes, the residual carbon extracts. were significantly less reactive than chars extracted from a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor in the early-to-intermediate stages of combustion. It is concluded that the boiler environment deactivates chars, making high carbon burnout more difficult to achieve than is predicted by existing char combustion kinetic models that were developed from data on the laboratory chars. Finally, the results are used to discuss potential char deactivation mechanisms, both thermal and oxidative, in coal-fired boilers.

Hurt, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Gibbins, J.R. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reviews the work performed during the quarter April-June 2003. The main focus of this quarter has been the site preparation (task 1) for the test campaign scheduled in September/October 2003. Task 3 (Techno-economical assessment) has also been initiated while selecting the methodology to be used in the economics analysis and specifying the plants to be compared: In Task 1 (Site Preparation), the process definition and design activities have been completed, the equipment and instruments required have been identified, and the fabrication and installation activities have been initiated, to implement the required modifications on the pilot boiler. As of today, the schedule calls for completion of construction by late-July. System check-down is scheduled for the first two weeks of August. In Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization), four weeks of testing are planned, two weeks starting second half of August and two weeks starting at the end of September. In Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study), the plants to be evaluated have been specified, including baseline cases (air fired PC boilers with or without CO{sub 2} capture), O{sub 2}-fired cases (with or without flue gas recirculation) and IGCC cases. Power plants ranging from 50 to 500MW have been selected and the methodology to be used has been described, both for performance evaluation and cost assessment. The first calculations will be performed soon and the first trends will be reported in the next quarter. As part of Task 5 (Project Management & Reporting), the subcontract between Babcock&Wilcox and American Air Liquide has been finalized. The subcontract between ISGS and American Air Liquide is in the final stages of completion.

Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Comparison of Creep-Rupture Tested Cast Alloys HR282, IN740 and 263 for Possible Application in Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbine and Boiler  

SciTech Connect

Cast forms of traditionally wrought Ni-base precipitation-strengthened superalloys are being considered for service in the ultra-supercritical conditions (760C, 35MPa) of next-generation steam boilers and turbines. After casting and homogenization, these alloys were given heat-treatments typical for each in the wrought condition to develop the gamma-prime phase. Specimens machined from castings were creep-rupture tested in air at 800C. In their wrought forms, alloy 282 is expected to precipitate M23C6 within grain boundaries, alloy 740 is expected to precipitate several grain boundary phases including M23C6, G Phase, and ? phase, and alloy 263 has M23C6 and MC within its grain boundaries. This presentation will correlate the observed creep-life of these cast alloys with the microstructures developed during creep-rupture tests, with an emphasis on the phase identification and chemistry of precipitated grain boundary phases. The suitability of these cast forms of traditionally wrought alloys for turbine and boiler components will also be discussed.

Jablonski, P D; Evens, N; Yamamoto, Y; Maziasz, P

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

296

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems: Technical progress report No. 16, July-September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Under Task 7--Component development and optimization, the CeraMem filter testing was completed. Due to an unacceptably high flue gas draft loss, which will not be resolved in the POCTF timeframe, a decision was made to change the design of the flue gas cleaning system from Hot SNO{sub x}{sup {trademark}} to an advanced dry scrubber called New Integrated Desulfurization (NID). However, it is recognized that the CeraMem filter still has the potential to be viable in pulverized coal systems. In Task 8-- Preliminary POCTF design, integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle as well as the balance of plant design were completed. Licensing activities continued. A NID system was substituted for the SNO{sub x} Hot Process.

Barcikowski, G.F.; Borio, R.W.; Bozzuto, C.R.; Burr, D.H.; Cellilli, L.; Fox, J.D.; Gibbons, T.B.; Hargrove, M.J.; Jukkola, G.D.; King, A.M.

1996-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

297

A Comparison of Creep-Rupture Tested Cast Alloys HR282, IN740 and 263 for Possible Application in Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbine and Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cast forms of traditionally wrought Ni-base precipitation-strengthened superalloys are being considered for service in the ultra-supercritical conditions (760C, 35MPa) of next-generation steam boilers and turbines. After casting and homogenization, these alloys were given heat-treatments typical for each in the wrought condition to develop the gamma-prime phase. Specimens machined from castings were creep-rupture tested in air at 800C. In their wrought forms, alloy 282 is expected to precipitate M23C6 within grain boundaries, alloy 740 is expected to precipitate several grain boundary phases including M23C6, G Phase, and ? phase, and alloy 263 has M23C6 and MC within its grain boundaries. This presentation will correlate the observed creep-life of these cast alloys with the microstructures developed during creep-rupture tests, with an emphasis on the phase identification and chemistry of precipitated grain boundary phases. The suitability of these cast forms of traditionally wrought alloys for turbine and boiler components will also be discussed.

Jablonski, P D; Evens, N; Yamamoto, Y; Maziasz, P

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

298

Dubuque generation station, Dubuque, Iowa  

SciTech Connect

Alliant Energy's Dubuque generation station is a fine example of why small does not mean insignificant in the power generation industry. This winner of the EUCG best performer award in the small plant category shows that its operating excellence towers over that of many larger and much newer coal-fired power plants. The plant has three operating units with boilers originally designed for Illinois basin coal but now Powder River Basin coal makes up 75% of the coal consumed. The boilers can also burn natural gas. 4 photos.

Peltier, R.

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Inhibition of IGA/SCC on Alloy 600 Surfaces Exposed to PWR Secondary Water: Volume 3: Precracking Model Boiler Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing in alkaline environments continues to be a serious problem. EPRI has an extensive program devoted to qualifying corrosion inhibitors for use in PWR steam generators. Researchers have identified several potential inhibitor materials in laboratory tests. This report documents testing of these potential inhibitors in model boilers contaminated with sodium hydroxide.

1998-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

EPRI Boiler Reliability Optimization Program: Case Studies from 1998-2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The prospect of competing in a deregulated environment is driving utilities to explore more cost-effective means of operating and maintaining their plants. Recognizing this, a number of companies -- including American Electric Power, Great River Energy, Detroit Edison, Arizona Public Services Company, and Hawaiian Electric Company -- have participated in EPRI's Boiler Reliability Optimization Program. This report provides seven case studies demonstrating key aspects of the program.

2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Field Guide: Heat Recovery Steam Generator Tube Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In conventional and combined-cycle plants, boiler and heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) tube failures have been the main availability problem for as long as reliable statistics have been kept for each generating source. The three volumes of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report Boiler and Heat Recovery Steam Generator Tube Failures: Theory and Practice (1012757) present an in-depth description of the various HRSG and degradation mechanisms, providing plant owners and operators with the t...

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system is comprised of B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NOxOUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. Development of the low-NO{sub x} burner technology has been a focus in B and W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner is B and W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by controlled mixing of the fuel and air. Based on data from several 500 to 600 MWe boilers firing PRB coal, NOx emissions levels of 0.15 to 0.20 lb/ 106 Btu have been achieved from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with overfire air ports. Although NOx emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/106 Btu, the utility boiler owners can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them. Large-scale testing is planned in B and W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) that simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. The objective of the project is to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/106 Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}. During this period B and W prepared and submitted the project management plan and hazardous substance plan to DOE. The negotiation of a subcontract for Fuel Tech has been started.

Hamid Farzan

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Advanced Materials for Ultra Supercritical Boiler Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Road Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-4721 robert.romanosky@netl.doe.gov Patricia a. Rawls Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5882 patricia.rawls@netl.doe.gov Robert M. Purgert Prime Contractor and Administrator Energy Industries of Ohio 6100 Oak Tree Boulevard, Suite 200 Independence, OH 44131-6914 216-643-2952 purgert@msn.com AdvAnced MAteriAls for UltrA sUpercriticAl Boiler systeMs Description A consortium led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has conducted the first phase of a multiyear program to develop materials technology for use in advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plants. The advanced materials developed in this project are essential for construction of

304

Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

Osborn, Liman D. (Alexandria, VA)

1976-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

305

Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cost of steam has become a very real part of Product cost. U.S. Industry strives to become more fuel efficient, while increasing productivity. At the same time it must adhere to stringent emission regulations. The plant manager is faced with a bewildering number of avenues to explore to achieve efficiency improvements through the use of the widest conceivable array of products. These range from simple fuel additives to highly sophisticated Computer Programs. Each has merit. This paper recognizes that only a small percentage of plant managers have an in-depth understanding of combustion processes and presents simple yet factual measurements for the determination of boiler combustion, operating and maintenance efficiencies.

Blakeley, C. P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

307

Increase Your Boiler Pressure to Decrease Your Electric Bill: The True Cost of CHP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The majority of small scale steam turbine generator projects are installed as an afterthought to overall plant design. As a plant manager or process engineer, the primary concern is providing the process with the thermal load it needs at the lowest $ per Btu. The viability of installing a steam turbine generator set comes after the plant is in operation and pressure reducing valves (PRV's) have been installed, providing the opportunity has been proven to be sufficient for onsite power generation. This methodology produces reliable systems that operate with whatever steam conditions were present. What if users could take a step back to the initial design of the steam boiler? Plant engineers can proactively analyze the impact of folding a steam turbine generator set into the overall plant design at the pre-construction phase, significantly decreasing total energy costs and reducing the net $ per Btu. This paper analyzes the costs and benefits of integrating a steam turbine generator set into the initial boiler plant design, with marginal fuel increase and equipment cost yet providing the added benefit of clean, low cost and reliable onsite power production.

Downing, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

Wayne Penrod

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Improved Process control of wood waste fired boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project's principal aim was the conceptual and feasibility stage development of improved process control methods for wood-waste-fired water-tube boilers operating in industrial manufacturing applications (primarily pulp and paper). The specific objectives put forth in the original project proposal were as follows: (1) fully characterize the wood-waste boiler control inter-relationships and constraints through data collection and analysis; (2) design an improved control architecture; (3) develop and test an appropriate control and optimization algorithm; and (4) develop and test a procedure for reproducing the approach and deriving the benefits on similar pulp and paper wood-waste boilers. Detailed tasks were developed supporting these objectives.

Process Control Solutions, Inc.

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The goals for emissions and plant efficiency are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; particulate emissions not greater than 0.01 lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency (HHV basis) not less than 42%. Other goals include: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives, and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24- month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36- month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

NONE

1995-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

311

Structural Synthesis Of Programs From Refined User Requirements (Programming boiler control in NUT)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a declarative language as a tool for automated implementation of requirements written in a semiformal manner. The technique of structural synthesis of programs based on automatic proof search in intuitionistic propositional calculus implemented in the NUT system is used for solving the steam-boiler problem. The goal of the experiment is to bridge a gap between the language of requirements and an implementation. An appropriate set of concepts is developed for representing the problem, i.e. writing the requirements in a form understandable by the program synthesis tools. A complete implementation, including simulator of the actual steam-boiler and control panel, is written in NUT. 1.0 Introduction This paper concerns automatic application of formal methods in implementation of industrial control systems. The idea is to use an extensible very high level language, extending it with a set of concepts sufficient for writing req...

M. Addibpour; E. Tyugu; M. Addibpour E. Tyugu [mattin

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Results from Alloy 600 And Alloy 690 Caustic SCC Model Boiler Tests  

SciTech Connect

A versatile model boiler test methodology was developed and used to compare caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of mill annealed Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690. The model boiler included simulated crevice devices that efficiently and consistently concentrated Na2CO3, resulting in volatilization of CO2 with the steam and concentration of NaOH at the tube surfaces. The test methodology also included variation in tube stress, either produced by the primary to secondary side pressure differential, or by a novel method that reproducibly yields a higher stress condition on the tube. The significant effect of residual stress on tube SCC was also considered. SCC of both Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 were evaluated as a function of temperature and stress. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) evaluations of the cracks and the grain boundaries ahead of the cracks were performed, providing insight into the SCC mechanism. This model boiler test methodology may be applicable to a range of bulkwater secondary chemistries that concentrate to produce aggressive crevice environments.

Miller, Frederick D.; Thomas, Larry E.

2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

313

CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994  

SciTech Connect

Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

BUTCHER,T.A.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

314

BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School April 26, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Oregon Governor Kulongoski maneuvers a backhoe to break ground at the Vernonia school site. | Department of Energy Image | Photo by Joel Danforth, Contractor | Public Domain | Oregon Governor Kulongoski maneuvers a backhoe to break ground at the Vernonia school site. | Department of Energy Image | Photo by Joel Danforth, Contractor | Public Domain | Joel Danforth Project Officer, Golden Field Office What will the project do? The boiler system will have a capacity of up to 3 Million Metric British Thermal Units (MMBTU) per hour and will be fueled by locally derived wood-pellet feedstocks. A new school in Vernonia, Oregon is beginning to take form as the town

316

Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School April 26, 2011 - 5:29pm Addthis Oregon Governor Kulongoski maneuvers a backhoe to break ground at the Vernonia school site. | Department of Energy Image | Photo by Joel Danforth, Contractor | Public Domain | Oregon Governor Kulongoski maneuvers a backhoe to break ground at the Vernonia school site. | Department of Energy Image | Photo by Joel Danforth, Contractor | Public Domain | Joel Danforth Project Officer, Golden Field Office What will the project do? The boiler system will have a capacity of up to 3 Million Metric British Thermal Units (MMBTU) per hour and will be fueled by locally derived wood-pellet feedstocks. A new school in Vernonia, Oregon is beginning to take form as the town

317

Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Bioenergy Maximum Rebate $15,000 Program Info Funding Source Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust Fund Start Date 03/2013 State Massachusetts Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Base Grant: $7,000 Automated Conveyance of Fuel Adder: $3,000 Thermal Storage Adder: $2,000 Solar Thermal Hybrid System Adder: $1,000 Moderate Income Adder or Moderate Home Value Adder: $2,000 Maximum Grant: $15,000 Provider Massachusetts Clean Energy Center The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) and the Department of Energy Resources (DOER) are offering the Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler

318

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF EROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS ON BOILER INDUCED...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

15 Fan design data for units 5 - 9 ... 16 FIELD P E R F O R M A N C E OF ' EROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS ON BOILER INDUCED D R A F T F A N...

319

Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of...

320

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Evaluation of Methods to Identify Boiler Air Inleakage Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The information contained in this technical update report represents a first-of-a-kind study to evaluate different methods used to identify boiler air inleakage. The study begins to outline the cost and benefits of using those different methods in addition to describing their application. The collection and assemblage of this information will provide a reference for plant engineering and management personnel as their units experience the problems associated with boiler air inleakage. Through the use of t...

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

322

Passive Corrosion Probe Testing at Dairyland Power's Genoa #3 Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations require significant reductions on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) for utility boilers. A preferred method to achieve this uses burner systems that reduce NOx formation. Such burner systems create reducing zones in the lower furnace, especially in staged conditions, using overfire air (OFA) ports. Waterwall wastage has increased significantly in such boilers. EPRI has sponsored research to define wastage mechanisms and to predict wastage rates based on ...

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

323

Evaluation of Explosive Cleaning Damage in Ferritic Boiler Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities have reported boiler tube damage after explosive cleaning to control or remove slag deposits. The damage typically consists of tube crushing, denting, microcracking, and inner diameter (ID) initiated cracking. Because the latter two might not propagate through tube wall thickness initially, these types of cracking are not commonly detected during the cleaning process. However, tube failures after the boiler resumed service have been attributed to these ID-related cracking. Many utilities have r...

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

324

Simulation of Combustion and Thermal Flow in an Industrial Boiler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial boilers that produce steam or electric power represent a crucial facility for overall plant operations. To make the boiler more efficient, less emission (cleaner) and less prone to tube rupture problems, it is important to understand the combustion and thermal flow behaviors inside the boiler. This study performs a detailed simulation of combustion and thermal flow behaviors inside an industrial boiler. The simulations are conducted using the commercial CFD package FLUENT. The 3-D Navier-Stokes equations and five species transport equations are solved with the eddy-breakup combustion model. The simulations are conducted in three stages. In the first stage, the entire boiler is simulated without considering the steam tubes. In the second stage, a complete intensive calculation is conducted to compute the flow and heat transfer across about 496 tubes. In the third stage, the results of the saturator/superheater sections are used to calculate the thermal flow in the chimney. The results provide insight into the detailed thermal-flow and combustion in the boiler and showing possible reasons for superheater tube rupture. The exhaust gas temperature is consistent with the actual results from the infrared thermograph inspection.

Saripalli, R.; Wang, T.; Day, B.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Notice of construction for proposed backup package boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hanford Site steam plant consists of coal-fired boilers located at the 200 East and the 200 West Areas. These boilers have provided steam to heat and cool facilities in the 200 Areas since the early 1940`s. As part of Project L-017, ``Steam System Rehabilitation, Phase II``, the 200 West Area coal-fired boilers will be permanently shut down. The shut down will only occur after a proposed package backup boiler (50,000 pounds per hour (lb/hr) steam, firing No. 2 oil) is installed at the 200 West Area. The proposed backup boiler will provide back-up services when the 200 East Area steam line, which provides steam to the 200 West Area, is down for maintenance or, when the demand for steam exceeds the supply available from the 200 East Plant. This application is a request for approval to construct and operate the package backup boiler. This request is being made pursuant to Washington Administration Code (WAC) Chapter 173-400, ``General Regulations for Air Pollution Sources``, and Chapter 173-460, ``Controls for New Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants``.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Improved Boiler System Operation with Real-time Chemical Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The steam boiler system is a critical component of most manufacturing processes. Steam production reliability is often a key component in product quality and overall production efficiency. Hourly steam load demands can swing by as much as 500% in some plants, making responsive water treatment of the boiler system difficult. This challenging production environment is made even more so by volatile economic forces in today's world. New technologies have been developed that help steam operations staff achieve more consistent, proactive boiler feedwater treatment by detecting system variability, determining the correct chemical or operational action, and delivering measurable environmental return on investment (ROI). These new technologies will be described and several case histories presented. The steam boiler system is a critical component of most manufacturing processes. Steam production reliability is often a key component in product quality and overall production efficiency. Hourly steam load demands can swing by as much as 500% in some plants, making responsive water treatment of the boiler system difficult. This challenging production environment is made even more so by volatile economic forces in today's world. New technologies have been developed that help steam operations staff achieve more consistent, proactive boiler feedwater treatment by detecting system variability, determining the correct chemical or operational action, and delivering measurable environmental return on investment (ROI). These new technologies will be described and several case histories presented.

Bloom, D.; Jenkins, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. Toward the end of the program, a Second Generation gas injection system was installed. Higher injector gas pressures were used that eliminated the need for flue gas recirculation as used in the first generation design. The Second Generation GR resulted in similar NOX reduction performance as that for the First Generation. With an improvement in the LNB performance in combination with the new gas injection system , the reburn gas could be reduced to 12.5% of the total boiler heat input to achieve al 64?40 reduction in NO, emissions. In addition, the OFA injectors were modified to provide for better mixing to lower CO emissions.

None

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

Demirel, Melik C.

329

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers Background Technology and policy options are being investigated for mitigating CO 2 emissions. Electric power generation represents one of the largest CO 2 contributors in the United States and is expected to grow with fossil fuels continuing to be the dominant fuel source. Oxy-combustion is a developing technology that could become part of a national carbon capture effort to mitigate climate change. At a pulverized coal

330

Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many of the operational and emissions problems that result from burning coal. This paper describes the use of blended chemical flue gas conditioners to significantly reduce particulate emissions in coal-fired industrial boilers. In many cases, these chemical conditioning agents have increased the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators and mechanical collectors by more than fifty percent. The effectiveness of this technology has been demonstrated on units generating 50,000 to 200,000 lbs./hr. steam. Results achieved at various industrial plants under actual operating conditions are presented.

Miller, B.; Keon, E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

Multiple boiler steam blending control system for an electric power plant  

SciTech Connect

A steam blending control is provided for two or more boilers in an electric power plant. To blend an oncoming boiler with an online boiler, the oncoming boiler is fired to a pressure ramp setpoint and outlet steam is isolated from the plant turbine and directed through position controlled bypass valve means. When steam temperature and pressure conditions are matched, the oncoming boiler isolation valve is opened and the bypass flow then existing is stored in a memory. The oncoming boiler bypass flow is cut back with total oncoming boiler steam flow controlled to the memorized flow valve as a setpoint. Flow from the on-line boiler is cut back under load control as the oncoming boiler flow to the plant turbine is increased. Deblending is implemented in a similar manner.

Binstock, M.H.; Criswell, R.L.

1981-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

333

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO2 flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NOx, SOx, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO2 flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NOx, SOx, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO2 capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

Use of explosives for boiler deslagging gains acceptance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article examines an unconventional technique for removing slag from solid-fuel-fired boilers, used for more than two decades, that recently has exploded in popularity. The risks are very real; extensive damage at several recent jobs confirms that all blasters are not created equal. At solid-fuel-fired powerplants, slag removal can be a constant battle. Conventional weapons include picks, jackhammers, shotguns fired through portholes, hydro-blasting, and CO{sub 2}-blasting. But each of these methods is labor intensive, consumes substantial amounts of downtime, and may not dislodge severe deposits. In the 1960s, a midwestern plant superintendent, short of personnel because of a labor strike and frustrated by seemingly immovable slagging, resorted to dynamite. The good results surprised both the superintendent and the blasting contractor who had been called in from a nearby civil engineering job. Over the next two decades or so, the technique spread through a core group of believers at powerplants who largely relied on the one original blasting contractor. In recent years, explosive deslagging has become more widely accepted as a state-of-the-art combat technique and several hundred powerplants through the US now make use of it during annual outages. As the technique`s acceptance has grown, so has the number of contractors entering the field. Some veterans worry that the industry has expanded too fast, and unqualified blasters are being allowed into the powerplant.

Swanekamp, R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Second Generation PFBC Systems R&D  

SciTech Connect

No work was performed; the two remaining Multi Annular Swirl Burner test campaigns are on hold pending selection of a new test facility (replacement for the shut down UTSI burner test facility) and identification of associated testing costs. The Second-Generation PFB Combustion Plant conceptual design prepared in 1987 is being updated to reflect the benefit of pilot plant test data and the latest advances in gas turbine technology. The updated plant is being designed to operate with 95 percent sulfur capture and a single Siemens Westinghouse (SW) 501G gas turbine. Using carbonizer and gas turbine data generated by Foster Wheeler (FW) and SW respectively, Parsons Infrastructure & Technology prepared preliminary plant heat and material balances based on carbonizer operating temperatures of 1700 and 1800 F; the former yielded the higher plant efficiency and has been selected for the design update. The 501G gas turbine has an air compressor discharge temperature of 811EF and an exhaust temperature of 1140 F. Both of these streams represent high sources of heat and must be cooled, the air to 600 F to be compatible with a 650 F PCFB pressure vessel design temperature and the exhaust for a 275 F stack gas temperature. Because of their relatively high temperature, they can be used for feed water heating, steam generation and/or steam superheating and reheating. As a result, the plant could have one boiler (the PCFB boiler), or as many as three boilers if their cooling is used to generate steam. Three different plant arrangements using one, two and then three boilers were considered with the three-boiler arrangement minimizing the feedwater flow/steam turbine size and maximizing the plant efficiency. After reviewing the three arrangements it was felt the operating complexity associated with a three-boiler plant did not justify the 1/2 point increase in plant efficiency it provided and a two-boiler plant was selected.

Archie Robertson

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

337

Comments on the use of boiler efficiencies to determine unit heat rate  

SciTech Connect

The expression for boiler efficiency defined in ASME PTC4.1 was developed for evaluating boiler performance, carrying out acceptance tests on boilers and computing the effects of changes in parameters such as fuel characteristics on boiler performance. While satisfactory for applications such as these, this particular definition of boiler efficiency can result in substantial errors when used for computing unit performance. Sample calculations are presented for a 600 MW coal fired unit which show errors in net unit heat rate of 1 to 3 percent due to inconsistent definitions for boiler efficiency.

Levy, E.K.; Sarunac, N. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (USA). Energy Research Center); Leyse, R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Design and Performance Aspects of Steam Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Packaged steam generators are widely used in process and power plants. They are also used as standby boilers in cogeneration/combined cycle plants. The general feeling among consultants, plant engineers and end users is that packaged steam generators are "standard" or "off-the-shelf items", that there exists a model number for a given steam capacity and one has to live with whatever performance is offered by the boiler vendor. Unfortunately, boiler suppliers also encourage specifying of steam generators based on standard, pre-packaged designs. A "standard" boiler has several limitations such as pre-determined furnace dimensions, tube length, surface area, tube spacings etc, which may or may not be the optimum choice for a given steam demand, particularly when today's emission levels have to be met. Also, operating costs, which form a significant portion of overall costs, are ignored by consultants when evaluating various designs for possible purchase. This paper highlights the importance of custom designing packaged steam generators and the resulting benefits from boiler performance viewpoint.

Ganapathy, V.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers  

SciTech Connect

The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

Taler, J.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18%. The performance goal of 70/40 reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18%.

None

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt mixtures and compared with sodium-based binary and higher order systems. Predictions and measurements were demonstrated for both salt systems and for some more complex silicate-bearing systems, substantially exceeding the original scope of this work. 4. A multi-dimensional model of char bed reactivity developed under this project demonstrated that essentially all reactions in char beds occur on or near the surface, with the internal portions of the bed being essentially inert. The model predicted composition, temperature, and velocity profiles in the bed and showed that air jet penetration is limited to the immediate vicinity of the char bed, with minimal impact on most of the bed. The modeling efforts substantially exceeded the original scope of this project. 5. Near the completion of this project, DOE withdrew the BYU portion of a multiparty agreement to complete this and additional work with no advanced warning, which compromised the integration of all of this material into a commercial computer code. However, substantial computer simulations of much of this work were initiated, but not completed. 6. The gasification modeling is nearly completed but was aborted near its completion according to a DOE redirection of funds. This affected both this and the previous tasks.

Baxter, Larry L.

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

342

Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles  

SciTech Connect

Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Boiler steam engine with steam recovery and recompression  

SciTech Connect

A boiler type of steam engine is described which uses a conventional boiler with an external combustion chamber which heats water in a pressure chamber to produce steam. A mixing chamber is used to mix the steam from the boiler with recovered recompressed steam. Steam from the mixing chamber actuates a piston in a cylinder, thereafter the steam going to a reservoir in a heat exchanger where recovered steam is held and heated by exhaust gases from the combustion chamber. Recovered steam is then recompressed while being held saturated by a spray of water. Recovered steam from a steam accumulator is then used again in the mixing chamber. Thus, the steam is prevented from condensing and is recovered to be used again. The heat of the recovered steam is saved by this process.

Vincent, O.W.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

344

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Our solution to the specification problem in the specification language TLA+ is based on a model of operation where several components proceed synchronously. Our first specification concerns a simplified controller and abstracts from many details given in the informal problem description. We successively add modules to build a model of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed controller specification and prove that it refines the abstract controller. We also address the relationship between the physical state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss the reliability of failure detection. Finally, we discuss the implementability of our specification. 1 Introduction We propose a solution to the steam boiler control specification problem [AS] by means of a formal specification in the specification language TLA+, which is based on Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions TLA [L94]. The overall str...

Frank Leke; Stephan Merz

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in the Northeast States Agency/Company /Organization: CONEG Policy Research Center Inc. Partner: Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, Rick Handley and Associates, Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Other Website: www.mass.gov/Eoeea/docs/doer/renewables/biomass/DOER%20Biomass%20Emiss Country: United States

346

Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Eligibility Multi-Family Residential...

348

Thermal Nondestructive Characterization of Corrosion in Boiler Tubes by Application of a Moving Line Heat Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wall thinning in utility boiler waterwall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. This technique has proved to be very labor intensive and slow. ...

Cramer K. Elliott; Winfree William P.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Boiler Tune-ups: Improve efficiency, reduce pollution, and save money!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tune-ups: Tune-ups: Improve efficiency, reduce pollution, and save money! ____________________________________________________ Did you know . . . * Inefficient industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers waste money and pollute? * There are over 1.5 million ICI boilers in the United States? * Boilers burning coal, oil, biomass, and other solid fuels and liquid are a major source of toxic air pollution? * New federal Clean Air Act rules require certain boilers to get regular tune-ups? * Keeping your boilers tuned-up can reduce hazardous air pollution? Energy Management, Tune-ups and Energy Assessment Reducing the amount of fuel used by boilers is one of the most cost effective ways to control hazardous air pollution. Tuning-up a boiler optimizes the air-fuel mixture for the operating range of the boiler

350

EIS-0284: Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) Proof-of-Concept...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) Proof-of-Concept System, Elkhart, Illinois EIS-0284: Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) Proof-of-Concept System, Elkhart, Illinois Summary This...

351

Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1 Donglin Li Tongwen Chen2 hierarchical LEC structure and apply it to a typ- ical boiler system. There are two damage models

Marquez, Horacio J.

352

Boiler Tube Corrosion Characterization With a Scanning Thermal Line  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler waterwall tubing is a significant operational concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. Unfortunately, ultrasonic inspection is very manpower intense and slow. Therefore, thickness measurements are typically taken over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall and statistical analysis is used to determine the overall condition of the boiler tubing. Other inspection techniques, such as electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), have recently been evaluated, however they provide only a qualitative evaluation - identifying areas or spots where corrosion has significantly reduced the wall thickness. NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with ThermTech Services, has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to quantitatively measure the wall thickness and thus determine the amount of material thinning present in steel boiler tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed and accuracy for large structures such as boiler waterwalls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented to establish the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system ...

Elliott Cramer National; K. Elliott Cramer; Langley Blvd; Ronald Jacobstein; Thomas Reilly

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

THE SNAP II POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM TOPICAL REPORT NO. 12. BOILER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The SNAP II boilers which were designed are summarized. As shown by test results from the three boilers which were tested, a continuous progress in design was achieved. These designs were based on test data from both the SNAP I and SNAP II programs. As the quantity of data increased, physical models describing the heat transfer process were developed. These physical models provide the necessary correlation parameters which permit the extension of existing data to advanced design. Preliminary test sections were designed on the assumption that an allvapor nmodel which ignores the presence of the liquid phase during forced convection boiling could be used to describe the process quantitatively. The conventional Dittus-Boelter equation was applied with the increase in the vapor flow along the tube being ascribed to liquid evaporation. The assumption led to a design that fell short by about an order of magnitude since the exit qualities were only in the range of 10%, far less than required for complete vaporization. As a result, a revision in the concept of the mechanics of boiling was found necessary and a theoretical analysis was formulated, based on a dry wall'' or dropwise'' type boiling phenomenon. The test results of the preliminary test sections and the SNAP I boiler were plotted on the basis of dry-wall boiling parameters containing the area mean temperature difference and mass velocity. A conservative design curve was established and used to design the thirteen tube boiler. The design was found by test to be conservative, and the measured performance and the degree of conservatism were found to be within the expected spread in earlier test data. Dropwise boiling pictures the heat transfer as occurring directly from the wall to the drop through a film created by the vapor being ejected from the underside of the drop. The drop is held against the wall by its inertial force induced by a swirl device. Heat transfer experiments performed with mercury droplets provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanics of dry-wall boiling. The theory thus developed compared favorably with the test data. A boiling research program was initiated to refine the design procedurcs presently available. In this progranm the detailed heat transfer data can be derived relative to a greater number of controlled variables than are attainable in prototype boiler tests. The primary efforts of the boiler development program were supplemented by other related work. These include porous bed boiler studies, mercury droplet boiling on hot plates in air, isothernial nitrogen--liquid mercury two-phases flow tests and sodium- nitrogen heat transfer tests. From these tests information was obtained on the effect of various inserts on two-phase pressure drop, the phenomena of heat transfer to drops, and the effect of primary fluid side parameters on calculation of the mercury side parameters. (auth)

Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.; Haller, H.C.; Huber, D.D.; Deibel, D.L.

1961-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

Computational Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra-Supercritical Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler water walls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for ultra-supercritical application to mitigate corrosion because these boilers will operate at much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical boilers.Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potentialFe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

355

Field Test of a Semi-Continuous Fly Ash Unburned Carbon Monitor: Cyclone Boiler Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unburned carbon (UBC) is the measure of the carbon level in the fly ash of a coal-fired boilerwith increased carbon indicating less-complete and less-efficient combustion. Boiler design is one important factor that affects UBC levels. Cyclone boilers burn coal at high combustion temperatures (ca. 1650C) and exhibit relatively high, but quite variable, fly ash UBC levels. Recently, because of competitive fuel pricing and reduced SO2 and NOX emissions, cyclone boilers ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

356

Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted by the Federal Government. Galaxy Carpet Corporation has been sufficiently impressed with performance, both economically and technically, to place a follow-up order of $1,500,000.00 for a second solid fuel fired boiler system at its Dalton, Georgia Dye House operation.

Pincelli, R. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

1996 international joint power generation conference: Proceedings. Volume 2; PWR-Volume 30  

SciTech Connect

This is volume 2 of the proceedings of the 1996 International Joint Power Generation Conference held in Houston, Texas. The topics of the paper include emerging technologies for heat exchangers, maintenance and repair of feedwater and service water heat exchangers, steam surface condensers, understanding performance test codes, reliability, availability and maintainability of units and components, economics and reliability, Kalina cycle technologies, systems development under DOE`s combustion 2000 program, improvements in turbine materials and operating environment, combined cycle steam turbine application, case histories of turbine improvements, advanced generator mechanical design improvements and upgrades, steam turbine performance improvements, improvements in turbine materials and operating environment, combustion turbines for power generation, optimization of boiler performance using CEMS, international power plant design and restructuring issues, recent improvements in utility operations, turbine generator assessment technology, environmental compliance for industrial operations, industrial energy systems and services, industrial steam generation options.

Kielasa, L. [ed.] [Detroit Edison Co., MI (United States); Weed, G.E. [ed.] [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Research on water level optimal control of boiler drum based on dual heuristic dynamic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler drum system is an important component of a thermal power plant or industrial production, and the water level is a critical parameter of boiler drum control system. Because of non-linear, strong coupling and large disturbance, it is difficult to ... Keywords: BP neural network, boiler drum level, dual heuristic dynamic programming, optimal control

Qingbao Huang; Shaojian Song; Xiaofeng Lin; Kui Peng

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Application of Phast in the Quantitative Consequence Analysis for the Boiler BLEVE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boilers BLEVE are among the most devastating accidents likely in chemical process industry, which lead to shock waves and rocketing fragments of ruptured vessels. The prediction of the boiler explosion energy and its impact is fairly helpful to the prevention ... Keywords: boiler, BLEVE, Phast, quantitative assessment, blast-wave overpressure, positive phase impulse

Qu Fang, Zuo Zhe, Si Qingmin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Boiler Room Coal Drying Heat Exchanger Numerical Computational Simulation and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Northeast area city district heating boiler room of coal with high moisture content, have caused a large number of waste of coal resources. Boiler coal drying heat exchanger is a long design cycle, testing workload and investment is more equipment. In ... Keywords: District heating boiler room, Dry heat exchanger, Numerical simulation, Heat transfer calculation

Zhao Xuefeng, Xiong Wen-zhuo

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

An Algebraic Speci cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Algebraic Speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System Michel Bidoit 1 , Claude Chevenier describe how to derive an algebraic speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System starting from to specify the detection of the steam-boiler fail- ures. Finally we discuss validation and veri#12;cation

Bidoit, Michel

362

welcome to university residences Boiler Gold Rush Check-In...........................Saturday, August 13 and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

welcome to university residences #12;Boiler Gold Rush Check-In...........................Saturday, August 13 and Sunday, August 14, 2011 Boiler Gold Rush residence hall systems in the United States. weLcomE! 1 #12;Boiler GoLD Rush ParticiPants Your regular

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

363

Decentralized robust control of a class of nonlinear systems and application to a boiler system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Decentralized robust control of a class of nonlinear systems and application to a boiler system Keywords: Asymptotic disturbance rejection Boiler systems Decentralized robust control Descriptor systems problem, a decentralized controller for the system can be calculated. In order to control a utility boiler

Marquez, Horacio J.

364

Supercritical Boiler Tube Wall Temperature Test Base on the Power Plant Control System Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to precisely learn the working condition of 600MW supercritical boiler, new temperature measuring points are set on the super-heater tube wall inner the flue. Since the working condition of 600MW supercritical boiler is quite severe, the temperature ... Keywords: supercritical boiler, database, temperature test, super-heater

Yu Yanzhi; Zhang Liangbo; Xu Haichuan; Chen Duogang; Dong Gongjun; Shen Bo; Liu Sheng

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

DETECTION OF EVENTS CAUSING PLUGGAGE OF A COAL-FIRED BOILER: A DATA MINING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DETECTION OF EVENTS CAUSING PLUGGAGE OF A COAL-FIRED BOILER: A DATA MINING APPROACH ANDREW KUSIAK to analyze events leading to plug- gage of a boiler. The proposed approach involves statistics, data. The proposed approach has been tested on a 750 MW commercial coal-fired boiler affected with an ash fouling

Kusiak, Andrew

366

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

Lynch, Nancy

367

Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System Jan Vitt 1 of the steam boiler control system has been derived using a formal method based on assumption/commitment pairs Introduction The steam boiler control system, as described in chapter AS of this book, has been designed

Hooman, Jozef

368

Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator saturation Pang; accepted 2 June 2003 Abstract This paper presents a gain-scheduled approach for boiler-turbine controller the magnitude and rate saturation constraints on actuators. The nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics is brought

Shamma, Jeff S.

369

Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla address http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/tds/boiler.html. Following are the corrections to these errors and some

Lynch, Nancy

370

MODELLING OF A NONLINEAR MULTIVARIABLE BOILER PLANT USING HAMMERSTEIN MODEL, A NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODELLING OF A NONLINEAR MULTIVARIABLE BOILER PLANT USING HAMMERSTEIN MODEL, A NONPARAMETRIC mathematically and prac- tically tractable. Boilers are industrial units, which are used for gener- ating steam of fuel. Boiler operation is a complex operation in which hot water must be delivered to a turbine

Rizvi, Syed Z.

371

Refining Abstract Machine Specifications of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refining Abstract Machine Specifications of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control specification problem to il­ lustrate how the evolving algebra approach and Specification, in June 1995, to control the Karlsruhe steam boiler simulator satisfactorily. The abstract

Börger, Egon

372

Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link\\ZRUGV wind power, integration, heat pumps, electric heat boilers ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3UREOHP RYHUYLHZ The Danish

373

Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control speci cation problem to il- lustrate how the evolving algebra approach to the speci, in June 1995, to control the Karlsruhe steam boiler simulator satisfactorily. The abstract machines

Börger, Egon

374

Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

01/2004 Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing to monitor total NOx (0-1000 ppm), CO (0-1000 ppm) and O2 (1-15%) within the convective pass of the boiler of such sensor systems will dramatically alter how boilers are operated, since much of the emissions creation

Dutta, Prabir K.

375

INTERACTIVE SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF EMISSION REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN COMMERCIAL BOILERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTERACTIVE SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF EMISSION REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN COMMERCIAL BOILERS Darin an emission reduction sys- tem for commercial boilers. The interactive environment is used to optimize for commercial boilers and incinerators. This work has been done as part of a collaboration between Nalco Fuel

376

Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi-energy district boiler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi- energy district boiler Julien of the OptiEnR research project, the present paper deals with optimizing the multi-energy district boiler to the complexity of the district boiler as a whole and the strong interactions between the sub-systems, previous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Analysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1 , Horacio J. Marquez b, and the concept is applied to a boiler-turbine unit to analyze its dynamics. It is shown that the unit shows. Keywords: Boiler-turbine unit; Nonlinearity measure; Gap metric; Anti-windup bumpless transfer techniques

Marquez, Horacio J.

378

Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co-Firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACERC-2008 Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co based measurements methods #12;Objective Minor impact of biomass cofiring with coal on boiler operation) · Experimentally demonstrate the existence of stratified flows in boilers Indication: SO2, ash composition, straw

379

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

Lynch, Nancy

380

Environmental impact of small scale pellets boilers in the context of Belgian quality labeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental impact of small scale pellets boilers in the context of Belgian quality labeling of pellet boilers in standard laboratory and in field conditions. This part had three main targets were identified. Pollutants emissions and efficiency of a multi- fuel boiler was compared

Glineur, François

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Boiler Kids Camp Parent Manual Division of Recreational Sports Mission Statement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boiler Kids Camp Parent Manual Division of Recreational Sports Mission Statement The Division which fosters an appreciation for a healthy lifestyle and promotes lifelong learning. Boiler Kids Camp Mission Statement Boiler Kids Camp is an interactive, summer day camp designed for children ranging

Holland, Jeffrey

382

The Steam Boiler Case Study: Competition of Formal Program Speci cation and Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Steam Boiler Case Study: Competition of Formal Program Speci#12;cation and Development Methods the design of a steam boiler control, which realizes the informal speci#12;cation handed out. The steam boiler-control speci#12;cation problem was sent out to the partici- pants nine months before

Börger, Egon

383

Development program for heat balance analysis fuel to steam efficiency boiler and data wireless transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research aim to improve a combustion system of boiler within increase combustion efficiency and use all out of the energy. The large boilers were used in the industrial factories which consume a lot of energy for production. By oil and gas fuel ... Keywords: boiler, cogeneration energy, heat balance, steam efficiency, wireless data transfer

Nattapong Phanthuna; Warunee Srisongkram; Sunya Pasuk; Thaweesak Trongtirakul

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

385

A thermal computation program of process steam boilers obtained with reusable equipments and plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a process steam boiler dimensioned by means of two computer programs. The first computer program entitled "thermal computation of the chamber furnace of boiler" provides the utilization of the Boltzmann criterion. This computer program ... Keywords: boiler, chamber furnace, computer program, heat exchanger

Aurel Gaba; Ion-Florin Popa; Alexis-Daniel Negrea

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

Not Available

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler. Annual technical progress report. July 1978-June 1979  

SciTech Connect

Design, construction and test program of a 300,000 lb/hr steam generating capacity multicell fluidized bed boiler (MFB), as a pollution free method of burning high-sulfur or highly corrosive coals, is being carried out. The concept involves burning fuels such as coal, in a fluidized bed of limestone particles that react with the sulfur compounds formed during combustion to reduce air pollution. Nitrogen oxide emissions are also reduced at the lower combustion temperatures. The CaSO/sub 4/ produced in the furnace is discharged with the ash or regenerated to CaO for reuse in the fluidized bed. Information is presented on continued operation of the Rivesville MFB steam generating plant in a commercial mode and for determining performance and emission characteristics; studies and tests on flyash characterization and reinjection, fuel feed eductors and needles, air distributor, corrosion-erosion and sulfur capture; engineering studies to improve MFB performance and reliability.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Simulation of air flow in the typical boiler windbox segments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation of turbulent air flow distribution in CFBC furnace, wherein primary air is entrained through inlet duct system called windbox, is attempted through state of art CAD/CFD softwares. Establishment of flow in windbox channel, distributed plate ... Keywords: CFBC boiler, air flow, combustor geometry, distributed plate nozzles, multi-block grids, recirculation flow, simulation of flow, unequal air flow, windbox channel

C. Bhasker

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Evaluation of Circumferential Cracking on Supercritical Boiler Waterwalls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circumferential cracking of the fireside surfaces of supercritical waterwalls remains a problem for many coal-fired boilers. Two parallel test programs at Pennsylvania Power and Light's (PPL) Brunner Island Unit 3 attempted to correlate operating conditions with the development and propagation of circumferential cracks.

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4  

SciTech Connect

When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

Spring, N.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER LOADING OF REFUSE FIRED BOILERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an explanation for the unusually high maintenance costs, not as a criticism of Thermal's management. All parties in 1980, the same year that Thermal management uprated the boilers. Annual oper ating and maintenance of the overfire air system, the maintenance expenses due to tube wastage and stoker failures, would

Columbia University

392

Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

393

Post-test examination of a pool boiler receiver  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A subscale pool boiler test apparatus to evaluate boiling stability developed a leak after being operated with boiling NaK for 791.4 hr at temperatures from 700 to 750 {degrees}C. The boiler was constructed using Inconel 625 with a type 304L stainless steel wick for the boiler and type 316 stainless steel for the condenser. The boiler assembly was metallurgically evaluated to determine the cause of the leak and to assess the effects of the NaK on the materials. It was found that the leak was caused by insufficient (about 30 percent) joint penetration in a butt joint. There was no general corrosion of the construction materials, but the room temperature ductility of the Inconel 625 was only about 6.5 percent. A crack in the heat affected zone of the Inconel 625 near the Inconel 625 to type 316 stainless steel butt joint was probably caused by excessive heat input. The crack was observed to have a zone depleted of iron at the crack surface and porosity below that zone. The mechanism of the iron depletion was not conclusively determined. 3 refs.

Dreshfield, R.L.; Moore, T.J.; Bartolotta, P.A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS FROM A SUSPENSION FIRED BOILER WHILE BURNING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, are not given in any of the tables. 4. The fouling of the boiler tubes while co firing RDF is a confirmation of European experi ence which showed that co-firing of MSW (with #12;lower ash fusion point) with coal

Columbia University

395

Integrated Boiler Tube Failure Reduction/Cycle Chemistry Improvement Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler tube failures (BTF) and cycle chemistry corrosion and deposition problems remain the leading causes of availability losses in fossil-fired steam plants worldwide. This report describes techniques developed during a 20-year EPRI project to assist utilities in substantially reducing availability and performance losses due to these problems.

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

396

Benefits of Industrial Boiler Control and Economic Load Allocation at AMOCO Chemicals, Decatur, Alabama  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the economic benefits realized by Amoco's Decatur plant from the utilization of Honeywell's Industrial Boiler Control solution and Turbo Economic Load Allocation packages on an integrated four boiler system. The boiler control scheme, integrated header pressure control scheme, boiler efficiency measurement, the concepts involved in the economic load allocation problem and the solution to this problem, as applied to the Amoco Decatur site will be discussed. In addition, actual fuel savings achieved from the use of a DCS boiler control solution coupled with the application of economic load allocation will be presented, based on several months of plant data.

Winter, J.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

398

SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES  

SciTech Connect

Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a commercial prototype sootblowing control system employing automated deposit imaging.

Dr. Peter Ariessohn

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler December 27, 2012 - 4:30pm Addthis Using money from the Recovery Act, Blue Mountain Hospital replaced one of its 1950s crude oil boilers with a wood-pellet boiler -- saving the hospital about $100,000 a year in heating costs. | Photo courtesy of the Oregon Department of Energy. Using money from the Recovery Act, Blue Mountain Hospital replaced one of its 1950s crude oil boilers with a wood-pellet boiler -- saving the hospital about $100,000 a year in heating costs. | Photo courtesy of the Oregon Department of Energy. Julie McAlpin Communications Liaison, State Energy Program Why biomass? Wood was the first energy source used and man's main fuel source until the Industrial Revolution.

400

Role of Ash Deposits in the High Temperature Corrosion of Boiler Tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ash deposits cause accelerated corrosion of waterwall boiler tubes in waste to energy (WTE) incinerators. To study this effect, a series of experiments were planned to determine the mechanism of corrosion of carbon steel boiler tubes under ash deposits. Results reported here were for carbon steel tubes exposed to an environment consisting of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and water vapor. Future experiments will include HCl and SO{sub 2}. Test procedures included both isothermal and thermal gradient tests. Temperatures ranged from 300 C to 510 C for the isothermal tests and a metal/gas temperature of 450/670 C for the thermal gradient test. Initial results indicated that increasing temperature caused the isothermal corrosion rates of ash-covered samples to increase. A shakedown test of a thermal gradient test apparatus was conducted at a metal/gas temperature of 450/670 C, a more severe environment than normally encountered in WTE waterwalls. Results showed that the corrosion rate under those conditions exceeds the isothermal corrosion rates at the same metal temperature by a factor of 2 or more.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Matthes, S.A.; White, M.L.

2003-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system. Technical progress report No. 1, August--December 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

Not Available

1993-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

402

RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate (GHRR) equal to the original boiler design. Boiler efficiencies (cogeneration-steam plus air) is increased from the original design value of 70% to 78.9% due to a combination of improved burnout, operation with lower excess air, and drier fuel. For the fully implemented plant, the thermal efficiency of fuel to electricity conversion is 79.8% in the cogeneration mode, 5% above the design goal. Finally, self-generated electricity will be increased from the 10.8 MW currently attributable to No.2 Boiler to 46.7MW, an increase of 332%. Environmental benefits derived from the system include a reduction in NOx emissions from the boiler of about 30-50% (90-130 tons/year) through syngas reburning, improved carbon burnout and lower excess air. This does not count NOx reduction that may be associated with replacement of purchased electricity. The project would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the generation of electricity to meet the mill's power requirements, including 50,000 tons/yr from a net reduction in gas usage in the mill and an additional 410,000 tons/yr reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions due to a 34 MW reduction of purchased electricity. The total CO{sub 2} reduction amounts to about 33% of the CO{sub 2} currently generated to meet the mills electricity requirement. The overall conclusion of the study is that while significant engineering challenges are presented by the proposed system, they can be met with operationally acceptable and cost effective solutions. The benefits of the system can be realized in an economic manner, with a simple payback period on the order of 6 years. The results of the study are applicable to many paper mills in the U.S. firing woodwastes and other solid fuels for steam and power production.

Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, especially NOX. The project involved operating gas reburning technology combined with low NO, burner technology (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired utility boiler. Low NOX burners are designed to create less NOX than conventional burners. However, the NO, control achieved is in the range of 30-60-40, and typically 50%. At the higher NO, reduction levels, CO emissions tend to be higher than acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce the level of NO. in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. When combined, GR and LNBs work in harmony to both minimize NOX emissions and maintain an acceptable level of CO emissions. The demonstration was performed at Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit 3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW. wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal and had a pre GR-LNB baseline NOX emission of 0.73 lb/1 Oe Btu. The target for the project was a reduction of 70 percent in NOX emissions. Project sponsors included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). EER conducted a comprehensive test demonstration program over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved. Intensive measurements were taken to quantify the reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability, and all factors influencing costs. The results showed that GR-LNB technology achieved excellent emission reductions. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was somewhat less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 180A. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at higher gas heat inputs. The impact on boiler equipment was determined to be very minimal. Toward the end of the testing, the flue gas recirculation (used to enhance gas penetration into the furnace) system was removed and new high pressure gas injectors were installed. Further, the low NOX burners were modified and gave better NO. reduction performance. These modifications resulted in a similar NO, reduction performance (64%) at a reduced level of gas heat input (-13Yo). In addition, the OFA injectors were re-designed to provide for better control of CO emissions. Although not a part of this project, the use of natural gas as the primary fuel with gas reburning was also tested. The gas/gas reburning tests demonstrated a reduction in NOX emissions of 43% (0.30 lb/1 OG Btu reduced to 0.17 lb/1 OG Btu) using 7% gas heat input. Economics are a key issue affecting technology development. Application of GR-LNB requires modifications to existing power plant equipment and as a result, the capital and operating costs depend largely on site-specific factors such as: gas availability at the site, gas to coal delivered price differential, sulfur dioxide removal requirements, windbox pressure, existing burner throat diameters, and reburn zone residence time available. Based on the results of this CCT project, EER expects that most GR-LNB installations will achieve at least 60% NOX control when firing 10-15% gas. The capital cost estimate for installing a GR-LNB system on a 300 MW, unit is approximately $25/kW. plus the cost of a gas pipeline (if required). Operating costs are almost entirely related to the differential cost of the natural gas compared to coal.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES  

SciTech Connect

This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Heliostat boiler solar converter. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tracking tests to determine heliostat tracking performance and full system tests to measure useful heat conversion capacity of the system were performed on a three heliostat system. The results of this project effort show that the low-cost heliostat system is more cost effective than the flat-panel systems for generating hot water at 140/sup 0/F for installations in households, apartment buildings, office buildings and dairy farms. The system can supply low pressure steam for industrial operations.

Gerwin, H.L.

1982-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level OFA was not cost effective for wall-firing. For cyclone units, NO{sub x} removal by two-level OFA plus O{sub 2} enrichment but without coal reburning was economically attractive.

Hamid Sarv

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

407

Analysis of drying wood waste fuels with boiler exhaust gases: simulation, performance, and economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study evaluates the feasibility of retrofitting a rotary dryer to a hog fuel boiler, using the boiler exhaust gases as the drying medium. Two simulation models were developed. Each model accurately predicts system performance given site-specific parameters such as boiler steam demand, fue moisture content, boiler exhaust temperature and combustion excess air. Three rotary dryers/hog fuel boilers currently in operation in the forest products industry were analyzed. The data obtained were used to validate te accuracy of the simulation models and to establish the performance of boiler/dryer systems under field conditions. The boiler exhaust temperatures observed ranged from 340 to 500/sup 0/F and indicated that significant drying could be realized at moderate stack temperatures, as substantitated by experimental moisture content data. The simulation models were used to evaluate a general boiler/dryer system's sensitivity to variation in operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses indicated that under moderate conditions (400/sup 0/F boiler exhaust, etc.) the installation of a rotary dryer results in a 15% increase in boiler efficiency and a 13% decrease in fuel consumption. Both the field data and sensitivity analyses indicated that a greater increase in boiler efficiency could be realized at higher stack temperatures, approximately a 30% increase in boiler efficiency for a stack temperature of 600/sup 0/F. The cash flow basis payback periods based on hog fuel savings due to dryer installation ranged from 2.7 years for a used dryer to 3.9 years for a new dryer. The payback periods for equivalent BTU savings of gas and oil ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 for gas and from 1.3 to 2.1 years for oil. This study concludes that retrofitting a rotary dryer to an existing hog fuel boiler is an economically feasible option to the forest products industry. 31 references, 24 figures, 18 tables.

Kirk, R.W.; Wilson, J.B.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing SO.sub.x and NO.sub.x levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO.sub.x burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO.sub.x initially produced in the combustion of the coal, a selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300.degree. F. to 2000.degree. F., and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200.degree. F. to 900.degree. F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants.

Hunt, Terry G. (Aurora, CO); Offen, George R. (Woodside, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are described for reducing SO[sub x] and NO[sub x] levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO[sub x] burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO[sub x] initially produced in the combustion of the coal. A selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300 F to 2000 F, and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200 F to 900 F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants. 7 figs.

Hunt, T.G.; Offen, G.R.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

410

Upgrade of Multiple Boiler/Turbine Plant to Microprocessor Control- A Case History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Utilities Operation of the General Electric - Erie Plant is responsible for providing all energy for the Plant. The primary source is coal, which is used in four boilers to produce steam for the generation of electricity, as well as heat for production and building environment. Three years ago, the obsolete pneumatic controls utilized in the Power Station were replaced by the latest microprocessor-based distributed control Energy Management System. This paper reviews this replacement and is divided into four parts as follows: A. Description of the system selected. B. Actual savings during first three years. C. Expansion of the system during past three years. D. Future expansion plans for the Energy Management System.

Schenk, J. R.; Sommer, A. C.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Technology for Retrofitting Coal-Fired Boilers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost effeCtive Cost effeCtive oxy-Combustion teChnology for retrofitting Coal-fireD boilers Background Electric power generation from fossil fuels represents one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, not just in the United States, but throughout the world. Various technologies and concepts are being investigated as means to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The concept of pulverized coal (PC) oxy-combustion is one potential economical solution, whereby coal is combusted in an enriched oxygen environment using pure oxygen diluted with recycled flue gas. In this manner, the flue gas is composed primarily of CO 2 and H 2 O, so that a concentrated stream of CO 2 is produced by simply condensing the water in the exhaust stream. An advantage of

413

Tighten water-chemistry control after boiler layup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for internal deposition and corrosion can affect boiler reliability by reducing thermal efficiency, tube integrity, and the time between chemical cleanings. While chemical control specifications for normal operation have been developed by consensus of manufacturers and industry, their impact on shutdowns, layups, and startups is not always appreciated. The discussion of chemical-control options applies to boiler systems operating in the medium- and high-pressure ranges. Identification and correction of root causes underlying the chemistry problems encountered and application of the principles involved should result in shorter startup times, improved control over phosphate hideout, and reduced need for chemical cleaning. Each of these has a significant cost impact; together, they are the true measure of a successful chemistry-control program.

Brestel, L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Build, Own, Operate and Maintain (BOOM) Boiler Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Overview: The article addresses the growing trend in outsourcing boiler equipment, installation, operation, maintenance and ownership by large corporations, colleges and universities. Issues: To remain competitive and provide for growth, corporations and not-for-profit (NFP) organizations have changed the way they look at their energy systems: They are only allocating capital to ""core"" assets. In most cases, thennal, electric and air energy systems are not considered ""core"" assets resulting in the need to find ""other"" solutions to providing the needed energy. Reduced staffing has resulted in fewer experienced and knowledgeable boiler operating and maintenance personnel. Fluctuating energy costs make it difficult to accurately plan and budget. Constantly changing emissions standards and regulations add operational cost burdens. Objective: Find a solution to these pressures that does not require capital investment."

Henry, T.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.

Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Sarma, G.B.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

416

An Algebraic Specification of the Steam-Boiler Control System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe how to derive an algebraic specification of the Steam-Boiler Control System starting from the informal requirements provided to the participants of the Dagstuhl Meeting Methods for Semantics and Speci cation, organized jointly by Jean-Raymond Abrial, Egon Brger and Hans Langmaack in June 1995. The aim of this formalization process is to analyze the informal requirements, to detect inconsistencies and loose ends, and to translate the requirements into a formal, algebraic, specification. During this process we have to provide interpretations for the unclear or missing parts. We explain how we can keep track of these additional interpretations by localizing very precisely in the formal specification where they lead to specific axioms. Hence we take care of the traceability issues. We also explain how the formal specification is obtained in a stepwise way by successive refinements. Emphasis is put on how to specify the detection of the steam-boiler failures. Finally...

Michel Bidoit; Claude Chevenier; Christine Pellen

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Technology for the Examination of Boiler Tubing Dissimilar Metal Welds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an effort to determine the optimum method for examination of fossil power plant dissimilar metal boiler tube welds, researchers obtained several samples removed from service, and applied various ultrasonic examination technology to these samples. The welds in these samples were made with either austenitic stainless steel weld metal or by the induction pressure method. The welds were then subjected to conventional and advanced ultrasonic examination in the laboratory. For all examination methods, there...

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

418

Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters, regenerative air preheaters and economizers. Relative advantages and applicability of the three methods are discussed. Analytical methods and correlations are presented which enable determination of size of unit, capital cost and operating cost for each of the three methods of heat recovery.

Kumar, A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters, regenerative air preheaters and economizers. Relative advantages and applicability of the three methods are discussed. Analytical methods and correlations are presented which enable determination of size of unit, capital cost and operating cost for each of the three methods of heat recovery.

Kumar, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters, regenerative air preheaters and economizers. Relative advantages and applicability of the three methods are discussed. Analytical methods and correlations are presented which enable determination of size of unit, capital cost and operating cost for each of the three methods of heat recovery.

Kumar, A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters, regenerative air preheaters and economizers. Relative advantages and applicability of the three methods are discussed. Analytical methods and correlations are presented which enable determination of size and unit, capital cost and operating cost for each of the three methods of heat recovery.

Kumar, A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters, regenerative air preheaters and economizers. Relative advantages and applicability of the three methods are discussed. Analytical methods and correlations are presented which enable determination of size of unit, capital cost and operating cost for each of the three methods of heat recovery.

Kumar, A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Boiler Water Deposition Model, Part 1: Feasibility Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many sources of availability and performance losses in fossil units involve deposition on water- and steam-touched surfaces, with the most acute effects occurring in boilers and turbines. Earlier deposition state-of-knowledge assessments sponsored by EPRI established three broad classifications of deposition phenomena (EPRI reports 1004194 and 1004930). However, within these classifications are many processes and influencing factors that need to be considered in order to make meaningful improvements in d...

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

424

FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities  

SciTech Connect

An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE KINETIC BEHAVIOR OF WATER BOILER TYPE REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

The KEWB Program is devoted to the study of the dynamic behavior of homogeneous type research reactors. The objectives of this program include studies to develop better and more complete understanding of phenomena which contribute to the kinetic behavior and the inherent safety of the water boiler reactor. The approach to the objectives has heen to construct a prototype 50 kw homogeneous reactor with the necessary auxiliary apparatus and to study the transient behavior of the system as a function of the more significant parameters which affect this behavior. These include the amount of reactivity release, rate of reactivity release, initial core pressure, initial core temperature, initial reactor power, and void volume above the core. Data are plotted. (auth)

Remley, M.E.; Flora, J.W.; Hetrick, D.L.; Muller, D.R.; Gardner, E.L.; Wimmer, R.E.; Stitt, R.K.; Gamble, D.P.

1958-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

San Francisco Turns Up The Heat In Push To Eliminate Old Boilers |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Francisco Turns Up The Heat In Push To Eliminate Old Boilers Francisco Turns Up The Heat In Push To Eliminate Old Boilers San Francisco Turns Up The Heat In Push To Eliminate Old Boilers February 8, 2011 - 5:37pm Addthis Before and after shots of a new boiler system | courtesy of the Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Before and after shots of a new boiler system | courtesy of the Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Johanna Sevier Project Officer, Golden Field Office San Francisco's extensive stock of multifamily properties is getting some critical assistance in replacing old and inefficient boilers with new, high-efficiency heating systems using Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) funds. By providing financial incentives to property owners, new heating systems result in energy savings, job creation for

429

Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers  

SciTech Connect

Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

Program on Technology Innovation: State of Knowledge Review of Nanostructured Coatings for Boiler Tube Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the adoption of low-NOx emission controls with staged burner systems, severe waterwall corrosion has been experienced in many utility boilers. Protective coatings applied by thermal spray processes have reduced the adverse effects of corrosion to some degree, especially in sub-critical boilers. However, the corrosion intensity observed in super-critical boilers, and foreseen in ultra super-critical units, requires coatings with protective capabilities beyond what has been achievable with convention...

2007-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

431

Simulated Boiler Corrosion Studies Using Electrochemical Techniques: AVT(R) Contaminant Limits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler water-side corrosion in fossil plants represents a key cause of availability and performance loss. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) cycle chemistry guidelines provide control curves based on cation conductivity and steam quality limits. Electrochemical techniques developed to simulate boiler corrosion can be used to determine actual contaminant limits, based on corrosion, in boiler water. This report provides the results of an electrochemistry study to determine the limits and control ...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones. The analysis shows that the low-temperature radiant floor heating system is more suitable for natural gas- condensing water boilers. It is more comfortable, more economical, and can save more energy than other heating systems.

Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Inhibition of IGA/SCC on Alloy 600 Surfaces Exposed to PWR Secondary Water: Volume 2: Titanium and Cerium Acetate Model Boiler Testi ng  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has devoted an extensive program to qualifying corrosion inhibitors for use in PWR steam generators. This report addresses one phase of model boiler testing using mill-annealed alloy 600 tubing with drilled-hole carbon steel tube support plate simulators in caustic environments. In two tests, investigators added inorganic inhibitors to the caustic environment. In another test, they exposed alloy 600 tubing to an acidic environment high in sulfates then to a caustic environment. Nondestructive and de...

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

434

Measurement and Modeling of SO3 Formation in Coal-Fired Power Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some fraction of the SO2 formed by oxidation of sulfur in a coal-fired boiler is further oxidized to SO3. As a rule of thumb, the SO3 concentration at the boiler's economizer exit is expected to be about 1% of the SO2 concentration; however, the actual value is strongly dependent on the fuel composition, boiler design, and the boiler operating conditions. Qualitatively, it is well accepted that iron in the convection section heat exchanger tubes and in the ash acts as a catalyst to promote oxidation of S...

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

435

New Materials for 750C Boilers in Advanced Ultra-supercritical  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, New Materials for 750C Boilers in Advanced Ultra- supercritical (A-USC) Power Plants. Author(s), Yuefeng Gu, Z ZHONG, Y Yuan, Z Shi.

436

Planning and setup for the implementation of coal and wood co-fired boilers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has been significantly advancing in the past years, but many of their capabilities remain unknown to much of the (more)

Gump, Christopher D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Design of an expert system to aid in the selection of a wood fired boiler system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently most industrial and institutional facilities rely on fossil fuels to power their boiler systems. As the quantity of these non-renewable resources is depleted, and (more)

Morris, Melissa L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND MATERIALS WITH CONSIDERATION TO THE ANNUAL MAINTENANCE WORKS IN RECOVERY BOILERS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During the last decades there has been a strive for recovery boilers with high steam outlet temperature, high pressure and load capacity. One of the (more)

Praszkier, Simon

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Modelling, simulation and robust control of a Benson boiler during hot startup.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Large boilers have typically been designed for continuous operation from 60-100% load. With restructuring of electrical supply and in some cases because of local fuel (more)

Mukosa, Dunn.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Characterization of the dissolved organic matter in steam assisted gravity drainage boiler blow-down water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The presence of high concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and total dissolved solids (TDS) in the boiler blow-down water (BBD) causes severe equipment fouling (more)

Guha Thakurta, Subhayan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "including generators boilers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Distribution of bed material in a Horizontal Circulating Fluidised Bed boiler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A conventional circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler has a limitation due to the height of the furnace, when implemented in smaller industrial facilities. The design (more)

Ekvall, Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Analysis of Unsafe Failure in Shell Type Boiler Working with Safe ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The boiler was working under normal water level, it's safety valve operating normal. The design was normal and proven. All parameters were as usual and there...

443

A Study of the Composition of Carryover Particles in Kraft Recovery Boilers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carryover particles are partially/completely burned black liquor particles entrained in the flue gas in kraft recovery boilers. Understanding how carryover particles form and deposit on (more)

Khalaj-Zadeh, Asghar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

Not Available

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency.

Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 4, July--September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NOx emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SOx emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; and increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

Not Available

1993-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

447

Toxic emissions from a cyclone burner boiler with an ESP and with the SNOX demonstration and from a pulverized coal burner boiler with an ESP/wet flue gas desulfurization system  

SciTech Connect

Emission factors for VOC and aldehydes, dioxins/furans, and PAH/SVOC are presented in Tables 6--8, respectively. Each table includes results for Coal Creek, Niles Boiler, and the SNOX process. As shown in Table 6, benzene and toluene were measured in the Coal Creek, Niles Boiler, and SNOX stack emissions in highly variable concentrations. Over 90 percent of the VOC analyzed were not detected in the stack gases, and the emission factor for these VOC ranges from 1.1 to 1.4 {mu}g/MJ for the three systems. Emission factors for the four aldehydes that were measured range from 0.47 to 31 {mu}g/MJ for Coal Creek, 1.7 to 38 {mu}g/MJ for the Niles Boiler, and 3.6 to 167 {mu}g/MJ for the SNOX process. Acetaldehyde is at the highest concentration of the four aldehydes in all three units, a finding which is consistent with previous work. Dioxin/furan emission factors are provided in Table 7. Emission, factors for these compounds range from 0.40 to 6.51 pg/MJ for Coal Creek and 0.45 to 8.14 pg/MJ for the Niles Boiler. Dioxins/furans were not determined in the SNOX process. The compounds 1,2,3,4,6,7,8heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran were detected in both units. The predominance of these species in high SO{sub 2} environments has been previously observed. All other 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin/furan isomers listed in Table 8 were not detected in either unit. Table 8 lists the emission factors for PAH/SVOC. Emission factors range from 0.3 to 233 ng/MJ for Coal Creek, 0.5 to 273 ng/MJ for the Niles Boiler, and 0.3 to 130 ng/MJ for the SNOX process. Acetophenone is at the highest concentration of the PAH/SVOC in all three units. Naphthalene, dibenzofuran, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene are also present at relatively high concentrations in comparison to the other PAH/SVOC.

Sverdrup, G.M.; Riggs, K.B.; Kelly, T.J.; Barrett, R.E. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Peltier, R.G.; Cooper, J.A. [Chester Environmental, Monroeville, PA (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power plants spend nearly 50 billion dollars a year on fuel cost. Presently coal accounts for over 75% of the electricity generated in this country. Due to increasingly harsh environmental regulations, the demand for low sulfur (S) coal has dramatically increased. This increase in demand is expected to cause the price of coal to rise. Such a senario has caused the utilities to explore the possibilities of supplementing coal with fuel alternatives such as the byproducts of process industries. The supplemental fuel for utilities located near feedlots (e.g. Northwest Texas) happens to be feedlot manure. Feedlot manure is attractive because it is nearly ten times cheaper than coal and is relatively inexpensive to transport. There exists nearly six million head of cattle in Northwest Texas which produce 25,000 tons of manure each day. Feedlot manure presents water and air pollution concerns if not disposed of properly. As such, the feedlot operators are eager to find methods of safely disposing of the feedlot manure. A small scale boiler burner facility has been constructed to simulate a utility class boiler. Experiments were conducted with coal only and then for coal/feedlot manure. Three types of feedlot manure are examined; raw feedlot manure, partially composted feedlot manure, and finished composted feedlot manure. Performance characteristics and emission data were taken for each case. A summary of the results is as follows: (I) sulfur Wyoming coal was fired and a gasification efficiency of 66% was measured. (i I) Emissions measurements were recorded and it was seen that emissions of NO,, and S02 increased as the burnt mass fraction increased. However, all emissions were within NSPS guidelines. (iii) The successful firing of coal and feedlot manure was achieved, a gasification efficiency in the range of 86% was measured, which is higher than 66% obtained when firing coal alone. (iv) When the fuel blend is fully burnt, the NO,, emissions with the blend firing was lower than the firing of coal alone.

Frazzitta, Stephen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)  

SciTech Connect

The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

2003-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

451

NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of